NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul
1997-01-01
Small radius leading edges and nosetips were utilized to minimize wave drag in early hypervelocity vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating would cause severe ablation or blunting of the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that ultrahigh temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials are shape stable at temperatures approaching 3033 K and will be available for use as sharp UHTC leading edge components in the near future. Aerothermal performance constraints for sharp components made from these materials are presented in this work to demonstrate the effects of convective blocking, surface catalycity, surface emissivity, and rarefied flow effects on steady state operation at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. These components are capable of steady state operation at velocities up to 7.9 km/s at attitudes near 90 km.
Aerothermal Performance Constraints for Small Radius Leading Edges Operating at Hypervelocity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.
1997-01-01
Small radius leading edges and nosetips were used to minimize wave drag in early hypervelocity vehicle concepts until further analysis demonstrated that extreme aerothermodynamic heating blunted the available thermal protection system materials. Recent studies indicate that ultra-high temperature composite (UHTC) materials are shape stable at temperatures approaching 3033 K and will be available for use as sharp leading edge components in the near future. Steady-state aerothermal performance constraints for UHTC components are presented in this paper to identify their non-ablating operational capability at altitudes from sea level to 90 km. An integrated design tool was developed to estimate these constraints. The tool couples aerothermodynamic heating with material response using commercial finite element analysis software and is capable of both steady-state and transient analysis. Performance during entry is analyzed by transient thermal analysis along the trajectory. The thermal load condition from the transient thermal analysis is used to estimate thermal stress. Applying the tool to UHTC materials shows that steady-state, non-ablating operation of a HfB2/SiC(A-7) (A-7) component is possible at velocities approaching Earth's circular orbital velocity of 7.9 km/s at altitudes approaching 70 km.
Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.
2012-01-01
Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.
Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose
2012-01-01
Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, J. W.
1977-01-01
A flightweight, metallic thermal protection system (TPS) applicable to reentry and hypersonic vehicles was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating in order to evaluate its aerothermal performance and structural integrity. Good structural integrity and thermal performance were demonstrated by the TPS under both a radiant and aerothermal heating environment typical of a shuttle entry. The shingle-slip joints effectively allowed for thermal expansion of the panel without allowing any appreciable hot gas flow into the TPS cavity. The TPS also demonstrated good structural ruggedness.
Aerothermal performance of radiatively and actively cooled panel at Mach 6.6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shore, C. P.; Weinstein, I.
1979-01-01
A flight-weight radiative and actively cooled honeycomb sandwich panel (RACP) was subjected to multiple cycles of both radiant and aerothermal heating. The 0.61 m by 1.22 m test specimen incorporated essential features of a full scale 0.61 m by 6.10 m RACP designed to withstand a heat flux of 136 kW/sq m. The panel consisted of heat shields, a thin layer of high temperature insulation, and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with coolant tubes next to the sandwich skin. A 60/40 mass solution of ethylene glycol/water was used to cool the panel which successfully withstood a total of 3.5 hr of radiant heating and 137 sec exposure to an M = 6.6 test stream. Heat shield temperatures reached 1080 K (1945 deg R), and cooled-panel temperatures reached 382 K (687 deg R) midway between coolant tubes. Simulation of the full scale panel indicated that the full scale RACP would perform as expected. The tests revealed no evidence of coolant leakage or hot gas ingress which would seriously degrade the RACP performance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herkes, William
2000-01-01
Acoustic and propulsion performance testing of a model-scale Axisymmetric Coannular Ejector nozzle was conducted in the Boeing Low-speed Aeroacoustic Facility. This nozzle is a plug nozzle with an ejector design to provide aspiration of about 20% of the engine flow. A variety of mixing enhancers were designed to promote mixing of the engine and the aspirated flows. These included delta tabs, tone-injection rods, and wheeler ramps. This report addresses the acoustic aspects of the testing. The spectral characteristics of the various configurations of the nozzle are examined on a model-scale basis. This includes indentifying particular noise sources contributing to the spectra and the data are projected to full-scale flyover conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the nozzle, and of the various mixing enhancers, on reducing the Effective Perceived Noise Levels.
Aerothermal modeling. Executive summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenworthy, M. K.; Correa, S. M.; Burrus, D. L.
1983-01-01
One of the significant ways in which the performance level of aircraft turbine engines has been improved is by the use of advanced materials and cooling concepts that allow a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature level, with attendant thermodynamic cycle benefits. Further cycle improvements have been achieved with higher pressure ratio compressors. The higher turbine inlet temperatures and compressor pressure ratios with corresponding higher temperature cooling air has created a very hostile environment for the hot section components. To provide the technology needed to reduce the hot section maintenance costs, NASA has initiated the Hot Section Technology (HOST) program. One key element of this overall program is the Aerothermal Modeling Program. The overall objective of his program is to evolve and validate improved analysis methods for use in the design of aircraft turbine engine combustors. The use of such combustor analysis capabilities can be expected to provide significant improvement in the life and durability characteristics of both combustor and turbine components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghopa, Wan Aizon W.; Harun, Zambri; Funazaki, Ken-ichi; Miura, Takemitsu
2015-02-01
The existence of a gap between combustor and turbine endwall in the real gas turbine induces to the leakages phenomenon. However, the leakages could be used as a coolant to protect the endwall surfaces from the hot gas since it could not be completely prevented. Thus, present study investigated the potential of leakage flows as a function of film cooling. In present study, the flow field at the downstream of high-pressure turbine blade has been investigated by 5-holes pitot tube. This is to reveal the aerodynamic performances under the influenced of leakage flows while the temperature measurement was conducted by thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Experimental has significantly captured theaerodynamics effect of leakage flows near the blade downstream. Furthermore, TLC measurement illustrated that the film cooling effectiveness contours were strongly influenced by the secondary flows behavior on the endwall region. Aero-thermal results were validated by the numerical simulation adopted by commercial software, ANSYS CFX 13. Both experimental and numerical simulation indicated almost similar trendinaero and also thermal behavior as the amount of leakage flows increases.
Thermal and aerothermal performance of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avery, D. E.; Shideler, J. L.; Stuckey, R. N.
1981-01-01
A metallic thermal protection system (TPS) concept the multiwall designed for temperature and pressure at Shuttle body point 3140 where the maximum surface temperature is approximately 811 K was tested to evaluate thermal performance and structural integrity. A two tile model of titanium multiwall and a model consisting of a low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were exposed to 25 simulated thermal and pressure Shuttle entry missions. The two systems performed the same, and neither system deteriorated during the tests. It is indicated that redesign of the multiwall tiles reduces tile thickness and/or weight. A nine tile model of titanium multiwal was tested for radiant heating and aerothermodynamics. Minor design changes that improve structural integrity without having a significant impact on the thermal protection ability of the titanium multiwall TPS are identified. The capability of a titanium multiwall thermal protection system to protect an aluminum surface during a Shuttle type entry trajectory at locations on the vehicle where the maximum surface temperature is below 811 K is demonstrated.
Transient aero-thermal simulations for TMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2014-08-01
Aero-thermal simulations are an integral part of the design process for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). These simulations utilize Computational Solid-Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) to estimate wind jitter and blur, dome and mirror seeing, telescope pointing error due to thermal drift, and to predict thermal effects on performance of components such as the primary mirror segments. Design guidance obtained from these simulations is provided to the Telescope, Enclosure, Facilities and Adaptive Optics groups. Computational advances allow for model enhancements and inclusion of phenomena not previously resolved, such as transient effects on wind loading and thermal seeing due to vent operation while observing or long exposure effects, with potentially different flow patterns corresponding to the beginning and end of observation. Accurate knowledge of the Observatory aero-thermal environment will result in developing reliable look-up tables for effective open loop correction of key active optics system elements, and cost efficient operation of the Observatory.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Reynolds, R.; Ball, I.; Berry, R.; Johnson, K.; Mongia, H.
1983-01-01
Aerothermal submodels used in analytical combustor models are analyzed. The models described include turbulence and scalar transport, gaseous full combustion, spray evaporation/combustion, soot formation and oxidation, and radiation. The computational scheme is discussed in relation to boundary conditions and convergence criteria. Also presented is the data base for benchmark quality test cases and an analysis of simple flows.
Aerothermal Considerations for Entry, Descent, and Landing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun
2015-01-01
Aerothermal modeling is inherently entwined with TPS design. Aerothermal, radiation, and TPS material response are coupled so it's important to check modeling assumptions. Validation of numerical models using ground and flight tests is important to quantify uncertainties. A margin policy based on statistical methods may provide greater insight in the key drivers and overall reliability of the design
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mongia, H. C.; Patankar, S. V.; Murthy, S. N. B.; Sullivan, J. P.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1985-01-01
The main objectives of the Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2 are: to develop an improved numerical scheme for incorporation in a 3-D combustor flow model; to conduct a benchmark quality experiment to study the interaction of a primary jet with a confined swirling crossflow and to assess current and advanced turbulence and scalar transport models; and to conduct experimental evaluation of the air swirler interaction with fuel injectors, assessments of current two-phase models, and verification the improved spray evaporation/dispersion models.
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Test)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastor-Barsi, Christine M.; Arrington, E. Allen; VanZante, Judith Foss
2012-01-01
A major modification of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) occurred in autumn of 2011. It is standard practice at NASA Glenn to perform a full aero-thermal calibration of the test section of a wind tunnel facility upon completion of major modifications. This paper will discuss the tools and techniques used to complete an aero-thermal calibration of the IRT and the results that were acquired. The goal of this test entry was to complete a flow quality survey and aero-thermal calibration measurements in the test section of the IRT. Test hardware that was used includes the 2D Resistive Temperature Detector (RTD) array, 9-ft pressure survey rake, hot wire survey rake, and the quick check survey rake. This test hardware provides a map of the velocity, Mach number, total and static pressure, total temperature, flow angle and turbulence intensity. The data acquired were then reduced to examine pressure, temperature, velocity, flow angle, and turbulence intensity. Reduced data has been evaluated to assess how the facility meets flow quality goals. No icing conditions were tested as part of the aero-thermal calibration. However, the effects of the spray bar air injections on the flow quality and aero-thermal calibration measurements were examined as part of this calibration.
Aerothermal Heating Predictions for Mars Microprobe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitcheltree, R. A.; DiFulvio, M.; Horvath, T. J.; Braun, R. D.
1998-01-01
A combination of computational predictions and experimental measurements of the aerothermal heating expected on the two Mars Microprobes during their entry to Mars are presented. The maximum, non-ablating, heating rate at the vehicle's stagnation point (at alpha = 0 degrees) is predicted for an undershoot trajectory to be 194 Watts per square centimeters with associated stagnation point pressure of 0.064 atm. Maximum stagnation point pressure occurs later during the undershoot trajectory and is 0.094 atm. From computations at seven overshoot-trajectory points, the maximum heat load expected at the stagnation point is near 8800 Joules per square centimeter. Heat rates and heat loads on the vehicle's afterbody are much lower than the forebody. At zero degree angle-of-attack, heating over much of the hemi-spherical afterbody is predicted to be less than 2 percent of the stagnation point value. Good qualitative agreement is demonstrated for forebody and afterbody heating between CFD calculations at Mars entry conditions and experimental thermographic phosphor measurements from the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. A novel approach which incorporates six degree-of-freedom trajectory simulations to perform a statistical estimate of the effect of angle-of-attack, and other off-nominal conditions, on heating is included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martinez, Edward R.; Weber, Carissa Tudryn; Oishi, Tomo; Santos, Jose; Mach, Joseph
2011-01-01
The Sheathed Miniature Aerothermal Reentry Thermocouple is a micro-miniature thermocouple for high temperature measurement in extreme environments. It is available for use in Thermal Protection System materials for ground testing and flight. This paper discusses the heritage, and design of the instrument. Experimental and analytical methods used to verify its performance and limitations are described.
Aerothermal modeling, phase 1. Volume 1: Model assessment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenworthy, M. J.; Correa, S. M.; Burrus, D. L.
1983-01-01
Phase 1 was conducted as part of the overall NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) Program. The purpose of this effort was to determine the predictive accuracy of and the deficiencies within the various analytical modules comprising the overall combustor aerothermal model used at General Electric, as well as to formulate recommendations for improvement where needed. This effort involved the assembly of a benchmark quality data base from selected available literature, and from General Electric engine and combustor component test data. This data base was supplemented with additional definitive data obtained from an experimental test program conducted as part of the Phase 1 effort. Using selections from this data base, assessment studies were conducted to evaluate the various modules. Assessment of the internal flow module was conducted using 2-D parabolic and ellipitic, as well as 3-D elliptic internal flow calculations of definitive test data selected from the assembled data base. The 2-D assessment provided methodical examination of the mathematical techniques and the physical submodules, while the 3-D assessment focused on usefulness as a design tool. Calculations of combustor linear metal temperatures, pressure loss performance, and airflow distribution were performed using aerothermal modules which were in general use for many years at General Electric. The results of these assessment provided for the identification of deficiencies within the modules. The deficiencies were addressed in some detail providing a foundation on which to formulate a prioritized list of recommendations for improvement.
Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.
EFT-1 Heatshield Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. Brandon; Amar, Adam J.; Droba, Justin; Lessard, Victor; Mahzari, Milad
2016-01-01
The EFT-1 Avcoat heatshield was instrumented with 34 plugs containing multiple thermocouples in-depth with an objective being to measure the flight aerothermal environment. This paper presents a discussion of the instrumentation and the techniques used to reconstruct the heating environment from the measured in-depth temperatures. The inverse heat transfer problem algorithms, models and assumptions will be outlined, and available results will be presented.
Exploration Flight Test 1 Afterbody Aerothermal Environment Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hyatt, Andrew J.; Oliver, Brandon; Amar, Adam; Lessard, Victor
2016-01-01
The Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle included roughly 100 near surface thermocouples on the after body of the vehicle. The temperature traces at each of these instruments have been used to perform inverse environment reconstruction to determine the aerothermal environment experienced during re-entry of the vehicle. This paper provides an overview of the reconstructed environments and identifies critical aspects of the environment. These critical aspects include transition and reaction control system jet influence. A blind test of the process and reconstruction tool was also performed to build confidence in the reconstructed environments. Finally, an uncertainty quantification analysis was also performed to identify the impact of each of the uncertainties on the reconstructed environments.
Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, Carolyn; DePriest, Douglas; Thompson, Richard (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The cost and safety goals for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to establish statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The research work was focused on establishing the suitable mathematical/statistical models for these purposes. It is anticipated that the resulting models can be incorporated into a software tool to provide rapid, variable-fidelity, aerothermal environments to predict heating along an arbitrary trajectory. This work will support development of an integrated design tool to perform automated thermal protection system (TPS) sizing and material selection.
Performance constraints and compensation for teleoperation with delay
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclaughlin, J. S.; Staunton, B. D.
1989-01-01
A classical control perspective is used to characterize performance constraints and evaluate compensation techniques for teleoperation with delay. Use of control concepts such as open and closed loop performance, stability, and bandwidth yield insight to the delay problem. Teleoperator performance constraints are viewed as an open loop time delay lag and as a delay-induced closed loop bandwidth constraint. These constraints are illustrated with a simple analytical tracking example which is corroborated by a real time, 'man-in-the-loop' tracking experiment. The experiment also provides insight to those controller characteristics which are unique to a human operator. Predictive displays and feedforward commands are shown to provide open loop compensation for delay lag. Low pass filtering of telemetry or feedback signals is interpreted as closed loop compensation used to maintain a sufficiently low bandwidth for stability. A new closed loop compensation approach is proposed that uses a reactive (or force feedback) hand controller to restrict system bandwidth by impeding operator inputs.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; Reynolds, R.; Ball, I.; Berry, R.; Johnson, K.; Mongia, H.
1983-01-01
The combustor performance submodels for complex flows are evaluated. The benchmark test cases for complex nonswirling flows are identified and analyzed. The introduction of swirl into the flow creates much faster mixing, caused by radial pressure gradients and increase in turbulence generation. These phenomena are more difficult to predict than the effects due to geometrical streamline curvatures, like the curved duct, and sudden expansion. Flow fields with swirl, both confined and unconfined are studied. The role of the dilution zone to achieve the turbine inlet radial profile plays an important part, therefore temperature field measurements were made in several idealized dilution zone configurations.
Aerothermal Test of Metallic TPS for X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad
1998-01-01
An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels including the seals developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle is being tested in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests are the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests will be used to evaluate the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent tiles and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying step heights, damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals will also be investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33 and the test program in the Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel is presented and discussed.
Constraints influencing sports wheelchair propulsion performance and injury risk
2013-01-01
The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. A potential issue for many wheelchair athletes is how to train hard to maximise performance while also reducing the risk of injuries, particularly to the shoulder due to the accumulation of stress placed on this joint during activities of daily living, training and competition. The overall purpose of this narrative review was to use the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to examine how various constraints acting upon the wheelchair-user interface may alter hand rim wheelchair performance during sporting activities, and to a lesser extent, their injury risk. As we found no studies involving Paralympic athletes that have directly utilised the dynamical systems approach to interpret their data, we have used this approach to select some potential constraints and discussed how they may alter wheelchair performance and/or injury risk. Organism constraints examined included player classifications, wheelchair setup, training and intrinsic injury risk factors. Task constraints examined the influence of velocity and types of locomotion (court sports vs racing) in wheelchair propulsion, while environmental constraints focused on forces that tend to oppose motion such as friction and surface inclination. Finally, the ecological validity of the research studies assessing wheelchair propulsion was critiqued prior to recommendations for practice and future research being given. PMID:23557065
Adaptive computational methods for aerothermal heating analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, John M.; Oden, J. Tinsley
1988-01-01
The development of adaptive gridding techniques for finite-element analysis of fluid dynamics equations is described. The developmental work was done with the Euler equations with concentration on shock and inviscid flow field capturing. Ultimately this methodology is to be applied to a viscous analysis for the purpose of predicting accurate aerothermal loads on complex shapes subjected to high speed flow environments. The development of local error estimate strategies as a basis for refinement strategies is discussed, as well as the refinement strategies themselves. The application of the strategies to triangular elements and a finite-element flux-corrected-transport numerical scheme are presented. The implementation of these strategies in the GIM/PAGE code for 2-D and 3-D applications is documented and demonstrated.
Aerodynamic and Aerothermal TPS Instrumentation Reference Guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woollard, Bryce A.; Braun, Robert D.; Bose, Deepack
2016-01-01
The hypersonic regime of planetary entry combines the most severe environments that an entry vehicle will encounter with the greatest amount of uncertainty as to the events unfolding during that time period. This combination generally leads to conservatism in the design of an entry vehicle, specifically that of the thermal protection system (TPS). Each planetary entry provides a valuable aerodynamic and aerothermal testing opportunity; the utilization of this opportunity is paramount in better understanding how a specific entry vehicle responds to the demands of the hypersonic entry environment. Previous efforts have been made to instrument entry vehicles in order to collect data during the entry period and reconstruct the corresponding vehicle response. The purpose of this paper is to cumulatively document past TPS instrumentation designs for applicable planetary missions, as well as to list pertinent results and any explainable shortcomings.
Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, Michael
2010-01-01
This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC, the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC LENS II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results. A more comprehensive discussion of the topics in this paper can be found in Chapter 6 of Reference [1]. The overall aspect of the test program has been discussed in an AIAA paper by Tim Wadhams [2]. The Shuttle Ascent Stack performance and related issues discussed in the Report [1] are not included in this paper. No ITAR data is included in this paper.
Performance optimization of an MHD generator with physical constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, C. C. P.; Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.
1979-01-01
A method to optimize the Faraday MHD generator performance under a prescribed set of electrical and magnet constraints is described. The results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented for a very large MHD/steam plant. The differences between the maximum power and maximum net power generators are described. The sensitivity of the generator performance to the various operational parameters are presented.
The Efficacy of Multidimensional Constraint Keys in Database Query Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardwell, Leslie K.
2012-01-01
This work is intended to introduce a database design method to resolve the two-dimensional complexities inherent in the relational data model and its resulting performance challenges through abstract multidimensional constructs. A multidimensional constraint is derived and utilized to implement an indexed Multidimensional Key (MK) to abstract a…
Optimal modified tracking performance for MIMO systems under bandwidth constraint.
Sun, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Jie; Zhan, Xi-Sheng; Han, Tao
2016-05-01
This paper investigates the optimal modified tracking performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) networked control systems (NCSs) with bandwidth and channel noise constraints. A new modified tracking performance index is proposed which prevents variations in the tracking error from leading to invalid data where there is no integrator in the plant. An expression for the optimal modified tracking performance is obtained using a method which includes co-prime factorization, partial factorization, spectral decomposition and H2 norm. The obtained results show that the optimal modified tracking performance is influenced by the non-minimum phase (NMP) zeros, unstable poles, and their directions. Furthermore, the characteristics of the input signal, the modification factor, the bandwidth and the channel noise are also shown to be closely related to the optimal modified tracking performance. Finally, the efficiency of the result is verified using some typical examples. PMID:26874745
Side-mounted IR window aero-optic and aerothermal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pond, John E.; Welch, Charles T.; Sutton, George W.
1999-07-01
Addition of a side mounted IR seeker, to an existing missile design, introduces new issues involving the aerodynamic flow over the optical window and its near field effect on the ability of the seeker to view the target. Image aberration, distortion and boresight shift vary according to flow conditions and the thermal state of the window system. A detailed analysis of the aerodynamic flow and its aero-optic effect for a side mounted IR window was performed to quantify target image degradation, window heating and bending, and window structural failure probability due to aerothermal and aero-optical effects.
Aerothermal analysis of the D2 seeker in a hypersonic environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehman, John; Daywitt, James; Brewer, Robert; Prats, Benito
1993-06-01
The D2 projectile is a gun-launched, hypervelocity, endo-atmospheric, interceptor, utilizing an on-board near-IR seeker located at the base of a cavity in the projectile heat shield. This paper discusses the impact of the projectile's flowfield on the seeker window. Parabolized Navier-Stokes solutions of the approach flow, and Navier-Stokes solutions of the cavity flow, have been performed for several points along a severe aerothermal trajectory. The seeker cavity significantly reduces the heat transfer into the window and its housing during flyout and endgame maneuvers. Transient thermal analyses show that the cavity obviates the need for more complex active-cooling techniques.
Performance optimization of an MHD generator with physical constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, C. C. P.; Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.
1979-01-01
A technique has been described which optimizes the power out of a Faraday MHD generator operating under a prescribed set of electrical and magnetic constraints. The method does not rely on complicated numerical optimization techniques. Instead the magnetic field and the electrical loading are adjusted at each streamwise location such that the resultant generator design operates at the most limiting of the cited stress levels. The simplicity of the procedure makes it ideal for optimizing generator designs for system analysis studies of power plants. The resultant locally optimum channel designs are, however, not necessarily the global optimum designs. The results of generator performance calculations are presented for an approximately 2000 MWe size plant. The difference between the maximum power generator design and the optimal design which maximizes net MHD power are described. The sensitivity of the generator performance to the various operational parameters are also presented.
Aerothermal Test of Thermal Protection Systems for X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, James Wayne; Hodge, Jefferson; Moore, Brad; Snyder, Kevin
1999-01-01
An array of metallic Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels developed for the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle was tested in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. These tests were the first aerothermal tests of an X-33 TPS array and the test results will be used to validate the TPS for the X-33 flight program. Specifically, the tests evaluated the structural and thermal performance of the TPS, the effectiveness of the high temperature seals between adjacent panels and the durability of the TPS under realistic aerothermal flight conditions. The effect of varying panel-to-panel step heights, intentional damage to the seals between adjacent panels, and the use of secondary seals were also investigated during the test program. The metallic TPS developed for the windward surface of the X-33, the blanket TPS developed to protect the leeward surfaces of the X-33, and the test program in the 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel are presented and discussed.
Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.
Beer, S K; Lawson, S A
2013-08-01
An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples. PMID:24007128
Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.
Tobalske, Bret W
2016-09-26
Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528773
Methodology for the Assessment of 3D Conduction Effects in an Aerothermal Wind Tunnel Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, Anthony Brandon
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews a method for the assessment of three-dimensional conduction effects during test in a Aerothermal Wind Tunnel. The test objectives were to duplicate and extend tests that were performed during the 1960's on thermal conduction on proturberance on a flat plate. Slides review the 1D versus 3D conduction data reduction error, the analysis process, CFD-based analysis, loose coupling method that simulates a wind tunnel test run, verification of the CFD solution, Grid convergence, Mach number trend, size trends, and a Sumary of the CFD conduction analysis. Other slides show comparisons to pretest CFD at Mach 1.5 and 2.16 and the geometries of the models and grids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Chun; Muppidi, Suman; Bose, Deepak; Van Norman, John W.; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Clark, Ian
2015-01-01
NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator Program is developing new technologies that will enable the landing of heavier payloads in low density environments, such as Mars. A recent flight experiment conducted high above the Hawaiian Islands has demonstrated the performance of several decelerator technologies. In particular, the deployment of the Robotic class Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (SIAD-R) was highly successful, and valuable data were collected during the test flight. This paper outlines the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis used to estimate the aerodynamic and aerothermal characteristics of the SIAD-R. Pre-flight and post-flight predictions are compared with the flight data, and a very good agreement in aerodynamic force and moment coefficients is observed between the CFD solutions and the reconstructed flight data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Todd Richard; Mahazari, Milad; Bose, Deepak; Santos, Jose Antonio
2013-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory successfully landed on the Martian surface on August 5th, 2012. The rover was protected from the extreme heating environments of atmospheric entry by an ablative heatshield. This Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator heatshield was instrumented with a suite of embedded thermocouples, isotherm sensors, and pressure transducers. The sensors monitored the in-depth ablator response, as well as the surface pressure at discrete locations throughout the hypersonic deceleration. This paper presents a comparison of the flight data with post-entry estimates. An assessment of the aerothermal environments, as well as the in-depth response of the heatshield material is made, and conclusions regarding the overall performance of the ablator at the suite locations are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie
2000-01-01
To visually record the initial free flight event of the Hyper-X research flight vehicle immediately after separation from the Pegasus(registered) booster rocket, a video camera was mounted on the bulkhead of the adapter through which Hyper-X rides on Pegasus. The video camera was shielded by a protecting camera window made of heat-resistant quartz material. When Hyper-X separates from Pegasus, this camera window will be suddenly exposed to Mach 7 stagnation thermal shock and dynamic pressure loading (aerothermal loading). To examine the structural integrity, thermoelastic analysis was performed, and the stress distributions in the camera windows were calculated. The critical stress point where the tensile stress reaches a maximum value for each camera window was identified, and the maximum tensile stress level at that critical point was found to be considerably lower than the tensile failure stress of the camera window material.
Assessment, development and application of combustor aerothermal models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, J. D.; Mongia, H. C.; Mularz, E. J.
1988-01-01
The gas turbine combustion system design and development effort is an engineering exercise to obtain an acceptable solution to the conflicting design trade-offs between combustion efficiency, gaseous emissions, smoke, ignition, restart, lean blowout, burner exit temperature quality, structural durability, and life cycle cost. For many years, these combustor design trade-offs have been carried out with the help of fundamental reasoning and extensive component and bench testing, backed by empirical and experience correlations. Recent advances in the capability of computational fluid dynamics codes have led to their application to complex 3-D flows such as those in the gas turbine combustor. A number of U.S. Government and industry sponsored programs have made significant contributions to the formulation, development, and verification of an analytical combustor design methodology which will better define the aerothermal loads in a combustor, and be a valuable tool for design of future combustion systems. The contributions made by NASA Hot Section Technology (HOST) sponsored Aerothermal Modeling and supporting programs are described.
A Review of Aerothermal Modeling for Mars Entry Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Michael J; Tang, Chun Y.; Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Krasa, Paul
2009-01-01
The current status of aerothermal analysis for Mars entry missions is reviewed. The aeroheating environment of all Mars missions to date has been dominated by convective heating. Two primary uncertainties in our ability to predict forebody convective heating are turbulence on a blunt lifting cone and surface catalysis in a predominantly CO2 environment. Future missions, particularly crewed vehicles, will encounter additional heating from shock-layer radiation due to a combination of larger size and faster entry velocity. Localized heating due to penetrations or other singularities on the aeroshell must also be taken into account. The physical models employed to predict these phenomena are reviewed, and key uncertainties or deficiencies inherent in these models are explored. Capabilities of existing ground test facilities to support aeroheating validation are also summarized. Engineering flight data from the Viking and Pathfinder missions, which may be useful for aerothermal model validation, are discussed, and an argument is presented for obtaining additional flight data. Examples are taken from past, present, and future Mars entry missions, including the twin Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory, scheduled for launch by NASA in 2011.
Aerothermal experiments in turbine rim seals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pittman, Lionel Obadiah, Jr.
Purge flows are necessary for ensuring that hot gasses do not penetrate the thermally sensitive rim seal and disk cavity regions of turbines. The temperature and mass flow rate of the purge air can affect the component life and aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Therefore it is of interest to understand the basic mechanisms that govern this complex flow problem. The present work focuses on two turbine rim seal investigations. The first focused on temperature measurements in the rim cavity region of a rotating, high-speed, low-pressure turbine as means to quantify a rim seal's effectiveness. The seal had a realistic geometry with a small axial overlap between the stationary and rotating components. The purge flow rate was varied from 0 to 1 percent of the core mass flow rate. The results will describe the temperatures as well as the seal's effectiveness as a function of the purge flow rate, and turbine operating point. The second was a study on the effect of purge flow on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine stage. Exit flow field surveys were taken in both a low pressure turbine stage and a high pressure turbine stage. Also a computational study was done on the low pressure turbine stage to add insight into the effect of purge flow on turbine stage performance. In addition, the computation results provide insight into the effect of purge flow on the low pressure turbine blade passage flow field.
Aerothermal Testing of Woven TPS Ablative Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stackpoole, Mairead; Feldman, Jay; Olson, Michael; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
2012-01-01
Woven Thermal Protection Systems (WTPS) is a new TPS concept that is funded by NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division. The WTPS project demonstrates the potential for manufacturing a variety of TPS materials capable of wide ranging performances demanded by a spectrum of solar system exploration missions. Currently, missions anticipated to encounter heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Watts per square centimeter are limited to using one proven material fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at heat fluxes greater than 4000 Watts per square centimeter, and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This poster will summarize some recent arc jet testing to evaluate the performance of WTPS. Both mid density and fully dense WTPS test results will be presented and results compared to heritage carbon phenolic where applicable.
Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias
2014-06-01
In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2012 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Allen, Arrington E.
2013-01-01
A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) was completed in 2012 following the major modifications to the facility that included replacement of the refrigeration plant and heat exchanger. The calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT.
Effect of Task Constraint on Reaching Performance in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ju, Yun-Huei; You, Jia-Yuan; Cherng, Rong-Ju
2010-01-01
The purposes of the study were to examine the effect of task constraint on the reaching performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to examine the correlations between the reaching performance and postural control. Eight children with CP and 16 typically developing (TD) children participated in the study. They performed a…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruce, Walter E., III; Mesick, Nathaniel J.; Ferlemann, Paul G.; Siemers, Paul M., III; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Tobin, Steven A.; Kardell, Matthew P.
2012-01-01
Flexible TPS development involves ground testing and analysis necessary to characterize performance of the FTPS candidates prior to flight testing. This paper provides an overview of the analysis and ground testing efforts performed over the last year at the NASA Langley Research Center and in the Boeing Large-Core Arc Tunnel (LCAT). In the LCAT test series, material layups were subjected to aerothermal loads commensurate with peak re-entry conditions enveloping a range of HIAD mission trajectories. The FTPS layups were tested over a heat flux range from 20 to 50 W/cm with associated surface pressures of 3 to 8 kPa. To support the testing effort a significant redesign of the existing shear (wedge) model holder from previous testing efforts was undertaken to develop a new test technique for supporting and evaluating the FTPS in the high-temperature, arc jet flow. Since the FTPS test samples typically experience a geometry change during testing, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models of the arc jet flow field and test model were developed to support the testing effort. The CFD results were used to help determine the test conditions experienced by the test samples as the surface geometry changes. This paper includes an overview of the Boeing LCAT facility, the general approach for testing FTPS, CFD analysis methodology and results, model holder design and test methodology, and selected thermal results of several FTPS layups.
Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent
1998-01-01
Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.
Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent
1998-01-01
Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.
Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J
2016-06-01
This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance. PMID:26838357
Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J
2015-11-01
The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance. PMID:25900114
Aero-thermal analysis of lifting body configurations in hypersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sachin; Mahulikar, Shripad P.
2016-09-01
The aero-thermal analysis of a hypersonic vehicle is of fundamental interest for designing its thermal protection system. The aero-thermal environment predictions over several critical regions of the hypothesized lifting body vehicle, including the stagnation region of the nose-cap, cylindrically swept leading edges, fuselage-upper, and fuselage-lower surfaces, are discussed. The drag (Λ=70°) and temperature (Λ=80°) minimized sweepback angles are considered in the configuration design of the two hypothesized lifting body shape hypersonic vehicles. The main aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the aero-thermal characteristics of these two lifting body configurations at same heat capacity. Accordingly, a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation has been carried out at Mach number (M∞=7), H=35 km altitude with zero Angle of Attack. Finally, the material selection for thermal protection system based on these predictions and current methodology is described.
Aerothermal environment induced by mismatch at the SSME main combustion chamber-nozzle joint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcconnaughey, H. V.; O'Farrell, J. M.; Olive, T. A.; Brown, G. B.; Holt, J. B.
1990-01-01
The computational study reported here is motivated by a Space Shuttle main engine hardware problem detected in post-flight and post-test inspections. Of interest are the potential for hot gas ingestion into the joint (G15) at the main combustion chamber-to-nozzle interface and the effect of particular goemetric nonuniformities on that gas ingestion. The flowfield in the G15 region involves supersonic flow past a rounded forward facing step preceded by a deep narrow cavity. This paper describes the physical problem associated with joint G15 and computational investigations of the G15 aerothermal environment. The associated flowfield was simulated in two and three space dimensions using the United Solutions Algorithm (USA) computational fluid dynamics code series. A benchmark calculation of experimentally measured supersonic flow over of a square cavity was performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the USA code in analyzing flows similar to the G15 computational flowfield. The G15 results demonstrate the mechanism for hot gas ingestion into the joint and reveal the sensitivity to salient geometric nonuniformities.
Aero-thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2000 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonsalez, Jose C.; Arrington, E. Allen; Curry, Monroe R., III
2001-01-01
Aerothermal calibration measurements and flow quality surveys were made in the test section of the Icing Research Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. These surveys were made following major facility modifications including widening of the heat exchanger tunnel section, replacement of the heat exchanger, installation of new turning vanes, and installation of new fan exit guide vanes. Standard practice at NASA Glenn requires that test section calibration and flow quality surveys be performed following such major facility modifications. A single horizontally oriented rake was used to survey the flow field at several vertical positions within a single cross-sectional plane of the test section. These surveys provided a detailed mapping of the total and static pressure, total temperature, Mach number, velocity, flow angle and turbulence intensity. Data were acquired over the entire velocity and total temperature range of the facility. No icing conditions were tested; however, the effects of air sprayed through the water injecting spray bars were assessed. All data indicate good flow quality. Mach number standard deviations were less than 0.0017, flow angle standard deviations were between 0.3 deg and 0.8 deg, total temperature standard deviations were between 0.5 and 1.8 F for subfreezing conditions, axial turbulence intensities varied between 0.3 and 1.0 percent, and transverse turbulence intensities varied between 0.3 and 1.5 percent. Measurement uncertainties were also quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Errera, M.-P.; Duchaine, F.
2016-05-01
This paper tests the performance of coupling coefficients of a Dirichlet-Robin transmission procedure in the context of steady conjugate heat transfer (CHT). Particular emphasis is put on the optimal coefficients highlighted recently in a theoretical study based on a normal mode stability analysis. This work can be seen as the logical continuation of that study in order to assess the relevance of the coefficients provided by the model problem in a realistic aerothermal computation. First, the numerical and physical CHT modeling methodologies are presented. Then, the optimal procedure applied to a Dirichlet-Robin algorithm (one-coefficient method) is briefly described. In order to gauge the ability of this model to predict the stability and convergence properties of a realistic case, it is compared on a heated cylinder in a flowfield test case. A series of five coupling coefficients and three Fourier numbers are considered. These parameters are introduced into the model problem as data to compute the amplification factor and the stability limits. The stability and convergence properties predicted by the model problem are then compared to those obtained in the CHT computation. This comparison shows an excellent overall agreement. Moreover, for all the Fourier numbers considered, the numerical solution is stable and oscillation-free when the optimal coefficient of the model problem is used. This would suggest that the one-dimensional normal mode analysis can provide relevant coefficients directly applicable to real CHT problems.
Aero-Thermal Prediction in High Pressure Turbine Cascade using Large Eddy Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaskaran, Rathakrishnan; Lele, Sanjiva
2008-11-01
The aero-thermal performance of an uncooled, smooth high pressure (HP) turbine cascade in the presence of free-stream turbulence is studied using a high-order overset mesh Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure. A HP vane cascade designed at the von Karman Institute (VKI) for fluid dynamics, Belgium, is used as the model geometry. Simulations matching experimental conditions, except for the Reynolds number which is about half of the experimental value, have been carried out. Significant enhancement in the blade heat-transfer is seen in the presence of inflow turbulence. Eddies from the free-stream turbulence get stretched around the blade, creating long streaky structures in the blade boundary layer. These structures quickly break down on the suction side, while they persist on the pressure side. The blade heat transfer signature from the simulations does not show transition of the boundary layer at the Reynolds number of the simulation. This is consistent with the trend seen in the experiments where transition is delayed by lowering the Reynolds number. New simulations matching the experimental Reynolds number are currently under way.
Temporal Constraints of the Word Blindness Posthypnotic Suggestion on Stroop Task Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parris, Benjamin A.; Dienes, Zoltan; Hodgson, Timothy L.
2012-01-01
The present work investigated possible temporal constraints on the posthypnotic word blindness suggestion effect. In a completely within-subjects and counterbalanced design 19 highly suggestible individuals performed the Stroop task both with and without a posthypnotic suggestion that they would be unable to read the word dimension of the Stroop…
Aero-Thermal Calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (2004 and 2005 Tests)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arrington, E. Allen; Pastor, Christine M.; Gonsalez, Jose C.; Curry, Monroe R., III
2010-01-01
A full aero-thermal calibration of the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel was completed in 2004 following the replacement of the inlet guide vanes upstream of the tunnel drive system and improvement to the facility total temperature instrumentation. This calibration test provided data used to fully document the aero-thermal flow quality in the IRT test section and to construct calibration curves for the operation of the IRT. The 2004 test was also the first to use the 2-D RTD array, an improved total temperature calibration measurement platform.
Effect of leading-edge load constraints on the design and performance of supersonic wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darden, C. M.
1985-01-01
A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of leading-edge load constraints on supersonic wing design and performance. In the effort to delay flow separation and the formation of leading-edge vortices, two constrained, linear-theory optimization approaches were used to limit the loadings on the leading edge of a variable-sweep planform design. Experimental force and moment tests were made on two constrained camber wings, a flat uncambered wing, and an optimum design with no constraints. Results indicate that vortex strength and separation regions were mildest on the severely and moderately constrained wings.
The development of a six degree-of-constraint robot performance evaluation test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, D. A.
1977-01-01
A remote manipulator performance evaluation test was developed to test certain tool mating configurations not possible with the standard peg-in-hole type of test. The test attempted to evaluate robot manipulator performance over a full range of six degrees of freedom of motion between a tool and its intended receptacle. The test consists primarily of four different tool geometries and three different receptacle geometries which provide for a progressive reduction in the degrees of freedom of motion, and a progressive increase in the degrees of constraint (DOC) over motion, between the tool and the receptacle. The manipulation times of actual tools and couplings would be predicted by the times for the test tool most like it geometrically. In addition, the influence of four different transmission delays was tested. The results indicate that tool manipulation time can vary by a factor of about four depending on the degrees of constraint over final tool positioning.
Aerothermal Protuberance Heating Design and Test Configurations for Ascent Vehicle Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Charles E.; Neumann, Richard D.; Freeman, Delma
2010-01-01
A series of tests were conducted to evaluate protuberance heating for the purposes of vehicle design and modification. These tests represent a state of the art approach to both testing and instrumentation for defining aerothermal protuberance effects on the protuberance and surrounding areas. The testing was performed with a number of wind tunnel entries beginning with the proof of concept "pathfinder" test in the Test Section 1 (TS1) tunnel in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The TS1 section (see Figures 1a and 1b) is a lower Mach number tunnel and the Test Section 2 (TS2) has overlapping and higher Mach number capability as showin in Figure 1c. The pathfinder concept was proven and testing proceeded for a series of protuberance tests using an existing splitter aluminum protuberance mounting plate, Macor protuberances, thin film gages, total temperature and pressure gages, Kulite pressure transducers, Infra-Red camera imaging, LASER velocimetry evaluations and the UPWT data collection system. A boundary layer rake was used to identify the boundary layer profile at the protuberance locations for testing and helped protuberance design. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation used during the protuberance heating tests performed in the UPWT in TS1 and TS2. Runs of the protuberances were made Mach numbers of 1.5, 2.16, 2.65, and 3.51. The data set generated from this testing is for ascent protuberance effects and is termed Protuberance Heating Ascent Data (PHAD) and this testing may be termed PHAD-1 to distinguish it from future testing of this type.
A Risk-Based Approach for Aerothermal/TPS Analysis and Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Michael J.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Bose, Deepak
2007-01-01
The current status of aerothermal and thermal protection system modeling for civilian entry missions is reviewed. For most such missions, the accuracy of our simulations is limited not by the tools and processes currently employed, but rather by reducible deficiencies in the underlying physical models. Improving the accuracy of and reducing the uncertainties in these models will enable a greater understanding of the system level impacts of a particular thermal protection system and of the system operation and risk over the operational life of the system. A strategic plan will be laid out by which key modeling deficiencies can be identified via mission-specific gap analysis. Once these gaps have been identified, the driving component uncertainties are determined via sensitivity analyses. A Monte-Carlo based methodology is presented for physics-based probabilistic uncertainty analysis of aerothermodynamics and thermal protection system material response modeling. These data are then used to advocate for and plan focused testing aimed at reducing key uncertainties. The results of these tests are used to validate or modify existing physical models. Concurrently, a testing methodology is outlined for thermal protection materials. The proposed approach is based on using the results of uncertainty/sensitivity analyses discussed above to tailor ground testing so as to best identify and quantify system performance and risk drivers. A key component of this testing is understanding the relationship between the test and flight environments. No existing ground test facility can simultaneously replicate all aspects of the flight environment, and therefore good models for traceability to flight are critical to ensure a low risk, high reliability thermal protection system design. Finally, the role of flight testing in the overall thermal protection system development strategy is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sliwa, S. M.
1980-01-01
Constrained parameter optimization was used to perform the optimal preliminary design of a medium range transport configuration. The impact of choosing a performance index was studied and the required fare for a 15 percent return-on-investment was proposed as a figure-of-merit. A number of design constants and constraint functions were systematically varied to document the sensitivities of the optimal design to a variety of economic and technological assumptions. Additionally, a comparison is made for each of the parameter variations between the baseline configuration and the optimally redesigned configuration.
Performance of advanced automotive fuel cell systems with heat rejection constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Steinbach, A. J.
2016-03-01
Although maintaining polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) at temperatures below 80 °C is desirable for extended durability and enhanced performance, the automotive application also requires the PEFC stacks to operate at elevated temperatures and meet the heat rejection constraint, stated as Q/ΔT < 1.45 kW/°C, where Q is the stack heat load for an 80-kWe net power PEFC system and ΔT is the difference between the stack coolant temperature and 40 °C ambient temperature. We have developed a method to determine the optimum design and operating conditions for an automotive stack subject to this Q/ΔT constraint, and illustrate it by applying it to a state-of-the-art stack with nano-structured thin film ternary catalysts in the membrane electrode assemblies. In the illustrative example, stack coolant temperatures >90 °C, stack inlet pressures >2 atm, and cathode stoichiometries <2 are needed to satisfy the Q/ΔT constraint in a cost effective manner. The reference PEFC stack with 0.1 mg/cm2 Pt loading in the cathode achieves 753 mW cm-2 power density at the optimum conditions for heat rejection, compared to 964 mW cm-2 in the laboratory cell at the same cell voltage (663 mV) and pressure (2.5 atm) but lower temperature (85 °C), higher cathode stoichiometry (2), and 100% relative humidity.
Panteli, Flora; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Theodorou, Apostolos
2016-06-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate possible changes at step pattern and technical performance of the long jump approach run in seven young long jumpers by modifying the performance environment (long jump runway versus track lane) and the nested actions (run-through with take-off versus complete long jump). Our findings suggest that the step pattern and technical aspects of the approach run are affected by environmental context and nested task constraints. In terms of environmental context, it appears that practising the training routine of run-through followed by take-off on the long jump runway allows athletes to simulate competition conditions in terms of step regulation and technical efficacy. The task of run-through followed by take-off on the track lane failed to initiate visual perception, step regulation and technical efficiency at the steps preceding the instant of take-off. In terms of nested task constraints, when run-ups were followed by jump for distance instead of only a take-off, a higher level of consistency was achieved and step regulation was based on perception-action coupling. Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill. PMID:26390236
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albertson, Cindy W.
1987-01-01
A model to be used in the flow studies and curved Thermal Protection System (TPS) evaluations was tested in the Langley 8 Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 6.8. The purpose of the study was to define the surface pressure and heating rates at high angles of attack (in support of curved metallic TPS studies) and to determine the conditions for which the model would be suitable as a test bed for aerothermal load studies. The present study was conducted at a nominal total temperature of 2400 and 3300 R, dynamic pressures from 2.3 to 10.9 psia, and free-stream Reynolds numbers from 4000,000 to 1,700,000/ft. The measurements consisted primarily of surface pressure and cold-wall (530 R) heating rates. Qualitative comparisons between predictions and data show that for this configuration, aerothermal tests should be limited to angles of attack between 10 and -10 degrees. Outside this range, the effects of free-stream flow nonuniformity appear in the data, as a result of the long length of the model. However, for TPS testing, this is not a concern and tests can be performed at angles of attack ranging from 20 to -20 degrees. Laminar and naturally turbulent boundary layers are available over limited ranges of conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, K. S.; Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Ramakrishnan, R.
1985-01-01
Recent progress in the development of finite element methodology for the prediction of aerothermal loads is described. Two dimensional, inviscid computations are presented, but emphasis is placed on development of an approach extendable to three dimensional viscous flows. Research progress is described for: (1) utilization of a commerically available program to construct flow solution domains and display computational results, (2) development of an explicit Taylor-Galerkin solution algorithm, (3) closed form evaluation of finite element matrices, (4) vector computer programming strategies, and (5) validation of solutions. Two test problems of interest to NASA Langley aerothermal research are studied. Comparisons of finite element solutions for Mach 6 flow with other solution methods and experimental data validate fundamental capabilities of the approach for analyzing high speed inviscid compressible flows.
GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California - Some constraints on performance
Dixon, T.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K.; Agnew, D.; Hager, B.; Kroger, P.; Krumega, L.; Strange, W. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA MIT, Cambridge, MA National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, MD )
1990-08-01
Results from the first major survey of southern California with GPS equipment are presented along with some limited results from late experiments assessing GPS performance by analysis of day-to-day and longer-term repeatability, as well as comparisons with VLBI. GPS performance on longer (50-500 km or longer) baselines, a length range useful for measurement of regional deformation and fault block velocities, is emphasized. The implications of this level of performance for meeting longer-term scientific objectives is addressed. It is concluded that GPS techniques and yield results comparable to those achieved with mobile VLBI techniques in California, assuming that appropriate network design and analysis techniques are used. GPS can thus provide important constraints on regional deformation in California with five yrs or less of measurements. 30 refs.
GPS measurements of regional deformation in southern California - Some constraints on performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dixon, T.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K.; Agnew, D.; Hager, B.; Kroger, P.; Krumega, L.; Strange, W.
1990-01-01
Results from the first major survey of southern California with GPS equipment are presented along with some limited results from late experiments assessing GPS performance by analysis of day-to-day and longer-term repeatability, as well as comparisons with VLBI. GPS performance on longer (50-500 km or longer) baselines, a length range useful for measurement of regional deformation and fault block velocities, is emphasized. The implications of this level of performance for meeting longer-term scientific objectives is addressed. It is concluded that GPS techniques and yield results comparable to those achieved with mobile VLBI techniques in California, assuming that appropriate network design and analysis techniques are used. GPS can thus provide important constraints on regional deformation in California with five yrs or less of measurements.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 2. Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.
1986-01-01
The main objectives of the NASA-sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2--Element C, are experimental evaluation of the air swirler interaction with a fuel injector in a simulated combustor chamber, assessment of the current two-phase models, and verification of the improved spray evaporation/dispersion models. This experimental and numerical program consists of five major tasks. Brief descriptions of the five tasks are given.
Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.
2011-01-01
This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welstead, Jason
2014-01-01
This research focused on incorporating stability and control into a multidisciplinary de- sign optimization on a Boeing 737-class advanced concept called the D8.2b. A new method of evaluating the aircraft handling performance using quantitative evaluation of the sys- tem to disturbances, including perturbations, continuous turbulence, and discrete gusts, is presented. A multidisciplinary design optimization was performed using the D8.2b transport air- craft concept. The con guration was optimized for minimum fuel burn using a design range of 3,000 nautical miles. Optimization cases were run using xed tail volume coecients, static trim constraints, and static trim and dynamic response constraints. A Cessna 182T model was used to test the various dynamic analysis components, ensuring the analysis was behaving as expected. Results of the optimizations show that including stability and con- trol in the design process drastically alters the optimal design, indicating that stability and control should be included in conceptual design to avoid system level penalties later in the design process.
Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters
Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl
2014-03-01
An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olivieri, Ferdinando; Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A.; Shin, Mincheol; Fontana, Simone; Yue, Lang
2016-07-01
Methods for beamforming are available that provide the signals used to drive an array of sources for the implementation of systems for the so-called personal audio. In this work, performance of the delay-and-sum (DAS) method and of three widely used methods for optimal beamforming are compared by means of computer simulations and experiments in an anechoic environment using a linear array of sources with given constraints on quality of the reproduced field at the listener's position and limit to input energy to the array. Using the DAS method as a benchmark for performance, the frequency domain responses of the loudspeaker filters can be characterized in three regions. In the first region, at low frequencies, input signals designed with the optimal methods are identical and provide higher directivity performance than that of the DAS. In the second region, performance of the optimal methods are similar to the DAS method. The third region starts above the limit due to spatial aliasing. A method is presented to estimate the boundaries of these regions.
Aerothermal tests of quilted dome models on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, Christopher E.; Hunt, L. Roane
1988-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at a Mach number of 6.5 on simulated arrays of thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tiles at an angle of attack of 5 deg. Detailed surface pressures and heating rates were obtained for arrays aligned with the flow and skewed 45 deg diagonally to the flow with nominal bowed heights of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 inch submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Aerothermal tests were made at a nominal total temperature of 3300 R, a total pressure of 400 psia, a total enthalpy of 950 Btu/lbm, a dynamic pressure of 2.7 psi, and a unit Reynolds number of 400,000 per foot. The experimental results form a data base that can be used to help protect aerothermal load increases from bowed arrays of TPS tiles.
Effect of auditory constraints on motor performance depends on stage of recovery post-stroke.
Aluru, Viswanath; Lu, Ying; Leung, Alan; Verghese, Joe; Raghavan, Preeti
2014-01-01
In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post-stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post-stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in 20 subjects with chronic hemiparesis. We used a bimanual wrist extension task, performed with a custom-made wrist trainer, to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: (1) without auditory cueing; (2) to non-musical happy sounds; (3) to self-selected music; and (4) to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each) were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics, and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups, which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post-stroke. PMID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose
2016-05-01
This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon
Inverse Heat Conduction Methods in the CHAR Code for Aerothermal Flight Data Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
Reconstruction of flight aerothermal environments often requires the solution of an inverse heat transfer problem, which is an ill-posed problem of specifying boundary conditions from discrete measurements in the interior of the domain. This paper will present the algorithms implemented in the CHAR code for use in reconstruction of EFT-1 flight data and future testing activities. Implementation nuances will be discussed, and alternative hybrid-methods that are permitted by the implementation will be described. Results will be presented for a number of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional problems
Inverse Heat Conduction Methods in the CHAR Code for Aerothermal Flight Data Reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliver, A. Brandon; Amar, Adam J.
2016-01-01
Reconstruction of flight aerothermal environments often requires the solution of an inverse heat transfer problem, which is an ill-posed problem of determining boundary conditions from discrete measurements in the interior of the domain. This paper will present the algorithms implemented in the CHAR code for use in reconstruction of EFT-1 flight data and future testing activities. Implementation details will be discussed, and alternative hybrid-methods that are permitted by the implementation will be described. Results will be presented for a number of problems.
Hydrodynamic constraints on prey-capture performance in forward-striking snakes
Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Brecko, Jonathan; Aerts, Peter; Stouten, Ilona; Vanheusden, Gwen; Camps, Andy; Van Damme, Raoul; Herrel, Anthony
2010-01-01
Some specialized aquatic snakes such as Natrix tessellata strike at fish by rapidly accelerating their head towards the prey with their mouth opened widely. This strategy is believed to be suboptimal as relatively high drag forces act on the open jaws and, therefore, probably limit strike speed. Moreover, the bow wave in front of the snake's jaws could push prey away from the mouth, thus potentially explaining the relatively low capture success observed in these animals (<20%). Here, we used laser-scan based computational fluid dynamics to test these potential constraints on prey-capture performance for N. tessellata. Our simulations showed that drag force indeed increases drastically for striking at a high gape angle. However, we estimated the overall cost in slowing down strike speed to be less pronounced due to the instationary dynamics of the system. In contrast to the expectations, forward displacement of prey was relatively limited (<13% of head length), and forceful collisions between prey and the leading edge of the jaw regularly occurred. However, our models showed that precise aiming by the snake was needed to reduce the chance of deviating the prey to a path bypassing the mouth. Our study also indicated several hydrodynamic advantages for snakes to strike at relatively large prey. PMID:19828500
2009-01-01
Background Behavioural approaches to knowledge translation inform interventions to improve healthcare. However, such approaches often focus on a single behaviour without considering that health professionals perform multiple behaviours in pursuit of multiple goals in a given clinical context. In resource-limited consultations, performing these other goal-directed behaviours may influence optimal performance of a particular evidence-based behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether a multiple goal-directed behaviour perspective might inform implementation research beyond single-behaviour approaches. Methods We conducted theory-based semi-structured interviews with 12 general medical practitioners (GPs) in Scotland on their views regarding two focal clinical behaviours--providing physical activity (PA) advice and prescribing to reduce blood pressure (BP) to <140/80 mmHg--in consultations with patients with diabetes and persistent hypertension. Theory-based constructs investigated were: intention and control beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour, and perceived interfering and facilitating influence of other goal-directed behaviours performed in a diabetes consultation. We coded interview content into pre-specified theory-based constructs and organised codes into themes within each construct using thematic analysis. Results Most GPs reported strong intention to prescribe to reduce BP but expressed reasons why they would not. Intention to provide PA advice was variable. Most GPs reported that time constraints and patient preference detrimentally affected their control over providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP, respectively. Most GPs perceived many of their other goal-directed behaviours as interfering with providing PA advice, while fewer GPs reported goal-directed behaviours that interfere with prescribing to reduce BP. Providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP were perceived to be facilitated by similar diabetes-related behaviours (e
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolkhorst, H. E.
1980-01-01
The orbiter fuel cell powerplant (FCP) performance constraints listed in the Shuttle Operational Data Book (SODB) were analyzed using the shuttle environmental control requirements evaluation tool. The effects of FCP lifetime, coolant loops, and FCP voltage output were considered. Results indicate that the FCP limits defined in the SODB are not valid.
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. This is Volume 1, an Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendices A (Aerothermal Comparisons) and B (Flight Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots), and Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors among OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. This is volume 2, containing Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). Volume 3 contains Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Generation of an Aerothermal Data Base for the X33 Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Cathy; Huynh, Loc
1998-01-01
The X-33 experimental program is a cooperative program between industry and NASA, managed by Lockheed-Martin Skunk Works to develop an experimental vehicle to demonstrate new technologies for a single-stage-to-orbit, fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV). One of the new technologies to be demonstrated is an advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) being designed by BF Goodrich (formerly Rohr, Inc.) with support from NASA. The calculation of an aerothermal database is crucial to identifying the critical design environment data for the TPS. The NASA Ames X-33 team has generated such a database using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses, engineering analysis methods and various programs to compare and interpolate the results from the CFD and the engineering analyses. This database, along with a program used to query the database, is used extensively by several X-33 team members to help them in designing the X-33. This paper will describe the methods used to generate this database, the program used to query the database, and will show some of the aerothermal analysis results for the X-33 aircraft.
Orbital flight test shuttle external tank aerothermal flight evaluation, volume 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Engel, Carl D.; Warmbrod, John D.
1986-01-01
This 3-volume report discusses the evaluation of aerothermal flight measurements made on the orbital flight test Space Shuttle External Tanks (ETs). Six ETs were instrumented to measure various quantities during flight; including heat transfer, pressure, and structural temperature. The flight data was reduced and analyzed against math models established from an extensive wind tunnel data base and empirical heat-transfer relationships. This analysis has supported the validity of the current aeroheating methodology and existing data base; and, has also identified some problem areas which require methodology modifications. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 contains Appendix A (Aerothermal Comparisons), and Appendix B (Flight-Derived h sub 1/h sub u vs. M sub inf. Plots). This is Volume 3, containing Appendix C (Comparison of Interference Factors between OFT Flight, Prediction and 1H-97A Data), Appendix D (Freestream Stanton Number and Reynolds Number Correlation for Flight and Tunnel Data), and Appendix E (Flight-Derived h sub i/h sub u Tables).
Studies of aerothermal loads generated in regions of shock/shock interaction in hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, Michael S.; Moselle, John R.; Lee, Jinho
1991-01-01
Experimental studies were conducted to examine the aerothermal characteristics of shock/shock/boundary layer interaction regions generated by single and multiple incident shocks. The presented experimental studies were conducted over a Mach number range from 6 to 19 for a range of Reynolds numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interaction regions. Detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were made for a range of interaction types and incident shock strengths over a transverse cylinder, with emphasis on the 3 and 4 type interaction regions. The measurements were compared with the simple Edney, Keyes, and Hains models for a range of interaction configurations and freestream conditions. The complex flowfields and aerothermal loads generated by multiple-shock impingement, while not generating as large peak loads, provide important test cases for code prediction. The detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements proved a good basis for evaluating the accuracy of simple prediction methods and detailed numerical solutions for laminar and transitional regions or shock/shock interactions.
Static and aerothermal tests of a superalloy honeycomb prepackaged thermal protection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorton, Mark P.; Shideler, John L.; Webb, Granville L.
1993-01-01
A reusable metallic thermal protection system has been developed for vehicles with maximum surface temperatures of up to 2000 F. An array of two 12- by 12-in. panels was subjected to radiant heating tests that simulated Space Shuttle entry temperature and pressure histories. Results indicate that this thermal protection system, with a mass of 2.201 lbm/ft(exp 2), can successfully prevent typical aluminum primary structure of an entry vehicle like the Space Shuttle from exceeding temperatures greater than 350 F at a location on the vehicle where the maximum surface temperature is 1900 F. A flat array of 20 panels was exposed to aerothermal flow conditions, at a Mach number of 6.75. The panels were installed in a worst-case orientation with the gaps between panels parallel to the flow. Results from the aerothermal tests indicated that convective heating occurred from hot gas flow in the gaps between the panels. Proposed design changes to prevent gap heating occurred from hot gas flow in the gaps between the panels. Proposed design changes to prevent gap heating include orienting panels so that gaps are not parallel to the flow and using a packaged, compressible gap-filler material between panels to block hot gas flow in the gaps.
Aerothermal/FEM Analysis of Hypersonic Sharp Leading Edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey D.; Kowalski, Thomas R.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Advanced hypersonic vehicles, like wave riders, will have sharp leading edges to minimize drag. These designs require accurate finite element modeling (FEM) of the thermal-structural behavior of a diboride ceramic matrix composite sharp leading edge. By coupling the FEM solver to an engineering model of the aerothermodynamic heating environment the impact of non catalytic surfaces, rarefied flow effects, and multidimensional conduction on the performance envelopes of sharp leading edges can be examined.
Chester, T L
2003-10-24
The goal of a separation can be defined in terms of business needs. One goal often used is to provide the required separation in minimum time, but many other goals are also possible. These include maximizing resolution within an analysis-time limit, or minimizing the overall cost. The remaining requirements of the separation can be applied as constraints in the optimization of the goal. We will present a flexible, business-objective-based approach for optimizing the operational parameters of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. After selecting the stationary phase and the mobile-phase components, several isocratic experiments are required to build a retention model. Multivariate optimization is performed, within the model, to find the best combination of the parameters being varied so that the result satisfies the goal to the fullest extent possible within the constraints. Interdependencies of parameters can be revealed by plotting the loci of optimal variable values or the function being optimized against a constraint. We demonstrate the concepts with a model separation originally requiring a 54 min analysis time. Multivariate optimization reduces the predicted analysis time to as short as 8 min, depending on the goals and constraints specified. PMID:14601838
Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy
2011-01-01
The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.
Statistical Methods for Rapid Aerothermal Analysis and Design Technology: Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DePriest, Douglas; Morgan, Carolyn
2003-01-01
The cost and safety goals for NASA s next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV) will require that rapid high-fidelity aerothermodynamic design tools be used early in the design cycle. To meet these requirements, it is desirable to identify adequate statistical models that quantify and improve the accuracy, extend the applicability, and enable combined analyses using existing prediction tools. The initial research work focused on establishing suitable candidate models for these purposes. The second phase is focused on assessing the performance of these models to accurately predict the heat rate for a given candidate data set. This validation work compared models and methods that may be useful in predicting the heat rate.
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 2: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
Flow interaction experiment. Volume 1: Aerothermal modeling, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Sullivan, J. P.; Murthy, S. N. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational study is reported for the flow of a turbulent jet discharging into a rectangular enclosure. The experimental configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets are investigated to provide a better understanding of the flow field in an annular combustor. A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure mean velocity and Reynolds stress components. Major features of the flow field include recirculation, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. A significant result from this study is the effect the primary jets have on the flow field. The primary jets are seen to create statistically larger recirculation zones and higher turbulence levels. In addition, a technique called marker nephelometry is used to provide mean concentration values in the model combustor. Computations are performed using three levels of turbulence closures, namely k-epsilon model, algebraic second moment (ASM), and differential second moment (DSM) closure. Two different numerical schemes are applied. One is the lower-order power-law differencing scheme (PLDS) and the other is the higher-order flux-spline differencing scheme (FSDS). A comparison is made of the performance of these schemes. The numerical results are compared with experimental data. For the cases considered in this study, the FSDS is more accurate than the PLDS. For a prescribed accuracy, the flux-spline scheme requires a far fewer number of grid points. Thus, it has the potential for providing a numerical error-free solution, especially for three-dimensional flows, without requiring an excessively fine grid. Although qualitatively good comparison with data was obtained, the deficiencies regarding the modeled dissipation rate (epsilon) equation, pressure-strain correlation model, and the inlet epsilon profile and other critical closure issues need to be resolved before one can achieve the degree of accuracy required to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolet, W. E.; Davy, W. C.; Wilson, J. F.
1980-01-01
Solutions are presented for the aerothermal heating environments and the material thermal response for the forebody heatshield on the candidate 242 kg Galileo probe entering the modeled nominal and cold-dense Jovian atmospheres. In the flowfield analysis, a finite difference procedure was employed to obtain benchmark predictions of pressure, radiation and convective heating rates (both laminar and turbulent) and the corresponding wall blowing obtained under the steady state approximation. The fluxes over the probe flank were found to be in a range where spallation is an important mass loss mechanism. The predicted heating rates were also used as boundary conditions for a charring materials ablation which was used to predict thermochemical based surface recession, mass loss and bondline temperatures. The contingency factor of 30% currently employed by NASA was found to be insufficient for entry into the cold-dense atmosphere.
Grid Generation Issues and CFD Simulation Accuracy for the X33 Aerothermal Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polsky, Susan; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Davies, Carol; Loomis, Mark; Prabhu, Dinesh; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Grid generation issues relating to the simulation of the X33 aerothermal environment using the GASP code are explored. Required grid densities and normal grid stretching are discussed with regards to predicting the fluid dynamic and heating environments with the desired accuracy. The generation of volume grids is explored and includes discussions of structured grid generation packages such as GRIDGEN, GRIDPRO and HYPGEN. Volume grid manipulation techniques for obtaining desired outer boundary and grid clustering using the OUTBOUND code are examined. The generation of the surface grid with the required surface grid with the required surface grid topology is also discussed. Utilizing grids without singular axes is explored as a method of avoiding numerical difficulties at the singular line.
An evaluation of computer codes for simulating the Galileo Probe aerothermal entry environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menees, G. P.
1981-01-01
The approaches of three computer flow field codes (HYVIS, COLTS, and RASLE), used to determine the Galileo Probe aerothermal environment and its effect on the design of the thermal protection system, are analyzed in order to resolve differences in their predicted results. All three codes account for the hypersonic, massively blown, radiation shock layers, characteristic of Jupiter entry. Significant differences, however, are evident in their solution procedures: the governing conservation equations, the numerical differencing methods, the governing physics (chemical, radiation, diffusion, and turbulence models), and the basic physical data (thermodynamic, transport, chemical, and spectral properties for atomic and molecular species). Solutions are compared for two near peak heating entry conditions for a Galileo Probe baseline configuration, having an initial mass of 242 kg and simulating entry into the Orton nominal atmosphere. The modern numerical methodology of COLTS and RASLE appear to provide an improved capability for coupled flow-field solutions.
Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K
2015-08-31
Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afzalirad, Mojtaba; Rezaeian, Javad
2016-04-01
This study involves an unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem in which sequence-dependent set-up times, different release dates, machine eligibility and precedence constraints are considered to minimize total late works. A new mixed-integer programming model is presented and two efficient hybrid meta-heuristics, genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, combined with the acceptance strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm (Metropolis acceptance rule), are proposed to solve this problem. Manifestly, the precedence constraints greatly increase the complexity of the scheduling problem to generate feasible solutions, especially in a parallel machine environment. In this research, a new corrective algorithm is proposed to obtain the feasibility in all stages of the algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated in numerical examples. The results indicate that the suggested hybrid ant colony optimization statistically outperformed the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm in solving large-size test problems.
Wdowski, Maximilian M; Gittoes, Marianne J R
2013-06-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the technique adaptations made when performing sprint-based tasks without (free condition) and with (constrained condition) the constraints of carrying a field hockey stick. Three free and three constrained maximal sprint accelerations were performed by 18 experienced university male field hockey players (age = 20 +/- 1 years, body mass = 73.3 +/- 7.1 kg, and stature = 1.78 +/- 0.05 m). An automatic motion analysis system tracked sagittal plane active marker locations (200 Hz). M sprint velocity during the 18-22 m (free: 8.03 +/- 0.43 m/s; constrained: 7.93 +/- 0.36 m/s) interval was significantly (p = 0.03) different between free and constrained conditions. While the M stride length and stride frequency was similar between free and constrained conditions in the 2-13 m capture volume, the free condition elicited a 0.10 m/s faster (p = 0.03) stride velocity. Further significant differences were found between free and constrained kinematic profiles (p < or = 0.05) for the hip angular velocity at touchdown during the 2-12 m interval of the sprints and in the overall sprint technique coordination between free and constrained conditions. Performance and technique adaptations indicated that sprint-training protocols for field sports should integrate specific equipment constraints to ensure explicit replication of the mechanical demands of the skills underpinning superior performance. PMID:23898687
Numerical study of cathode emission constraints on cylindrical self-field MPD thruster performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lapointe, Michael R.
1993-01-01
A stability equation relating thruster discharge current, argon propellant mass flow rate, and electrode geometry has been solved for a variety of cylindrical self-field MPD thruster configurations and discharge currents. Realistic values for cathode emission current densities were used to provide additional constraints on the thruster geometries. A two-dimensional MPD code was employed to provide better estimates of the maximum achievable specific impulse, thrust, and flow efficiency for cases of interest. The model results indicate that long life, cylindrical self-field MPD thrusters operated with argon propellant may not be able to provide specific impulse values in excess of 2100s. Alternate electrode geometries, applied magnetic fields, and/or low molecular weight propellants may be necessary to achieve higher values of specific impulse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arts, T.; Lambertderouvroit, M.; Rutherford, A. W.
1990-09-01
An experimental aerothermal investigation of a highly loaded transonic turbine nozzle guide vane mounted in a linear cascade arrangement is presented. The measurements were performed in a short duration isentropic light piston compression tube facility, allowing a correct simulation of Mach and Reynolds numbers as well as of the gas to wall temperature ratio compared to the values currently observed in modern aeroengines. The experimental program consisted of the following: (1) flow periodicity checks by means of wall static pressure measurements and Schlieren flow visualizations; (2) blade velocity distribution measurements by means of static pressure tappings; (3) blade convective heat transfer measurements by means of static pressure tappings; (4) blade convective heat transfer measurements by means of platinium thin films; (5) downstream loss coefficient and exit flow angle determinations by using a new fast traversing mechanism; and (6) free stream turbulence intensity and spectrum measurements. These different measurements were performed for several combinations of the free stream flow parameters looking at the relative effects on the aerodynamic blade performance and blade convective heat transfer of Mach number, Reynolds number, and freestream turbulence intensity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudson, Douglas J.; Torres, Manuel; Dougherty, Catherine; Rajendran, Natesan; Thompson, Rhoe A.
2003-09-01
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Aerothermal Targets Analysis Program (ATAP) is a user-friendly, engineering-level computational tool that features integrated aerodynamics, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DoF) trajectory/motion, convective and radiative heat transfer, and thermal/material response to provide an optimal blend of accuracy and speed for design and analysis applications. ATAP is sponsored by the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, where it is used with the CHAMP (Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume) technique for rapid infrared (IR) signature and imagery predictions. ATAP capabilities include an integrated 1-D conduction model for up to 5 in-depth material layers (with options for gaps/voids with radiative heat transfer), fin modeling, several surface ablation modeling options, a materials library with over 250 materials, options for user-defined materials, selectable/definable atmosphere and earth models, multiple trajectory options, and an array of aerodynamic prediction methods. All major code modeling features have been validated with ground-test data from wind tunnels, shock tubes, and ballistics ranges, and flight-test data for both U.S. and foreign strategic and theater systems. Numerous applications include the design and analysis of interceptors, booster and shroud configurations, window environments, tactical missiles, and reentry vehicles.
Development of a Tool to Recreate the Mars Science Laboratory Aerothermal Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beerman, A. F.; Lewis, M. J.; Santos, J. A.; White, T. R.
2010-01-01
The Mars Science Laboratory will enter the Martian atmosphere in 2012 with multiple char depth sensors and in-depth thermocouples in its heatshield. The aerothermal environment experienced by MSL may be computationally recreated using the data from the sensors and a material response program, such as the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal (FIAT) response program, through the matching of the char depth and thermocouple predictions of the material response program to the sensor data. A tool, CHanging Inputs from the Environment of FIAT (CHIEF), was developed to iteratively change different environmental conditions such that FIAT predictions match within certain criteria applied to an external data set. The computational environment is changed by iterating on the enthalpy, pressure, or heat transfer coefficient at certain times in the trajectory. CHIEF was initially compared against arc-jet test data from the development of the MSL heatshield and then against simulated sensor data derived from design trajectories for MSL. CHIEF was able to match char depth and in-depth thermocouple temperatures within the bounds placed upon it for these cases. Further refinement of CHIEF to compare multiple time points and assign convergence criteria may improve accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Da-Lin; Qi, Hong
Semi-transparent materials (such as IR optical windows) are widely used for heat protection or transfer, temperature and image measurement, and safety in energy , space, military, and information technology applications. They are used, for instance, ceramic coatings for thermal barriers of spacecrafts or gas turbine blades, and thermal image observation under extreme or some dangerous environments. In this paper, the coupled conduction and radiation heat transfer model is established to describe temperature distribution of semitransparent thermal barrier medium within the aerothermal environment. In order to investigate this numerical model, one semi-transparent sample with black coating was considered, and photothermal properties were measured. At last, Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to solve the coupled model, and the temperature responses from the sample surfaces were obtained. In addition, experiment study was also taken into account. In the present experiment, aerodynamic heat flux was simulated by one electrical heater, and two experiment cases were designed in terms of the duration of aerodynamic heating. One case is that the heater irradiates one surface of the sample continually until the other surface temperature up to constant, and the other case is that the heater works only 130 s. The surface temperature responses of these two cases were recorded. Finally, FVM model of the coupling conduction-radiation heat transfer was validated based on the experiment study with relative error less than 5%.
Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir
2008-01-01
In a practical classifier design problem the sample size is limited, and the available finite sample needs to be used both to design a classifier and to predict the classifier's performance for the true population. Since a larger sample is more representative of the population, it is advantageous to design the classifier with all the available cases, and to use a resampling technique for performance prediction. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study to compare the ability of different resampling techniques in predicting the performance of a neural network (NN) classifier designed with the available sample. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as the performance index for the NN classifier. We investigated resampling techniques based on the cross-validation, the leave-one-out method, and three different types of bootstrapping, namely, the ordinary, .632, and .632+ bootstrap. Our results indicated that, under the study conditions, there can be a large difference in the accuracy of the prediction obtained from different resampling methods, especially when the feature space dimensionality is relatively large and the sample size is small. Although this investigation is performed under some specific conditions, it reveals important trends for the problem of classifier performance prediction under the constraint of a limited data set. PMID:18234468
Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Wheat, Jonathan; Hizan, Hazuan
2016-09-01
The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance. PMID:26652039
The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.
Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian
2016-01-01
The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P < 0.05), there were no accompanying changes in the time period that participants spent aiming at the target, shot score, pistol movement or centre of pressure movement (P > 0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy. PMID:26375196
Custers, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S; Brown, Adalsteinn D
2007-01-01
There is increasing evidence that health care systems can create better value for money by improving performance and setting the right incentives. Worldwide this has led to an emergence of financial and non-financial incentive structures as a strategy to improve performance. The role of incentives is not only to motivate high performance through the alignment of results and rewards (financial/non-financial as well as direct/indirect) but also to enable health care providers to perform better by mitigating financial barriers that typically result from funding schemes. Various incentive structures in health care, identified in the scientific literature, are described in this article and available evidence on effectiveness and side effects is summarized. Literature shows that there is no single best approach to create an incentive yet and that the ability of financial and non-financial incentives to achieve desired results depends on a number of circumstantial elements. Several incentive schemes that can be used by health care insurers or local health authorities are discussed and concrete examples are provided. Decision-making on incentive schemes requires a careful design with the involvement of those targeted by incentives. PMID:17902405
Measuring "Progress": Performativity as Both Driver and Constraint in School Innovation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Solomon, Yvette; Lewin, Cathy
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe one secondary school's radical attempt to rethink the shape and purpose of education for its pupils, and its subsequent return to more traditional methods in the face of pressures of performativity and accountability. Framing our analysis within activity theory and its emphasis on contradiction as a driver for change, we…
Gutnik, B; Skurvydas, A; Zuoza, A; Zuoziene, I; Mickevičienė, D; Alekrinskis, B A; Pukenas, K; Nash, D
2015-04-01
The goal was to study reaction time and maximal velocity of upper limbs of healthy young adults of both sexes during transition from a simple to a more involved task. Performance of dominant and non-dominant arms was recorded. Participants were 43 healthy, right-handed, untrained men (n=22) and women (n=21), 18-22 years old. The simple task required a single jerk-like movement. The involved task required both speed and accuracy where necessity for high speed of performance was emphasized. The effectiveness of transition between tasks was calculated for both reaction time and maximal velocity. No lateral differences were found. Men usually had a shorter reaction time on both tasks and a higher maximal velocity in the simple task. Women were more effective at modifying velocity. PMID:25799027
Performance model incorporating weather related constraints for fields of unattended ground sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, David C.
1999-07-01
Tactical sensing on the battlefield involves real-time information processing of acoustic, seismic, electromagnetic, and environmental sensor data to obtain and exploit an automated situational awareness. The value-added of tactical sensing is to give the war-fighter real-time situational information without requiring human interpretation of the underlying scientific data. For example, acoustic, seismic, and magnetic signatures of a ground vehicle can be used in a pattern recognition algorithm to identify a tank, truck, or TEL, but all the war-fighter wants to know is how many of each vehicle type are present and which way are they going. However, the confidences of this automated information processing are dependent on environmental conditions and background interference. A key feature of tactical ground sensing is the ability to integrate objective statistical confidences into the process to intelligently suppress false alarms, thus allowing the war-fighter to concentrate on war fighting. This paper presents how the situation confidence metric is generated starting with the sensor SNR going all the way through to the target classification and track confidences. This technique also allows modeling of ground sensor performance in hypothetical environments such as bad weather.
Aerothermal Analysis and Design of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazanek, Daniel D.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Qu, Min; Seywald, Hans
2000-01-01
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) primary mission will be performed by making measurements of the inter-satellite range change between two co-planar, low altitude near-polar orbiting satellites. Understanding the uncertainties in the disturbance environment, particularly the aerodynamic drag and torques, is critical in several mission areas. These include an accurate estimate of the spacecraft orbital lifetime, evaluation of spacecraft attitude control requirements, and estimation of the orbital maintenance maneuver frequency necessitated by differences in the drag forces acting on both satellites. The FREEMOL simulation software has been developed and utilized to analyze and suggest design modifications to the GRACE spacecraft. Aerodynamic accommodation bounding analyses were performed and worst-case envelopes were obtained for the aerodynamic torques and the differential ballistic coefficients between the leading and trailing GRACE spacecraft. These analyses demonstrate how spacecraft aerodynamic design and analysis can benefit from a better understanding of spacecraft surface accommodation properties, and the implications for mission design constraints such as formation spacing control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostoich, Christopher Mark
Future high-speed air vehicles will be lightweight, flexible, and reusable. Ve- hicles fitting this description are subject to severe thermal and fluid dynamic loading from multiple sources such as aerothermal heating, propulsion sys- tem exhaust, and high dynamic pressures. The combination of low-margin design requirements and extreme environmental conditions emphasizes the occurrence of fluid-thermal-structural coupling. Numerous attempts to field such vehicles have been unsuccessful over the past half-century due par- tially to the inability of traditional design and analysis practices to predict the structural response in this flight regime. In this thesis, a high-fidelity computational approach is used to examine the fluid-structural response of aerospace structures in high-speed flows. The method is applied to two cases: one involving a fluid-thermal interaction problem in a hypersonic flow and the other a fluid-structure interaction study involving a turbulent boundary layer and a compliant panel. The coupled fluid-thermal investigation features a nominally rigid alu- minum spherical dome fixed to a ceramic panel holder placed in a Mach 6.59 laminar boundary layer. The problem was originally studied by Glass and Hunt in a 1988 wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel and is motivated by thermally bowed body panels designed for the National Aerospace Plane. In this work, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a thermally perfect gas and the transient heat equation in the structure are solved simultaneously using two high-fidelity solvers coupled at the solid-fluid interface. Predicted surface heat fluxes are within 10% of the measured values in the dome interior with greater differ- ences found near the dome edges where uncertainties concerning the exper- imental model's construction likely influence the thermal dynamics. On the flat panel holder, the local surface heat fluxes approach those on the wind- ward dome face
A Multidisciplinary Performance Analysis of a Lifting-Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tartabini, Paul V.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Korte, J. J.; Wurster, Kathryn E.
2000-01-01
Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) is currently developing a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle called VentureStar(TM) A team at NASA Langley Research Center participated with LMSW in the screening and evaluation of a number of early VentureStar(TM) configurations. The performance analyses that supported these initial studies were conducted to assess the effect of a lifting body shape, linear aerospike engine and metallic thermal protection system (TPS) on the weight and performance of the vehicle. These performance studies were performed in a multidisciplinary fashion that indirectly linked the trajectory optimization with weight estimation and aerothermal analysis tools. This approach was necessary to develop optimized ascent and entry trajectories that met all vehicle design constraints. Significant improvements in ascent performance were achieved when the vehicle flew a lifting trajectory and varied the engine mixture ratio during flight. Also, a considerable reduction in empty weight was possible by adjusting the total oxidizer-to-fuel and liftoff thrust-to-weight ratios. However, the optimal ascent flight profile had to be altered to ensure that the vehicle could be trimmed in pitch using only the flow diverting capability of the aerospike engine. Likewise, the optimal entry trajectory had to be tailored to meet TPS heating rate and transition constraints while satisfying a crossrange requirement.
Bowen, J.; Dozier, G.
1996-12-31
This paper introduces a hybrid evolutionary hill-climbing algorithm that quickly solves (Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs)). This hybrid uses opportunistic arc and path revision in an interleaved fashion to reduce the size of the search space and to realize when to quit if a CSP is based on an inconsistent constraint network. This hybrid outperforms a well known hill-climbing algorithm, the Iterative Descent Method, on a test suite of 750 randomly generated CSPs.
Creating Positive Task Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mally, Kristi K.
2006-01-01
Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…
Aerothermal tests of spherical dome protuberances on a flat plate at a Mach number of 6.5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glass, C. E.; Hunt, L. R.
1986-01-01
Aerothermal tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a Mach number of 6.5 on a series of spherical dome protuberances mounted on a flat-plate test apparatus. Detailed surface pressure and heating-rate distributions were obtained for various dome heights and diameters submerged in both laminar and turbulent boundary layers including a baseline geometric condition representing a thermally bowed metallic thermal protection system (TPS) tile. The present results indicated that the surface pressures on the domes were increased on the windward surface and reduced on the leeward surface as predicted by linearized small-perturbation theory, and the distributions were only moderately affected by boundary-layer variations. Surface heating rates for turbulent flow increased on the windward surface and decreased on the leeward surface similar to the pressure; but for laminar boundary layers, the heating rates remained high on the leeward surface, probably due to local transition. Transitional flow effects cause heat load augmentation to increase by 30 percent for the maximum dome height in a laminar boundary layer. However, the corresponding augmentation for a dome with a height of 0.1 in. and a diameter of 14 in. representative of a bowed TPS tile was 14 percent or less for either a laminar or turbulent boundary layer.
Bohn, D.E.; Kusterer, K.A.
2000-04-01
A leading edge cooling configuration is investigated numerically by application of a three-dimensional conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solver, CHT-flow. The code has been developed at the Institute of Steam and Gas Turbines, Aachen University of Technology. It works on the basis of an implicit finite volume method combined with a multi-block technique. The cooling configuration is an axial turbine blade cascade with leading edge ejection through two rows of cooling holes. The rows are located in the vicinity of the stagnation line, one row on the suction side, the other row is on the pressure side. the cooling holes have a radial ejection angle of 45 degrees. This configuration has been investigated experimentally by other authors and the results have been documented as a test case for numerical calculations of ejection flow phenomena. The numerical investigations focus on the aerothermal mixing process in the cooling jets and the impact on the temperature distribution on the blade surface. The radial ejection angles lead to a fully three-dimensional and asymmetric jet flow field. Within a secondary flow analysis, the cooling fluid jets are investigated in detail. The secondary flow fields include asymmetric kidney vortex systems with one dominating vortex on the back side of the jets. The numerical and experimental data show a respectable agreement concerning the vortex development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bulawa, Philip
2013-01-01
The performance management system in different forms has been in existence in many countries for some years. In 1999 Botswana like other countries decided to implement a performance management system (PMS) across the entire public service including schools. At its introduction, the government explained the purpose for which this reform was being…
Aerothermal Effects of Cavities and Protuberances for High-Speed Sample Return Capsules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olynick, David; Kontinos, Dean; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Extraterrestrial sample return is a growing component of solar system exploration. Currently, four missions, Stardust, 1 Muses-C, 2 Genesis, and Mars Sample Return, are under development that employ sample return as a prime component of the mission architecture. Respectively, these missions will return samples from the tail of a comet, an asteroid, the solar wind, and, Mars. An important component of these missions and the focus of this paper is the design of the sample return capsule (SRC). The purpose of the SRC is to safely return to Earth any gathered samples for terrestrial analysis. The two major design constraints for any SRC are as follows: 1) it must be able to survive a high-speed Earth entry (11 km/s to as a high as 15 km/s), 2) the mass of the SRC must be as small as possible. Because the SRC mass is carried from Earth to the sample sight and back, the SRC mass is a strong driver in the mission mass budget. Further, for the Mars Sample Return Capsule, planetary protection is another constraint. For this capsule, the probability of planetary contamination at Earth due to an SRC failure at entry must be minimal. For an SRC, a possible failure mechanism is severe local heating as a result of cavities and or protuberances in the SRC forebody heatshield. For example, the Apollo Command Module had a number of cavities and protuberances as part of the baseline designs Wind-tunnel tests of models containing small cavities and protuberances showed severe local heating augmentations in the vicinity of these surface discontinuities.4-5 As another example, the Genesis SRC forebody heat-shield contains penetrations (cavities) to mount the vehicle to the carrier bus. It is expected that these penetrations will also experience a severe local heating environment. A concern is that the large thermal gradients may produce sufficient thermal stress to cause local mechanical failure of the heatshield. Penetrations to the forebody heat-shield can also result from damage at
Beilock, Sian L; Wierenga, Sarah A; Carr, Thomas H
2002-10-01
Two experiments explored the attention and memory processes governing sensorimotor skill. Experiment 1 compared novice and experienced golf putting performance in single-task (putting in isolation) and dual-task conditions (putting while performing an auditory word search task). At specific intervals, participants also produced episodic descriptions of specific putts. Experiment 2 assessed novice performance following training on the same putting task. In Experiment 1, experienced golfers did not differ in putting accuracy from single-to dual-task conditions and, compared to novices, had higher recognition memory for words heard while putting but diminished episodic memories of specific putts. However, when using an s-shaped arbitrarily weighted "funny putter" designed to disrupt the mechanics of skill execution, experienced golfers produced extensive episodic memories of specific putts but showed decreased dual-task putting accuracy and recognition memory for secondary task words. Trained novices produced results intermediate between the untrained novices and experienced golfers. As predicted by current theories of practice-based automaticity, expertise leads to proceduralized control that does not require constant attention. Resources are free to devote to secondary task demands, yet episodic memory for primary task performance is impoverished. Novel task constraints (e.g., a funny putter) increase attention to execution, compromising secondary task performance but enhancing memory for skill execution. PMID:12420993
Soldati, Nicola; Calhoun, Vince D.; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Jovicich, Jorge
2013-01-01
Independent component analysis (ICA) techniques offer a data-driven possibility to analyze brain functional MRI data in real-time. Typical ICA methods used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however, have been until now mostly developed and optimized for the off-line case in which all data is available. Real-time experiments are ill-posed for ICA in that several constraints are added: limited data, limited analysis time and dynamic changes in the data and computational speed. Previous studies have shown that particular choices of ICA parameters can be used to monitor real-time fMRI (rt-fMRI) brain activation, but it is unknown how other choices would perform. In this rt-fMRI simulation study we investigate and compare the performance of 14 different publicly available ICA algorithms systematically sampling different growing window lengths (WLs), model order (MO) as well as a priori conditions (none, spatial or temporal). Performance is evaluated by computing the spatial and temporal correlation to a target component as well as computation time. Four algorithms are identified as best performing (constrained ICA, fastICA, amuse, and evd), with their corresponding parameter choices. Both spatial and temporal priors are found to provide equal or improved performances in similarity to the target compared with their off-line counterpart, with greatly reduced computation costs. This study suggests parameter choices that can be further investigated in a sliding-window approach for a rt-fMRI experiment. PMID:23378835
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew
2011-01-01
The authors examine how the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) negotiated between teachers' unions and districts is associated with schools' and districts' performance under accountability pressures in California. They find that CBA restrictiveness is associated with the increased likelihood that districts will be in Program Improvement (PI)…
Aerothermal performance and structural integrity of a Rene 41 thermal protection system at Mach 6.6
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deveikis, W. D.; Miserentino, R.; Weinstein, I.; Shideler, J. L.
1975-01-01
A flightweight panel based on a metallic thermal-protection-system concept for hypersonic and reentry vehicles was subjected repeatedly to thermal cycling by quartz-lamp radiant heating using a thermal history representative of a reentry heat pulse and to aerodynamic heating at heating rates required to sustain a surface temperature of 1089 K (1960 R). The panel consisted of a corrugated heat shield and support members of 0.05-cm (0.02-in.) thick Rene 41 of riveted construction and 5.08-cm (2-in.) thick silica fibrous insulation packages covered by Rene 41 foil and inconel screening. All tests were conducted in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel with the heat shield corrugations alined in the stream direction. The panel sustained 5.33 hr of intermittent radiant heating and 6.5 min of intermittent aerodynamic heating of up to 1-min duration for differential pressures up to 6.2 kPa (0.9 psi) with no apparent degradation of thermal or structural integrity, as indicated by temperature distributions and results from load deflection tests and vibration surveys of natural frequencies.
Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Esteves, Pedro Tiago
2013-01-01
In this paper we examined the influence of opposing players constraining the decision-making of an attacker during shooting performance in futsal. Performance during 10 competitive matches was recorded and examined from the moment a shot was taken until the ball was intercepted or entered the goal in sequences of play: ending in a goal, a goalkeeper's save, or an interception by the nearest defender. The variables under scrutiny in this study were (i) the distance of each player to the ball's trajectory, (ii) the time for the ball to arrive at that same point (i.e. the interception point), and (iii), the required movement velocity of the nearest defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball. Results showed that values of distance from a defender and goalkeeper to the interception points were significantly lower when they intercepted the ball. The time of ball arrival at the interception point of the defender was also lower when the ball was intercepted. The required velocities of the nearest outfield defender and the goalkeeper to intercept the ball were significantly lower during plays in which they intercepted the ball, than in plays in which the ball was not intercepted. Our results suggest that researchers and practitioners should consider simultaneously both space and time in analysis of interceptive actions in team sports. The required movement velocities of the opponents to intercept the ball are reliable spatial-temporal variables constraining decision-making during shooting performance in team sports like futsal. PMID:23244400
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haddad, Michael E.
2008-01-01
On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g and/or vacuum environment of space. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Bo; Li, Lin; Zhu, Ying
2014-11-01
Researches on hypersonic vehicles have been a hotspot in the field of aerospace because of the pursuits for higher speed by human being. Infrared imaging guidance is playing a very important role in modern warfare. When an Infrared Ray(IR) imaging guided missile is flying in the air at high speed, its optical dome suffers from serious aero-optic effects because of air flow. The turbulence around the dome and the thermal effects of the optical window would cause disturbance to the wavefront from the target. Therefore, detected images will be biased, dithered and blurred, and the capabilities of the seeker for detecting, tracking and recognizing are weakened. In this paper, methods for thermal and structural analysis with Heat Transfer and Elastic Mechanics are introduced. By studying the aero-thermal effects and aero-thermal radiation effects of the optical window, a 3D analysis model of the optical window is established by using finite element method. The direct coupling analysis is employed as a solving strategy. The variation regularity of the temperature field is obtained. For light with different incident angles, the influence on the ray propagation caused by window deformation is analyzed with theoretical calculation and optical/thermal/structural integrated analysis method respectively.
Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.
Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian
2015-01-01
The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.
Aero-thermal simulations of the TMT Laser Guide Star Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Boyer, Corinne; Wei, Kai; Tang, Jinlong; Ellerbroek, Brent
2014-08-01
The Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF) system of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will generate the artificial laser guide stars required by the TMT Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. The LGSF uses multiple sodium lasers to generate and project several asterisms from a laser launch telescope located behind the TMT secondary mirror. The laser beams are transported from a location below the primary mirror to the launch telescope using conventional optics to relay the beams along the telescope structure. The beams and relay optics are enclosed into hermetic ducts for safety reasons and to protect the optics against the environment. A Computational Solid Fluid Dynamics (CSFD) model of the LGSF ducts has been developed. It resolves the duct thickness, laser beam transfer lenses, mirrors and their framework for most of the laser beam path that is subject to significant temperature gradients and/or large vertical change. It also resolves the air inside the duct and its thermal interaction with the aforementioned components through conjugate heat transfer. The thermal interaction of the laser beam with the optics is also captured. The model provides guidance to the LGSF design team and a first estimate of the laser beam stability performance and requirement compliance. As the telescope structure design has evolved in the recent years, a new optical path has been proposed for the LGSF. Both the original and the new optical paths are compared against optical, mechanical and other telescope performance related criteria. The optical performance criteria include a first order analysis of the optical turbulence generated within the ducts. In this study simulations of the thermal environment within the ducts of the two candidate paths are performed and conclusions are drawn.
Hypersonic Interceptor Performance Evaluation Center aero-optics performance predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, George W.; Pond, John E.; Snow, Ronald; Hwang, Yanfang
1993-06-01
This paper describes the Hypersonic Interceptor Performance Evaluation Center's (HIPEC) aerooptics performance predictions capability. It includes code results for three dimensional shapes and comparisons to initial experiments. HIPEC consists of a collection of aerothermal, aerodynamic computational codes which are capable of covering the entire flight regime from subsonic to hypersonic flow and include chemical reactions and turbulence. Heat transfer to the various surfaces is calculated as an input to cooling and ablation processes. HIPEC also has aero-optics codes to determine the effect of the mean flowfield and turbulence on the tracking and imaging capability of on-board optical sensors. The paper concentrates on the latter aspects.
Improved numerical methods for turbulent viscous flows aerothermal modeling program, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karki, K. C.; Patankar, S. V.; Runchal, A. K.; Mongia, H. C.
1988-01-01
The details of a study to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes to predict complex flows are described. In this program, several discretization schemes were evaluated using simple test cases. This assessment led to the selection of three schemes for an in-depth evaluation based on two-dimensional flows. The scheme with the superior overall performance was incorporated in a computer program for three-dimensional flows. To improve the computational efficiency, the selected discretization scheme was combined with a direct solution approach in which the fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously rather than sequentially.
Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle: Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Analysis of Trajectory Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trumble, Kerry; Dyakonov, Artem; Fuller, John
2010-01-01
Multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is designed to deliver small payloads from space to Earth's surface by flying an uncontrolled ballistic entry, which ends with ground impact. The included range of entry velocities is from 10 to 16 km/s. The range of ballistic coefficients is from 41.94 to 128.74 kg/m2, which insures a low subsonic terminal velocity on the order of 50 m/sec. The range of entry flight path angles, considered in this analysis is from -5 to -25 degrees. The assessment and parametric characterization of aeroheating and aerodynamic performance of the capsule during entry is the subject of this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacLean, M.; Holden, M.
2009-01-01
The effect of gas/surface interaction in making CFD predictions of convective heating has been considered with application to ground tests performed in high enthalpy shock tunnels where additional heating augmentation attributable to surface recombination has been observed for nitrogen, air and carbon dioxide flows. For test articles constructed of stainless steel and aluminum, measurements have been made with several types of heat transfer instrumentation including thin- film, calorimeter, and coaxial thermocouple sensors. These experiments have been modeled by computations made with the high quality, chemically reacting, Navier- Stokes solver, DPLR and the heating results compared. Some typical cases considered include results on an axisymmetric sphere-cone, axisymmetric spherical capsule, spherical capsule at angle of attack, and two- dimensional cylinder. In nitrogen flows, cases considered show a recombination probability on the order of 10-3, which agrees with published data. In many cases in air and CO2, measurements exceeding the predicted level of convective heating have been observed which are consistent with approximately complete recombination (to O2/N2 or CO2) on the surface of the model (sometimes called a super-catalytic wall). It has been recognized that the conclusion that this behavior is tied to an excessively high degree of catalytic efficiency is dependent on the current understanding of the freestream and shock-layer state of the gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiwari, S. N.; Subramanian, S. V.
1981-01-01
The influence of nonequilibrium radiative energy transfer and the effect of probe configuration changes on the flow phenomena around a Jovian entry body are investigated. The radiating shock layer flow is assumed to be axisymmetric, viscous, laminar and in chemical equilibrium. The radiative transfer equations are derived under nonequilibrium conditions which include multilevel energy transitions. The equilibrium radiative transfer analysis is performed with an existing nongray radiation model which accounts for molecular band, atomic line, and continuum transitions. The nonequilibrium results are obtained with and without ablation injection in the shock layer. The nonequilibrium results are found to be greatly influenced by the temperature distribution in the shock layer. In the absence of ablative products, the convective and radiative heating to the entry body are reduced under nonequilibrium conditions. The influence of nonequilibrium is found to be greater at higher entry altitudes. With coupled ablation and carbon phenolic injection, 16 chemical species are used in the ablation layer for radiation absorption. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium results are compared under peak heating conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-A.; Chiang, K.-W.
2012-08-01
INS/GPS integration scheme can overcome the shortcoming of GPS or INS alone to provide superior performance, thus this study implements a tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme using AKF as the core estimator by tuning the measurement noise matrix R adaptively. The AKF is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for choosing the most appropriate weight and thus the Kalman gain factors. The conventional EKF implementation suffers uncertain results while the update measurement noise matrix R and/or the process noise matrix Q does not meet the case. The primary advantage of AKF is that the filter has less relationship with the priori statistical information because R and/or Q vary with time. The innovation sequence is used to derive the measurement weights through the covariance matrices, innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) in this study. The covariance matrices R are adapted in the study when measurements update with time. A window based approach is implemented to update the quality of GPS pseudo-range measurements by adaptively replace the measurement weights through the latest estimated covariance matrices R. The use of odometer is particularly recommended when a low cost and precise vehicle localization system has to be implemented and there is the risk of GPS coverage failure, which is prone to happen when the vehicle enters a tunnel or cross deep valleys. Odometers are applied in land-vehicle navigation to provide augmented host velocity observations for standalone INS system in this study. There are two non-holonomic constraints (NHC) available for land vehicles. Land vehicles will not jump off the ground or slid on the ground under normal condition. Using these constraints, the velocity of the vehicle in the plane perpendicular to the forward direction is almost zero. EKF and AKF based tightly-coupled scheme with NHC is implemented in the study. To validate the performance of AKF based tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme with odometer and
Energy Efficient Engine: Combustor component performance program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dubiel, D. J.
1986-01-01
The results of the Combustor Component Performance analysis as developed under the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) program are presented. This study was conducted to demonstrate the aerothermal and environmental goals established for the EEE program and to identify areas where refinements might be made to meet future combustor requirements. In this study, a full annular combustor test rig was used to establish emission levels and combustor performance for comparison with those indicated by the supporting technology program. In addition, a combustor sector test rig was employed to examine differences in emissions and liner temperatures obtained during the full annular performance and supporting technology tests.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Shieh, Jeng-yi; Lu, Lu; Lin, Keh-chung
2013-01-01
Given the growing evidence for the effects of constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), there is a need for investigating the characteristics of potential participants who may benefit most from this intervention. This study aimed to establish predictive models for the effects of pediatric CIT on motor and functional…
Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.
Constraint monitoring in TOSCA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, Howard
1992-01-01
The Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) deals with the allocation of resources over time to factory operations. Allocations are subject to various constraints (e.g., production precedence relationships, factory capacity constraints, and limits on the allowable number of machine setups) which must be satisfied for a schedule to be valid. The identification of constraint violations and the monitoring of constraint threats plays a vital role in schedule generation in terms of the following: (1) directing the scheduling process; and (2) informing scheduling decisions. This paper describes a general mechanism for identifying constraint violations and monitoring threats to the satisfaction of constraints throughout schedule generation.
Reformulating Constraints for Compilability and Efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, Chris; Braudaway, Wesley; Mohan, Sunil; Voigt, Kerstin
1992-01-01
KBSDE is a knowledge compiler that uses a classification-based approach to map solution constraints in a task specification onto particular search algorithm components that will be responsible for satisfying those constraints (e.g., local constraints are incorporated in generators; global constraints are incorporated in either testers or hillclimbing patchers). Associated with each type of search algorithm component is a subcompiler that specializes in mapping constraints into components of that type. Each of these subcompilers in turn uses a classification-based approach, matching a constraint passed to it against one of several schemas, and applying a compilation technique associated with that schema. While much progress has occurred in our research since we first laid out our classification-based approach [Ton91], we focus in this paper on our reformulation research. Two important reformulation issues that arise out of the choice of a schema-based approach are: (1) compilability-- Can a constraint that does not directly match any of a particular subcompiler's schemas be reformulated into one that does? and (2) Efficiency-- If the efficiency of the compiled search algorithm depends on the compiler's performance, and the compiler's performance depends on the form in which the constraint was expressed, can we find forms for constraints which compile better, or reformulate constraints whose forms can be recognized as ones that compile poorly? In this paper, we describe a set of techniques we are developing for partially addressing these issues.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puster, R. L.; Chapman, A. J.
1977-01-01
An ablative material composed of silica-filled elastomeric silicone was tested to evaluate its thermal and structural performance as an external insulator, or heat shield, for a hypersonic research aircraft. The material was also tested to determine whether it would form a durable char layer when initially heated and thereafter function primarily as an insulator with little further pyrolysis or char removal. Aerothermal tests were representative of nominal Mach 6 cruise conditions of the aircraft, and additional tests were representative of Mach 8 cruise and interference heating conditions. Radiant heating tests were used to simulate the complete nominal Mach 6 surface-temperature history. The silica char that formed during aerothermal tests was not durable. The char experienced a general and preferential surface recession, with the primary mechanism for char removal being erosion. Tests revealed that radiant heating is not a valid technique for simulating aerodynamic heating of the material.
Using constraints to model disjunctions in rule-based reasoning
Liu, Bing; Jaffar, Joxan
1996-12-31
Rule-based systems have long been widely used for building expert systems to perform practical knowledge intensive tasks. One important issue that has not been addressed satisfactorily is the disjunction, and this significantly limits their problem solving power. In this paper, we show that some important types of disjunction can be modeled with Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) techniques, employing their simple representation schemes and efficient algorithms. A key idea is that disjunctions are represented as constraint variables, relations among disjunctions are represented as constraints, and rule chaining is integrated with constraint solving. In this integration, a constraint variable or a constraint is regarded as a special fact, and rules can be written with constraints, and information about constraints. Chaining of rules may trigger constraint propagation, and constraint propagation may cause firing of rules. A prototype system (called CFR) based on this idea has been implemented.
Highly irregular quantum constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klauder, John R.; Little, J. Scott
2006-05-01
Motivated by a recent paper of Louko and Molgado, we consider a simple system with a single classical constraint R(q) = 0. If ql denotes a generic solution to R(q) = 0, our examples include cases where R'(ql) ≠ 0 (regular constraint) and R'(ql) = 0 (irregular constraint) of varying order as well as the case where R(q) = 0 for an interval, such as a <= q <= b. Quantization of irregular constraints is normally not considered; however, using the projection operator formalism we provide a satisfactory quantization which reduces to the constrained classical system when planck → 0. It is noteworthy that irregular constraints change the observable aspects of a theory as compared to strictly regular constraints.
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
Credit Constraints in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander
2012-01-01
We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…
Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Miller, Warner A.; Kheyfets, Arkady
We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamical equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approaches leads to the well known problems of time evolution. These problems of time are of both an interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamical variables separates the issues of quantization from the enforcement of the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account states that are off-shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. We develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context of homogeneous cosmologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Ayala, Julian; Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.
2016-07-01
The main unified energetic properties of low dissipation heat engines and refrigerator engines allow for both endoreversible or irreversible configurations. This is accomplished by means of the constraints imposed on the characteristic global operation time or the contact times between the working system with the external heat baths and modulated by the dissipation symmetries. A suited unified figure of merit (which becomes power output for heat engines) is analyzed and the influence of the symmetries on the optimum performance discussed. The obtained results, independent on any heat transfer law, are faced with those obtained from Carnot-like heat models where specific heat transfer laws are needed. Thus, it is shown that only the inverse phenomenological law, often used in linear irreversible thermodynamics, correctly reproduces all optimized values for both the efficiency and coefficient of performance values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Ayoubi, Carole; Ghaly, Wahid; Hassan, Ibrahim
2015-10-01
A multiple-objective optimization is implemented for a double row of staggered film holes on the suction surface of a turbine vane. The optimization aims to maximize the film cooling performance, which is assessed using the cooling effectiveness, while minimizing the corresponding aerodynamic loss, which is measured with a mass-averaged total pressure coefficient. Three geometric variables defining the hole shape are optimized: the conical expansion angle, compound angle and length to diameter ratio of the non-diffused portion of the hole. The optimization employs a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm coupled with an artificial neural network to generate the Pareto front. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are employed to construct the neural network and investigate the aerodynamic and thermal optimum solutions. The optimum designs exhibit improved performance in comparison to the reference design. The optimization methodology allowed investigation into the impact of varying the geometric variables on the cooling effectiveness and the aerodynamic loss.
H-P adaptive methods for finite element analysis of aerothermal loads in high-speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, H. J.; Bass, J. M.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.
1993-01-01
The commitment to develop the National Aerospace Plane and Maneuvering Reentry Vehicles has generated resurgent interest in the technology required to design structures for hypersonic flight. The principal objective of this research and development effort has been to formulate and implement a new class of computational methodologies for accurately predicting fine scale phenomena associated with this class of problems. The initial focus of this effort was to develop optimal h-refinement and p-enrichment adaptive finite element methods which utilize a-posteriori estimates of the local errors to drive the adaptive methodology. Over the past year this work has specifically focused on two issues which are related to overall performance of a flow solver. These issues include the formulation and implementation (in two dimensions) of an implicit/explicit flow solver compatible with the hp-adaptive methodology, and the design and implementation of computational algorithm for automatically selecting optimal directions in which to enrich the mesh. These concepts and algorithms have been implemented in a two-dimensional finite element code and used to solve three hypersonic flow benchmark problems (Holden Mach 14.1, Edney shock on shock interaction Mach 8.03, and the viscous backstep Mach 4.08).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadhams, T.P.; MacLean, M.; Holden, M.S.; Cassady, A.M.
2009-01-01
An experimental program has been completed by CUBRC exploring laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows over a 7.0% scale model of the Project ORION CEV geometry. This program was executed primarily to answer questions concerning the increase in heat transfer on the windward, or "hot shoulder" of the CEV heat shield from laminar to turbulent flow. To answer these questions CUBRC constructed and instrumented a 14.0 inch diameter Project ORION CEV model and ran a range of Reynolds numbers based on diameter from 1.0 to over 40 million at a Mach number of 8.0. These Reynolds numbers were selected to cover laminar to turbulent heating data on the "hot shoulder". Data obtained during these runs will be used to guide design decisions as they apply to heat shield thickness and extent. Several experiments at higher enthalpies were achieved to obtain data for code validation with real gas effects and transition. CUBRC also performed computation studies of these experiments to aid in the data reduction process and study turbulence modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilanova, S. P.; Narciso, J.; Carvalho, J. P.; Cancela, C.; Lopes, I.; Nemser, E. S.; Borges, J.
2014-12-01
Information on the amplification characteristics of the near-surface formations in a regional sense is essential to adequately represent both seismic hazard maps and ground shaking maps. Due to the scarceness of shear-wave velocity data in most regions, several methods have been proposed in order to obtain first order representations of Vs30. These include the surface geology method and the topographic slope method. The latter method has become the standard way for incorporating site effects into regional studies worldwide given the convenience provided by the global Vs30 Internet server. In the framework of project SCENE we developed a shear wave velocity database for Portugal. The database consists of 87 shear-wave velocity depth profiles from a variety of lithological and geological formations. We used an iterative three-step procedure to develop the Vs30 based site-condition map: 1) to define a preliminary set of geologically defined units based on the literature; 2) to calculate the distribution of Vs30 for each unit; and 3) to perform statistical tests in order to estimate the significance of the difference in the Vs30 distribution characteristics between the units. The units were merged according to the results of the statistical tests and the procedure was repeated. We started by classifying the sites into six generalized geological units. The final set consists of three units only: F1 (igneous, metamorphic and old sedimentary rocks); F2 (Neogene and Pleistocene formations); and F3 (Holocene deposits). We used the database to evaluate the performance of Vs30 proxies. The use of proxies based either on geological units or on correlations with the topographic slope shows relatively unbiased total residual distributions of the logarithm of Vs30. However, the performance of the methods varies significantly with the generalized geological unit analyzed. Both methods are biased towards lower values of Vs30 for rock formations. The topographic-slope method is
Constraints in Genetic Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janikow, Cezary Z.
1996-01-01
Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.
Constraints complicate centrifugal compressor depressurization
Key, B. ); Colbert, F.L. )
1993-05-10
Blowdown of a centrifugal compressor is complicated by process constraints that might require slowing the depressurization rate and by mechanical constraints for which a faster rate might be preferred. The paper describes design constraints such as gas leaks; thrust-bearing overload; system constraints; flare extinguishing; heat levels; and pressure drop.
Equilibrium Macroscopic Structure Revisited from Spatial Constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuge, Koretaka
2016-02-01
In classical systems, we reexamine how macroscopic structures in equilibrium state connect with spatial constraint on the systems. For example, volume and density as the constraint for liquids in rigid box, and crystal lattice as the constraint for crystalline solids. We find that in disordered states, equilibrium macroscopic structure, depending on temperature and on multibody interactions in the system, can be well characterized by a single special microscopic structure independent of temperature and of interactions. The special microscopic structure depends only on the spatial constraint. We demonstrate the present findings providing (i) significantly efficient and systematic prediction of macroscopic structures for possible combination of constituents in multicomponent systems using first-principles calculations, and (ii) unique and accurate prediction of multibody interactions in given system from measured macroscopic structure, without performing trial-and-error simulation.
Constraint algebra in bigravity
Soloviev, V. O.
2015-07-15
The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.
Atlas F entry aerothermic study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining heat transfer data on an expended Atlas F booster launch vehicle was investigated in the altitude range of 300,000 to 200,000 feet during entry conditions, with a velocity in the range of 20,000 to 25,000 feet per second, and through a range of vehicle attitudes of plus or minus 90 degrees. These data are desired for correlation with turbulent heat transfer and boundary layer transition data obtained from wind tunnel test facilities. The data would also be valuable in assessing rarified gas and surface catalicity effects in a real gas environment.
Aerothermal modeling program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturgess, G. J.
1983-01-01
The physical modeling embodied in the computational fluid dynamics codes is discussed. The objectives were to identify shortcomings in the models and to provide a program plan to improve the quantitative accuracy. The physical models studied were for: turbulent mass and momentum transport, heat release, liquid fuel spray, and gaseous radiation. The approach adopted was to test the models against appropriate benchmark-quality test cases from experiments in the literature for the constituent flows that together make up the combustor real flow.
2010-01-01
Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental) or bimanual occupational therapy group (control). Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy) versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy) on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following upper limb injection of Bo
Cognitive constraints on motor imagery.
Dahm, Stephan F; Rieger, Martina
2016-03-01
Executed bimanual movements are prepared slower when moving to symbolically different than when moving to symbolically same targets and when targets are mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they are mapped in an inner/outer fashion [Weigelt et al. (Psychol Res 71:238-447, 2007)]. We investigated whether these cognitive bimanual coordination constraints are observable in motor imagery. Participants performed fast bimanual reaching movements from start to target buttons. Symbolic target similarity and mapping were manipulated. Participants performed four action conditions: one execution and three imagination conditions. In the latter they indicated starting, ending, or starting and ending of the movement. We measured movement preparation (RT), movement execution (MT) and the combined duration of movement preparation and execution (RTMT). In all action conditions RTs and MTs were longer in movements towards different targets than in movements towards same targets. Further, RTMTs were longer when targets were mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they were mapped in an inner/outer fashion, again in all action conditions. RTMTs in imagination and execution were similar, apart from the imagination condition in which participants indicated the start and the end of the movement. Here MTs, but not RTs, were longer than in the execution condition. In conclusion, cognitive coordination constraints are present in the motor imagery of fast (<1600 ms) bimanual movements. Further, alternations between inhibition and execution may prolong the duration of motor imagery. PMID:25758054
A Framework for Dynamic Constraint Reasoning Using Procedural Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy D.
1999-01-01
Many complex real-world decision and control problems contain an underlying constraint reasoning problem. This is particularly evident in a recently developed approach to planning, where almost all planning decisions are represented by constrained variables. This translates a significant part of the planning problem into a constraint network whose consistency determines the validity of the plan candidate. Since higher-level choices about control actions can add or remove variables and constraints, the underlying constraint network is invariably highly dynamic. Arbitrary domain-dependent constraints may be added to the constraint network and the constraint reasoning mechanism must be able to handle such constraints effectively. Additionally, real problems often require handling constraints over continuous variables. These requirements present a number of significant challenges for a constraint reasoning mechanism. In this paper, we introduce a general framework for handling dynamic constraint networks with real-valued variables, by using procedures to represent and effectively reason about general constraints. The framework is based on a sound theoretical foundation, and can be proven to be sound and complete under well-defined conditions. Furthermore, the framework provides hybrid reasoning capabilities, as alternative solution methods like mathematical programming can be incorporated into the framework, in the form of procedures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1993-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
Structure Constraints in a Constraint-Based Planner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Wan-Lin; Golden, Keith
2004-01-01
In this paper we report our work on a new constraint domain, where variables can take structured values. Earth-science data processing (ESDP) is a planning domain that requires the ability to represent and reason about complex constraints over structured data, such as satellite images. This paper reports on a constraint-based planner for ESDP and similar domains. We discuss our approach for translating a planning problem into a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and for representing and reasoning about structured objects and constraints over structures.
Space Shuttle capabilities, constraints, and cost
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. M.
1980-01-01
The capabilities, constraints, and costs of the Space Transportation System (STS), which combines reusable and expendable components, are reviewed, and an overview of the current planning activities for operating the STS in an efficient and cost-effective manner is presented. Traffic forecasts, performance constraints and enhancements, and potential new applications are discussed. Attention is given to operating costs, pricing policies, and the steps involved in 'getting on board', which includes all the interfaces between NASA and the users necessary to come to launch service agreements.
Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creevey, O. L.; Thévenin, F.
2012-12-01
Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_Phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation < Δ ν > and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum ν_{max}. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in < Δ ν >, ν_{max}, and atmospheric parameters T_{eff} and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for our sample while considering precisions in the data expected for V˜12 stars from Kepler data. We also derive masses and radii which are accurate to within 1σ of the accepted values. This study validates the subsequent use of all of the available asteroseismic data on solar-like stars from the Kepler field (>500 IV/V stars) in order to provide a very important constraint for Gaia calibration of GSP_Phot} through the use of log g. We note that while we concentrate on IV/V stars, both the CoRoT and Kepler fields contain asteroseismic data on thousands of giant stars which will also provide useful calibration measures.
Practical Cleanroom Operations Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, David; Ginyard, Amani
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the GSFC Cleanroom Facility i.e., Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) with particular interest in its use during the development of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The SSDIF is described and a diagram of the SSDIF is shown. A Constraint Table was created for consistency within Contamination Control Team. This table is shown. Another table that shows the activities that were allowed during the integration under given WFC3 condition and activity location is presented. Three decision trees are shown for different phases of the work: (1) Hardware Relocation, Hardware Work, and Contamination Control Operations.
Superresolution via sparsity constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoho, David L.
1992-01-01
The problem of recovering a measure mu supported on a lattice of span Delta is considered under the condition that measurements are only available concerning the Fourier Transform at frequencies of Omega or less. If Omega is much smaller than the Nyquist frequency pi/Delta and the measurements are noisy, then stable recovery of mu is generally impossible. It is shown here that if, in addition, it is known that mu satisfies certain sparsity constraints, then stable recovery is possible. This finding validates practical efforts in spectroscopy, seismic prospecting, and astronomy to provide superresolution by imposing support limitations in reconstruction.
Forces Associated with Nonlinear Nonholonomic Constraint Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.
2010-01-01
A concise method has been formulated for identifying a set of forces needed to constrain the behavior of a mechanical system, modeled as a set of particles and rigid bodies, when it is subject to motion constraints described by nonholonomic equations that are inherently nonlinear in velocity. An expression in vector form is obtained for each force; a direction is determined, together with the point of application. This result is a consequence of expressing constraint equations in terms of dot products of vectors rather than in the usual way, which is entirely in terms of scalars and matrices. The constraint forces in vector form are used together with two new analytical approaches for deriving equations governing motion of a system subject to such constraints. If constraint forces are of interest they can be brought into evidence in explicit dynamical equations by employing the well-known nonholonomic partial velocities associated with Kane's method; if they are not of interest, equations can be formed instead with the aid of vectors introduced here as nonholonomic partial accelerations. When the analyst requires only the latter, smaller set of equations, they can be formed directly; it is not necessary to expend the labor to form the former, larger set first and subsequently perform matrix multiplications.
Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix
Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard; Piris, Mario
2014-12-21
We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.
Relative constraints and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz
2014-03-01
Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.
Neural constraints on learning
Sadtler, Patrick T.; Quick, Kristin M.; Golub, Matthew D.; Chase, Steven M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Byron M.; Batista, Aaron P.
2014-01-01
Motor, sensory, and cognitive learning require networks of neurons to generate new activity patterns. Because some behaviors are easier to learn than others1,2, we wondered if some neural activity patterns are easier to generate than others. We asked whether the existing network constrains the patterns that a subset of its neurons is capable of exhibiting, and if so, what principles define the constraint. We employed a closed-loop intracortical brain-computer interface (BCI) learning paradigm in which Rhesus monkeys controlled a computer cursor by modulating neural activity patterns in primary motor cortex. Using the BCI paradigm, we could specify and alter how neural activity mapped to cursor velocity. At the start of each session, we observed the characteristic activity patterns of the recorded neural population. These patterns comprise a low-dimensional space (termed the intrinsic manifold, or IM) within the high-dimensional neural firing rate space. They presumably reflect constraints imposed by the underlying neural circuitry. We found that the animals could readily learn to proficiently control the cursor using neural activity patterns that were within the IM. However, animals were less able to learn to proficiently control the cursor using activity patterns that were outside of the IM. This result suggests that the existing structure of a network can shape learning. On the timescale of hours, it appears to be difficult to learn to generate neural activity patterns that are not consistent with the existing network structure. These findings offer a network-level explanation for the observation that we are more readily able to learn new skills when they are related to the skills that we already possess3,4. PMID:25164754
Neural constraints on learning.
Sadtler, Patrick T; Quick, Kristin M; Golub, Matthew D; Chase, Steven M; Ryu, Stephen I; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Yu, Byron M; Batista, Aaron P
2014-08-28
Learning, whether motor, sensory or cognitive, requires networks of neurons to generate new activity patterns. As some behaviours are easier to learn than others, we asked if some neural activity patterns are easier to generate than others. Here we investigate whether an existing network constrains the patterns that a subset of its neurons is capable of exhibiting, and if so, what principles define this constraint. We employed a closed-loop intracortical brain-computer interface learning paradigm in which Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) controlled a computer cursor by modulating neural activity patterns in the primary motor cortex. Using the brain-computer interface paradigm, we could specify and alter how neural activity mapped to cursor velocity. At the start of each session, we observed the characteristic activity patterns of the recorded neural population. The activity of a neural population can be represented in a high-dimensional space (termed the neural space), wherein each dimension corresponds to the activity of one neuron. These characteristic activity patterns comprise a low-dimensional subspace (termed the intrinsic manifold) within the neural space. The intrinsic manifold presumably reflects constraints imposed by the underlying neural circuitry. Here we show that the animals could readily learn to proficiently control the cursor using neural activity patterns that were within the intrinsic manifold. However, animals were less able to learn to proficiently control the cursor using activity patterns that were outside of the intrinsic manifold. These results suggest that the existing structure of a network can shape learning. On a timescale of hours, it seems to be difficult to learn to generate neural activity patterns that are not consistent with the existing network structure. These findings offer a network-level explanation for the observation that we are more readily able to learn new skills when they are related to the skills that we already
Chambers, David W
2006-01-01
High performance is difficult to maintain because it is dynamic and not well understood. Based on a synthesis of many sources, a model is proposed where performance is a function of the balance between capacity and challenge. Too much challenge produces coping (or a crash); excess capacity results in boredom. Over time, peak performance drifts toward boredom. Performance can be managed by adjusting our level of ability, our effort, the opportunity to perform, and the challenge we agree to take on. Coping, substandard but acceptable performance, is common among professionals and its long-term side effects can be debilitating. A crash occurs when coping mechanisms fail. PMID:17020177
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nowak, R. J.; Albertson, C. W.; Hunt, L. R.
1984-01-01
The effects of free-stream unit Reynolds number, angle of attack, and nose shape on the aerothermal environment of a 3-ft basediameter, 12.5 deg half-angle cone were investigated in the Langley 8-foot high temperature tunnel at Mach 6.7. The average total temperature was 3300 R, the freestream unit Reynolds number ranged from 400,000 to 1,400,000 per foot, and the angle of attack ranged from 0 deg to 10 deg. Three nose configurations were tested on the cone: a 3-in-radius tip, a 1-in-radius tip on an ogive frustum, and a sharp tip on an ogive frustum. Surface-pressure and cold-wall heating-rate distributions were obtained for laminar, transitional temperature in the shock layer were obtained. The location of the start of transition moved forward both on windward and leeward sides with increasing free-stream Reynolds numbers, increasing angle of attack, and decreasing nose bluntness.
Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomnitz, C.
2004-12-01
Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over
Credit Constraints for Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Solis, Alex
2012-01-01
This paper exploits a natural experiment that produces exogenous variation on credit access to determine the effect on college enrollment. The paper assess how important are credit constraints to explain the gap in college enrollment by family income, and what would be the gap if credit constraints are eliminated. Progress in college and dropout…
On Constraints in Assembly Planning
Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.
1998-12-17
Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.
Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, William R.
2011-01-01
Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…
Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?
Sharov, Alexei A.
2014-01-01
Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155
Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints
Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.
1999-05-01
We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}
A Hybrid Constraint Representation and Reasoning Framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin
2003-01-01
This paper introduces JNET, a novel constraint representation and reasoning framework that supports procedural constraints and constraint attachments, providing a flexible way of integrating the constraint reasoner with a run- time software environment. Attachments in JNET are constraints over arbitrary Java objects, which are defined using Java code, at runtime, with no changes to the JNET source code.
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT): hydrostatic constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunnels, Steve
2010-07-01
The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is an optical-infrared 25 Meter ELT to be located in Chile. It is being designed and constructed by a group of U.S. and international universities and research institutions1. Structural performance of large telescopes can be enhanced significantly with the added stiffness that results from distributing loads to many points in the structure. In defining the two rotating assemblies in an altitude-over-azimuth mount more than a kinematic set of constraints can lead to hydrostatic bearing oil film failure due to unintended forces that result from runner bearing irregularities. High Frequency Over Constraint (HFOC) increases stiffness without risk of oil film failure. It was used successfully on the Magellan 6.5 Meter Telescopes. GMT will employ this and two additional methods to enhance stiffness at frequencies from DC wind up through the telescope primary mode frequencies of ~11 Hz. This will be achieved without excessive hydrostatic bearing pad forces. Detailed discussion of GMT's hydrostatic constraints, azimuth track and optics support structure (OSS) runner bearing illustrations, and performance criteria are provided for the design.
Performance of a mullite reusable surface insulation system in a hypersonic stream
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, L. R.
1976-01-01
The thermal and structural performance of a large panel of mullite reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles was determined by a series of aerothermal tests in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel. The test panel was designed to represent a portion of the surface structure on a space shuttle orbiter fuselage along a 1,150 K isotherm with the mullite tile system bonded directly to the primary structure. Aerothermal tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 6.7, a total temperature of 1,880 K, a unit Reynolds number of 4.6 million per meter, and dynamic pressure of 62 kPa. The thermal response of the mullite tile was as predicted, and the bond-line temperature did not exceed the design level of 570 K during a typical entry-heat cycle. Geometric irregularities of the tile gaps affected the tile edge temperatures when exposed to hypersonic flow. The tile coating demonstrated good toughness to particle impacts, but the coating cracked and flaked with thermal cycles. The gap filler of woven silica fibers appeared to hinder flow penetration into the gaps and withstood the flow shear of the present tests.
Compilation of non-contemporaneous constraints
Wray, R.E. III; Laird, J.E.; Jones, R.M.
1996-12-31
Hierarchical execution of domain knowledge is a useful approach for intelligent, real-time systems in complex domains. In addition, well-known techniques for knowledge compilation allow the reorganization of knowledge hierarchies into more efficient forms. However, these techniques have been developed in the context of systems that work in static domains. Our investigations indicate that it is not straightforward to apply knowledge compilation methods for hierarchical knowledge to systems that generate behavior in dynamic environments. One particular problem involves the compilation of non-contemporaneous constraints. This problem arises when a training instance dynamically changes during execution. After defining the problem, we analyze several theoretical approaches that address non-contemporaneous constraints. We have implemented the most promising of these alternatives within Soar, a software architecture for performance and learning. Our results demonstrate that the proposed solutions eliminate the problem in some situations and suggest that knowledge compilation methods are appropriate for interactive environments.
Integrated Science--Reasons & Constraints.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, M.; Oliver, P. M.
1978-01-01
Describes the philosophy and development of an integrated science program in a British secondary school. Discusses constraints to the program including laboratory facilities, money, and fewer laboratory technicians. (MA)
Constraint-based stereo matching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuan, D. T.
1987-01-01
The major difficulty in stereo vision is the correspondence problem that requires matching features in two stereo images. Researchers describe a constraint-based stereo matching technique using local geometric constraints among edge segments to limit the search space and to resolve matching ambiguity. Edge segments are used as image features for stereo matching. Epipolar constraint and individual edge properties are used to determine possible initial matches between edge segments in a stereo image pair. Local edge geometric attributes such as continuity, junction structure, and edge neighborhood relations are used as constraints to guide the stereo matching process. The result is a locally consistent set of edge segment correspondences between stereo images. These locally consistent matches are used to generate higher-level hypotheses on extended edge segments and junctions to form more global contexts to achieve global consistency.
Fluid convection, constraint and causation
Bishop, Robert C.
2012-01-01
Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955
Foundations of support constraint machines.
Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello
2015-02-01
The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses. PMID:25380338
Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, Part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)
1983-01-01
Several areas of Space Shuttle technology were addressed including aerothermal environment, thermal protection, measurement and analysis, Shuttle carrier aerodynamics, entry analysis of the STS-3, and an overview of each section.
Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2003-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.
Architecture in Mission Integration, Choreographing Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Rod
2000-01-01
In any building project the Architect's role and skill is to balance the client's requirements with the available technology, a site and budget. Time, place and resources set the boundaries and constraints of the project. If these boundaries are correctly understood and respected by the Architect they can be choreographed into producing a facility that abides by those constraints and successfully meets the clients needs. The design and assembly of large scale space facilities whether in orbit around or on the surface of a planet require and employs these same skills. In this case the site is the International Space Station (ISS) which operates at a nominal rendezvous altitude of 220 nautical miles. With supplies to support a 7 day mission the Shuttle nominally has a cargo capacity of 35,000 pounds to that altitude. Through the Mission Integration process the Launch Package Management Team choreographs the constraints of ascent performance, hardware design, cargo, rendezvous, mission duration and assembly time in order to meet the mission objective.
Learning Kinematic Constraints in Laparoscopic Surgery
Huang, Felix C.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Pugh, Carla M.; Patton, James L.
2012-01-01
To better understand how kinematic variables impact learning in surgical training, we devised an interactive environment for simulated laparoscopic maneuvers, using either 1) mechanical constraints typical of a surgical “box-trainer” or 2) virtual constraints in which free hand movements control virtual tool motion. During training, the virtual tool responded to the absolute position in space (Position-Based) or the orientation (Orientation-Based) of a hand-held sensor. Volunteers were further assigned to different sequences of target distances (Near-Far-Near or Far-Near-Far). Training with the Orientation-Based constraint enabled much lower path error and shorter movement times during training, which suggests that tool motion that simply mirrors joint motion is easier to learn. When evaluated in physically constrained (physical box-trainer) conditions, each group exhibited improved performance from training. However, Position-Based training enabled greater reductions in movement error relative to Orientation-Based (mean difference: 14.0 percent; CI: 0.7, 28.6). Furthermore, the Near-Far-Near schedule allowed a greater decrease in task time relative to the Far-Near-Far sequence (mean −13:5 percent, CI: −19:5, −7:5). Training that focused on shallow tool insertion (near targets) might promote more efficient movement strategies by emphasizing the curvature of tool motion. In addition, our findings suggest that an understanding of absolute tool position is critical to coping with mechanical interactions between the tool and trocar. PMID:23293709
Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility
Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.
2013-01-01
We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298
Data assimilation with inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thacker, W. C.
If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.
Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.
Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E
2013-05-19
We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.
1977-01-01
An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.
An Empirical Study of Structural Constraint Solving Techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddiqui, Junaid Haroon; Khurshid, Sarfraz
Structural constraint solving allows finding object graphs that satisfy given constraints, thereby enabling software reliability tasks, such as systematic testing and error recovery. Since enumerating all possible object graphs is prohibitively expensive, researchers have proposed a number of techniques for reducing the number of potential object graphs to consider as candidate solutions. These techniques analyze the structural constraints to prune from search object graphs that cannot satisfy the constraints. Although, analytical and empirical evaluations of individual techniques have been done, comparative studies of different kinds of techniques are rare in the literature. We performed an experiment to evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of some key structural constraint solving techniques. The experiment considered four techniques using: a model checker, a SAT solver, a symbolic execution engine, and a specialized solver. It focussed on their relative abilities in expressing the constraints and formatting the output object graphs, and most importantly on their performance. Our results highlight the tradeoffs of different techniques and help choose a technique for practical use.
Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, Shelby J.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.
Genetic map construction with constraints
Clark, D.A.; Rawlings, C.J.; Soursenot, S.
1994-12-31
A pilot program, CME, is described for generating a physical genetic map from hybridization fingerprinting data. CME is implemented in the parallel constraint logic programming language ElipSys. The features of constraint logic programming are used to enable the integration of preexisting mapping information (partial probe orders from cytogenetic maps and local physical maps) into the global map generation process, while parallelism enables the search space to be traversed more efficiently. CME was tested using data from chromosome 2 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and was found able to generate maps as well as (and sometimes better than) a more traditional method. This paper illustrates the practical benefits of using a symbolic logic programming language and shows that the features of constraint handling and parallel execution bring the development of practical systems based on Al programming technologies nearer to being a reality.
Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael
1994-01-01
Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.
Multisensory constraints on awareness
Deroy, Ophelia; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles
2014-01-01
Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness. PMID:24639579
Infants' perception of actions and situational constraints: an eye-tracking study.
Elsner, Birgit; Pfeifer, Caroline; Parker, Charlene; Hauf, Petra
2013-10-01
Rational action understanding requires that infants evaluate the efficiency of a movement in achieving a goal with respect to situational constraints. In contrast, recent accounts have highlighted the impact of perceptual characteristics of the demonstrated movement or constraints to explain infants' behavior in so-called rational imitation tasks. The current study employed eye tracking to investigate how 13- to 15-month-old infants distribute their visual attention to different aspects of an action demonstration. In three tasks (touchlight, house, and obstacle), infants watched videos in which a model performed an unusual action while she was or was not restricted by situational constraints. Infants' overall looking to the demonstration as well as looking to four segments of the video (initial segment, constraint demonstration, action performance, and final segment) and to specific areas (constraint area of interest [AOI] and action AOI) was analyzed. Overall, infants looked longer at the demonstration in the constraint condition compared with the no-constraint condition. The condition differences occurred in the two video segments where the constraint or action was displayed and were especially profound for the constraint AOI. These findings indicate that infants processed the situational constraints. However, the pattern of condition differences varied slightly in the three tasks. In sum, the data imply that infants process perceptual characteristics of the movement or constraints and that low-level perceptual processes interact with higher level cognitive processes in infants' action perception. PMID:23410481
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarkin, T. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Raseman, W. J.; Herman, J. D.
2015-12-01
This study contributes a diagnostic assessment of multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) search on a set of water resources problem formulations with different configurations of constraints. Unlike constraints in classical optimization modeling, constraints within MOEA simulation-optimization represent limits on acceptable performance that delineate whether solutions within the search problem are feasible. Constraints are relevant because of the emergent pressures on water resources systems: increasing public awareness of their sustainability, coupled with regulatory pressures on water management agencies. In this study, we test several state-of-the-art MOEAs that utilize restricted tournament selection for constraint handling on varying configurations of water resources planning problems. For example, a problem that has no constraints on performance levels will be compared with a problem with several severe constraints, and a problem with constraints that have less severe values on the constraint thresholds. One such problem, Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) portfolio planning, has been solved with a suite of constraints that ensure high reliability, low cost variability, and acceptable performance in a single year severe drought. But to date, it is unclear whether or not the constraints are negatively affecting MOEAs' ability to solve the problem effectively. Two categories of results are explored. The first category uses control maps of algorithm performance to determine if the algorithm's performance is sensitive to user-defined parameters. The second category uses run-time performance metrics to determine the time required for the algorithm to reach sufficient levels of convergence and diversity on the solution sets. Our work exploring the effect of constraints will better enable practitioners to define MOEA problem formulations for real-world systems, especially when stakeholders are concerned with achieving fixed levels of performance according to one or
Contextual Constraints on Adolescents' Leisure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silbereisen, Rainer K.
2003-01-01
Interlinks crucial cultural themes emerging from preceding chapters, highlighting the contextual constraints in adolescents' use of free time. Draws parallels across the nations discussed on issues related to how school molds leisure time, the balance of passive versus active leisure, timing of leisure pursuits, and the cumulative effect of…
Constraint elimination in dynamical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, R. P.; Likins, P. W.
1989-01-01
Large space structures (LSSs) and other dynamical systems of current interest are often extremely complex assemblies of rigid and flexible bodies subjected to kinematical constraints. A formulation is presented for the governing equations of constrained multibody systems via the application of singular value decomposition (SVD). The resulting equations of motion are shown to be of minimum dimension.
Constraints on galaxy formation theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szalay, A. S.
1986-01-01
The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities, temperature fluctuations of the microwave background and the correlation function of galaxies point to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. The velocity data provide strong constraints on the theories even in the case when light does not follow mass of the universe.
Perceptual Constraints in Phonotactic Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques
2010-01-01
Structural regularities in language have often been attributed to symbolic or statistical general purpose computations, whereas perceptual factors influencing such generalizations have received less interest. Here, we use phonotactic-like constraints as a case study to ask whether the structural properties of specific perceptual and memory…
Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca
2001-01-01
A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.
Constraint-based Temporal Reasoning with Preferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca; Sperduti, Alessandro; Venable, K. Brent
2005-01-01
Often we need to work in scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. Soft temporal constraints allow one to describe in a natural way problems arising in such scenarios. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. In this paper we identify one of such subclasses giving tractability results. Moreover, we describe two solvers for this class of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and robustness. Sometimes, however, temporal local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. To model everything in a uniform way via local preferences only, and also to take advantage of the existing constraint solvers which exploit only local preferences, we show that machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In particular, we present a learning module based on a gradient descent technique which induces local temporal preferences from global ones. We also show the behavior of the learning module on randomly-generated examples.
Stress constraints in optimality criteria design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, R.
1982-01-01
Procedures described emphasize the processing of stress constraints within optimality criteria designs for low structural weight with stress and compliance constraints. Prescreening criteria are used to partition stress constraints into either potentially active primary sets or passive secondary sets that require minimal processing. Side constraint boundaries for passive constraints are derived by projections from design histories to modify conventional stress-ratio boundaries. Other procedures described apply partial structural modification reanalysis to design variable groups to correct stress constraint violations of unfeasible designs. Sample problem results show effective design convergence and, in particular, advantages for reanalysis in obtaining lower feasible design weights.
Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burlone, Michael
2014-01-01
MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.
Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing
Kumar, Sanjeev
2010-07-01
When the neutrino mass eigenstate {nu}{sub 2} is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.
Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher
Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.
Macroscopic constraints on string unification
Taylor, T.R.
1989-03-01
The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs.
Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories
Tsai, Yuhsin
2012-08-01
While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.
Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnal, Christophe
2002-01-01
Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.
Isocurvature constraints on portal couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kainulainen, Kimmo; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville
2016-06-01
We consider portal models which are ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model, and confront them with observational constraints on dark matter abundance and isocurvature perturbations. We assume the hidden sector to contain a real singlet scalar s and a sterile neutrino ψ coupled to s via a pseudoscalar Yukawa term. During inflation, a primordial condensate consisting of the singlet scalar s is generated, and its contribution to the isocurvature perturbations is imprinted onto the dark matter abundance. We compute the total dark matter abundance including the contributions from condensate decay and nonthermal production from the Standard Model sector. We then use the Planck limit on isocurvature perturbations to derive a novel constraint connecting dark matter mass and the singlet self coupling with the scale of inflation: mDM/GeV lesssim 0.2λs3/8 (H*/1011 GeV)‑3/2. This constraint is relevant in most portal models ultraweakly coupled with the Standard Model and containing light singlet scalar fields.
Constraint Based Modeling Going Multicellular
Martins Conde, Patricia do Rosario; Sauter, Thomas; Pfau, Thomas
2016-01-01
Constraint based modeling has seen applications in many microorganisms. For example, there are now established methods to determine potential genetic modifications and external interventions to increase the efficiency of microbial strains in chemical production pipelines. In addition, multiple models of multicellular organisms have been created including plants and humans. While initially the focus here was on modeling individual cell types of the multicellular organism, this focus recently started to switch. Models of microbial communities, as well as multi-tissue models of higher organisms have been constructed. These models thereby can include different parts of a plant, like root, stem, or different tissue types in the same organ. Such models can elucidate details of the interplay between symbiotic organisms, as well as the concerted efforts of multiple tissues and can be applied to analyse the effects of drugs or mutations on a more systemic level. In this review we give an overview of the recent development of multi-tissue models using constraint based techniques and the methods employed when investigating these models. We further highlight advances in combining constraint based models with dynamic and regulatory information and give an overview of these types of hybrid or multi-level approaches. PMID:26904548
Design and performance analysis of an aero-maneuvering orbital-transfer vehicle concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menees, G. P.
1985-01-01
Systems requirements for design-optimized, lateral-turn performance were determined for reusable, space-based applications and low-Earth orbits involving large multiple plane-inclination changes. The aerothermodynamic analysis is the most advanced available for rarefield-hypersonic flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermal heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capacity for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations was determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational vehicles.
Design and performance analysis of an aeromaneuvering orbital-transfer vehicle concept
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menees, G. P.
1985-01-01
Systems requirements for design-optimized, lateral-turn performance were determined for reusable, space-based applications and low-earth orbits involving large multiple plane-inclination changes. The aerothermodynamic analysis is the most advanced available for rarefied-hypersonic flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermal heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capacity for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations was determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational vehicles.
A Hybrid Constraint Representation and Reasoning Framework
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2004-01-01
In this paper, we introduce JNET, a novel constraint representation and reasoning framework that supports procedural constraints and constraint attachments, providing a flexible way of integrating the constraint system with a runtime software environment and improving its applicability. We describe how JNET is applied to a real-world problem - NASA's Earth-science data processing domain, and demonstrate how JNET can be extended, without any knowledge of how it is implemented, to meet the growing demands of real-world applications.
Cultural and Social Constraints on Portability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray-Lasso, Marco
1990-01-01
Describes 12 constraints imposed by culture on educational software portability. Nielsen's seven-level virtual protocol model of human-computer interaction is discussed as a framework for considering the constraints, a hypothetical example of adapting software for Mexico is included, and suggestions for overcoming constraints and making software…
Organizational Constraints on Corporate Public Relations Practitioners.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Michael
1987-01-01
Catalogs various internal constraints under which many public relations practitioners work, including constraints on (1) access to management; (2) information collection; (3) dissemination of timely, accurate information; and (4) the public relations mission. Reports that most practitioners see organizational constraints as more of a problem for…
Identification Constraints and Inference in Factor Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loken, Eric
2005-01-01
The choice of constraints used to identify a simple factor model can affect the shape of the likelihood. Specifically, under some nonzero constraints, standard errors may be inestimable even at the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE). For a broader class of nonzero constraints, symmetric normal approximations to the modal region may not be…
Learning and Parallelization Boost Constraint Search
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yun, Xi
2013-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are a powerful way to abstract and represent academic and real-world problems from both artificial intelligence and operations research. A constraint satisfaction problem is typically addressed by a sequential constraint solver running on a single processor. Rather than construct a new, parallel solver, this work…
Solving Constraint-Satisfaction Problems In Prolog Language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nachtsheim, Philip R.
1991-01-01
Technique for solution of constraint-satisfaction problems uses definite-clause grammars of Prolog computer language. Exploits fact that grammar-rule notation viewed as "state-change notation". Facilitates development of dynamic representation performing informed as well as blind searches. Applicable to design, scheduling, and planning problems.
Timeline-Based Space Operations Scheduling with External Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart
2010-01-01
We describe a timeline-based scheduling algorithm developed for mission operations of the EO-1 earth observing satellite. We first describe the range of operational constraints for operations focusing on maneuver and thermal constraints that cannot be modeled in typical planner/schedulers. We then describe a greedy heuristic scheduling algorithm and compare its performance to both the prior scheduling algorithm - documenting an over 50% increase in scenes scheduled with estimated value of millions of dollars US. We also compare to a relaxed optimal scheduler showing that the greedy scheduler produces schedules with scene count within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules.
An information-based neural approach to constraint satisfaction.
Jönsson, H; Söderberg, B
2001-08-01
A novel artificial neural network approach to constraint satisfaction problems is presented. Based on information-theoretical considerations, it differs from a conventional mean-field approach in the form of the resulting free energy. The method, implemented as an annealing algorithm, is numerically explored on a testbed of K-SAT problems. The performance shows a dramatic improvement over that of a conventional mean-field approach and is comparable to that of a state-of-the-art dedicated heuristic (GSAT+walk). The real strength of the method, however, lies in its generality. With minor modifications, it is applicable to arbitrary types of discrete constraint satisfaction problems. PMID:11506672
Chance-Constrained Guidance With Non-Convex Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ono, Masahiro
2011-01-01
Missions to small bodies, such as comets or asteroids, require autonomous guidance for descent to these small bodies. Such guidance is made challenging by uncertainty in the position and velocity of the spacecraft, as well as the uncertainty in the gravitational field around the small body. In addition, the requirement to avoid collision with the asteroid represents a non-convex constraint that means finding the optimal guidance trajectory, in general, is intractable. In this innovation, a new approach is proposed for chance-constrained optimal guidance with non-convex constraints. Chance-constrained guidance takes into account uncertainty so that the probability of collision is below a specified threshold. In this approach, a new bounding method has been developed to obtain a set of decomposed chance constraints that is a sufficient condition of the original chance constraint. The decomposition of the chance constraint enables its efficient evaluation, as well as the application of the branch and bound method. Branch and bound enables non-convex problems to be solved efficiently to global optimality. Considering the problem of finite-horizon robust optimal control of dynamic systems under Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty, with state and control constraints, a discrete-time, continuous-state linear dynamics model is assumed. Gaussian-distributed stochastic uncertainty is a more natural model for exogenous disturbances such as wind gusts and turbulence than the previously studied set-bounded models. However, with stochastic uncertainty, it is often impossible to guarantee that state constraints are satisfied, because there is typically a non-zero probability of having a disturbance that is large enough to push the state out of the feasible region. An effective framework to address robustness with stochastic uncertainty is optimization with chance constraints. These require that the probability of violating the state constraints (i.e., the probability of
Planck constraints on holographic dark energy
Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin E-mail: xiaodongli@kias.re.kr E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn
2013-09-01
We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H{sub 0} = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms{sup −1}Mpc{sup −1}) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω{sub m}h{sup 3} and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP+HST}−χ{sup 2}{sub Plank+WP} is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ{sup 2} is equal to 6
Applying the theory of constraints in health care: Part 1--The philosophy.
Breen, Anne M; Burton-Houle, Tracey; Aron, David C
2002-01-01
The imperative to improve both technical and service quality while simultaneously reducing costs is quite clear. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) is an emerging philosophy that rests on two assumptions: (1) systems thinking and (2) if a constraint "is anything that limits a system from achieving higher performance versus its goal," then every system must have at least one (and at most no more than a few) constraints or limiting factors. A constraint is neither good nor bad in itself. Rather, it just is. In fact, recognition of the existence of constraints represents an excellent opportunity for improvement because it allows one to focus ones efforts in the most productive area--identifying and managing the constraints. This is accomplished by using the five focusing steps of TOC: (1) identify the system's constraint; (2) decide how to exploit it; (3) subordinate/synchronize everything else to the above decisions; (4) elevate the system's constraint; and (5) if the constraint has shifted in the above steps, go back to step 1. Do not allow inertia to become the system's constraint. TOC also refers to a series of tools termed "thinking processes" and the sequence in which they are used. PMID:12512464
Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leyland, Jane A.
1993-01-01
An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.
Transition redshift in f (T ) cosmology and observational constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; Luongo, Orlando; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2015-06-01
We extract constraints on the transition redshift ztr , determining the onset of cosmic acceleration, predicted by an effective cosmographic construction, in the framework of f (T ) gravity. In particular, employing cosmography we obtain bounds on the viable f (T ) forms and their derivatives. Since this procedure is model independent, as long as the scalar curvature is fixed, we are able to determine intervals for ztr . In this way we guarantee that the Solar-System constraints are preserved and, moreover, we extract bounds on the transition time and the free parameters of the scenario. We find that the transition redshifts predicted by f (T ) cosmology, although compatible with the standard Λ CDM predictions, are slightly smaller. Finally, in order to obtain observational constraints on f (T ) cosmology, we perform a Monte Carlo fitting using supernova data, involving the most recent Union 2.1 data set.
Variational stereo imaging of oceanic waves with statistical constraints.
Gallego, Guillermo; Yezzi, Anthony; Fedele, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise
2013-11-01
An image processing observational technique for the stereoscopic reconstruction of the waveform of oceanic sea states is developed. The technique incorporates the enforcement of any given statistical wave law modeling the quasi-Gaussianity of oceanic waves observed in nature. The problem is posed in a variational optimization framework, where the desired waveform is obtained as the minimizer of a cost functional that combines image observations, smoothness priors and a weak statistical constraint. The minimizer is obtained by combining gradient descent and multigrid methods on the necessary optimality equations of the cost functional. Robust photometric error criteria and a spatial intensity compensation model are also developed to improve the performance of the presented image matching strategy. The weak statistical constraint is thoroughly evaluated in combination with other elements presented to reconstruct and enforce constraints on experimental stereo data, demonstrating the improvement in the estimation of the observed ocean surface. PMID:23807444
Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.
Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter
2016-08-01
In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art. PMID:26394426
Observational constraints on the energy scale of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zong-Kuan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong
2011-04-01
Determining the energy scale of inflation is crucial to understand the nature of inflation in the early universe. Assuming a power-law power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, we place observational constraints on the energy scale of the observable part of the inflaton potential by combining the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data with distance measurements from the baryon acoustic oscillations in the distribution of galaxies and the Hubble constant measurement. Our analysis provides an upper limit on this energy scale, 2.3×1016GeV at 95% confidence level. Moreover, we forecast the sensitivity and constraints achievable by the Planck experiment by performing Monte Carlo studies on simulated data. Planck could significantly improve the constraints on the energy scale of inflation and on the shape of the inflaton potential.
Killing symmetries as Hamiltonian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lusanna, Luca
2016-02-01
The existence of a Killing symmetry in a gauge theory is equivalent to the addition of extra Hamiltonian constraints in its phase space formulation, which imply restrictions both on the Dirac observables (the gauge invariant physical degrees of freedom) and on the gauge freedom. When there is a time-like Killing vector field only pure gauge electromagnetic fields survive in Maxwell theory in Minkowski space-time, while in ADM canonical gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times only inertial effects without gravitational waves survive.
QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, M. Coleman
2005-01-01
The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.
Trajectory constraints in qualitative simulation
Brajnik, G.; Clancy, D.J.
1996-12-31
We present a method for specifying temporal constraints on trajectories of dynamical systems and enforcing them during qualitative simulation. This capability can be used to focus a simulation, simulate non-autonomous and piecewise-continuous systems, reason about boundary condition problems and incorporate observations into the simulation. The method has been implemented in TeQSIM, a qualitative simulator that combines the expressive power of qualitative differential equations with temporal logic. It interleaves temporal logic model checking with the simulation to constrain and refine the resulting predicted behaviors and to inject discontinuous changes into the simulation.
Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik
2005-01-01
NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.
Effect of spatial constraints on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Chen, Yi-Shin; Su, Yi-Cheng; Pan, Wei
2016-01-01
Panmixia is a key issue in maintaining genetic diversity, which facilitates evolutionary potential during environmental changes. Additionally, conservation biologists suggest the importance of avoiding small or subdivided populations, which are prone to losing genetic diversity. In this paper, computer simulations were performed to the genetic drift of neutral alleles in random mating populations with or without spatial constraints by randomly choosing a mate among the closest neighbours. The results demonstrated that the number of generations required for the neutral allele to become homozygous (Th) varied proportionally to the population size and also strongly correlated with spatial constraints. The average Th for populations of the same size with spatial constraints was approximately one-and-a-half times longer than without constraints. With spatial constraints, homozygous population clusters formed, which reduced local diversity but preserved global diversity. Therefore, panmixia might be harmful in preserving the genetic diversity of an entire population. The results also suggested that the gene flow or gene exchange among the subdivided populations must be carefully processed to restrict diseases transmission or death during transportation and to monitor the genetic diversity. The application of this concept to similar systems, such as information transfer among peers, is also discussed. PMID:26771073
Constraints from Cosmography in Various Parametrizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aviles, Alejandro; Gruber, Christine; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando
2015-01-01
We use cosmography to present constraints on the kinematics of the Universe without postulating any underlying theoretical model a priori. To this end, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to perform comparisons to the supernova Ia union 2 compilation, combined with the Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the Hubble constant, and the Hubble parameter datasets. The cosmographic approach to our analysis is revisited and extended for new notions of redshift presented as alternatives to the redshift z. Furthermore, we introduce a new set of fitting parameters describing the kinematical evolution of the Universe in terms of the equation of state of the Universe and derivatives of the total pressure. Our results are consistent with the ΛCDM model, although alternative models, with nearly constant pressure and no cosmological constant, match the results accurately as well.
Analysis of human motions with arm constraint.
Kim, Duk-Jin; Prabhakaran, B
2011-01-01
This paper investigates a quantization and clustering issue on human motion performance constrained by disabilities. In a longitudinal study of medical therapy on motion disorder, stages of patient disability condition change over time. We investigate four different stages of one arm constrained walking motions by restricting 0%, 10%, 16% and 22% of arm swing angles. For analysis we use One-way ANOVA and K-mean clustering to indentify the most significant features and to partition four different motion constrained groups. Our experimental result shows that all four arm constraints during walking motion are clustered with an average accuracy of 91.7% on two different feature conditions: a mixture of singular value decomposition (SVD) and power spectral density (PSD); and SVD only on selected gait cycles. The proposed method can be integrated with a ubiquitous system (using wearable sensors) for a remote distance patient monitoring system analysis. PMID:22255718
Constraints on the wing morphology of pterosaurs
Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth
2012-01-01
Animals that fly must be able to do so over a huge range of aerodynamic conditions, determined by weather, wind speed and the nature of their environment. No single parameter can be used to determine—let alone measure—optimum flight performance as it relates to wing shape. Reconstructing the wings of the extinct pterosaurs has therefore proved especially problematic: these Mesozoic flying reptiles had a soft-tissue membranous flight surface that is rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we review basic mechanical and aerodynamic constraints that influenced the wing shape of pterosaurs, and, building on this, present a series of theoretical modelling results. These results allow us to predict the most likely wing shapes that could have been employed by these ancient reptiles, and further show that a combination of anterior sweep and a reflexed proximal wing section provides an aerodynamically balanced and efficient theoretical pterosaur wing shape, with clear benefits for their flight stability. PMID:21957137
External tank aerothermal design criteria verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, Sarat C.; Saladino, Anthony J.
1991-01-01
If a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fails during the initial 160 seconds of the Shuttle flight, a return-to-launch-site maneuver will be implemented. The period of concern for this task is the pitch-around maneuver when the vehicle is flying backward. The intent of this report is to identify and define the flowfield at the most critical locations from an environment perspective. The solution procedure used to predict the plume heating rates involves both computational analysis and engineering modeling.
Constraint Maintenance with Preferences and Underlying Flexible Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bresina, John; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Paul; Rajan, Kanna
2003-01-01
This paper describes an aspect of the constraint reasoning mechanism. that is part of a ground planning system slated to be used for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission, where two rovers are scheduled to land on Mars in January of 2003. The planning system combines manual planning software from JPL with an automatic planning/scheduling system from NASA Ames Research Center, and is designed to be used in a mixed-initiative mode. Among other things, this means that after a plan has been produced, the human operator can perform extensive modifications under the supervision of the automated. system. For each modification to an activity, the automated system must adjust other activities as needed to ensure that constraints continue to be satisfied. Thus, the system must accommodate change in an interactive setting. Performance is of critical importance for interactive use. This is achieved by maintaining an underlying flexible solution to the temporal constraints, while the system presents a fixed schedule to the user. Adjustments are then a matter of constraint propagation rather than completely re-solving the problem. However, this begs the important question of which fixed schedule (among the ones sanctioned by the underlying flexible solution) should be presented to the user.Our approach uses least-change and other preferences as a prism through which the user views the flexible solution.
The identification of coordination constraints across planes of motion.
Serrien, D J; Bogaerts, H; Suy, E; Swinnen, S P
1999-09-01
Two dominant coordination constraints have been identified during isofrequency conditions in previous work: the egocentric constraint, i.e., simultaneous activation of homologous muscle groups, and the allocentric constraint, i.e., moving the segments in the same direction in extrinsic space. To verify their generalization, bimanual drawing movements were performed in different planes of motion (transverse, frontal, sagittal, frontal-transverse) according to the in-phase and anti-phase mode along the X- and Y-axes. Convergent findings were obtained across the transverse, frontal, and frontal-transverse planes. The in-phase mode along both axes was performed most accurately/consistently, whereas the anti-phase mode resulted in a deterioration of the coordination pattern and this effect was most pronounced when the latter mode was introduced with respect to both dimensions. For sagittal plane motions, the in-phase mode was again superior but the second most optimal configuration was the anti-phase mode along both axes. This finding was hypothesized to result from the familiarity with the pattern since it resembles cycling behavior. It illustrates how cognitive mapping is superimposed onto the dynamics of interlimb coordination. Overall, these results support the presence of both the egocentric and allocentric constraint during bimanual movement production. PMID:10473768
Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.
1993-01-01
This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications
Causality constraints in conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan
2016-05-01
Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ ϕ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.
Constraint-based interactive assembly planning
Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.; Calton, T.L.
1997-03-01
The constraints on assembly plans vary depending on the product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. This paper describes the principles and implementation of a framework that supports a wide variety of user-specified constraints for interactive assembly planning. Constraints from many sources can be expressed on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. All constraints are implemented as filters that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner`s algorithms. Replanning is fast enough to enable a natural plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to several complex assemblies. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, Abhinandan
2009-01-01
This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.
Physical constraints for pathogen movement.
Schwarz, Ulrich S
2015-10-01
In this pedagogical review, we discuss the physical constraints that pathogens experience when they move in their host environment. Due to their small size, pathogens are living in a low Reynolds number world dominated by viscosity. For swimming pathogens, the so-called scallop theorem determines which kinds of shape changes can lead to productive motility. For crawling or gliding cells, the main resistance to movement comes from protein friction at the cell-environment interface. Viruses and pathogenic bacteria can also exploit intracellular host processes such as actin polymerization and motor-based transport, if they present the appropriate factors on their surfaces. Similar to cancer cells that also tend to cross various barriers, pathogens often combine several of these strategies in order to increase their motility and therefore their chances to replicate and spread. PMID:26456297
Geomagnetic main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estes, R. H.
1985-01-01
The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved geomagnetic field models is described.
Constraints on global fire activity vary across a resource gradient.
Krawchuk, Meg A; Moritz, Max A
2011-01-01
We provide an empirical, global test of the varying constraints hypothesis, which predicts systematic heterogeneity in the relative importance of biomass resources to burn and atmospheric conditions suitable to burning (weather/climate) across a spatial gradient of long-term resource availability. Analyses were based on relationships between monthly global wildfire activity, soil moisture, and mid-tropospheric circulation data from 2001 to 2007, synthesized across a gradient of long-term averages in resources (net primary productivity), annual temperature, and terrestrial biome. We demonstrate support for the varying constraints hypothesis, showing that, while key biophysical factors must coincide for wildfires to occur, the relative influence of resources to burn and moisture/weather conditions on fire activity shows predictable spatial patterns. In areas where resources are always available for burning during the fire season, such as subtropical/tropical biomes with mid-high annual long-term net primary productivity, fuel moisture conditions exert their strongest constraint on fire activity. In areas where resources are more limiting or variable, such as deserts, xeric shrublands, or grasslands/savannas, fuel moisture has a diminished constraint on wildfire, and metrics indicating availability of burnable fuels produced during the antecedent wet growing seasons reflect a more pronounced constraint on wildfire. This macro-scaled evidence for spatially varying constraints provides a synthesis with studies performed at local and regional scales, enhances our understanding of fire as a global process, and indicates how sensitivity to future changes in temperature and precipitation may differ across the world. PMID:21560682
REvolver: modeling sequence evolution under domain constraints.
Koestler, Tina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo
2012-09-01
Simulating the change of protein sequences over time in a biologically realistic way is fundamental for a broad range of studies with a focus on evolution. It is, thus, problematic that typically simulators evolve individual sites of a sequence identically and independently. More realistic simulations are possible; however, they are often prohibited by limited knowledge concerning site-specific evolutionary constraints or functional dependencies between amino acids. As a consequence, a protein's functional and structural characteristics are rapidly lost in the course of simulated evolution. Here, we present REvolver (www.cibiv.at/software/revolver), a program that simulates protein sequence alteration such that evolutionarily stable sequence characteristics, like functional domains, are maintained. For this purpose, REvolver recruits profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) for parameterizing site-specific models of sequence evolution in an automated fashion. pHMMs derived from alignments of homologous proteins or protein domains capture information regarding which sequence sites remained conserved over time and where in a sequence insertions or deletions are more likely to occur. Thus, they describe constraints on the evolutionary process acting on these sequences. To demonstrate the performance of REvolver as well as its applicability in large-scale simulation studies, we evolved the entire human proteome up to 1.5 expected substitutions per site. Simultaneously, we analyzed the preservation of Pfam and SMART domains in the simulated sequences over time. REvolver preserved 92% of the Pfam domains originally present in the human sequences. This value drops to 15% when traditional models of amino acid sequence evolution are used. Thus, REvolver represents a significant advance toward a realistic simulation of protein sequence evolution on a proteome-wide scale. Further, REvolver facilitates the simulation of a protein family with a user-defined domain architecture at
Rate-gyro-integral constraint for ambiguity resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.
Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping
2013-01-01
In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations. PMID:23793044
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zang, Zengliang; Hao, Zilong; Li, Yi; Pan, Xiaobin; You, Wei; Li, Zhijin; Chen, Dan
2016-08-01
Balance constraints are important for background error covariance (BEC) in data assimilation to spread information between different variables and produce balance analysis fields. Using statistical regression, we develop a balance constraint for the BEC of aerosol variables and apply it to a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system in the WRF/Chem model; 1-month forecasts from the WRF/Chem model are employed for BEC statistics. The cross-correlations between the different species are generally high. The largest correlation occurs between elemental carbon and organic carbon with as large as 0.9. After using the balance constraints, the correlations between the unbalanced variables reduce to less than 0.2. A set of data assimilation and forecasting experiments is performed. In these experiments, surface PM2.5 concentrations and speciated concentrations along aircraft flight tracks are assimilated. The analysis increments with the balance constraints show spatial distributions more complex than those without the balance constraints, which is a consequence of the spreading of observation information across variables due to the balance constraints. The forecast skills with the balance constraints show substantial and durable improvements from the 2nd hour to the 16th hour compared with the forecast skills without the balance constraints. The results suggest that the developed balance constraints are important for the aerosol assimilation and forecasting.
Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, R.
1982-01-01
Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs is considered. Tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities are developed.
Conversion cascading constraint-aware adaptive routing for WDM optical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xingbo; Bassiouni, Mostafa A.; Li, Guifang
2007-03-01
We examine the negative impact of wavelength conversion cascading on the performance of all-optical routing. When data in a circuit-switched connection are routed all optically from source to destination, each wavelength conversion performed along the lightpath of the connection causes some signal-to-noise deterioration. If the distortion of the signal quality becomes significant enough, the receiver would not be able to recover the original data. There is therefore an upper bound (threshold) on the number of wavelength conversions that a signal can go through when it is switched optically from its source to its destination. This constraint, which we refer to as the conversion cascading constraint, has largely been ignored by previous performance evaluation studies on all-optical routing. We proceed to show that existing static and dynamic routing and wavelength-assignment algorithms largely fail in the presence of the conversion cascading constraints. We then propose two constraint-aware dynamic algorithms: The first, greedy constraint-aware routing algorithm, minimizes the number of wavelength conversions for each connection establishing, and the second, weighted adaptive constraint-aware routing (W-ACAR) algorithm, considers the distribution of free wavelengths, the length of each route, and the conversion cascading constraints, jointly. The results conclusively demonstrate that the proposed algorithms, especially W-ACAR, can achieve much better blocking performance in the environment of full and sparse wavelength conversion.
Material constraints on high-speed design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae
2015-02-01
Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.
Geometrical constraints for robust tractography selection.
de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Alberola-López, Carlos
2013-11-01
Tract-based analysis from DTI has become a widely employed procedure to study the white matter of the brain and its alterations in neurological and neurosurgical pathologies. Automatic tractography selection methods, where a subset of detected tracts corresponding to a specific white matter structure are selected, are a key component of the DTI processing pipeline. Using automatic tractography selection, repeatable results free of intra and inter-expert variability can be obtained rapidly, without the need for cumbersome manual segmentation. Many of the current approaches for automatic tractography selection rely on a previous registration procedure using an atlas; hence, these methods are likely very sensitive to the accuracy of the registration. In this paper we show that the performance of the registration step is critical to the overall result. This effect can in turn affect the calculation of scalar parameters derived subsequently from the selected tracts and often used in clinical practice; we show that such errors may be comparable in magnitude to the subtle differences found in clinical studies to differentiate between healthy and pathological. As an alternative, we propose a tractography selection method based on the use of geometrical constraints specific for each fiber bundle. Our experimental results show that the approach proposed performs with increased robustness and accuracy with respect to other approaches in the literature, particularly in the presence of imperfect registration. PMID:23707405
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alderete, John; Tupper, Paul; Frisch, Stefan A.
2013-01-01
A significant problem in computational language learning is that of inferring the content of well-formedness constraints from input data. In this article, we approach the constraint induction problem as the gradual adjustment of subsymbolic constraints in a connectionist network. In particular, we develop a multi-layer feed-forward network that…
A constraint solving approach to model reduction by tropical equilibration.
Soliman, Sylvain; Fages, François; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2014-01-01
Model reduction is a central topic in systems biology and dynamical systems theory, for reducing the complexity of detailed models, finding important parameters, and developing multi-scale models for instance. While singular perturbation theory is a standard mathematical tool to analyze the different time scales of a dynamical system and decompose the system accordingly, tropical methods provide a simple algebraic framework to perform these analyses systematically in polynomial systems. The crux of these methods is in the computation of tropical equilibrations. In this paper we show that constraint-based methods, using reified constraints for expressing the equilibration conditions, make it possible to numerically solve non-linear tropical equilibration problems, out of reach of standard computation methods. We illustrate this approach first with the detailed reduction of a simple biochemical mechanism, the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction model, and second, with large-scale performance figures obtained on the http://biomodels.net repository. PMID:25493095
Constraints on Noun Incorporation in Korean.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khym, Hangyoo
1997-01-01
A study of the noun incorporation phenomenon in Korean suggests that noun incorporation occurs at D-structure and obeys the Head Movement Constraint syntactically, and the Theme-Only Constraint semantically. First, the structure of "sunrise"-type words is identified, showing that before derivation through nominalization of the affix "-i,"…
Gaining Algorithmic Insight through Simplifying Constraints.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginat, David
2002-01-01
Discusses algorithmic problem solving in computer science education, particularly algorithmic insight, and focuses on the relevance and effectiveness of the heuristic simplifying constraints which involves simplification of a given problem to a problem in which constraints are imposed on the input data. Presents three examples involving…
On a Surface Structure Constraint in Hungarian.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szamosi, Michael
It is possible to apply the concept of surface-structure constraint to a particular area of Hungarian syntax. A surface-structure constraint, according to David Perlmutter, can be seen as a template which serves as a filter at some level after the transformational component. In the case of Hungarian cooccurrence of noun phrases and verbs in a…
Domain General Constraints on Statistical Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thiessen, Erik D.
2011-01-01
All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of…
Constraint-based evaluation of sequential procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barry, Matthew R.
1990-01-01
Constraining the operation of an agent requires knowledge of the restrictions to physical and temporal capabilities of that agent, as well as an inherent understanding of the desires being processed by that agent. Usually a set of constraints are available that must be adhered to in order to foster safe operations. In the worst case, violation of a constraint may be cause to terminate operation. If the agent is carrying out a plan, then a method for predicting the agent's desires, and therefore possible constraint violations, is required. The conceptualization of constraint-based reasoning used herein assumes that a system knows how to select a constraint for application as well as how to apply that constraint once it is selected. The application of constraint-based reasoning for evaluating certain kinds of plans known as sequential procedures is discussed. By decomposing these plans, it is possible to apply context dependent constraints in production system fashion without incorporating knowledge of the original planning process.
COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS
Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.
2009-11-20
Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for approx4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to approx0.007 (approx1%), OMEGA{sub de} to approx0.005, and w to approx0.026 (all 1sigma precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for approx100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the 'optimistic Stage IV' constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the 'pivot redshift' of z approx 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.
Trimodal interpretation of constraints for planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krieger, David; Brown, Richard
1987-01-01
Constraints are used in the CAMPS knowledge based planning system to represent those propositions that must be true for a plan to be acceptable. CAMPS introduces the make-mode for interpreting a constraint. Given an unsatisfied constraint, make evaluation mode suggests planning actions which, if taken, would result in a modified plan in which the constraint in question may be satisfied. These suggested planning actions, termed delta-tuples, are the raw material of intelligent plan repair. They are used both in debugging an almost-right plan and in replanning due to changing situations. Given a defective plan in which some set of constraints are violated, a problem solving strategy selects one or more constraints as a focus of attention. These selected constraints are evaluated in the make-mode to produce delta-tuples. The problem solving strategy then reviews the delta-tuples according to its application and problem-specific criteria to find the most acceptable change in terms of success likelihood and plan disruption. Finally, the problem solving strategy makes the suggested alteration to the plan and then rechecks constraints to find any unexpected consequences.
The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coleman, John; Local, John
A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…
Statistical learning of novel graphotactic constraints in children and adults.
Samara, Anna; Caravolas, Markéta
2014-05-01
The current study explored statistical learning processes in the acquisition of orthographic knowledge in school-aged children and skilled adults. Learning of novel graphotactic constraints on the position and context of letter distributions was induced by means of a two-phase learning task adapted from Onishi, Chambers, and Fisher (Cognition, 83 (2002) B13-B23). Following incidental exposure to pattern-embedding stimuli in Phase 1, participants' learning generalization was tested in Phase 2 with legality judgments about novel conforming/nonconforming word-like strings. Test phase performance was above chance, suggesting that both types of constraints were reliably learned even after relatively brief exposure. As hypothesized, signal detection theory d' analyses confirmed that learning permissible letter positions (d'=0.97) was easier than permissible neighboring letter contexts (d'=0.19). Adults were more accurate than children in all but a strict analysis of the contextual constraints condition. Consistent with the statistical learning perspective in literacy, our results suggest that statistical learning mechanisms contribute to children's and adults' acquisition of knowledge about graphotactic constraints similar to those existing in their orthography. PMID:24495840
Technology for planning and scheduling under complex constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alguire, Karen M.; Pedro Gomes, Carla O.
1997-02-01
Within the context of law enforcement, several problems fall into the category of planning and scheduling under constraints. Examples include resource and personnel scheduling, and court scheduling. In the case of court scheduling, a schedule must be generated considering available resources, e.g., court rooms and personnel. Additionally, there are constraints on individual court cases, e.g., temporal and spatial, and between different cases, e.g., precedence. Finally, there are overall objectives that the schedule should satisfy such as timely processing of cases and optimal use of court facilities. Manually generating a schedule that satisfies all of the constraints is a very time consuming task. As the number of court cases and constraints increases, this becomes increasingly harder to handle without the assistance of automatic scheduling techniques. This paper describes artificial intelligence (AI) technology that has been used to develop several high performance scheduling applications including a military transportation scheduler, a military in-theater airlift scheduler, and a nuclear power plant outage scheduler. We discuss possible law enforcement applications where we feel the same technology could provide long-term benefits to law enforcement agencies and their operations personnel.
A Discussion of Issues in Integrity Constraint Monitoring
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fernandez, Francisco G.; Gates, Ann Q.; Cooke, Daniel E.
1998-01-01
In the development of large-scale software systems, analysts, designers, and programmers identify properties of data objects in the system. The ability to check those assertions during runtime is desirable as a means of verifying the integrity of the program. Typically, programmers ensure the satisfaction of such properties through the use of some form of manually embedded assertion check. The disadvantage to this approach is that these assertions become entangled within the program code. The goal of the research is to develop an integrity constraint monitoring mechanism whereby a repository of software system properties (called integrity constraints) are automatically inserted into the program by the mechanism to check for incorrect program behaviors. Such a mechanism would overcome many of the deficiencies of manually embedded assertion checks. This paper gives an overview of the preliminary work performed toward this goal. The manual instrumentation of constraint checking on a series of test programs is discussed, This review then is used as the basis for a discussion of issues to be considered in developing an automated integrity constraint monitor.
Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint
Lempa, Jukka
2012-10-15
We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.
Percolation of spatially constraint networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daqing; Li, Guanliang; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Stanley, H. E.; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo
2011-03-01
We study how spatial constraints are reflected in the percolation properties of networks embedded in one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional lattices. We assume long-range connections between sites on the lattice where two sites at distance r are chosen to be linked with probability p(r)~r-δ. Similar distributions have been found in spatially embedded real networks such as social and airline networks. We find that for networks embedded in two dimensions, with 2<δ<4, the percolation properties show new intermediate behavior different from mean field, with critical exponents that depend on δ. For δ<2, the percolation transition belongs to the universality class of percolation in Erdös-Rényi networks (mean field), while for δ>4 it belongs to the universality class of percolation in regular lattices. For networks embedded in one dimension, we find that, for δ<1, the percolation transition is mean field. For 1<δ<2, the critical exponents depend on δ, while for δ>2 there is no percolation transition as in regular linear chains.
Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.
1986-01-01
Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.
Hamiltonian constraint in polymer parametrized field theory
Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan
2011-01-15
Recently, a generally covariant reformulation of two-dimensional flat spacetime free scalar field theory known as parametrized field theory was quantized using loop quantum gravity (LQG) type ''polymer'' representations. Physical states were constructed, without intermediate regularization structures, by averaging over the group of gauge transformations generated by the constraints, the constraint algebra being a Lie algebra. We consider classically equivalent combinations of these constraints corresponding to a diffeomorphism and a Hamiltonian constraint, which, as in gravity, define a Dirac algebra. Our treatment of the quantum constraints parallels that of LQG and obtains the following results, expected to be of use in the construction of the quantum dynamics of LQG: (i) the (triangulated) Hamiltonian constraint acts only on vertices, its construction involves some of the same ambiguities as in LQG and its action on diffeomorphism invariant states admits a continuum limit, (ii) if the regulating holonomies are in representations tailored to the edge labels of the state, all previously obtained physical states lie in the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint, (iii) the commutator of two (density weight 1) Hamiltonian constraints as well as the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket converge to zero in the continuum limit defined by diffeomorphism invariant states, and vanish on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat, (iv) the rescaled density 2 Hamiltonian constraints and their commutator are ill-defined on the Lewandowski-Marolf habitat despite the well-definedness of the operator correspondent of their classical Poisson bracket there, (v) there is a new habitat which supports a nontrivial representation of the Poisson-Lie algebra of density 2 constraints.
Tsuchiya, Takuya; Yoneda, Gen; Shinkai, Hisa-aki
2011-03-15
With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C{sup 2}. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is predetermined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.
Experimental Matching of Instances to Heuristics for Constraint Satisfaction Problems.
Moreno-Scott, Jorge Humberto; Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Terashima-Marín, Hugo; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique
2016-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are of special interest for the artificial intelligence and operations research community due to their many applications. Although heuristics involved in solving these problems have largely been studied in the past, little is known about the relation between instances and the respective performance of the heuristics used to solve them. This paper focuses on both the exploration of the instance space to identify relations between instances and good performing heuristics and how to use such relations to improve the search. Firstly, the document describes a methodology to explore the instance space of constraint satisfaction problems and evaluate the corresponding performance of six variable ordering heuristics for such instances in order to find regions on the instance space where some heuristics outperform the others. Analyzing such regions favors the understanding of how these heuristics work and contribute to their improvement. Secondly, we use the information gathered from the first stage to predict the most suitable heuristic to use according to the features of the instance currently being solved. This approach proved to be competitive when compared against the heuristics applied in isolation on both randomly generated and structured instances of constraint satisfaction problems. PMID:26949383
Experimental Matching of Instances to Heuristics for Constraint Satisfaction Problems
Moreno-Scott, Jorge Humberto; Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Terashima-Marín, Hugo; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique
2016-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are of special interest for the artificial intelligence and operations research community due to their many applications. Although heuristics involved in solving these problems have largely been studied in the past, little is known about the relation between instances and the respective performance of the heuristics used to solve them. This paper focuses on both the exploration of the instance space to identify relations between instances and good performing heuristics and how to use such relations to improve the search. Firstly, the document describes a methodology to explore the instance space of constraint satisfaction problems and evaluate the corresponding performance of six variable ordering heuristics for such instances in order to find regions on the instance space where some heuristics outperform the others. Analyzing such regions favors the understanding of how these heuristics work and contribute to their improvement. Secondly, we use the information gathered from the first stage to predict the most suitable heuristic to use according to the features of the instance currently being solved. This approach proved to be competitive when compared against the heuristics applied in isolation on both randomly generated and structured instances of constraint satisfaction problems. PMID:26949383
Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints
Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.
2016-01-01
The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting) side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars) biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans. PMID:27547550
Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints.
Ledogar, Justin A; Dechow, Paul C; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H; Gordon, Adam D; Baab, Karen L; Smith, Amanda L; Weber, Gerhard W; Grosse, Ian R; Ross, Callum F; Richmond, Brian G; Wright, Barth W; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S
2016-01-01
The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting) side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars) biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans. PMID:27547550
Magnetic compensation of gravity in fluids: performance and constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mailfert, Alain; Beysens, Daniel; Chatain, Denis; Lorin, Clément
2015-07-01
The paper deals with the main theoretical and experimental results gathered over the past 15 years in the domain of magnetic compensation of gravity. Such a technique for which very high fields are required has mainly been used to investigate the behaviour of fluids under space conditions of weightlessness. Advantage and drawback of magnetic levitation are presented; its application for analyzing two-phase fluid behaviour is described. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek
Gender Performativity in Physics: Affordances or Only Constraints?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias
2014-01-01
In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper '"Physics and the girly girl--there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students'…
Natural Constraints to Species Diversification
Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène
2016-01-01
Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of
Reheating Constraints to Inflationary Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc; Wang, Junpu
2014-07-01
Evidence from the BICEP2 experiment for a significant gravitational-wave background has focused attention on inflaton potentials V(ϕ)∝ϕα with α=2 ("chaotic" or "m2ϕ2" inflation) or with smaller values of α, as may arise in axion-monodromy models. Here we show that reheating considerations may provide additional constraints to these models. The reheating phase preceding the radiation era is modeled by an effective equation-of-state parameter wre. The canonical reheating scenario is then described by wre=0. The simplest α=2 models are consistent with wre=0 for values of ns well within the current 1σ range. Models with α=1 or α=2/3 require a more exotic reheating phase, with -1/3
Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.
Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène
2016-08-01
Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of
Observational constraints to a unified cosmological model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuzinatto, Rodrigo R.; de Morais, Eduardo M.; Medeiros, Leo G.
2016-01-01
We propose a phenomenological unified model (UM) for dark matter and dark energy based on an equation of state parameter w that scales with the arctan of the redshift. The free parameters of the model are three constants: Ωb0, α and β. Parameter α dictates the transition rate between the matter dominated era and the accelerated expansion period. The ratio β/α gives the redshift of the equivalence between both regimes. Cosmological parameters are fixed by observational data from primordial nucleosynthesis (PN), supernovae of the type Ia (SNIa), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs). The calibration of the 138 GRB events is performed using the 580 SNIa of the Union2.1 data set and a new set of 79 high-redshift GRB is obtained. The various sets of data are used in different combinations to constraint the parameters through statistical analysis. The UM is compared to the ΛCDM model and their differences are emphasized.
Global constraints on heavy neutrino mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo
2016-08-01
We derive general constraints on the mixing of heavy Seesaw neutrinos with the SM fields from a global fit to present flavour and electroweak precision data. We explore and compare both a completely general scenario, where the heavy neutrinos are integrated out without any further assumption, and the more constrained case were only 3 additional heavy states are considered. The latter assumption implies non-trivial correlations in order to reproduce the correct neutrino masses and mixings as observed by oscillation data and thus some qualitative differences can be found with the more general scenario. The relevant processes analyzed in the global fit include searches for Lepton Flavour Violating (LFV) decays, probes of the universality of weak interactions, CKM unitarity bounds and electroweak precision data. In particular, a comparative and detailed study of the present and future sensitivity of the different LFV experiments is performed. We find a mild 1-2σ preference for non-zero heavy neutrino mixing of order 0.03-0.04 in the electron and tau sectors. At the 2σ level we derive bounds on all mixings ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 with the notable exception of the e - μ sector with a more stringent bound of 0.005 from the μ → eγ process.
QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael
2016-08-01
We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun's Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a "black disk limit" as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.
Astrophysical and cosmological constraints to neutrino properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolb, Edward W.; Schramm, David N.; Turner, Michael S.
1989-01-01
The astrophysical and cosmological constraints on neutrino properties (masses, lifetimes, numbers of flavors, etc.) are reviewed. The freeze out of neutrinos in the early Universe are discussed and then the cosmological limits on masses for stable neutrinos are derived. The freeze out argument coupled with observational limits is then used to constrain decaying neutrinos as well. The limits to neutrino properties which follow from SN1987A are then reviewed. The constraint from the big bang nucleosynthesis on the number of neutrino flavors is also considered. Astrophysical constraints on neutrino-mixing as well as future observations of relevance to neutrino physics are briefly discussed.
CONSTRAINT EFFECT IN FRACTURE WHAT IS IT
Lam, P; Prof. Yuh J. Chao, P
2008-10-29
The meaning of the phrase 'constraint effect in fracture' has changed in the past two decades from 'contained plasticity' to a broader description of 'dependence of fracture toughness value on geometry of test specimen or structure'. This paper will first elucidate the fundamental mechanics reasons for the apparent 'constraint effects in fracture', followed by outlining a straightforward approach to overcoming this problem in both brittle (elastic) and ductile (elastic-plastic) fracture. It is concluded by discussing the major difference in constraint effect on fracture event in elastic and elastic-plastic materials.
Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.
Carlip, S
2007-07-13
To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209
de Lima-Pardini, Andrea Cristina; Coelho, Daniel Boari; Silva, Marina Brito; Azzi, Nametala Maia; Martinelli, Alessandra Rezende; Horak, Fay Bahling; Teixeira, Luis Augusto
2014-01-01
This study compared the effect of stability constraints imposed by a manual task on the adaptation of postural responses between 16 healthy elderly (mean age = 71.56 years, SD = 7.38) and 16 healthy young (mean age = 22.94 years, SD = 4.82) individuals. Postural stability was perturbed through unexpected release of a load attached to the participant’s trunk while performing two versions of a voluntary task: holding a tray with a cylinder placed with its flat side down (low constraint) or with its rolling round side down (high constraint). Low and high constraint tasks were performed in alternate blocks of trials. Results showed that young participants adapted muscular activation and kinematics of postural responses in association with previous experience with the first block of manual task constraint, whereas the elderly modulated postural responses based on the current manual constraint. This study provides evidence for flexibility of postural strategies in the elderly to deal with constraints imposed by a manual task. PMID:25520656
Updated Kinematic Constraints on a Dark Disk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, Eric David; Randall, Lisa
2016-06-01
We update the method of the Holmberg & Flynn study, including an updated model of the Milky Way’s interstellar gas, radial velocities, an updated reddening map, and a careful statistical analysis, to bound the allowed surface density and scale height of a dark disk. We pay careful attention to the self-consistency of the model, including the gravitational influence of the dark disk on other disk components, and to the net velocity of the tracer stars. We find that the data set exhibits a non-zero bulk velocity in the vertical direction as well as a displacement from the expected location at the Galactic midplane. If not properly accounted for, these features would bias the bound toward low dark disk mass. We therefore perform our analysis two ways. In the first, using the traditional method, we subtract the mean velocity and displacement from the tracers’ phase space distributions. In the second method, we perform a non-equilibrium version of the HF method to derive a bound on the dark disk parameters for an oscillating tracer distribution. Despite updates in the mass model and reddening map, the traditional method results remain consistent with those of HF2000. The second, non-equilibrium technique, however, allows a surface density as large as 14 {M}ȯ {{{pc}}}-2 (and as small as 0 {M}ȯ {{{pc}}}-2), demonstrating much weaker constraints. For both techniques, the bound on surface density is weaker for larger scale height. In future analyses of Gaia data it will be important to verify whether the tracer populations are in equilibrium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Xiao; Tang, Rui-chun; Zhai, Yi-li; Feng, Yu-qing; Hong, Bo-hai
2013-07-01
Multimedia adaptation decision-taking techniques based on context are considered. Constraint satisfaction problem-Based Content Adaptation Algorithm (CBCAA) is proposed. First the algorithm obtains and classifies context information using MPEG-21; then it builds the constraint model according to different types of context information, constraint satisfaction method is used to acquire Media Description Decision Set (MDDS); finally a bit-stream adaptation engine performs the multimedia transcoding. Simulation results prove that the presented algorithm offers an efficient solution for personalized multimedia adaptation in heterogeneous environments.
Vast Portfolio Selection with Gross-exposure Constraints*
Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Jingjin; Yu, Ke
2012-01-01
We introduce the large portfolio selection using gross-exposure constraints. We show that with gross-exposure constraint the empirically selected optimal portfolios based on estimated covariance matrices have similar performance to the theoretical optimal ones and there is no error accumulation effect from estimation of vast covariance matrices. This gives theoretical justification to the empirical results in Jagannathan and Ma (2003). We also show that the no-short-sale portfolio can be improved by allowing some short positions. The applications to portfolio selection, tracking, and improvements are also addressed. The utility of our new approach is illustrated by simulation and empirical studies on the 100 Fama-French industrial portfolios and the 600 stocks randomly selected from Russell 3000. PMID:23293404
Future CMB cosmological constraints in a dark coupled universe
Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Honorez, Laura Lopez
2010-05-15
Cosmic microwave background satellite missions as the ongoing Planck experiment are expected to provide the strongest constraints on a wide set of cosmological parameters. Those constraints, however, could be weakened when the assumption of a cosmological constant as the dark energy component is removed. Here we show that it will indeed be the case when there exists a coupling among the dark energy and the dark matter fluids. In particular, the expected errors on key parameters as the cold dark matter density and the angular diameter distance at decoupling are significantly larger when a dark coupling is introduced. We show that it will be the case also for future satellite missions as EPIC, unless CMB lensing extraction is performed.
Application of constraint modelling to evaluation of crack growth experiments
Faleskog, J.; Nilsson, F.; Shehu, S.; Oeberg, H.
1997-12-01
A large number of fracture mechanics experiments were carried out using a variety of specimens in order to investigate the applicability of the J-Q approach to initiation and growth of cracks. The study was performed at different temperatures spanning the transition interval of a pressure vessel steel. A comparison of the cleavage initiation levels with the model by Ritchie et al. (RKR) was also conducted. The experiments did not show, although the scatter was large, any systematic geometry effects that could not be explained within the framework of the J-Q concept. This was also the case for surface-cracked plates subjected to nonproportional loading. The trends of the dependence of the initiation on constraint are in qualitative agreement with the RKR model, although this model seems to underestimate this dependence for the current material. The ductile initiation level seems to be fairly independent of constraint but showed a tendency of variation with temperature.
An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems
Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo
2015-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed. PMID:26642827
An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo
2015-12-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed.
Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy
2013-01-01
In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.
Constraints and restraints in crystal structure analysis
Immirzi, Attilio
2009-01-01
The widely used restraint-based approach to structural analysis using diffraction data is critiqued. The convenience of using rigid constraints, through the use of internal coordinates, is discussed. PMID:22477768
Boolean constraint satisfaction problems for reaction networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seganti, A.; De Martino, A.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.
2013-09-01
We define and study a class of (random) Boolean constraint satisfaction problems representing minimal feasibility constraints for networks of chemical reactions. The constraints we consider encode, respectively, for hard mass-balance conditions (where the consumption and production fluxes of each chemical species are matched) and for soft mass-balance conditions (where a net production of compounds is in principle allowed). We solve these constraint satisfaction problems under the Bethe approximation and derive the corresponding belief propagation equations, which involve eight different messages. The statistical properties of ensembles of random problems are studied via the population dynamics methods. By varying a chemical potential attached to the activity of reactions, we find first-order transitions and strong hysteresis, suggesting a non-trivial structure in the space of feasible solutions.
Planck 2015 constraints on neutrino physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lattanzi, Massimiliano
2016-05-01
Anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation represent a powerful probe of neutrino physics, complementary to laboratory experiments. Here I review constraints on neutrino properties from the recent 2015 data from the Planck satellite.
A modified multilevel scheme for internal and external constraints in virtual environments.
Arikatla, Venkata S; De, Suvranu
2013-01-01
Multigrid algorithms are gaining popularity in virtual reality simulations as they have a theoretically optimal performance that scales linearly with the number of degrees of freedom of the simulation system. We propose a multilevel approach that combines the efficiency of the multigrid algorithms with the ability to resolve multi-body constraints during interactive simulations. First, we develop a single level modified block Gauss-Seidel (MBGS) smoother that can incorporate constraints. This is subsequently incorporated in a standard multigrid V-cycle with corrections for constraints to form the modified multigrid V-cycle (MMgV). Numerical results show that the solver can resolve constraints while achieving the theoretical performance of multigrid schemes. PMID:23400125
Improving Steiner trees of a network under multiple constraints
Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Ravi, S.S.
1996-07-01
The authors consider the problem of decreasing the edge weights of a given network so that the modified network has a Steiner tree in which two performance measures are simultaneously optimized. They formulate these problems, referred to as bicriteria network improvement problems, by specifying a budget on the total modification cost, a constraint on one of the performance measures and using the other performance measure as a minimization objective. Network improvement problems are known to be NP-hard even when only one performance measure is considered. The authors present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for bicriteria network improvement problems. The approximation algorithms are for two pairs of performance measures, namely (diameter, total cost) and (degree, total cost). These algorithms produce solutions which are within a logarithmic factor of the optimum value of the minimization objective while violating the constraints only by a logarithmic factor. The techniques also yield approximation schemes when the given network has bounded treewidth. Many of the approximation results can be extended to more general network design problems.
Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Christopher; Villasnor, John; Lee, Dong-U; Vales, Esteban
2008-01-01
A method of utilizing information available in the constraints imposed by a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has been proposed as a means of aiding the recovery of symbol timing in the reception of a binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signal representing such a code in the presence of noise, timing error, and/or Doppler shift between the transmitter and the receiver. This method and the receiver architecture in which it would be implemented belong to a class of timing-recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. Acquisition and tracking of a signal of the type described above have traditionally been performed upstream of, and independently of, decoding and have typically involved utilization of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, the LDPC decoding process, which is iterative, provides information that can be fed back to the timing-recovery receiver circuits to improve performance significantly over that attainable in the absence of such feedback. Prior methods of coupling LDPC decoding with timing recovery had focused on the use of output code words produced as the iterations progress. In contrast, in the present method, one exploits the information available from the metrics computed for the constraint nodes of an LDPC code during the decoding process. In addition, the method involves the use of a waveform model that captures, better than do the waveform models of the prior methods, distortions introduced by receiver timing errors and transmitter/ receiver motions. An LDPC code is commonly represented by use of a bipartite graph containing two sets of nodes. In the graph corresponding to an (n,k) code, the n variable nodes correspond to the code word symbols and the n-k constraint nodes represent the constraints that the code places on the variable nodes in order for them to form a valid code word. The decoding procedure involves iterative computation
REDUCTION OF CONSTRAINTS FOR COUPLED OPERATIONS
Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.
2009-12-15
The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% ({Sigma}M{sub 2}O < 19.3 wt%), or (2) adjust the lower limit on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} constraint to 4 wt% (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sum of
Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin
Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.
Imposing Constraints from the Source Tree on ITG Constraints for SMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro
In the current statistical machine translation (SMT), erroneous word reordering is one of the most serious problems. To resolve this problem, many word-reordering constraint techniques have been proposed. Inversion transduction grammar (ITG) is one of these constraints. In ITG constraints, target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side binary tree. In these node rotations, the source binary tree instance is not considered. Therefore, stronger constraints for word reordering can be obtained by imposing further constraints derived from the source tree on the ITG constraints. For example, for the source word sequence { a b c d }, ITG constraints allow a total of twenty-two target word orderings. However, when the source binary tree instance ((a b) (c d)) is given, our proposed “imposing source tree on ITG” (IST-ITG) constraints allow only eight word orderings. The reduction in the number of word-order permutations by our proposed stronger constraints efficiently suppresses erroneous word orderings. In our experiments with IST-ITG using the NIST MT08 English-to-Chinese translation track's data, the proposed method resulted in a 1.8-points improvement in character BLEU-4 (35.2 to 37.0) and a 6.2% lower CER (74.1 to 67.9%) compared with our baseline condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, Toshihiro; Silaghi, Marius C.; Hirayama, Katsutoshi; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsuo, Hiroshi
Cooperative problem solving with shared resources is important in practical multi-agent systems. Resource constraints are necessary to handle practical problems such as distributed task scheduling with limited resource availability. As a fundamental formalism for multi-agent cooperation, the Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP) has been investigated. With DCOPs, the agent states and the relationships between agents are formalized into a constraint optimization problem. However, in the original DCOP framework, constraints for resources that are consumed by teams of agents are not well supported. A framework called Resource Constrained Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (RCDCOP) has recently been proposed. In RCDCOPs, a limit on resource usage is represented as an n-ary constraint. Previous research addressing RCDCOPs employ a pseudo-tree based solver. The pseudo-tree is an important graph structure for constraint networks. A pseudo-tree implies a partial ordering of variables. However, n-ary constrained variables, which are placed on a single path of the pseudo-tree, decrease efficiency of the solver. We propose another method using (i) a pseudo-tree that is generated ignoring resource constraints and (ii) virtual variables representing the usage of resources. However the virtual variables increase search space. To improve pruning efficiency of search, (iii) we apply a set of upper/lower bounds that are inferred from resource constraints. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated by experiment.
Hamilton, Joshua J.; Dwivedi, Vivek; Reed, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade has seen several constraint-based methods that interpret this constraint in different ways, including those that are limited to small networks, rely on predefined reaction directions, and/or neglect the relationship between reaction free energies and metabolite concentrations. In this work, we utilize one such approach, thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA), to make genome-scale, quantitative predictions about metabolite concentrations and reaction free energies in the absence of prior knowledge of reaction directions, while accounting for uncertainties in thermodynamic estimates. We applied TMFA to a genome-scale network reconstruction of Escherichia coli and examined the effect of thermodynamic constraints on the flux space. We also assessed the predictive performance of TMFA against gene essentiality and quantitative metabolomics data, under both aerobic and anaerobic, and optimal and suboptimal growth conditions. Based on these results, we propose that TMFA is a useful tool for validating phenotypes and generating hypotheses, and that additional types of data and constraints can improve predictions of metabolite concentrations. PMID:23870272
Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment: I. Performance Analysis and Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Lineberry, J. T.; Chapman, J. N.; Schmidt, H. J.; Lineberry, C. W.
2003-01-01
The performance of conventional thermal propulsion systems is fundamentally constrained by the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels and the thermal limits of available materials. Electromagnetic thrust augmentation represents one intriguing possibility for improving the fuel composition of thermal propulsion systems, thereby increasing overall specific energy characteristics; however, realization of such a system requires an extremely high-energy-density electrical power source as well as an efficient plasma acceleration device. This Technical Publication describes the development of an experimental research facility for investigating the use of cross-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In this experiment,a 1.5-MW(sub e) Aerotherm arc heater is used to drive a 2-MW(sub e) MHD accelerator. The heatsink MHD accelerator is configured as an externally diagonalized, segmented channel, which is inserted into a large-bore, 2-T electromagnet. The performance analysis and engineering design of the flow path are described as well as the parameter measurements and flow diagnostics planned for the initial series of test runs.
Evaluating the role of reproductive constraints in ant social evolution
Khila, Abderrahman; Abouheif, Ehab
2010-01-01
The reproductive division of labour is a key feature of eusociality in ants, where queen and worker castes show dramatic differences in the development of their reproductive organs. To understand the developmental and genetic basis underlying this division of labour, we performed a molecular analysis of ovary function and germ cell development in queens and workers. We show that the processes of ovarian development in queens have been highly conserved relative to the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. We also identify specific steps during oogenesis and embryogenesis in which ovarian and germ cell development have been evolutionarily modified in the workers. These modifications, which we call ‘reproductive constraints’, are often assumed to represent neutral degenerations that are a consequence of social evolutionary forces. Based on our developmental and functional analysis of these constraints, however, we propose and discuss the alternative hypothesis that reproductive constraints represent adaptive proximate mechanisms or traits for maintaining social harmony in ants. We apply a multi-level selection framework to help understand the role of these constraints in ant social evolution. A complete understanding of how cooperation, conflict and developmental systems evolve in social groups requires a ‘socio-evo-devo’ approach that integrates social evolutionary and developmental biology. PMID:20083637
Mechanisms and constraints shaping the evolution of body plan segmentation.
Ten Tusscher, K H W J
2013-05-01
Segmentation of the major body axis into repeating units is arguably one of the major inventions in the evolution of animal body plan pattering. It is found in current day vertebrates, annelids and arthropods. Most segmented animals seem to use a clock-and-wavefront type mechanism in which oscillations emanating from a posterior growth zone become transformed into an anterior posterior sequence of segments. In contrast, few animals such as Drosophila use a complex gene regulatory hierarchy to simultaneously subdivide their entire body axis into segments. Here I discuss how in silico models simulating the evolution of developmental patterning can be used to investigate the forces and constraints that helped shape these two developmental modes. I perform an analysis of a series of previous simulation studies, exploiting the similarities and differences in their outcomes in relation to model characteristics to elucidate the circumstances and constraints likely to have been important for the evolution of sequential and simultaneous segmentation modes. The analysis suggests that constraints arising from the involved growth process and spatial patterning signal--posterior elongation producing a propagating wavefront versus a tissue wide morphogen gradient--and the evolutionary history--ancestral versus derived segmentation mode--strongly shaped both segmentation mechanisms. Furthermore, this implies that these patterning types are to be expected rather than random evolutionary outcomes and supports the likelihood of multiple parallel evolutionary origins. PMID:23708840
Constraints on mixed dark matter from anomalous strong lens systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamada, Ayuki; Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Takahashi, Tomo
2016-07-01
Recently it has been claimed that the warm dark matter (WDM) model cannot at the same time reproduce the observed Lyman-α forests in distant quasar spectra and solve the small-scale issues in the cold dark matter (CDM) model. As an alternative candidate, it was shown that the mixed dark matter (MDM) model that consists of WDM and CDM can satisfy the constraint from Lyman-α forests and account for the "missing satellite problem" as well as the reported 3.5 keV anomalous x-ray line. We investigate observational constraints on the MDM model using strong gravitational lenses. We first develop a fitting formula for the nonlinear power spectra in the MDM model by performing N -body simulations and estimate the expected perturbations caused by line-of-sight structures in four quadruply lensed quasars that show anomaly in the flux ratios. Our analysis indicates that the MDM model is compatible with the observed anomaly if the mass fraction of the warm component is smaller than 0.47 at the 95% confidence level. The MDM explanation to the anomalous x-ray line and the small-scale issues is still viable even after this constraint is taken into account.
Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.
On the optimization of discrete structures with aeroelastic constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcintosh, S. C., Jr.; Ashley, H.
1978-01-01
The paper deals with the problem of dynamic structural optimization where constraints relating to flutter of a wing (or other dynamic aeroelastic performance) are imposed along with conditions of a more conventional nature such as those relating to stress under load, deflection, minimum dimensions of structural elements, etc. The discussion is limited to a flutter problem for a linear system with a finite number of degrees of freedom and a single constraint involving aeroelastic stability, and the structure motion is assumed to be a simple harmonic time function. Three search schemes are applied to the minimum-weight redesign of a particular wing: the first scheme relies on the method of feasible directions, while the other two are derived from necessary conditions for a local optimum so that they can be referred to as optimality-criteria schemes. The results suggest that a heuristic redesign algorithm involving an optimality criterion may be best suited for treating multiple constraints with large numbers of design variables.
Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weldy, Michelle
1996-01-01
The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.
Constraints on string resonance amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, Kingman; Liu, Yueh-Feng
2005-07-01
We perform a global analysis of the tree-level open-string amplitudes in the limit s≪M2S. Based on the present data from the Tevatron, HERA, and LEP 2, we set a lower limit on the string scale MS≥0.69 1.96 TeV at 95% confidence level for the Chan-Paton factors |T|=0-4. We also estimate the expected sensitivities at the CERN LHC, which can be as high as 19 TeV for |T|=4.
Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint
Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.
2014-01-01
We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.
Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint
Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.
2014-01-01
We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less
Spatial constraints control cell proliferation in tissues
Streichan, Sebastian J.; Hoerner, Christian R.; Schneidt, Tatjana; Holzer, Daniela; Hufnagel, Lars
2014-01-01
Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. Cells experience various spatial and mechanical constraints depending on their environmental context in the body, but we do not fully understand if and how such constraints influence cell cycle progression and thereby proliferation patterns in tissues. Here, we study the impact of mechanical manipulations on the cell cycle of individual cells within a mammalian model epithelium. By monitoring the response to experimentally applied forces, we find a checkpoint at the G1–S boundary that, in response to spatial constraints, controls cell cycle progression. This checkpoint prevents cells from entering S phase if the available space remains below a characteristic threshold because of crowding. Stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation, whereas compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest. Our kinetic analysis of this response shows that cells have no memory of past constraints and allows us to formulate a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to changes in spatial constraints in the environment. This characteristic biomechanical cell cycle response likely serves as a fundamental control mechanism to maintain tissue integrity and to ensure control of tissue growth during development and regeneration. PMID:24706777
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Batty, Kimberly A.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to document the factors (i.e., motivation and perceived constraints) and processes (i.e., constraint negotiation) that influence students' selection of and satisfaction with their internship choice. The study was conducted using a quantitative approach, which included a focus group, a pilot study, and a…
NMR Constraints Analyser: a web-server for the graphical analysis of NMR experimental constraints.
Heller, Davide Martin; Giorgetti, Alejandro
2010-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with X-ray crystallography, are the main techniques used for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of biological molecules. The output of an NMR experiment includes a set of lower and upper limits for the distances (constraints) between pairs of atoms. If the number of constraints is high enough, there will be a finite number of possible conformations (models) of the macromolecule satisfying the data. Thus, the more constraints are measured, the better defined these structures will be. The availability of a user-friendly tool able to help in the analysis and interpretation of the number of experimental constraints per residue, is thus of valuable importance when assessing the levels of structure definition of NMR solved biological macromolecules, in particular, when high-quality structures are needed in techniques such as, computational biology approaches, site-directed mutagenesis experiments and/or drug design. Here, we present a free publicly available web-server, i.e. NMR Constraints Analyser, which is aimed at providing an automatic graphical analysis of the NMR experimental constraints atom by atom. The NMR Constraints Analyser server is available from the web-page http://molsim.sci.univr.it/constraint. PMID:20513646
Quantum telescope: feasibility and constraints.
Kurek, A R; Pięta, T; Stebel, T; Pollo, A; Popowicz, A
2016-03-15
The quantum telescope is a recent idea aimed at beating the diffraction limit of spaceborne telescopes and possibly other distant target imaging systems. There is no agreement yet on the best setup of such devices, but some configurations have already been proposed. In this Letter we characterize the predicted performance of quantum telescopes and their possible limitations. Our extensive simulations confirm that the presented model of such instruments is feasible and the device can provide considerable gains in the angular resolution of imaging in the UV, optical, and infrared bands. We argue that it is generally possible to construct and manufacture such instruments using the latest or soon to be available technology. We refer to the latest literature to discuss the feasibility of the proposed QT system design. PMID:26977642
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezerra, V. B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Romero, C.
2014-09-01
We obtain stronger laboratory constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons from measurements of the normal and lateral Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces of a sphere and a plate. For this purpose, the normal and lateral additional forces arising in the experimental configurations due to the two-axion exchange between protons and neutrons are calculated. Our constraints following from measurements of the normal and lateral Casimir forces are stronger than the laboratory constraints reported so far for masses of axion-like particles larger than 11 and 8 eV, respectively. A comparison between various laboratory constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons obtained from the magnetometer measurements, Eötvos- and Cavendish-type experiments, and from the Casimir effect is performed over the wide range of masses of axion-like particles from 10-10 to 20 eV.
Generalizing Backtrack-Free Search: A Framework for Search-Free Constraint Satisfaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy
2000-01-01
Tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems are of great importance in artificial intelligence. Identifying and taking advantage of such classes can significantly speed up constraint problem solving. In addition, tractable classes are utilized in applications where strict worst-case performance guarantees are required, such as constraint-based plan execution. In this work, we present a formal framework for search-free (backtrack-free) constraint satisfaction. The framework is based on general procedures, rather than specific propagation techniques, and thus generalizes existing techniques in this area. We also relate search-free problem solving to the notion of decision sets and use the result to provide a constructive criterion that is sufficient to guarantee search-free problem solving.
Multi-point gradient calculation with constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Keyser, Johan
Multi-spacecraft missions resolve the space-time ambiguity inherent in single-spacecraft in situ measurements. One particularly useful technique is the computation of the gradients (spaceand time-derivatives) from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields. Given the diffi- culties inherent in computing derivatives, we propose to improve the determination of gradients by imposing additional information in the form of constraints. We discuss geometric constraints on the orientation of the gradient vectors and physically-motivated constraints. For instance, imposing the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field leads to an improved curlometer. We describe the usefulness of such constrained least-squares gradient techniques as applied to magnetic field and plasma density observations by Cluster.
Propagating Resource Constraints Using Mutual Exclusion Reasoning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frank, Jeremy; Sanchez, Romeo; Do, Minh B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
One of the most recent techniques for propagating resource constraints in Constraint Based scheduling is Energy Constraint. This technique focuses in precedence based scheduling, where precedence relations are taken into account rather than the absolute position of activities. Although, this particular technique proved to be efficient on discrete unary resources, it provides only loose bounds for jobs using discrete multi-capacity resources. In this paper we show how mutual exclusion reasoning can be used to propagate time bounds for activities using discrete resources. We show that our technique based on critical path analysis and mutex reasoning is just as effective on unary resources, and also shows that it is more effective on multi-capacity resources, through both examples and empirical study.
Parametric constraints in multi-beam interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burrow, Guy M.; Gaylord, Thomas K.
2012-10-01
Multi-beam interference (MBI) represents a method of producing one-, two-, and three-dimensional submicron periodic optical-intensity distributions for applications including micro- and nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterial, biomedical structures, optical trapping, and numerous other subwavelength structures. Accordingly, numerous optical configurations have been developed to implement MBI. However, these configurations typically provide limited ability to condition the key parameters of each interfering beam. Constraints on individual beam amplitudes and polarizations are systematically considered to understand their effects on lithographically useful MBI periodic patterning possibilities. A method for analyzing parametric constraints is presented and used to compare the optimized optical-intensity distributions for representative constrained systems. Case studies are presented for both square and hexagonal-lattices produced via three-beam interference. Results demonstrate that constraints on individual-beam polarizations significantly impact patterning possibilities and must be included in the systematic design of an MBI system.
Level of constraint in revision knee arthroplasty.
Indelli, Pier Francesco; Giori, Nick; Maloney, William
2015-12-01
Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of major bone deficiency and/or soft tissue laxity might require increasing levels of constraint to restore knee stability. However, increasing the level of constraint not always correlates with mid-to-long-term satisfactory results. Recently, modular components as tantalum cones and titanium sleeves have been introduced to the market with the goal of obtaining better fixation where bone deficiency is an issue; theoretically, satisfactory meta-diaphyseal fixation can reduce the mechanical stress at the level of the joint line, reducing the need for high levels of constraint. This article reviews the recent literature on the surgical management of the unstable TKA with the goal to propose a modern surgical algorithm for adult reconstruction surgeons. PMID:26373770
Boosting Set Constraint Propagation for Network Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yip, Justin; van Hentenryck, Pascal; Gervet, Carmen
This paper reconsiders the deployment of synchronous optical networks (SONET), an optimization problem naturally expressed in terms of set variables. Earlier approaches, using either MIP or CP technologies, focused on symmetry breaking, including the use of SBDS, and the design of effective branching strategies. This paper advocates an orthogonal approach and argues that the thrashing behavior experienced in earlier attempts is primarily due to a lack of pruning. It studies how to improve domain filtering by taking a more global view of the application and imposing redundant global constraints. The technical results include novel hardness results, propagation algorithms for global constraints, and inference rules. The paper also evaluates the contributions experimentally by presenting a novel model with static symmetric-breaking constraints and a static variable ordering which is many orders of magnitude faster than existing approaches.
10. Exploring the Conformal Constraint Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butscher, Adrian
One method of studying the asymptotic structure of spacetime is to apply Penrose's conformal rescaling technique. In this setting, the rescaled Einstein equations for the metric and the conformal factor in the unphysical spacetime degenerate where the conformal factor vanishes, namely at the boundary representing null infinity. This problem can be avoided by means of a technique of H. Friedrich, which replaces the Einstein equations in the unphysical spacetime by an equivalent system of equations which is regular at the boundary. The initial value problem for these equations produces a system of constraint equations known as the conformal constraint equations. This work describes some of the properties of the conformal constraint equations and develops a perturbative method of generating solutions near Euclidean space under certain simplifying assumptions.
Astrophysical Constraints of Dark Matter Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Abel, Tom; Brooks, Alyson; Buckley, Matthew; Bullock, James; Collins, Michelle; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dawson, William; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gaskins, Jennifer; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeton, Charles R.; Kim, Stacy; Peter, Annika; Read, Justin; Simon, Joshua D.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Tollerud, Erik Jon; Treu, Tommaso; Wechsler, Risa H.
2016-01-01
The nature of the dark matter that fills the universe remains a profound puzzle in physics and astrophysics. Modern astronomical observations have the potential to produce constraints or measurements on properties of dark matter that may have real power for insights into its particle nature. The key lies with understanding what those constraints may be in a way that is interpretable for both the astronomical and particle physics communities, and establishing a community consensus of how diverse astronomical paths can use a common language. The AAS Special Session on the "Astrophysical constraints of dark matter properties" focuses on framing these questions with concrete proposals for astronomical dark matter metrics and potentially figures of merit, and through a series of presentations that serve as points of departure for discussion, ultimately to reach a community consensus that will be useful for current and future pursuits on this topic.
Inference-based constraint satisfaction supports explanation
Sqalli, M.H.; Freuder, E.C.
1996-12-31
Constraint satisfaction problems are typically solved using search, augmented by general purpose consistency inference methods. This paper proposes a paradigm shift in which inference is used as the primary problem solving method, and attention is focused on special purpose, domain specific inference methods. While we expect this approach to have computational advantages, we emphasize here the advantages of a solution method that is more congenial to human thought processes. Specifically we use inference-based constraint satisfaction to support explanations of the problem solving behavior that are considerably more meaningful than a trace of a search process would be. Logic puzzles are used as a case study. Inference-based constraint satisfaction proves surprisingly powerful and easily extensible in this domain. Problems drawn from commercial logic puzzle booklets are used for evaluation. Explanations are produced that compare well with the explanations provided by these booklets.
General constraints on the Viking biology investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, H. P.
1976-01-01
The paper discusses some of the constraints pertaining to the Viking mission for detection of life on Mars, within which the Viking experiments were conceived, designed, and developed. The most important limitation to the entire study is the complete information about the nature of Mars, such as the chemical composition of the surface material of Mars and the exact identification of the constituents of that planet. Ways in which celestial mechanics places severe limitations on the Viking biology investigation are discussed. Major engineering constraints are examined relative to the accomodation of biology instrument inside the Viking lander and to the design of the instrument itself. Other constraints discussed concern the operational aspects of the mission and the testing program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew
2009-01-01
A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a model that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…
Conditions and constraints of food processing in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)
1994-01-01
Requirements and constraints of food processing in space include a balanced diet, food variety, stability for storage, hardware weight and volume, plant performance, build-up of microorganisms, and waste processing. Lunar, Martian, and space station environmental conditions include variations in atmosphere, day length, temperature, gravity, magnetic field, and radiation environment. Weightlessness affects fluid behavior, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Concerns about microbial behavior include survival on Martian and lunar surfaces and in enclosed environments. Many present technologies can be adapted to meet space conditions.
Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field
Frohlich, Cliff
2009-02-06
World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for “breakthroughs” in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isn’t very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.
A Constraint-Based Planner for Data Production
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Wanlin; Golden, Keith
2005-01-01
This paper presents a graph-based backtracking algorithm designed to support constrain-tbased planning in data production domains. This algorithm performs backtracking at two nested levels: the outer- backtracking following the structure of the planning graph to select planner subgoals and actions to achieve them and the inner-backtracking inside a subproblem associated with a selected action to find action parameter values. We show this algorithm works well in a planner applied to automating data production in an ecological forecasting system. We also discuss how the idea of multi-level backtracking may improve efficiency of solving semi-structured constraint problems.
An active set algorithm for nonlinear optimization with polyhedral constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, William W.; Zhang, Hongchao
2016-08-01
A polyhedral active set algorithm PASA is developed for solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose feasible set is a polyhedron. Phase one of the algorithm is the gradient projection method, while phase two is any algorithm for solving a linearly constrained optimization problem. Rules are provided for branching between the two phases. Global convergence to a stationary point is established, while asymptotically PASA performs only phase two when either a nondegeneracy assumption holds, or the active constraints are linearly independent and a strong second-order sufficient optimality condition holds.
Covariant constraints in ghost free massive gravity
Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.; Zahariade, G. E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr
2013-01-01
We show that the reformulation of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity theory using vielbeins leads to a very simple and covariant way to count constraints, and hence degrees of freedom. Our method singles out a subset of theories, in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley family, where an extra constraint, needed to eliminate the Boulware Deser ghost, is easily seen to appear. As a side result, we also introduce a new method, different from the Stuckelberg trick, to extract kinetic terms for the polarizations propagating in addition to those of the massless graviton.
Nontrivial Ghosts and Second-Class Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chishtie, Farrukh; McKeon, D. G. C.
In a model in which a vector gauge field Wμ a is coupled to an antisymmetric tensor field φ μ ν a possessing a pseudoscalar mass, it has been shown that all physical degrees of freedom reside in the vector field. Upon quantizing this model using the Faddeev-Popov procedure, explicit calculation of the two-point functions <ϕϕ> and
Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter
Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de
2012-08-01
We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons. We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.
On Reformulating Planning as Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Morris, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
In recent years, researchers have reformulated STRIPS planning problems as SAT problems or CSPs. In this paper, we discuss the Constraint-Based Interval Planning (CBIP) paradigm, which can represent planning problems incorporating interval time and resources. We describe how to reformulate mutual exclusion constraints for a CBIP-based system, the Extendible Uniform Remote Operations Planner Architecture (EUROPA). We show that reformulations involving dynamic variable domains restrict the algorithms which can be used to solve the resulting DCSP. We present an alternative formulation which does not employ dynamic domains, and describe the relative merits of the different reformulations.
On the evolutionary constraint surface of hydra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slobodkin, L. B.; Dunn, K.
1983-01-01
Food consumption, body size, and budding rate were measured simultaneously in isolated individual hydra of six strains. For each individual hydra the three measurements define a point in the three dimensional space with axes: food consumption, budding rate, and body size. These points lie on a single surface, regardless of species. Floating rate and incidence of sexuality map onto this surface. It is suggested that this surface is an example of a general class of evolutionary constraint surfaces derived from the conjunction of evolutinary theory and the theory of ecological resource budgets. These constraint surfaces correspond to microevolutionary domains.
Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2012-06-01
Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.
''Decoupling'' constraints on massless composite particles
Preskill, J.; Weinberg, S.
1981-08-15
It is pointed out that the use of the ''decoupling'' constraints on the spectrum of composite massles particles in not justified without further assumptions. There is an alternative condition, whose use would not be subject to the same criticisms, which would lead to the same constraints as the decoupling condition, and which would lead to other results as well, for instance that the nonchiral global symmetries in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) with n massless flavors can not be spontaneously broken. However, this condition is found to be violated in a specific model. It is still an open possibility that the chiral symmetries of QCD are unbroken for n not a multiple of 3.
On Matrix Representations of Participation Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Sven; Leck, Uwe; Link, Sebastian
We discuss the existence of matrix representations for generalised and minimum participation constraints which are frequently used in database design and conceptual modelling. Matrix representations, also known as Armstrong relations, have been studied in literature e.g. for functional dependencies and play an important role in example-based design and for the implication problem of database constraints. The major tool to achieve the results in this paper is a theorem of Hajnal and Szemerédi on the occurrence of clique graphs in a given graph.
Classical bounce: Constraints and consequences
Falciano, F. T.; Lilley, Marc; Peter, Patrick
2008-04-15
We perform a detailed investigation of the simplest possible cosmological model in which a bounce can occur, namely, that where the dynamics is led by a simple massive scalar field in a general self-interacting potential and a background spacetime with positively curved spatial sections. By means of a phase space analysis, we give the conditions under which an initially contracting phase can be followed by a bounce and an inflationary phase lasting long enough (i.e., at least 60-70 e-folds) to suppress spatial curvature in today's observable universe. We find that, quite generically, this realization requires some amount of fine-tuning of the initial conditions. We study the effect of this background evolution on scalar perturbations by propagating an initial power-law power spectrum through the contracting phase, the bounce, and the inflationary phase. We find that it is drastically modified, both spectrally (k-mode mixing) and in amplitude. It also acquires, at leading order, an oscillatory component, which, once evolved through the radiation and matter dominated eras, happens to be compatible with observational data.
Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.
2004-11-01
Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.
Similarity constraints in testing of cooled engine parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colladay, R. S.; Stepka, F. S.
1974-01-01
A study is made of the effect of testing cooled parts of current and advanced gas turbine engines at the reduced temperature and pressure conditions which maintain similarity with the engine environment. Some of the problems facing the experimentalist in evaluating heat transfer and aerodynamic performance when hardware is tested at conditions other than the actual engine environment are considered. Low temperature and pressure test environments can simulate the performance of actual size prototype engine hardware within the tolerance of experimental accuracy if appropriate similarity conditions are satisfied. Failure to adhere to these similarity constraints because of test facility limitations or other reasons, can result in a number of serious errors in projecting the performance of test hardware to engine conditions.
Experimental constraints on ureilite petrogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singletary, Steven; Grove, Timothy L.
2006-03-01
This experimental study explores the petrogenesis of ureilites by a partial melting/smelting process. Experiments have been performed over temperature (1150-1280 °C), pressure (5-12.5 MPa), and low oxygen fugacity (graphite-CO gas) conditions appropriate for a hypothetical ureilite parent body ˜200 km in size. Experimental and modeling results indicate that a partial melting/smelting model of ureilite petrogenesis can explain many of the unique characteristics displayed by this meteorite group. Compositional information preserved in the pigeonite-olivine ureilites was used to estimate the composition of melts in equilibrium with the ureilites. The results of 20 experiments saturated with olivine, pyroxene, metal, and liquid with appropriate ureilite compositions are used to calibrate the phase coefficients and pressure-temperature dependence of the smelting reaction. The calibrated coefficients are used to model the behavior of a hypothetical residue that is experiencing fractional smelting. The residue is initially olivine-rich and smelting progressively depletes the olivine content and enriches the pyroxene and metal contents of the residues. The modeled residue composition at 1260 °C best reproduces the trend of ureilite bulk compositions. The model results also indicate that as a ureilite residue undergoes isothermal decompression smelting over a range of temperatures, Ca/Al values and Cr 2O 3 contents are enriched at lower temperatures (below ˜1240 °C) and tend to decrease at higher temperatures. Therefore, fractional smelting can account for the high Ca/Al and Cr 2O 3 wt% values observed in ureilites. We propose that ureilites were generated from an olivine-rich, cpx-bearing residue. Smelting began when the residue was partially melted and contained liquid, olivine, and carbon. These residues experienced varying degrees of fractional smelting to produce the compositional variability observed within the pigeonite-bearing ureilites. Variations in mineral
Reduction of Constraints: Applicability of the Homogeneity Constraint for Macrobatch 3
Peeler, D.K.
2001-02-15
The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is used to determine the acceptability of each batch of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This control system imposes several constraints on the composition of the contents of the SME to define acceptability. These constraints relate process or product properties to composition via prediction models. A SME batch is deemed acceptable if its sample composition measurements lead to acceptable property predictions after accounting for modeling, measurement and analytic uncertainties. The baseline document guiding the use of these data and models is ''SME Acceptability Determination for DWPF Process Control (U)'' by Brown and Postles [1996]. A minimum of three PCCS constraints support the prediction of the glass durability from a given SME batch. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is reviewing all of the PCCS constraints associated with durability. The purpose of this review is to revisit these constraints in light of the additional knowledge gained since the beginning of radioactive operations at DWPF and to identify any supplemental studies needed to amplify this knowledge so that redundant or overly conservative constraints can be eliminated or replaced by more appropriate constraints.
Planck 2015 constraints on reionization history
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tristram, Matthieu
2015-08-01
On behalf of the Planck collaboration, we will show the tightest constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the CMB polarization at low multipole by Planck.The CMB large scales polarization data can gives strong constraints on the reionization history through the measurement of the reionization optical depth. The Thomson optical depth measured is significantly smaller than previously estimated from CMB polarization data. This result reduces the tension between CMB based analyses and constraints from other astrophysical sources. It highlights the necessity of a deep revision of our view on the history of reionization and the dark age. We also combine constraints from low and high l, in particular from the amplitude of the kinetic Sunyaev Zeld’ovitch effect (kSZ), to derive the time and duration of the reionization epoch. In addition, using both a new two-stage parametrization of the ionization fraction, closer to recent self-regulated simulations, and a non parametric reconstruction, we estimate a more realistic beginning, end, and duration of Reionization.
Constraints on Children's Judgments of Magical Causality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woolley, Jacqueline D.; Browne, Cheryl A.; Boerger, Elizabeth A.
2006-01-01
In 3 studies we addressed the operation of constraints on children's causal judgments. Our primary focus was whether children's beliefs about magical causality, specifically wishing, are constrained by features that govern the attribution of ordinary causality. In Experiment 1, children witnessed situations in which a confederate's wish appeared…
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen Mnif, Mohamed
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...
Language-Universal Constraints on Speech Segmentation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, Dennis; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne; Butterfield, Sally; Kearns, Ruth
2001-01-01
Two word-spotting experiments are reported that examine whether the Possible-Word Constraint (PWC) is a language-specific or language-universal strategy for the segmentation of continuous speech. Examined cases where the residue was either a CVC syllable with a Schwa or a CV syllable with a lax vowel. Showed that the word-spotting results…
Production Constraints on Learning Novel Onset Phonotactics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Redford, Melissa A.
2008-01-01
Three experiments addressed the hypothesis that production factors constrain phonotactic learning in adult English speakers, and that this constraint gives rise to a markedness effect on learning. In Experiment 1, an acoustic measure was used to assess consonant-consonant coarticulation in naturally produced nonwords, which were then used as…
CMB constraints on cosmic strings and superstrings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charnock, Tom; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Copeland, Edmund J.; Moss, Adam
2016-06-01
We present the first complete Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the unconnected segment model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and string network parameters, namely the string tension G μ , the loop-chopping efficiency cr, and the string wiggliness α . For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G μF, the string coupling gs, the self-interaction coefficient cs, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w . This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of Λ CDM cosmology+strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension, obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarization data, is G μ <1.1 ×10-7 in relativistic units, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension after marginalizing over gs, cs, and w is G μF<2.8 ×10-8.
Dynamics of load balancing with constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Hideyuki
2014-10-01
In this paper, we consider a centralized strategy for scheduling charging patterns of electrical vehicles and other batteries in power grids. We formulate it as a load balancing problem with constraints, which tries to distribute the charging loads both spatially and temporally. We show that a variant of herding system can be applied to load balancing.
Dynamics of load balancing with constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Hideyuki
2014-09-01
In this paper, we consider a centralized strategy for scheduling charging patterns of electrical vehicles and other batteries in power grids. We formulate it as a load balancing problem with constraints, which tries to distribute the charging loads both spatially and temporally. We show that a variant of herding system can be applied to load balancing.
Physical Constraints on the Noachian Deluge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soroka, Leonard G.; Nelson, Charles L.
1983-01-01
To test the literal biblical account of Noah's flood, four sources of possible flood waters were evaluated to determine if a natural (as opposed to supernatural) explanation is possible. Sources include rain, hydrothermal springs, and two types of cometary impact. Thermodynamic constraints preclude a natural means of accounting for the flood.…
Constraint Embedding Technique for Multibody System Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.
2011-01-01
Multibody dynamics play a critical role in simulation testbeds for space missions. There has been a considerable interest in the development of efficient computational algorithms for solving the dynamics of multibody systems. Mass matrix factorization and inversion techniques and the O(N) class of forward dynamics algorithms developed using a spatial operator algebra stand out as important breakthrough on this front. Techniques such as these provide the efficient algorithms and methods for the application and implementation of such multibody dynamics models. However, these methods are limited only to tree-topology multibody systems. Closed-chain topology systems require different techniques that are not as efficient or as broad as those for tree-topology systems. The closed-chain forward dynamics approach consists of treating the closed-chain topology as a tree-topology system subject to additional closure constraints. The resulting forward dynamics solution consists of: (a) ignoring the closure constraints and using the O(N) algorithm to solve for the free unconstrained accelerations for the system; (b) using the tree-topology solution to compute a correction force to enforce the closure constraints; and (c) correcting the unconstrained accelerations with correction accelerations resulting from the correction forces. This constraint-embedding technique shows how to use direct embedding to eliminate local closure-loops in the system and effectively convert the system back to a tree-topology system. At this point, standard tree-topology techniques can be brought to bear on the problem. The approach uses a spatial operator algebra approach to formulating the equations of motion. The operators are block-partitioned around the local body subgroups to convert them into aggregate bodies. Mass matrix operator factorization and inversion techniques are applied to the reformulated tree-topology system. Thus in essence, the new technique allows conversion of a system with
Constraints on muon-specific dark forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karshenboim, Savely G.; McKeen, David; Pospelov, Maxim
2014-10-01
The recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen allows for the most precise extraction of the charge radius of the proton which is currently in conflict with other determinations based on e-p scattering and hydrogen spectroscopy. This discrepancy could be the result of some new muon-specific force with O(1-100) MeV force carrier—in this paper we concentrate on vector mediators. Such an explanation faces challenges from the constraints imposed by the g-2 of the muon and electron as well as precision spectroscopy of muonic atoms. In this work we complement the family of constraints by calculating the contribution of hypothetical forces to the muonium hyperfine structure. We also compute the two-loop contribution to the electron parity-violating amplitude due to a muon loop, which is sensitive to the muon axial-vector coupling. Overall, we find that the combination of low-energy constraints favors the mass of the mediator to be below 10 MeV and that a certain degree of tuning is required between vector and axial-vector couplings of new vector particles to muons in order to satisfy constraints from muon g-2. However, we also observe that in the absence of a consistent standard model embedding high-energy weak-charged processes accompanied by the emission of new vector particles are strongly enhanced by (E/mV)2, with E a characteristic energy scale and mV the mass of the mediator. In particular, leptonic W decays impose the strongest constraints on such models completely disfavoring the remainder of the parameter space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Fuji; Wang, Yongqing; Guo, Dongming
2014-03-01
In precision machining of complex curved surface parts with high performance, geometry accuracy is not the only constraint, but the performance should also be met. Performance of this kind of parts is closely related to the geometrical and physical parameters, so the final actual size and shape are affected by multiple source constraints, such as geometry, physics, and performance. These parts are rather difficult to be manufactured and new manufacturing method according to performance requirement is urgently needed. Based on performance and manufacturing requirements for complex curved surface parts, a new classification method is proposed, which divided the complex curved surface parts into two categories: surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints(PRCS) and surface unique complex curved surface parts with pure geometric constraints(PUCS). A correlation model is constructed between the performance and multi-source constraints for PRCS, which reveals the correlation between the performance and multi-source constraints. A re-design method is also developed. Through solving the correlation model of the typical part's performance-associated surface, the mapping relation between the performance-associated surface and the related removal amount is obtained. The explicit correlation model and the method for the corresponding related removal amount of the performance-associated surface are built based on the classification of surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints. Research results have been used in the actual processing of the typical parts such as radome, common bottom components, nozzle, et al., which shows improved efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining for the surface re-design parts with complex curved surface.
Scaling the dynamic approach to path planning and control: Competition among behavioral constraints
Large, E.W.; Bajcsy, R.; Christensen, H.I.
1999-01-01
The dynamic-systems approach to robot path planning defines a dynamics of robot behavior in which task constraints contribute independently to a nonlinear vector field that governs robot actions. The authors address problems that arise in scaling this approach to handle complex behavioral requirements. They propose a dynamics that operates in the space of task constraints, determining the relative contribution of each constraint to the behavioral dynamics. Competition among task constraints is able to deal with problems that arise when combining constraint contributions, making it possible to specify tasks that are more complex than simple navigation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the authors design a system of two agents to perform a cooperative navigation task. They show how competition among constraints enables agents to make decisions regarding which behavior to execute in a given situation, resulting in the execution of sequences of behaviors that satisfy task requirements. The authors discuss the scalability of the competitive-dynamics approach to the design of more complex autonomous systems.
Learning in stochastic neural networks for constraint satisfaction problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Mark D.; Adorf, Hans-Martin
1989-01-01
Researchers describe a newly-developed artificial neural network algorithm for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) which includes a learning component that can significantly improve the performance of the network from run to run. The network, referred to as the Guarded Discrete Stochastic (GDS) network, is based on the discrete Hopfield network but differs from it primarily in that auxiliary networks (guards) are asymmetrically coupled to the main network to enforce certain types of constraints. Although the presence of asymmetric connections implies that the network may not converge, it was found that, for certain classes of problems, the network often quickly converges to find satisfactory solutions when they exist. The network can run efficiently on serial machines and can find solutions to very large problems (e.g., N-queens for N as large as 1024). One advantage of the network architecture is that network connection strengths need not be instantiated when the network is established: they are needed only when a participating neural element transitions from off to on. They have exploited this feature to devise a learning algorithm, based on consistency techniques for discrete CSPs, that updates the network biases and connection strengths and thus improves the network performance.
Evaluation of Crystallinity Constraint for HLW Glass Processing
Hrma, Pavel R.; Matyas, Josef; Kim, Dong-Sang
2002-11-12
It has been a commonly held assumption that constraining liquidus temperature (TL) prevents the accumulation of crystalline phases in the high-level waste (HLW) glass melter because crystals, if they form at all, should dissolve easily in the melt at tempera-tures above liquidus. This, as the model calculation showed, is not the case in melters with fast circulation flow. If the melt circulates rapidly between cool and hot regions, crystals do not have a sufficient time to dissolve while in the hot zone. As a result, a steady-state size and concentration of crystals is established throughout most of the melter during normal operation. A consequence of this result is that the rate of crystal ac-cumulation in the melter only slightly increases with increasing TL, but strongly increases with increasing crystal size. For the melter simulated by the model, the TL could be 100°C above the accepted constraint without a serious impact on melter performance. Nucleation agents that keep crystals small abound in most HLWs but are often absent in simulated wastes for experimental melter runs. The weak impact of TL on melter per-formance is an important finding because without the current TL constraint, the HLW glass volume at Hanford can significantly decrease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yanhua; Lin, Jianping
2015-08-01
Tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) have been considered as a productive sheet forming method in automotive industries. However, formability of TWBs is reduced due to different properties or thicknesses of the blanks and is a challenge for manufacturing designers. The plastic capacity of TWBs is decreased even when the material and thickness are the same. The constraint effect of the laser weld (including weld and heat-affected zone) material in the forming process of similar TWBs is a key problem to be solved in the research, development and application of thin-sheet TWBs. In this paper, uniaxial tensile tests with full-field strain measurement by digital image correlation and Erichsen tests are performed to investigate the constraint effect on deformation behavior and explore the mechanism of decreasing formability of similar TWBs. In addition, finite element models are conducted under ABAQUS code to further reveal the phenomenal behavior of the constraint effect. The results of the base material and welded blanks are compared for characterizing the differences. Furthermore, in order to better understand this mechanism, theoretical and numerical investigations are employed and compared to interpret the constraint effect of laser weld on the deformation behavior of TWBs. An index is proposed to quantify the constraint effect. Results show that the constraint effect of laser weld appears in both stretch forming and drawing of TWBs. Strain paths are approaching the plane strain condition as compared to the monolithic blank due to the constraint effect. Constraint effect is a major factor affecting the formability of TWBs when the failure occurs away from the weld seam.
Importance of parametrizing constraints in quantum-mechanical variational calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, Kwong T.; Bhatia, A. K.
1992-01-01
In variational calculations of quantum mechanics, constraints are sometimes imposed explicitly on the wave function. These constraints, which are deduced by physical arguments, are often not uniquely defined. In this work, the advantage of parametrizing constraints and letting the variational principle determine the best possible constraint for the problem is pointed out. Examples are carried out to show the surprising effectiveness of the variational method if constraints are parameterized. It is also shown that misleading results may be obtained if a constraint is not parameterized.
Some properties of constraints in theories with degenerate Lagrangians
Nesterenko, V.V.; Chervyakov, A.M.
1986-01-01
The Poisson brackets of the primary constraints are expressed by means of linear differential operators in terms of Lagrangian constraints. In the framework of the Lagrangian formalism the authors propose a sufficient criterion for existence in the theory of second class constraints. It is shown that invariance of the action with respect to transformations with arbitrary functions of the time leads to primary constraints that are in involution with one another and with the canonical Hamiltonian, at least in the weak sense. It follows from the analysis of the functional arbitrariness in the solutions of the Hamilton equations that such primary constraints must be first-class constraints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moncrief, V.; Teitelboim, C.
1972-01-01
It is shown that if the Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity is imposed as a restriction on the Hamilton principal functional in the classical theory, or on the state functional in the quantum theory, then the momentum constraints are automatically satisfied. This result holds both for closed and open spaces and it means that the full content of the theory is summarized by a single functional equation of the Tomonaga-Schwinger type.
Chang, Wen-Jer; Huang, Bo-Jyun
2014-11-01
The multi-constrained robust fuzzy control problem is investigated in this paper for perturbed continuous-time nonlinear stochastic systems. The nonlinear system considered in this paper is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with perturbations and state multiplicative noises. The multiple performance constraints considered in this paper include stability, passivity and individual state variance constraints. The Lyapunov stability theory is employed to derive sufficient conditions to achieve the above performance constraints. By solving these sufficient conditions, the contribution of this paper is to develop a parallel distributed compensation based robust fuzzy control approach to satisfy multiple performance constraints for perturbed nonlinear systems with multiplicative noises. At last, a numerical example for the control of perturbed inverted pendulum system is provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed multi-constrained robust fuzzy control method. PMID:25281584
Domenici, P; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J
2007-11-29
Environmental constraints in aquatic habitats have become topics of concern to both the scientific community and the public at large. In particular, coastal and freshwater habitats are subject to dramatic variability in various environmental factors, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. The protection and sustainable management of all aquatic habitats requires greater understanding of how environmental constraints influence aquatic organisms. Locomotion and predator-prey interactions are intimately linked and fundamental to the survival of mobile aquatic organisms. This paper summarizes the main points from the review and research articles which comprise the theme issue 'Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms'. The articles explore how natural and anthropogenic factors can constrain these two fundamental activities in a diverse range of organisms from phytoplankton to marine mammals. Some major environmental constraints derive from the intrinsic properties of the fluid and are mechanical in nature, such as viscosity and flow regime. Other constraints derive from direct effects of factors, such as temperature, oxygen content of the water or turbidity, upon the mechanisms underlying the performance of locomotion and predator-prey interactions. The effect of these factors on performance at the tissue and organ level is reflected in constraints upon performance of the whole organism. All these constraints can influence behaviour. Ultimately, they can have an impact on ecological performance. One issue that requires particular attention is how factors such as temperature and oxygen can exert different constraints on the physiology and behaviour of different taxa and the ecological implications of this. Given the multiplicity of constraints, the complexity of their interactions, and the variety of biological levels at which they can act, there is a clear need for integration between the fields of
Procedural Code Generation vs Static Expansion in Modelling Languages for Constraint Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Julien; Martinez, Thierry; Fages, François
To make constraint programming easier to use by the non-programmers, a lot of work has been devoted to the design of front-end modelling languages using logical and algebraic notations instead of programming constructs. The transformation to an executable constraint program can be performed by fundamentally two compilation schemas: either by a static expansion of the model in a flat constraint satisfaction problem (e.g. Zinc, Rules2CP, Essence) or by generation of procedural code (e.g. OPL, Comet). In this paper, we compare both compilation schemas. For this, we consider the rule-based modelling language Rules2CP with its static exansion mechanism and describe with a formal system a new compilation schema which proceeds by generation of procedural code. We analyze the complexity of both compilation schemas, and present some performance figures of both the compilation process and the generated code on a benchmark of scheduling and bin packing problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung-Woon Yoo, John
2016-06-01
Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.
LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique
Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley
2009-06-18
LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths {Delta}K. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have {Delta}K that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient {chi}{sup 2
Leaf Sequencing Algorithm Based on MLC Shape Constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jing, Jia; Pei, Xi; Wang, Dong; Cao, Ruifen; Lin, Hui
2012-06-01
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) requires the determination of the appropriate multileaf collimator settings to deliver an intensity map. The purpose of this work was to attempt to regulate the shape between adjacent multileaf collimator apertures by a leaf sequencing algorithm. To qualify and validate this algorithm, the integral test for the segment of the multileaf collimator of ARTS was performed with clinical intensity map experiments. By comparisons and analyses of the total number of monitor units and number of segments with benchmark results, the proposed algorithm performed well while the segment shape constraint produced segments with more compact shapes when delivering the planned intensity maps, which may help to reduce the multileaf collimator's specific effects.
Solving and Learning Soft Temporal Constraints: Experimental Setting and Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossi, F.; Sperduti, A.; Venable, K. B.; Khatib, L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. However, sometimes such local preferences are difficult to set, and it may be easier instead to associate preferences to some complete solutions of the problem. Machine learning techniques can be useful in this respect. In this paper we describe two solvers (one more general and the other one more efficient) for tractable subclasses of soft temporal problems, and we show some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. We also compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power. Finally, we present a learning module and we show its behavior on randomly-generated examples.
Two Solvers for Tractable Temporal Constraints with Preferences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rossi, F.; Khatib,L.; Morris, P.; Morris, R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time on the basis of preferences. Soft temporal constraints problems allow to describe in a natural way scenarios where events happen over time and preferences are associated to event distances and durations. In general, solving soft temporal problems require exponential time in the worst case, but there are interesting subclasses of problems which are polynomially solvable. We describe two solvers based on two different approaches for solving the same tractable subclass. For each solver we present the theoretical results it stands on, a description of the algorithm and some experimental results. The random generator used to build the problems on which tests are performed is also described. Finally, we compare the two solvers highlighting the tradeoff between performance and representational power.
Park, JuHyung; Lee, NaYun; Cho, YongHo; Yang, YeongAe
2015-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that modified constraint-induced movement therapy has on upper extremity function and the daily life of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was conduct for 2 stroke patients with hemiplegia. It was performed 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and the participants performed their daily living activities wearing mittens for 6 hours a day, including the 2 hours of the therapy program. The assessment was conducted 5 times in 3 weeks before and after intervention. The upper extremity function was measured using the box and block test and a dynamometer, and performance daily of living activities was assessed using the modified Barthel index. The results were analyzed using a scatterplot and linear regression. [Results] All the upper extremity functions of the participants all improved after the modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Performance of daily living activities by participant 1 showed no change, but the results of participant 2 had improved after the intervention. [Conclusion] Through the results of this research, it was identified that modified constraint-induced movement therapy is effective at improving the upper extremity functions and the performance of daily living activities of chronic stroke patients. PMID:25931770
Length constraints of multidomain proteins in metazoans
Middleton, Sarah; Song, Timothy; Nayak, Sudhir
2010-01-01
The increasing number of annotated genome sequences in public databases has made it possible to study the length distributions and domain composition of proteins at unprecedented resolution. To identify factors that influence protein length in metazoans, we performed an analysis of all domainannotated proteins from a total of 49 animal species from Ensembl (v.56) or EnsemblMetazoa (v.3). Our results indicate that protein length constraints are not fixed as a linear function of domain count and can vary based on domain content. The presence of repeating domains was associated with relaxation of the constraints that govern protein length. Conversely, for proteins with unique domains, length constraints were generally maintained with increased domain counts. It is clear that mean (and median) protein length and domain composition vary significantly between metazoans and other kingdoms; however, the connections between function, domain content, and length are unclear. We incorporated Gene Ontology (GO) annotation to identify biological processes, cellular components, or molecular functions that favor the incorporation of multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we identified multiple GO terms that favor the incorporation of multi-domain proteins; interestingly, several of the GO terms with elevated domain counts were not restricted to a single gene family. The findings presented here represent an important step in resolving the complex relationship between protein length, function, and domain content. The comparison of the data presented in this work to data from other kingdoms is likely to reveal additional differences in the regulation of protein length. PMID:20975906
Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih
2010-01-01
Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications
Observational constraints on K-inflation models
Li, Sheng; Liddle, Andrew R. E-mail: a.liddle@sussex.ac.uk
2012-10-01
We extend the ModeCode software of Mortonson, Peiris and Easther [1] to enable numerical computation of perturbations in K-inflation models, where the scalar field no longer has a canonical kinetic term. Focussing on models where the kinetic and potential terms can be separated into a sum, we compute slow-roll predictions for various models and use these to verify the numerical code. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis is then used to impose constraints from WMAP7 data on the addition of a term quadratic in the kinetic energy to the Lagrangian of simple chaotic inflation models. For a quadratic potential, the data do not discriminate against addition of such a term, while for a quartic (λφ{sup 4}) potential inclusion of such a term is actually favoured. Overall, constraints on such a term from present data are found to be extremely weak.
Hamiltonian quantum dynamics with separability constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burić, Nikola
2008-01-01
Schroedinger equation on a Hilbert space H, represents a linear Hamiltonian dynamical system on the space of quantum pure states, the projective Hilbert space PH. Separable states of a bipartite quantum system form a special submanifold of PH. We analyze the Hamiltonian dynamics that corresponds to the quantum system constrained on the manifold of separable states, using as an important example the system of two interacting qubits. The constraints introduce nonlinearities which render the dynamics nontrivial. We show that the qualitative properties of the constrained dynamics clearly manifest the symmetry of the qubits system. In particular, if the quantum Hamilton's operator has not enough symmetry, the constrained dynamics is nonintegrable, and displays the typical features of a Hamiltonian dynamical system with mixed phase space. Possible physical realizations of the separability constraints are discussed.
Cosmological constraints on the neutron lifetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvati, L.; Pagano, L.; Consiglio, R.; Melchiorri, A.
2016-03-01
We derive new constraints on the neutron lifetime based on the recent Planck 2015 observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. Under the assumption of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, we show that Planck data constrains the neutron lifetime to τn = (907±69) [s] at 68% c.l.. Moreover, by including the direct measurements of primordial Helium abundance of Aver et al. (2015) and Izotov et al. (2014), we show that cosmological data provide the stringent constraints τn = (875±19) [s] and τn = (921±11) [s] respectively. The latter appears to be in tension with neutron lifetime value quoted by the Particle Data Group (τn = (880.3±1.1) [s]). Future CMB surveys as COrE+, in combination with a weak lensing survey as EUCLID, could constrain the neutron lifetime up to a ~ 6 [s] precision.
Statistical and constraint factors in cleavage initiation
Odette, G.R.; Edsinger, K.V.; Lucas, G.E.
1997-12-31
The size dependence of effective cleavage initiation toughness K{sub e}(T) (defined by the load-displacement conditions at initiation) of steels are mediated by both statistical and constraint factors. Statistical effects are controlled by the total high stress volume even under plane strain, small scale yielding, e.g., K{sub Ic} {proportional_to} 1/B{sup {minus}1/4}. Constraint loss and reductions in the stress fields occurs for shallow cracks, large scale yielding and deviations from plane strain. The interplay between these factors is examined by analyzing the observed K{sub e}(T) behavior for specimens with different W, B and a/W using FEM simulations of the crack tip fields and confocal microscopy, fracture reconstruction and SEM characterization of the sequence-of-fracture-events. Observed versus actual sequences and complications such as crack tip strain, the transition to ductile tearing and ultimate loss of specimen capacity are discussed.
Dark matter constraints from stellar evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, A.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.
2016-01-01
The study of dark matter constraints from its effect on star evolution has been discussed in recent years. We propose a star evolution simulation approach to determine those costraints from properties related to star evolutionary stages and propose globular cluster observables in order to check those constraints. My work in progress (my PhD project research) employs FRANEC code to simulate complete star evolution from pre-main sequence to AGB phase, and regards several DM candidates like axions or WIMPs, motivated by different unsolved physical problems. Detailed energy production or energy loss due to DM particles are included, taking into account the expected interaction between dark matter particles and stellar plasma within different models.
Decoupling Coupled Constraints Through Utility Design
Li, N; Marden, JR
2014-08-01
Several multiagent systems exemplify the need for establishing distributed control laws that ensure the resulting agents' collective behavior satisfies a given coupled constraint. This technical note focuses on the design of such control laws through a game-theoretic framework. In particular, this technical note provides two systematic methodologies for the design of local agent objective functions that guarantee all resulting Nash equilibria optimize the system level objective while also satisfying a given coupled constraint. Furthermore, the designed local agent objective functions fit into the framework of state based potential games. Consequently, one can appeal to existing results in game-theoretic learning to derive a distributed process that guarantees the agents will reach such an equilibrium.
A fast full constraints unmixing method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhang; Wei, Ran; Wang, Qing Yan
2012-10-01
Mixed pixels are inevitable due to low-spatial resolutions of hyperspectral image (HSI). Linear spectrum mixture model (LSMM) is a classical mathematical model to relate the spectrum of mixing substance to corresponding individual components. The solving of LSMM, namely unmixing, is essentially a linear optimization problem with constraints, which is usually consisting of iterations implemented on decent direction and stopping criterion to terminate algorithms. Such criterion must be properly set in order to balance the accuracy and speed of solution. However, the criterion in existing algorithm is too strict, which maybe lead to convergence rate reducing. In this paper, by broaden constraints in unmixing, a new stopping rule is proposed, which can reduce rate of convergence. The experiments results prove both in runtime and iteration numbers that our method can accelerate convergence processing with only cost of little quality decrease in resulting.
Spin constraints on nuclear energy density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robledo, L. M.; Bernard, R. N.; Bertsch, G. F.
2014-02-01
The Gallagher-Moszkowski rule in the spectroscopy of odd-odd nuclei imposes a new spin constraint on the energy functionals for self-consistent mean field theory. The commonly used parametrization of the effective three-body interaction in the Gogny and Skyrme families of energy functionals is ill suited to satisfy the spin constraint. In particular, the Gogny parametrization of the three-body interaction has the spin dependence opposite to that required by the observed spectra. The two-body part has a correct sign, but in combination the rule is violated as often as not. We conclude that a new functional form is needed for the effective three-body interaction that can take into better account the different spin-isospin channels of the interaction.
A multiagent evolutionary algorithm for constraint satisfaction problems.
Liu, Jing; Zhong, Weicai; Jiao, Licheng
2006-02-01
With the intrinsic properties of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) in mind, we divide CSPs into two types, namely, permutation CSPs and nonpermutation CSPs. According to their characteristics, several behaviors are designed for agents by making use of the ability of agents to sense and act on the environment. These behaviors are controlled by means of evolution, so that the multiagent evolutionary algorithm for constraint satisfaction problems (MAEA-CSPs) results. To overcome the disadvantages of the general encoding methods, the minimum conflict encoding is also proposed. Theoretical analyzes show that MAEA-CSPs has a linear space complexity and converges to the global optimum. The first part of the experiments uses 250 benchmark binary CSPs and 79 graph coloring problems from the DIMACS challenge to test the performance of MAEA-CSPs for nonpermutation CSPs. MAEA-CSPs is compared with six well-defined algorithms and the effect of the parameters is analyzed systematically. The second part of the experiments uses a classical CSP, n-queen problems, and a more practical case, job-shop scheduling problems (JSPs), to test the performance of MAEA-CSPs for permutation CSPs. The scalability of MAEA-CSPs along n for n-queen problems is studied with great care. The results show that MAEA-CSPs achieves good performance when n increases from 10(4) to 10(7), and has a linear time complexity. Even for 10(7)-queen problems, MAEA-CSPs finds the solutions by only 150 seconds. For JSPs, 59 benchmark problems are used, and good performance is also obtained. PMID:16468566
Varying alpha: New constraints from seasonal variations
Barrow, John D.; Shaw, Douglas J.
2008-09-15
We analyze the constraints obtained from new atomic clock data on the possible time variation of the fine structure 'constant' and the electron-proton mass ratio, and show how they are strengthened when the seasonal variation of the Sun's gravitational field at the Earth's surface is taken into account. We compare these bounds with those obtainable from tests of the weak equivalence principle and high redshift observations of quasar absorption spectra.
Congruent Melting Kinetics: Constraints on Chondrule Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenwood, James P.; Hess, Paul C.
1995-01-01
The processes and mechanisms of melting and their applications to chondrule formation are discussed A model for the kinetics of congruent melting is developed and used to place constraints on the duration and maximum temperature experienced by the interiors of relict-bearing chondrules. Specifically, chondrules containing relict forsteritic olivine or enstatitic pyroxene cannot have been heated in excess of 1901 C or 1577 C, respectively, for more than a few seconds.
Split involution and second class constraints
Batalin, I.A.; Lyakhovich, S.L.; Tyutin, I.V. )
1992-07-10
In this paper, the new quantization scheme is proposed for theories with second class constraints. The formalism possesses the properties intermediate between those of the conversion method and quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket; on the one hand, all the phase variable operators have nonsingular commutators while the physical states are determined by weak equations; on the other hand, no extra degrees of freedom are introduced.
Constraints on Mueller matrices of polarization optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kostinski, Alexander B.; Givens, Clark R.; Kwiatkowski, John M.
1993-01-01
The issue of physical realizability constraints on depolarizing scattering or imaging systems is addressed. In particular, the overpolarization problem, i.e., the problem of ensuring that the output degree of polarization is always smaller than (or equal to) unity, is discussed in detail. A set of necessary conditions for the elements of a Mueller matrix is derived. These conditions can be used to test the accuracy of polarimetric measurements and computations. Several recent experimental examples from polarization optics and radar are discussed.
The Probabilistic Admissible Region with Additional Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roscoe, C.; Hussein, I.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.
The admissible region, in the space surveillance field, is defined as the set of physically acceptable orbits (e.g., orbits with negative energies) consistent with one or more observations of a space object. Given additional constraints on orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity, etc., the admissible region can be constrained, resulting in the constrained admissible region (CAR). Based on known statistics of the measurement process, one can replace hard constraints with a probabilistic representation of the admissible region. This results in the probabilistic admissible region (PAR), which can be used for orbit initiation in Bayesian tracking and prioritization of tracks in a multiple hypothesis tracking framework. The PAR concept was introduced by the authors at the 2014 AMOS conference. In that paper, a Monte Carlo approach was used to show how to construct the PAR in the range/range-rate space based on known statistics of the measurement, semimajor axis, and eccentricity. An expectation-maximization algorithm was proposed to convert the particle cloud into a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) representation of the PAR. This GMM can be used to initialize a Bayesian filter. The PAR was found to be significantly non-uniform, invalidating an assumption frequently made in CAR-based filtering approaches. Using the GMM or particle cloud representations of the PAR, orbits can be prioritized for propagation in a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) framework. In this paper, the authors focus on expanding the PAR methodology to allow additional constraints, such as a constraint on perigee altitude, to be modeled in the PAR. This requires re-expressing the joint probability density function for the attributable vector as well as the (constrained) orbital parameters and range and range-rate. The final PAR is derived by accounting for any interdependencies between the parameters. Noting that the concepts presented are general and can be applied to any measurement scenario, the idea
Constraint-Free Theories of Gravitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estabrook, Frank B.; Robinson, R. Steve; Wahlquist, Hugo D.
1998-01-01
Lovelock actions (more precisely, extended Gauss-Bonnet forms) when varied as Cartan forms on subspaces of higher dimensional flat Riemannian manifolds, generate well set, causal exterior differential systems. In particular, the Einstein- Hilbert action 4-form, varied on a 4 dimensional subspace of E(sub 10) yields a well set generalized theory of gravity having no constraints. Rcci-flat solutions are selected by initial conditions on a bounding 3-space.
Redshift drift constraints on f( T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Jia-Jia; Guo, Rui-Yun; He, Dong-Ze; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-01
We explore the impact of the Sandage-Loeb (SL) test on the precision of cosmological constraints for f( T) gravity theories. The SL test is an important supplement to current cosmological observations because it measures the redshift drift in the Lyman-α forest in the spectra of distant quasars, covering the "redshift desert" of 2 ≤ z ≤ 5. To avoid data inconsistency, we use the best-fit models based on current combined observational data as fiducial models to simulate 30 mock SL test data. We quantify the impact of these SL test data on parameter estimation for f( T) gravity theories. Two typical f( T) models are considered, the power-law model f( T) PL and the exponential-form model f( T) EXP . The results show that the SL test can effectively break the existing strong degeneracy between the present-day matter density Ω m and the Hubble constant H 0 in other cosmological observations. For the considered f( T) models, a 30-year observation of the SL test can improve the constraint precision of Ω m and H 0 enormously but cannot effectively improve the constraint precision of the model parameters.
Constraints on α -attractor inflation and reheating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueno, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro
2016-04-01
We investigate a constraint on reheating followed by α -attractor-type inflation (the E-model and T-model) from an observation of the spectral index ns. When the energy density of the Universe is dominated by an energy component with the cosmic equation-of-state parameter wre during reheating, its e -folding number Nre and the reheating temperature Tre are bounded depending on wre. When the reheating epoch consists of two phases—where the energy density of the Universe is dominated by uniform inflaton field oscillations in the first phase and by relativistic nonthermalized particles in the second phase—we find a constraint on the e -folding number of the first oscillation phase, Nsc, depending on the parameters of the inflaton potential. For the simplest perturbative reheating scenario, we find the lower bound for a coupling constant of inflaton decay in the E-model and T-model depending on the model parameters. We also find a constraint on the α parameter, α ≳0.01 , for the T-model and E-model when we assume a broad resonance reheating scenario.
Constraints on neutrino masses from weak lensing
Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomo
2009-01-15
Weak lensing (WL) distortions of distant galaxy images are sensitive to neutrino masses by probing the suppression effect on clustering strengths of total matter in large-scale structure. We use the latest measurements of WL correlations, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data, to explore constraints on neutrino masses. We find that, while the WL data alone cannot place a stringent limit on neutrino masses due to parameter degeneracies, the constraint can be significantly improved when combined with other cosmological probes, such as the WMAP 5-year data (WMAP5) and the distance measurements of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). The upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses are , 0.76, and 0.54 eV (95% CL) for WL+WMAP5, WMAP5+SNe+BAO, and WL+WMAP5+SNe+BAO, respectively, assuming a flat {lambda}CDM model with finite-mass neutrinos. In deriving these constraints, our analysis includes the non-Gaussian covariances of the WL correlation functions to properly take into account significant correlations between different angles.
Breaking evolutionary constraint with a tradeoff ratchet.
de Vos, Marjon G J; Dawid, Alexandre; Sunderlikova, Vanda; Tans, Sander J
2015-12-01
Epistatic interactions can frustrate and shape evolutionary change. Indeed, phenotypes may fail to evolve when essential mutations are only accessible through positive selection if they are fixed simultaneously. How environmental variability affects such constraints is poorly understood. Here, we studied genetic constraints in fixed and fluctuating environments using the Escherichia coli lac operon as a model system for genotype-environment interactions. We found that, in different fixed environments, all trajectories that were reconstructed by applying point mutations within the transcription factor-operator interface became trapped at suboptima, where no additional improvements were possible. Paradoxically, repeated switching between these same environments allows unconstrained adaptation by continuous improvements. This evolutionary mode is explained by pervasive cross-environmental tradeoffs that reposition the peaks in such a way that trapped genotypes can repeatedly climb ascending slopes and hence, escape adaptive stasis. Using a Markov approach, we developed a mathematical framework to quantify the landscape-crossing rates and show that this ratchet-like adaptive mechanism is robust in a wide spectrum of fluctuating environments. Overall, this study shows that genetic constraints can be overcome by environmental change and that cross-environmental tradeoffs do not necessarily impede but also, can facilitate adaptive evolution. Because tradeoffs and environmental variability are ubiquitous in nature, we speculate this evolutionary mode to be of general relevance. PMID:26567153
Breaking evolutionary constraint with a tradeoff ratchet
de Vos, Marjon G. J.; Dawid, Alexandre; Sunderlikova, Vanda; Tans, Sander J.
2015-01-01
Epistatic interactions can frustrate and shape evolutionary change. Indeed, phenotypes may fail to evolve when essential mutations are only accessible through positive selection if they are fixed simultaneously. How environmental variability affects such constraints is poorly understood. Here, we studied genetic constraints in fixed and fluctuating environments using the Escherichia coli lac operon as a model system for genotype–environment interactions. We found that, in different fixed environments, all trajectories that were reconstructed by applying point mutations within the transcription factor–operator interface became trapped at suboptima, where no additional improvements were possible. Paradoxically, repeated switching between these same environments allows unconstrained adaptation by continuous improvements. This evolutionary mode is explained by pervasive cross-environmental tradeoffs that reposition the peaks in such a way that trapped genotypes can repeatedly climb ascending slopes and hence, escape adaptive stasis. Using a Markov approach, we developed a mathematical framework to quantify the landscape-crossing rates and show that this ratchet-like adaptive mechanism is robust in a wide spectrum of fluctuating environments. Overall, this study shows that genetic constraints can be overcome by environmental change and that cross-environmental tradeoffs do not necessarily impede but also, can facilitate adaptive evolution. Because tradeoffs and environmental variability are ubiquitous in nature, we speculate this evolutionary mode to be of general relevance. PMID:26567153
Hard Constraints in Optimization Under Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design of systems subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements are specified via hard inequality constraints. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations within a given uncertainty model. Uncertainty models given by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles, are the focus of this paper. These models, which are also quite practical, allow for a rigorous mathematical treatment within the proposed framework. Hard constraint feasibility is determined by sizing the largest uncertainty set for which the design requirements are satisfied. Analytically verifiable assessments of robustness are attained by comparing this set with the actual uncertainty model. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness characteristics of competing design alternatives, the description and approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, this methodology is applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.
HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY
Farooq, Omer; Mania, Data; Ratra, Bharat E-mail: mania@phys.ksu.edu
2013-02-20
We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points from Simon et al., Gaztanaga et al., Stern et al., and Moresco et al. to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. The inclusion of the eight new measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen and Ratra. These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data, which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize, however, that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly evolving dark energy.
Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint
Regin, J.C.
1996-12-31
A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.
Universal Quantification in a Constraint-Based Planner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, Keith; Frank, Jeremy; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Constraints and universal quantification are both useful in planning, but handling universally quantified constraints presents some novel challenges. We present a general approach to proving the validity of universally quantified constraints. The approach essentially consists of checking that the constraint is not violated for all members of the universe. We show that this approach can sometimes be applied even when variable domains are infinite, and we present some useful special cases where this can be done efficiently.
SAT Encoding and CSP Reduction for Interconnected Alldiff Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lardeux, Frederic; Monfroy, Eric; Saubion, Frederic; Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos
Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) or Boolean satisfiability problem (SAT) are two well known paradigm to model and solve combinatorial problems. Modeling and resolution of CSP is often strengthened by global constraints (e.g., Alldiff constraint). This paper highlights two different ways of handling specific structural information: a uniform propagation framework to handle (interleaved) Alldiff constraints with some CSP reduction rules; and a SAT encoding of these rules that preserves the reduction properties of CSP.
Strategic Planning under Severe Constraints in a State College
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Geisler, Jerry L.; Gilliard, Debbie J.
2007-01-01
This paper examines the difficulties of strategic planning under severe constraints in a state college. Constraints include the planning models available, the governance structure of the college and other externalities, and a not-for-profit model of constraints by Newman and Wallender. After presenting the planning challenges, we discuss…
Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foshee, Mark; Murey, Kim; Marsh, Angela
2010-01-01
The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) located at the Marshall Space Flight Center has the responsibility of integrating US payload science requirements for the International Space Station (ISS). All payload operations must request ISS system resources so that the resource usage will be included in the ISS on-board execution timelines. The scheduling of resources and building of the timeline is performed using the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). The ISS resources are quite complex due to the large number of components that must be accounted for. The planners at the POIC simplify the process for Payload Developers (PD) by providing the PDs with a application that has the basic functionality PDs need as well as list of simplified resources in the User Requirements Collection (URC) application. The planners maintained a mapping of the URC resources to the CPS resources. The process of manually converting PD's science requirements from a simplified representation to a more complex CPS representation is a time-consuming and tedious process. The goal is to provide a software solution to allow the planners to build a mapping of the complex CPS constraints to the basic URC constraints and automatically convert the PD's requirements into systems requirements during export to CPS.
A planar quasi-static constraint mode tyre model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Rui; Ferris, John B.; Reid, Alexander A.; Gorsich, David J.
2015-12-01
The fast-paced, iterative, vehicle design environment demands efficiency when simulating suspension loads. Towards that end, a computationally efficient, linear, planar, quasi-static tyre model is developed in this work that accurately predicts a tyre's lower frequency, reasonably large amplitude, nonlinear stiffness relationship. The axisymmetric, circumferentially isotropic, stiffness equation is discretised into segments, then parameterised by a single stiffness parameter and two shape parameters. The tyre's deformed shape is independent of the overall tyre stiffness and the forces acting on the tyre. Constraint modes capture enveloping and bridging properties and a recursive method yields the set of active constraints at the tyre-road interface. The nonlinear stiffness of a tyre is captured by enforcing unidirectional geometric boundary conditions. The model parameters are identified semi-empirically; simulated cleat test loads match experiments within 7% including nonlinear stiffness when simulating a flat plate test and a discontinuous stiffness when simulating a cleat test. This work was conducted at the Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory of Virginia Tech.
Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems
Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.
2010-05-30
Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.
Filter Design With Secrecy Constraints: The MIMO Gaussian Wiretap Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reboredo, Hugo; Xavier, Joao; Rodrigues, Miguel R. D.
2013-08-01
This paper considers the problem of filter design with secrecy constraints, where two legitimate parties (Alice and Bob) communicate in the presence of an eavesdropper (Eve), over a Gaussian multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel. This problem involves designing, subject to a power constraint, the transmit and the receive filters which minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) between the legitimate parties whilst assuring that the eavesdropper MSE remains above a certain threshold. We consider a general MIMO Gaussian wiretap scenario, where the legitimate receiver uses a linear Zero-Forcing (ZF) filter and the eavesdropper receiver uses either a ZF or an optimal linear Wiener filter. We provide a characterization of the optimal filter designs by demonstrating the convexity of the optimization problems. We also provide generalizations of the filter designs from the scenario where the channel state is known to all the parties to the scenario where there is uncertainty in the channel state. A set of numerical results illustrates the performance of the novel filter designs, including the robustness to channel modeling errors. In particular, we assess the efficacy of the designs in guaranteeing not only a certain MSE level at the eavesdropper, but also in limiting the error probability at the eavesdropper. We also assess the impact of the filter designs on the achievable secrecy rates. The penalty induced by the fact that the eavesdropper may use the optimal non-linear receive filter rather than the optimal linear one is also explored in the paper.
Overhead in communication systems as the cost of constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn, Brian P.
This dissertation develops a perspective for studying overhead in communication systems that contrasts the traditional viewpoint that overhead is the "non-data" portion of transmissions. By viewing overhead as the cost of constraints imposed on a system, information-theoretic techniques can be used to obtain fundamental limits on system performance. In principle, protocol overhead in practical implementations can then be benchmarked against these fundamental limits in order to identify opportunities for improvement. We examine three sources of overhead that have been studied in both information theory and networking using different models and metrics. For multi-access communication systems, we compute constrained capacity regions for two binary additive channels with feedback and develop inner and outer bounds on the capacity region of the packet collision channel with feedback that appear to be tight numerically. We develop bounds on the protocol overhead required to meet an average delay constraint and then use these bounds to characterize rate-delay tradeoffs for communicating a bursty source over a noisy channel. Finally, we study information-theoretic security in timing channels and show that non-zero secrecy rates can be achieved over the wiretap timing channel using a deterministic encoder.
On Performance Skill Representation Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori
In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, John N.; Mobius, Peter; Kim, Choonkyong
2001-01-01
Investigated processing of English wh-questions by native speakers of English and advanced Chinese, German, and Korean learners of English as a Second Language. Performance was evaluated in relation to parsing strategies and sensitivity to plausibility constraints. Results suggest native and nonnative speakers employ similar strategies in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Law, Sui-Heung; Lo, Sing Kai; Chow, Susanna; Cheing, Gladys L.Y.
2011-01-01
Excessive grip force (GF) is often found in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, their GF control may vary when task constraints are imposed upon their motor performance. This study aimed to investigate how their GF control changes in response to task demands, and to examine their tactile sensitivity. Twenty-one…
Genetic variation, simplicity, and evolutionary constraints for function-valued traits.
Kingsolver, Joel G; Heckman, Nancy; Zhang, Jonathan; Carter, Patrick A; Knies, Jennifer L; Stinchcombe, John R; Meyer, Karin
2015-06-01
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation and constraint for continuous reaction norms, growth trajectories, and other function-valued traits is challenging. We describe and illustrate a recent analytical method, simple basis analysis (SBA), that uses the genetic variance-covariance (G) matrix to identify "simple" directions of genetic variation and genetic constraints that have straightforward biological interpretations. We discuss the parallels between the eigenvectors (principal components) identified by principal components analysis (PCA) and the simple basis (SB) vectors identified by SBA. We apply these methods to estimated G matrices obtained from 10 studies of thermal performance curves and growth curves. Our results suggest that variation in overall size across all ages represented most of the genetic variance in growth curves. In contrast, variation in overall performance across all temperatures represented less than one-third of the genetic variance in thermal performance curves in all cases, and genetic trade-offs between performance at higher versus lower temperatures were often important. The analyses also identify potential genetic constraints on patterns of early and later growth in growth curves. We suggest that SBA can be a useful complement or alternative to PCA for identifying biologically interpretable directions of genetic variation and constraint in function-valued traits. PMID:25996868
Integrated optimization of nonlinear R/C frames with reliability constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soeiro, Alfredo; Hoit, Marc
1989-01-01
A structural optimization algorithm was researched including global displacements as decision variables. The algorithm was applied to planar reinforced concrete frames with nonlinear material behavior submitted to static loading. The flexural performance of the elements was evaluated as a function of the actual stress-strain diagrams of the materials. Formation of rotational hinges with strain hardening were allowed and the equilibrium constraints were updated accordingly. The adequacy of the frames was guaranteed by imposing as constraints required reliability indices for the members, maximum global displacements for the structure and a maximum system probability of failure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.
1993-01-01
The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.
Closure of the algebra of constraints for a nonprojectable Horava model
Bellorin, Jorge; Restuccia, Alvaro
2011-02-15
We perform the Hamiltonian analysis for a nonprojectable Horava model whose potential is composed of R and R{sup 2} terms. We show that Dirac's algorithm for the preservation of the constraints can be done in a closed way, hence the algebra of constraints for this model is consistent. The model has an extra, odd, scalar mode whose decoupling limit can be seen in a linear-order perturbative analysis on weakly varying backgrounds. Although our results for this model point in favor of the consistency of the Horava theory, the validity of the full nonprojectable theory still remains unanswered.
A Framework for Parallel Nonlinear Optimization by Partitioning Localized Constraints
Xu, You; Chen, Yixin
2008-06-28
We present a novel parallel framework for solving large-scale continuous nonlinear optimization problems based on constraint partitioning. The framework distributes constraints and variables to parallel processors and uses an existing solver to handle the partitioned subproblems. In contrast to most previous decomposition methods that require either separability or convexity of constraints, our approach is based on a new constraint partitioning theory and can handle nonconvex problems with inseparable global constraints. We also propose a hypergraph partitioning method to recognize the problem structure. Experimental results show that the proposed parallel algorithm can efficiently solve some difficult test cases.
Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.
2014-11-01
Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The
Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2005-09-01
We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.
Placing Observational Constraints on Massive Star Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenfield, Philip
2011-10-01
The lives and deaths of massive stars are intricately linked to the evolution of galaxies. Yet, despite their integral importance to understanding galaxy evolution, models of massive stars are inconsistent with observations. These uncertainties can be traced to limited observational constraints available for improving massive star models. A sensitive test of the underlying physics of massive stars, e.g., convection, rotation, and mass loss is to measure the ratio of blue core helium burning stars {BHeB} to red core helium burning stars {RHeB}, 5-20Msun stars in the stage evolution immediately following the main sequence. Even the most sophisticated models cannot accurately predict the observed ratio over a range of metallicities, suggesting an insufficient understanding of the underlying physics. However, observational measurements of this ratio over a wide range of environments would provide substantial constraints on the physical parameters governing the evolution of all stars >5 Msun.We propose to place stringent observational constraints on the physics of massive star evolution by uniformly measuring the B/R HeB ratio in a wide range of galaxies. The HST archive contains high quality optical imaging of resolved stellar populations of dozens of nearby galaxies. From the ANGST program, we identified 38 galaxies, spanning 2 dex in metallicity that have significant BHeB and RHeB populations. Using this sample, we will empirically characterize the colors of the BHeB and RHeB sequences as a function of luminosity and metallicity, measure the B/R ratio, and constrain the lifetimes of the BHeB and RHeBs in the Padova stellar evolution models and the Cambridge STARS code.
Constraints on string networks with junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-01
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/2, the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Constraints on string networks with junctions
Copeland, E. J.; Kibble, T. W. B.; Steer, D. A.
2007-03-15
We consider the constraints on string networks with junctions in which the strings may all be different, as may be found, for example, in a network of (p,q) cosmic superstrings. We concentrate on three aspects of junction dynamics. First we consider the propagation of small-amplitude waves across a static three-string junction. Then, generalizing our earlier work, we determine the kinematic constraints on two colliding strings with different tensions. As before, the important conclusion is that strings do not always reconnect with a third string; they can pass straight through one another (or in the case of non-Abelian strings become stuck in an X configuration), the constraint depending on the angle at which the strings meet, on their relative velocity, and on the ratios of the string tensions. For example, if the two colliding strings have equal tensions, then for ultrarelativistic initial velocities they pass through one another. However, if their tensions are sufficiently different they can reconnect. Finally, we consider the global properties of junctions and strings in a network. Assuming that, in a network, the incoming waves at a junction are independently randomly distributed, we determine the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities of strings and calculate the average speed at which a junction moves along each of the three strings from which it is formed. Our findings suggest that junction dynamics may be such as to preferentially remove the heavy strings from the network leaving a network of predominantly light strings. Furthermore the r.m.s. velocity of strings in a network with junctions is smaller than 1/{radical}(2), the result for conventional Nambu-Goto strings without junctions in Minkowski space-time.
Inflationary freedom and cosmological neutrino constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.; Mishra, Abhilash
2014-05-01
The most stringent bounds on the absolute neutrino mass scale come from cosmological data. These bounds are made possible because massive relic neutrinos affect the expansion history of the universe and lead to a suppression of matter clustering on scales smaller than the associated free streaming length. However, the resulting effect on cosmological perturbations is relative to the primordial power spectrum of density perturbations from inflation, so freedom in the primordial power spectrum affects neutrino mass constraints. Using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the galaxy power spectrum and the Hubble constant, we constrain neutrino mass and number of species for a model-independent primordial power spectrum. Describing the primordial power spectrum by a 20-node spline, we find that the neutrino mass upper limit is a factor 3 weaker than when a power law form is imposed, if only CMB data are used. The primordial power spectrum itself is constrained to better than 10% in the wave vector range k ≈0.01-0.25 Mpc-1. Galaxy clustering data and a determination of the Hubble constant play a key role in reining in the effects of inflationary freedom on neutrino constraints. The inclusion of both eliminates the inflationary freedom degradation of the neutrino mass bound, giving for the sum of neutrino masses Σmν<0.18 eV (at 95% confidence level, Planck+BOSS+H0), approximately independent of the assumed primordial power spectrum model. When allowing for a free effective number of species, Neff, the joint constraints on Σmν and Neff are loosened by a factor 1.7 when the power law form of the primordial power spectrum is abandoned in favor of the spline parametrization.
Molecular and cellular constraints on proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kortemme, Tanja
Engineering proteins with new sequences, structures and functions has many exciting practical applications, and provides new ways to dissect design principles for function. Recent successes in computational protein design provide a cause for optimism. Yet many functions are currently too complex to engineer predictively, and successful design of new biological activities also requires an understanding of the functional pressures acting on proteins in the context of cells and organisms. I will present two vignettes describing our progress with dissecting both molecular and cellular constraints on protein function. In the first, we characterized the cost and benefit of protein production upon sequence perturbations in a classic system for gene regulation, the lac operon. Our results were unexpected in light of the common assumption that the dominant fitness costs are due to protein expression. Instead, we discovered a direct linear relationship between cost and lacpermease activity, not protein or mRNA production. The magnitude of the cost of permease activity, relative to protein production, has consequences for regulation. Our model predicts an advantage of direct regulation of protein activity (not just expression), providing a new explanation for the long-known mechanism of ``inducer exclusion'' that inhibits transport through the permease. Similar pressures and cost/benefit tradeoffs may be key to engineering synthetic systems with improved fitness. In the second vignette, I will describe our recent efforts to develop computational approaches that predict protein sequences consistent with multiple functional conformations. We expect such ``multi-constraint'' models to improve predictions of functional sequences determined by deep mutational scanning in bacteria, to provide insights into how the balance between functional conformations shapes sequence space, and to highlight molecular and cellular constraints that cannot be captured by the model.
Integrated Analysis of Airport Capacity and Environmental Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasan, Shahab; Long, Dou; Hart, George; Eckhause, Jeremy; Hemm, Robert; Busick, Andrew; Graham, Michael; Thompson, Terry; Murphy, Charles; Poage, James
2010-01-01
LMI conducted an integrated analysis of airport capacity and environmental constraints. identifying and ranking the key factors limiting achievement of NextGen capacity goals. The primary metric used was projected throughput, which was estimated for the years 2015 and 2025 based on the unconstrained demand forecast from the Federal Aviation Administration, and planned improvements including those proposed in the NextGen plan. A set of 310 critical airports was identified.. collectively accounting for more than 99 percent of domestic air traffic volume; a one-off analytical approach was used to isolate the constraint being assessed. The study considered three capacity constraints (runway.. taxiway, and gate) and three environmental constraints (fuel, NO(x) emissions, and noise). For the ten busiest airports, runway and noise are the primary and secondary constraints in both 2015 and 2025. For the OEP 35 airports and overall for the remaining airports, the most binding constraint is noise. Six of the 10 busiest airports, will face runway constraints in 2025, and 95 will face gate constraints. Nearly every airport will be subject to constraints due to emissions and NOx. Runway and taxi constraints are more concentrated in the large airports: environmental constraints are present at almost every airport regardless of size.
Automated Derivation of Complex System Constraints from User Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muery, Kim; Foshee, Mark; Marsh, Angela
2006-01-01
International Space Station (ISS) payload developers submit their payload science requirements for the development of on-board execution timelines. The ISS systems required to execute the payload science operations must be represented as constraints for the execution timeline. Payload developers use a software application, User Requirements Collection (URC), to submit their requirements by selecting a simplified representation of ISS system constraints. To fully represent the complex ISS systems, the constraints require a level of detail that is beyond the insight of the payload developer. To provide the complex representation of the ISS system constraints, HOSC operations personnel, specifically the Payload Activity Requirements Coordinators (PARC), manually translate the payload developers simplified constraints into detailed ISS system constraints used for scheduling the payload activities in the Consolidated Planning System (CPS). This paper describes the implementation for a software application, User Requirements Integration (URI), developed to automate the manual ISS constraint translation process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei; Xie, Hongsheng; Shen, Chen; Li, Jinpeng
2016-04-01
This paper considers a robust strong tracking nonlinear filtering problem in the case there are model uncertainties including the model mismatch, unknown disturbance and status mutation in the spacecraft attitude estimation system with quaternion constraint. Two multiple fading factor matrices are employed to regulate the prediction error covariance matrix, which guarantees its symmetry. The spherical-radial cubature rule is developed to deal with the multi-dimensional integrals. The quaternion constraint is maintained by utilizing the gain correction method. Therefore a robust strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (RSTCKF) is formed for the spacecraft attitude estimation with quaternion constraint. Unlike adopting a single fading factor in the traditional strong tracking filter, the presented filter uses two multiple fading factor matrices to make different channels have respective filter adjustment capability, which improves the tracking performance of this algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed RSTCKF.
The effect of parking orbit constraints on the optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sauer, C. G., Jr.
1984-01-01
The optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories is developed which includes constraints on departure parking orbit inclination and node. This problem is formulated to result in a minimum total Delta V where the entire constrained injection Delta V is included in the optimization. An additional Delta V is also defined to allow for possible optimization of parking orbit inclination when the launch vehicle orbit capability varies as a function of parking orbit inclination. The optimization problem is formulated using primer vector theory to derive partial derivatives of total Delta V with respect to possible free parameters. Minimization of total Delta V is accomplished using a quasi-Newton gradient search routine. The analysis is applied to an Eros rendezvous mission whose transfer trajectories are characterized by high values of launch asymptote declination during particular launch opportunities. Comparisons in performance are made between trajectories where parking orbit constraints are included in the optimization and trajectories where the constraints are not included.
Dynamical consequences of a constraint on the Langevin thermostat in molecular cluster simulation
Stinson, Jake L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Ford, Ian J.
2014-11-17
We investigate some unusual behaviour observed while performing molecular dynamics simulations with the DL_POLY_4.03 code. Under the standard Langevin thermostat, atoms appear to be thermalised to different temperatures, depending on their mass and on the total number of particles in the system. We find that an imposed constraint whereby no thermal noise acts on the centre of mass of the system is the cause of the unexpected behaviour. This is demonstrated by solving the stochastic dynamics for the constrained thermostat and comparing the results with simulation data. The effect of the constraint can be considerable for small systems with disparate masses. By removing the constraint the Langevin thermostat may be restored to its intended behaviour and this has been implemented as an option in DL_POLY_4.05. SMK was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.
Adaptive neural control for an uncertain robotic manipulator with joint space constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhong-Liang; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Tee, Keng Peng; He, Wei
2016-07-01
In this paper, adaptive neural tracking control is proposed for a robotic manipulator with uncertainties in both manipulator dynamics and joint actuator dynamics. The manipulator joints are subject to inequality constraints, i.e., the joint angles are required to remain in some compact sets. Integral barrier Lyapunov functionals (iBLFs) are employed to address the joint space constraints directly without performing an additional mapping to the error space. Neural networks (NNs) are utilised to compensate for the unknown robot dynamics and external force. Adapting parameters are developed to estimate the unknown bounds on NN approximations. By the Lyapunov synthesis, the proposed control can guarantee the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system, and the practical tracking of joint reference trajectory is achieved without the violation of predefined joint space constraints. Simulation results are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank
2011-01-01
Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)
Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Chengqiang; Gong, Wenlin; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Enrong; Wang, Hui; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng
2012-10-01
For remote sensing, high-resolution imaging techniques are helpful to catch more characteristic information of the target. We extend pseudo-thermal light ghost imaging to the area of remote imaging and propose a ghost imaging lidar system. The experimental results demonstrate that the real-space image of a target at about 1.0 km range with 20 mm resolution is achieved by ghost imaging via sparsity constraints (GISC) technique. The characters of GISC technique compared to the existing lidar systems are also discussed.
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Expected Constraints on Rhea's Interior from Cassini
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Castillo, J. C.
2005-01-01
We model the interior of Rhea based on observational constraints and the results from geodynamical models available in the literature. Ten main types of models are defined, depending on the presence or absence of a high-pressure ice layer (ice II), and the extent of separation of the rock component from the volatiles. We present degree-two gravity components computed for each of these models in order to assess which properties of the interior are likely to be inferred from Cassini radio science measurements scheduled on November 26, 2005.
Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo, Gordon
Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.
Design of helicopter rotors to noise constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaeffer, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.
1978-01-01
Results of the initial phase of a research project to study the design constraints on helicopter noise are presented. These include the calculation of nonimpulsive rotor harmonic and broadband hover noise spectra, over a wide range of rotor design variables and the sensitivity of perceived noise level (PNL) to changes in rotor design parameters. The prediction methodology used correlated well with measured whirl tower data. Application of the predictions to variations in rotor design showed tip speed and thrust as having the most effect on changing PNL.
Mirror nuclei constraint in nuclear mass formula
Wang Ning; Liang Zuoying; Liu Min; Wu, Xizhen
2010-10-15
The macroscopic-microscopic mass formula is further improved by considering mirror nuclei constraint. The rms deviation with respect to 2149 measured nuclear masses is reduced to 0.441 MeV. The shell corrections, the deformations of nuclei, the neutron and proton drip lines, and the shell gaps are also investigated to test the model. The rms deviation of {alpha}-decay energies of 46 superheavy nuclei is reduced to 0.263 MeV. The predicted central position of the superheavy island could lie around N=176{approx}178 and Z=116{approx}120 according to the shell corrections of nuclei.
Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability
Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David
2007-01-15
We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.
Chemical Constraints on the Early Solar System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyckoff, Susan
2004-01-01
Chemical abundances of comets and star-forming regions provide p o w d clues to the conditions which prevailed in the outer solar nebula. Hence comparative spectroscopic studies of cometary and molecular cloud gases provide vital insights into conditions in the solar protoplanetary disk at heliocentric distances beyond 5 AU 4.6 Gyr ago. We proposed a research program which combined optical and sub-millimeter techniques with laboratory spectroscopy, and sought to determine key diagnostic constraints on single-star protoplanetary disk models.
Effects of anatomical constraints on tumor growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capogrosso Sansone, B.; Delsanto, P. P.; Magnano, M.; Scalerandi, M.
2001-08-01
Competition for available nutrients and the presence of anatomical barriers are major determinants of tumor growth in vivo. We extend a model recently proposed to simulate the growth of neoplasms in real tissues to include geometrical constraints mimicking pressure effects on the tumor surface induced by the presence of rigid or semirigid structures. Different tissues have different diffusivities for nutrients and cells. Despite the simplicity of the approach, based on a few inherently local mechanisms, the numerical results agree qualitatively with clinical data (computed tomography scans of neoplasms) for the larynx and the oral cavity.
Modular Constraints on Calabi-Yau Compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Christoph A.; Ooguri, Hirosi
2013-11-01
We derive global constraints on the non-BPS sector of supersymmetric 2d sigma-models whose target space is a Calabi-Yau manifold. When the total Hodge number of the Calabi-Yau threefold is sufficiently large, we show that there must be non-BPS primary states whose total conformal weights are less than 0.656. Moreover, the number of such primary states grows at least linearly in the total Hodge number. We discuss implications of these results for Calabi-Yau geometry.
Feedforward Compensation by Specified Step Settling Considering Constraint on Control Input
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Makoto; Hirai, Hiromu
This paper presents a novel design approach for feedforward compensation by employing specified step settling to provide fast and precise positioning control of mechatronic systems. In the conventional approach, the saturation of control input essentially deteriorates the control performance in terms of response time and residual vibration suppression. However, in the proposed method of feedforward compensation, command shaping is performed within the deadbeat control framework, wherein a constraint on the control input can be imposed by using the LMI technique to ensure the desired control performance. Therefore, by using the proposed approach, a 2-degrees-of-freedom positioning controller can achieve the required settling performance without causing residual vibration under the constraint. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been verified by carrying out numerical simulations and experiments on a prototype.
Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.
2011-01-01
When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.
Developing a Negotiation Mechanism for Agent-Based Scheduling Via Fuzzy Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, K. Robert; Lin, Menq-Wen; Kao, Bo-Ruei
The paper presents a negotiation mechanism for agent-based scheduling via fuzzy constraints. Scheduling is considered as a global consistency enforcing via iterative constraint adjustment and relaxation by agents. Fuzzy constraints, in this way, are used not only to represent the temporal relations that jobs being scheduled must satisfy, but also to specify the possibilities prescribing to what extent the solutions are suitable for scheduling to rank the solutions. The negotiation mechanism based on fuzzy constraint provides a systematic method to gradually relax the temporal constraints to generate a proposal, and then utilizes possibility functions to select an alternative schedule that is subject to the others' acceptability. Thus, each agent, who is in charge of different aspects of the problem, not only distributively solves its problems to maximize its local objectives, but also works together with other agents to attain a globally beneficial schedule. Experimental results suggest the proposed approach provides superior performance in all criteria to the contract net protocol and auction-based approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, J. K.; Flewitt, A. J.; Spearing, S. M.; Fleck, N. A.; Milne, W. I.
2005-08-01
A new concept of using an electrically insulating beam as a constraint is proposed to construct planar spring-like electro-thermal actuators with large displacements. On the basis of this concept, three types of microspring actuators with multi-chevron structures and constraint beams are introduced. The constraint beams in one type (the spring) of these devices are horizontally positioned to restrict the expansion of the active arms in the x-direction, and to produce a displacement in the y-direction only. In the other two types of actuators (the deflector and the contractor), the constraint beams are positioned parallel to the active arms. When the constraint beams are on the inner side of the active arms, the actuator produces an outward deflection in the y-direction. When they are on the outside of the active arms, the actuator produces an inward contraction. Finite-element analysis was used to model the performances. The simulation shows that the displacements of these microspring actuators are all proportional to the number of the chevron sections in series, thus achieving superior displacements to alternative actuators. The displacement of a spring actuator strongly depends on the beam angle, and decreases with increasing the beam angle, the deflector is insensitive to the beam angle, while the displacement of a contractor actuator increases with the beam angle.
Motion planning of mobile multi-limb robotic systems subject to force and friction constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madhani, Akhil; Dubowsky, Steven
1992-01-01
A method is presented to generate motions for a class of multilimb robotic systems enabling them to apply large static forces over large ranges of motion without saturating actuator effort limits, system-environment friction constraints, kinematic joint limits, or geometric workspace obstacles. The approach, termed the force-workspace (FW) approach, maps these constraints into the system C-space to form constraint obstacles using a recursive subdivision process. To generate motions along which actuator efforts can be specified without violating system constraints, paths are planned that avoid these constraint obstacles. The method permits the shape of the paths to be controlled using any configuration-dependent performance criterion. The FW approach was applied to a proposed three-limb planar climbing robot whose task is to climb upwards between two vertical walls by pushing outwards to generate frictional support. Motions were planned automatically within the system FW, enabling it to lift itself upwards using two limbs at a time, and a gait was planned to enable it to switch limbs and climb continuously.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Stephen F.; Pathak, Dhiraj K.
1991-01-01
In this paper, we report work aimed at applying concepts of constraint-based problem structuring and multi-perspective scheduling to an over-subscribed scheduling problem. Previous research has demonstrated the utility of these concepts as a means for effectively balancing conflicting objectives in constraint-relaxable scheduling problems, and our goal here is to provide evidence of their similar potential in the context of HST observation scheduling. To this end, we define and experimentally assess the performance of two time-bounded heuristic scheduling strategies in balancing the tradeoff between resource setup time minimization and satisfaction of absolute time constraints. The first strategy considered is motivated by dispatch-based manufacturing scheduling research, and employs a problem decomposition that concentrates local search on minimizing resource idle time due to setup activities. The second is motivated by research in opportunistic scheduling and advocates a problem decomposition that focuses attention on the goal activities that have the tightest temporal constraints. Analysis of experimental results gives evidence of differential superiority on the part of each strategy in different problem solving circumstances. A composite strategy based on recognition of characteristics of the current problem solving state is then defined and tested to illustrate the potential benefits of constraint-based problem structuring and multi-perspective scheduling in over-subscribe scheduling problems.
Wang, Xiang; Huang, Zhitao; Zhou, Yiyu
2012-01-01
Signal of interest (SOI) extraction is a vital issue in communication signal processing. In this paper, we propose two novel iterative algorithms for extracting SOIs from instantaneous mixtures, which explores the spatial constraint corresponding to the Directions of Arrival (DOAs) of the SOIs as a priori information into the constrained Independent Component Analysis (cICA) framework. The first algorithm utilizes the spatial constraint to form a new constrained optimization problem under the previous cICA framework which requires various user parameters, i.e., Lagrange parameter and threshold measuring the accuracy degree of the spatial constraint, while the second algorithm incorporates the spatial constraints to select specific initialization of extracting vectors. The major difference between the two novel algorithms is that the former incorporates the prior information into the learning process of the iterative algorithm and the latter utilizes the prior information to select the specific initialization vector. Therefore, no extra parameters are necessary in the learning process, which makes the algorithm simpler and more reliable and helps to improve the speed of extraction. Meanwhile, the convergence condition for the spatial constraints is analyzed. Compared with the conventional techniques, i.e., MVDR, numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness and higher performance of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23012531
Wang, Xiang; Huang, Zhitao; Zhou, Yiyu
2012-01-01
Signal of interest (SOI) extraction is a vital issue in communication signal processing. In this paper, we propose two novel iterative algorithms for extracting SOIs from instantaneous mixtures, which explores the spatial constraint corresponding to the Directions of Arrival (DOAs) of the SOIs as a priori information into the constrained Independent Component Analysis (cICA) framework. The first algorithm utilizes the spatial constraint to form a new constrained optimization problem under the previous cICA framework which requires various user parameters, i.e., Lagrange parameter and threshold measuring the accuracy degree of the spatial constraint, while the second algorithm incorporates the spatial constraints to select specific initialization of extracting vectors. The major difference between the two novel algorithms is that the former incorporates the prior information into the learning process of the iterative algorithm and the latter utilizes the prior information to select the specific initialization vector. Therefore, no extra parameters are necessary in the learning process, which makes the algorithm simpler and more reliable and helps to improve the speed of extraction. Meanwhile, the convergence condition for the spatial constraints is analyzed. Compared with the conventional techniques, i.e., MVDR, numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness and higher performance of the proposed algorithms. PMID:23012531
Model-independent constraints on the cosmic opacity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holanda, R. F. L.; Carvalho, J. C.; Alcaniz, J. S.
2013-04-01
We use current measurements of the expansion rate H(z) and cosmic background radiation bounds on the spatial curvature of the Universe to impose cosmological model-independent constraints on cosmic opacity. To perform our analyses, we compare opacity-free distance modulus from H(z) data with those from two type Ia supernovae compilations, namely, the Union2.1 plus the most distant spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia (SCP-0401 at z = 1.713) and two Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) subsamples. We find that a completely transparent universe is in full agreement with the Union 2.1 + SNe Ia SCP-0401 sample. For the SDSS compilations, such universe is compatible with observations at < 1.5σ level regardless the SNe Ia light-curve fitting used.
Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.
2015-04-23
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of our probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.
Reconstructing cerebrovascular networks under local physiological constraints by integer programming
Rempfler, Markus; Schneider, Matthias; Ielacqua, Giovanna D.; Xiao, Xianghui; Stock, Stuart R.; Klohs, Jan; Szekely, Gabor; Andres, Bjoern; Menze, Bjoern H.
2015-04-23
We introduce a probabilistic approach to vessel network extraction that enforces physiological constraints on the vessel structure. The method accounts for both image evidence and geometric relationships between vessels by solving an integer program, which is shown to yield the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to the probabilistic model. Starting from an over-connected network, it is pruning vessel stumps and spurious connections by evaluating the local geometry and the global connectivity of the graph. We utilize a high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) dataset of a cerebrovascular corrosion cast to obtain a reference network and learn the prior distributions of ourmore » probabilistic model. As a result, we perform experiments on micro magnetic resonance angiography (µMRA) images of mouse brains and discuss properties of the networks obtained under different tracking and pruning approaches.« less
Disambiguating Multi–Modal Scene Representations Using Perceptual Grouping Constraints
Pugeault, Nicolas; Wörgötter, Florentin; Krüger, Norbert
2010-01-01
In its early stages, the visual system suffers from a lot of ambiguity and noise that severely limits the performance of early vision algorithms. This article presents feedback mechanisms between early visual processes, such as perceptual grouping, stereopsis and depth reconstruction, that allow the system to reduce this ambiguity and improve early representation of visual information. In the first part, the article proposes a local perceptual grouping algorithm that — in addition to commonly used geometric information — makes use of a novel multi–modal measure between local edge/line features. The grouping information is then used to: 1) disambiguate stereopsis by enforcing that stereo matches preserve groups; and 2) correct the reconstruction error due to the image pixel sampling using a linear interpolation over the groups. The integration of mutual feedback between early vision processes is shown to reduce considerably ambiguity and noise without the need for global constraints. PMID:20544006
International Space Station Noise Constraints Flight Rule Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.
2014-01-01
Crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) live in a unique workplace environment for as long as 6 -12 months. During these long-duration ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. The purpose of this poster is to describe how a recently-updated noise constraints flight rule is being used to implement a NASA-created Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and Noise Hazard Inventory to predict crew noise exposures and recommend when hearing protection devices are needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.
1983-01-01
Constrained parameter optimization was used to perform optimal conceptual design of both canard and conventional configurations of a medium range transport. A number of design constants and design constraints were systematically varied to compare the sensitivities of canard and conventional configurations to a variety of technology assumptions. Main landing gear location and horizontal stabilizer high-lift performance were identified as critical design parameters for a statically stable, subsonic canard transport.
Energetic Constraints on Species Coexistence in Birds
Pigot, Alexander L.
2016-01-01
The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other’s closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity–richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity. PMID:26974194
Observational constraints on assisted k-inflation
Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2011-05-15
We study observational constraints on the assisted k-inflation models in which multiple scalar fields join an attractor characterized by an effective single field {phi}. This effective single-field system is described by the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y), where X is the kinetic energy of {phi}, {lambda} is a constant, and g is an arbitrary function in terms of Y=Xe{sup {lambda}{phi}}. Our analysis covers a wide variety of k-inflation models such as dilatonic ghost condensate, Dirac-Born-Infeld field, and tachyon, as well as the canonical field with an exponential potential. We place observational bounds on the parameters of each model from the WMAP 7yr data combined with baryon acoustic oscillations and the Hubble constant measurement. Using the observational constraints of the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL}{sup equil}, we further restrict the allowed parameter space of dilatonic ghost condensate and Dirac-Born-Infeld models. We extend the analysis to more general models with several different choices of g(Y) and show that the models such as g(Y)=c{sub 0}+c{sub p}Y{sup p} (p{>=}3) are excluded by the joint data analysis of the scalar/tensor spectra and primordial non-Gaussianities.
Curvature constraints from large scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Dio, Enea; Montanari, Francesco; Raccanelli, Alvise; Durrer, Ruth; Kamionkowski, Marc; Lesgourgues, Julien
2016-06-01
We modified the CLASS code in order to include relativistic galaxy number counts in spatially curved geometries; we present the formalism and study the effect of relativistic corrections on spatial curvature. The new version of the code is now publicly available. Using a Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate how measurements of the spatial curvature parameter ΩK with future galaxy surveys are affected by relativistic effects, which influence observations of the large scale galaxy distribution. These effects include contributions from cosmic magnification, Doppler terms and terms involving the gravitational potential. As an application, we consider angle and redshift dependent power spectra, which are especially well suited for model independent cosmological constraints. We compute our results for a representative deep, wide and spectroscopic survey, and our results show the impact of relativistic corrections on spatial curvature parameter estimation. We show that constraints on the curvature parameter may be strongly biased if, in particular, cosmic magnification is not included in the analysis. Other relativistic effects turn out to be subdominant in the studied configuration. We analyze how the shift in the estimated best-fit value for the curvature and other cosmological parameters depends on the magnification bias parameter, and find that significant biases are to be expected if this term is not properly considered in the analysis.
Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Matthias; Neubert, Matthias; Straub, David M.
2014-07-01
Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the branching ratio and . After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and or flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with "wrong-chirality" Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models.
Stochastic population dynamics under resource constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavane, Ajinkya S.; Nigam, Rahul
2016-06-01
This paper investigates the population growth of a certain species in which every generation reproduces thrice over a period of predefined time, under certain constraints of resources needed for survival of population. We study the survival period of a species by randomizing the reproduction probabilities within a window at same predefined ages and the resources are being produced by the working force of the population at a variable rate. This randomness in the reproduction rate makes the population growth stochastic in nature and one cannot predict the exact form of evolution. Hence we study the growth by running simulations for such a population and taking an ensemble averaged over 500 to 5000 such simulations as per the need. While the population reproduces in a stochastic manner, we have implemented a constraint on the amount of resources available for the population. This is important to make the simulations more realistic. The rate of resource production then is tuned to find the rate which suits the survival of the species. We also compute the mean life time of the species corresponding to different resource production rate. Study for these outcomes in the parameter space defined by the reproduction probabilities and rate of resource production is carried out.
Sensor Localization from Distance and Orientation Constraints.
Porta, Josep M; Rull, Aleix; Thomas, Federico
2016-01-01
The sensor localization problem can be formalized using distance and orientation constraints, typically in 3D. Local methods can be used to refine an initial location estimation, but in many cases such estimation is not available and a method able to determine all the feasible solutions from scratch is necessary. Unfortunately, existing methods able to find all the solutions in distance space can not take into account orientations, or they can only deal with one- or two-dimensional problems and their extension to 3D is troublesome. This paper presents a method that addresses these issues. The proposed approach iteratively projects the problem to decrease its dimension, then reduces the ranges of the variable distances, and back-projects the result to the original dimension, to obtain a tighter approximation of the feasible sensor locations. This paper extends previous works introducing accurate range reduction procedures which effectively integrate the orientation constraints. The mutual localization of a fleet of robots carrying sensors and the position analysis of a sensor moved by a parallel manipulator are used to validate the approach. PMID:27428977
Sensor Localization from Distance and Orientation Constraints
Porta, Josep M.; Rull, Aleix; Thomas, Federico
2016-01-01
The sensor localization problem can be formalized using distance and orientation constraints, typically in 3D. Local methods can be used to refine an initial location estimation, but in many cases such estimation is not available and a method able to determine all the feasible solutions from scratch is necessary. Unfortunately, existing methods able to find all the solutions in distance space can not take into account orientations, or they can only deal with one- or two-dimensional problems and their extension to 3D is troublesome. This paper presents a method that addresses these issues. The proposed approach iteratively projects the problem to decrease its dimension, then reduces the ranges of the variable distances, and back-projects the result to the original dimension, to obtain a tighter approximation of the feasible sensor locations. This paper extends previous works introducing accurate range reduction procedures which effectively integrate the orientation constraints. The mutual localization of a fleet of robots carrying sensors and the position analysis of a sensor moved by a parallel manipulator are used to validate the approach. PMID:27428977
Gene teams with relaxed proximity constraint.
Kim, Sun; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Yang, Jiong
2005-01-01
Functionally related genes co-evolve, probably due to the strong selection pressure in evolution. Thus we expect that they are present in multiple genomes. Physical proximity among genes, known as gene team, is a very useful concept to discover functionally related genes in multiple genomes. However, there are also many gene sets that do not preserve physical proximity. In this paper, we generalized the gene team model, that looks for gene clusters in a physically clustered form, to multiple genome cases with relaxed constraint. We propose a novel hybrid pattern model that combines the set and the sequential pattern models. Our model searches for gene clusters with and/or without physical proximity constraint. This model is implemented and tested with 97 genomes (120 replicons). The result was analyzed to show the usefulness of our model. Especially, analysis of gene clusters that belong to B. subtilis and E. coli demonstrated that our model predicted many experimentally verified operons and functionally related clusters. Our program is fast enough to provide a sevice on the web at http://platcom. informatics.indiana.edu/platcom/. Users can select any combination of 97 genomes to predict gene teams. PMID:16447961
Depth constraint of electric submersible pumps
Powers, M.L.
1994-05-01
This paper summarizes the various factors that limit electric submersible pump (ESP) operation at increasing depth. It explores in detail two parametrically related constraints, pump-shaft horsepower capacity and thrust-bearing load capacity. The former limits the product of head and rate; the latter limits head. Optimum shaft diameter for standard-configuration pumps is shown to be a compromise between these two factors. Head and rate limits resulting from these constraints are mathematically defined and graphically displayed, and means for expanding deep pumping capabilities are discussed. This paper also analyzes the effect of increased pumping depth on motor cooling. It shows that the temperature increase of fluid traversing a motor is proportional to head, independent of rate, and very sensitive to pump and motor efficiencies. This work also demonstrates the effect of elevated fluid temperatures associated with increasing depth on motor heat transfer coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to help resolve a perceived dilemma. Pump manufacturers do not develop pumps with ultradeep capability because there is no market for them. Oil producers might abandon ultradeep discovery wells with low reservoir pressure because there is no way to pump them. This paper is intended to promote the interest of both groups in potential deep pumping capabilities.
Approximation Schemes for Scheduling with Availability Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Bin; Huo, Yumei; Zhao, Hairong
We investigate the problems of scheduling n weighted jobs to m identical machines with availability constraints. We consider two different models of availability constraints: the preventive model where the unavailability is due to preventive machine maintenance, and the fixed job model where the unavailability is due to a priori assignment of some of the n jobs to certain machines at certain times. Both models have applications such as turnaround scheduling or overlay computing. In both models, the objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time. We assume that m is a constant, and the jobs are non-resumable. For the preventive model, it has been shown that there is no approximation algorithm if all machines have unavailable intervals even when w i = p i for all jobs. In this paper, we assume there is one machine permanently available and the processing time of each job is equal to its weight for all jobs. We develop the first PTAS when there are constant number of unavailable intervals. One main feature of our algorithm is that the classification of large and small jobs is with respect to each individual interval, thus not fixed. This classification allows us (1) to enumerate the assignments of large jobs efficiently; (2) and to move small jobs around without increasing the objective value too much, and thus derive our PTAS. Then we show that there is no FPTAS in this case unless P = NP.
Constraint propagation through electromagnetic interaction topologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovetri, Joe; Graham, Darin P. W.
1990-08-01
The effects of electromagnetic interactions in electrical systems are of concern because of the increasing susceptibility of system components. Heuristic methods are used by engineers to solve electromagnetic interaction problems. An approximate symbolic knowledge representation of a single emitter/path/susceptor problem has been described. In this paper the approximate single emitter/path/susceptor attributes are distributed throughout the electromagnetic topology of a complex system. A constraint based approach for the modelling of the electromagnetic interactions in the system is then described. The approach taken here subdivides the modelling task into: (1) the definition of the related physical topology; (2) constraining topological nodes with specific electromagnetic attributes; and (3) the propagation of the electromagnetic constraints to determine the probability of failure. The scheme has been implemented in Quintus Prolog on a Sun Sparcstation. The electromagnet topology is represented in Prolog using an object-oriented knowledge representation methodology. A small database containing some attributes of electromagnetic components found on the Canadian NSA helicopter was developed. A coarse topological decomposition of the helicopter was made and the attributes for the various components were entered. This tool was very useful in providing understanding of all the complex interaction paths existing in complex systems.
Neves, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Tauler, Romá; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes
2016-09-21
This work demonstrates the use of a new additional constraint for the Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm called "area correlation constraint", introduced to build calibration models for Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) data. We propose the application of area correlation constraint MCR-ALS for the quantification of cholesterol using a simulated data set and an experimental data system (cholesterol in a ternary mixture). This new constraint includes pseudo-univariate local regressions using the area of resolved profiles against reference values during the alternating least squares optimization, to provide directly accurate quantifications of a specific analyte in concentration units. In the two datasets investigated in this work, the new constraint retrieved correctly the analyte and interference spectral profiles and performed accurate estimations of cholesterol concentrations in test samples. This the first study using the proposed area constraint using EEM measurements. This new constraint approach emerges as a new possibility to be tested in general cases of second-order multivariate calibration data in the presence of unknown interferents or in more involved higher order calibration cases. PMID:27590541
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gálvez, Jaime; Conejo, Ricardo; Guzmán, Eduardo
2013-01-01
One of the most popular student modeling approaches is Constraint-Based Modeling (CBM). It is an efficient approach that can be easily applied inside an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Even with these characteristics, building new ITSs requires carefully designing the domain model to be taught because different sources of errors could affect…
Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)
1983-01-01
Beginning with the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle, a great wealth of flight data became available to the aerospace community. These data were immediately subjected to analyses by several different groups with different viewpoints and motivations. The results were collected and presented in several papers in the subject areas of ascent and entry aerodynaics; guidance, navigation, and control; aerothermal environment prediction; thermal protection systems; and measurement techniques.
Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.
1990-01-01
In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.
Hard and Soft Constraints in Reliability-Based Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, L.uis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a framework for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements in the form of inequality constraints are present. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value and by sets of componentwise bounded uncertain variables. These models, which often arise in engineering problems, allow for a sharp mathematical manipulation. Constraints can be implemented in the hard sense, i.e., constraints must be satisfied for all parameter realizations in the uncertainty model, and in the soft sense, i.e., constraints can be violated by some realizations of the uncertain parameter. In regard to hard constraints, this methodology allows (i) to determine if a hard constraint can be satisfied for a given uncertainty model and constraint structure, (ii) to generate conclusive, formally verifiable reliability assessments that allow for unprejudiced comparisons of competing design alternatives and (iii) to identify the critical combination of uncertain parameters leading to constraint violations. In regard to soft constraints, the methodology allows the designer (i) to use probabilistic uncertainty models, (ii) to calculate upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation, and (iii) to efficiently estimate failure probabilities via a hybrid method. This method integrates the upper bounds, for which closed form expressions are derived, along with conditional sampling. In addition, an l(sub infinity) formulation for the efficient manipulation of hyper-rectangular sets is also proposed.
Ketogenic diets and physical performance
Phinney, Stephen D
2004-01-01
Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis. PMID:15507148
Anisotropic magnetotelluric inversion using a mutual information constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, E.; Jones, A. G.
2012-12-01
In recent years, several authors pointed that the electrical conductivity of many subsurface structures cannot be described properly by a scalar field. With the development of field devices and techniques, data quality improved to the point that the anisotropy in conductivity of rocks (microscopic anisotropy) and tectonic structures (macroscopic anisotropy) cannot be neglected. Therefore a correct use of high quality data has to include electrical anisotropy and a correct interpretation of anisotropic data characterizes directly a non-negligible part of the subsurface. In this work we test an inversion routine that takes advantage of the classic Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data generated from a bi-dimensional (2D) anisotropic domain. The LM method is routinely used in inverse problems due its performance and robustness. In non-linear inverse problems -such the MT problem- the LM method provides a spectacular compromise betwee quick and secure convergence at the price of the explicit computation and storage of the sensitivity matrix. Regularization in inverse MT problems has been used extensively, due to the necessity to constrain model space and to reduce the ill-posedness of the anisotropic MT problem, which makes MT inversions extremely challenging. In order to reduce non-uniqueness of the MT problem and to reach a model compatible with other different tomographic results from the same target region, we used a mutual information (MI) based constraint. MI is a basic quantity in information theory that can be used to define a metric between images, and it is routinely used in fields as computer vision, image registration and medical tomography, to cite some applications. We -thus- inverted for the model that best fits the anisotropic data and that is the closest -in a MI sense- to a tomographic model of the target area. The advantage of this technique is that the tomographic model of the studied region may be produced by any
Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity
Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex
2015-10-26
Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model errormore » that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.« less
Emergent Constraints for Cloud Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity
Klein, Stephen A.; Hall, Alex
2015-10-26
Emergent constraints are physically explainable empirical relationships between characteristics of the current climate and long-term climate prediction that emerge in collections of climate model simulations. With the prospect of constraining long-term climate prediction, scientists have recently uncovered several emergent constraints related to long-term cloud feedbacks. We review these proposed emergent constraints, many of which involve the behavior of low-level clouds, and discuss criteria to assess their credibility. With further research, some of the cases we review may eventually become confirmed emergent constraints, provided they are accompanied by credible physical explanations. Because confirmed emergent constraints identify a source of model error that projects onto climate predictions, they deserve extra attention from those developing climate models and climate observations. While a systematic bias cannot be ruled out, it is noteworthy that the promising emergent constraints suggest larger cloud feedback and hence climate sensitivity.
Evolutionary branching under multi-dimensional evolutionary constraints.
Ito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Akira
2016-10-21
The fitness of an existing phenotype and of a potential mutant should generally depend on the frequencies of other existing phenotypes. Adaptive evolution driven by such frequency-dependent fitness functions can be analyzed effectively using adaptive dynamics theory, assuming rare mutation and asexual reproduction. When possible mutations are restricted to certain directions due to developmental, physiological, or physical constraints, the resulting adaptive evolution may be restricted to subspaces (constraint surfaces) with fewer dimensionalities than the original trait spaces. To analyze such dynamics along constraint surfaces efficiently, we develop a Lagrange multiplier method in the framework of adaptive dynamics theory. On constraint surfaces of arbitrary dimensionalities described with equality constraints, our method efficiently finds local evolutionarily stable strategies, convergence stable points, and evolutionary branching points. We also derive the conditions for the existence of evolutionary branching points on constraint surfaces when the shapes of the surfaces can be chosen freely. PMID:27444402
Perturbative Solutions of the Extended Constraint Equations in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butscher, Adrian
2007-05-01
The extended constraint equations arise as a special case of the conformal constraint equations that are satisfied by an initial data hypersurface {mathcal{Z}} in an asymptotically simple space-time satisfying the vacuum conformal Einstein equations developed by H. Friedrich. The extended constraint equations consist of a quasi-linear system of partial differential equations for the induced metric, the second fundamental form and two other tensorial quantities defined on {mathcal{Z}} , and are equivalent to the usual constraint equations that {mathcal{Z}} satisfies as a space-like hypersurface in a space-time satisfying Einstein’s vacuum equation. This article develops a method for finding perturbative, asymptotically flat solutions of the extended constraint equations in a neighbourhood of the flat solution on Euclidean space. This method is fundamentally different from the ‘classical’ method of Lichnerowicz and York that is used to solve the usual constraint equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poston, P. L.
1975-01-01
Results of star tracker constraint violation analyses performed with the digital computer program Shuttle Attitude and Pointing Time Line Processor (SAPT) are presented. Results are typical of those utilized to provide the information required to update Baseline Reference Mission Attitude and Pointing Time Lines. Descriptions of SAPT modifications implemented to perform these analyses are also presented.
Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.
1985-01-01
Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.
Constraints on gauge field production during inflation
Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk
2014-07-01
In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored.
Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.
1985-01-01
Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.
Constraints on topological order in mott insulators.
Zaletel, Michael P; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2015-02-20
We point out certain symmetry induced constraints on topological order in Mott insulators (quantum magnets with an odd number of spin 1/2 moments per unit cell). We show, for example, that the double-semion topological order is incompatible with time reversal and translation symmetry in Mott insulators. This sharpens the Hastings-Oshikawa-Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem for 2D quantum magnets, which guarantees that a fully symmetric gapped Mott insulator must be topologically ordered, but is silent about which topological order is permitted. Our result applies to the kagome lattice quantum antiferromagnet, where recent numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy indicate a ground state compatible with either toric code or double-semion topological order. Our result rules out the latter possibility. PMID:25763971
Landscape analysis of constraint satisfaction problems.
Krzakala, Florent; Kurchan, Jorge
2007-08-01
We discuss an analysis of constraint satisfaction problems, such as sphere packing, K-SAT, and graph coloring, in terms of an effective energy landscape. Several intriguing geometrical properties of the solution space become in this light familiar in terms of the well-studied ones of rugged (glassy) energy landscapes. A benchmark algorithm naturally suggested by this construction finds solutions in polynomial time up to a point beyond the clustering and in some cases even the thermodynamic transitions. This point has a simple geometric meaning and can be in principle determined with standard statistical mechanical methods, thus pushing the analytic bound up to which problems are guaranteed to be easy. We illustrate this for the graph 3- and 4-coloring problem. For packing problems the present discussion allows to better characterize the J-point, proposed as a systematic definition of random close packing, and to place it in the context of other theories of glasses. PMID:17930021