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Sample records for aerothermodynamics branch flight

  1. Aerothermodynamic Flight Simulation Capabilities for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.

    1998-01-01

    Aerothermodynamics, encompassing aerodynamics, aeroheating, and fluid dynamics and physical processes, is the genesis for the design and development of advanced space transportation vehicles and provides crucial information to other disciplines such as structures, materials, propulsion, avionics, and guidance, navigation and control. Sources of aerothermodynamic information are ground-based facilities, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and engineering computer codes, and flight experiments. Utilization of this aerothermodynamic triad provides the optimum aerothermodynamic design to safely satisfy mission requirements while reducing design conservatism, risk and cost. The iterative aerothermodynamic process for initial screening/assessment of aerospace vehicle concepts, optimization of aerolines to achieve/exceed mission requirements, and benchmark studies for final design and establishment of the flight data book are reviewed. Aerothermodynamic methodology centered on synergism between ground-based testing and CFD predictions is discussed for various flow regimes encountered by a vehicle entering the Earth s atmosphere from low Earth orbit. An overview of the resources/infrastructure required to provide accurate/creditable aerothermodynamic information in a timely manner is presented. Impacts on Langley s aerothermodynamic capabilities due to recent programmatic changes such as Center reorganization, downsizing, outsourcing, industry (as opposed to NASA) led programs, and so forth are discussed. Sample applications of these capabilities to high Agency priority, fast-paced programs such as Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)/X-33 Phases I and 11, X-34, Hyper-X and X-38 are presented and lessons learned discussed. Lastly, enhancements in ground-based testing/CFD capabilities necessary to partially/fully satisfy future requirements are addressed.

  2. Aeroassist flight experiment aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    The problem is to determine the transitional flow aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, including the base flow characteristics, of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The justification for the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) Application stems from MSFC's system integration responsibility for the AFE. To insure that the AFE objectives are met, MSFC must understand the limitations and uncertainties of the design data. Perhaps the only method capable of handling the complex physics of the rarefied high energy AFE trajectory is Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique. The 3-D code used in this analysis is applicable only to the AFE geometry. It uses the Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) collision model and five specie chemistry model available from Langley Research Center. The code is benchmarked against the AFE flight data and used as an Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design tool. The code is being used to understand the AFE flow field and verify or modify existing design data. Continued application to lower altitudes is testing the capability of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) to handle 3-D DSMC and its practicality as an ASTV/AFE design tool.

  3. Atmospheric Entry Aerothermodynamics Flight Test on CubeSat Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakraker, I.; Umit, E.; van der Haegen, V.; Chazot, O.

    2014-06-01

    The challenging aerothermochemistry of atmospheric entry is aimed to be experimented on a triple CubeSat platform having ablative TPS in the front unit and ceramic TPS on the side panels. Five aerothermodynamics payloads are presented in this paper.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  5. Introduction: Assessment of aerothermodynamic flight prediction tools through ground and flight experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmisseur, John D.; Erbland, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an introduction and overview to the efforts of NATO Research and Technology Organization Task Group AVT-136, Assessment of Aerothermodynamic Flight Prediction Tools through Ground and Flight Experimentation. During the period of 2006-2010, AVT-136 coordinated international contributions to assess the state-of-the-art and research challenges for the prediction of critical aerothermodynamic flight phenomena based on the extrapolation of ground test and numerical simulation. To achieve this goal, efforts were organized around six scientific topic areas: (1) Noses and leading edges, (2) Shock Interactions and Control Surfaces, (3) Shock Layers and Radiation, (4) Boundary Layer Transition, (5) Gas-Surface Interactions, and (6) Base and Afterbody Flows. A key component of the AVT-136 strategy was comparison of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with data to be acquired from planned flight research programs. Although it was recognized from the onset of AVT-136 activities that reliance on flight research data yet to be collected posed a significant risk, the group concluded the substantial benefit to be derived from comparison of computational simulations with flight data warranted pursuit of such a program of work. Unfortunately, program delays and failures in the flight programs contributing to the AVT-136 effort prevented timely access to flight research data. Despite this setback, most of the scientific topic areas developed by the Task Group made significant progress in the assessment of current capabilities. Additionally, the activities of AVT-136 generated substantial interest within the international scientific research community and the work of the Task Group was prominently featured in a total of six invited sessions in European and American technical conferences. In addition to this overview, reviews of the state-of-the-art and research challenges identified by the six research thrusts of AVT-136 are also included in this special

  6. Shuttle entry aerothermodynamic flight research - The Orbiter Experiments (OEX) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throckmorton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the OEX program are summarized with emphasis on the information on entry aerothermodynamic phenomena derived from Space Shuttle operations. The discussion focuses on OEX experiment complement and operational history, freestream environment and vehicle attitude data, aerodynamic force and moment data, aerodynamic surface data, and vehicle configuration data. Attention is also given to orbiter aerodynamic performance, stability and control, high-altitude atmospheric density variability, direct simulation Monte Carlo validation, orbital drag variation, and computational fluid dynamic technique validation.

  7. PRE_X Programme: Aerothermodynamic Objectives and Aeroshape Definition for in Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, O.; Tribot, J.-P.; Saint-Cloud, F.

    2002-01-01

    As the expendable launch vehicles (ELV) are limited in their trend to lower costs, the reusability (Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) could be the way to make drastic step. By the year 2001, CNES proposed through the ANGEL phase 1 programme to preprare the required technical maturity before that RLV's become alternatives to ELV's. In such way, system ,propulsion, ground based demonstrations, aero-thermo-dynamics as well as in flight experimentation are planned. This paper is focused on the aero-thermo-dynamics (ATD) and in flight demonstration activities with emphasis on the better understanding of ATD problems emerging from past programmes among them shock wave transitionnal boundary layer interaction on surface control, boundary layer transition, local aerothermodynamic effects, gas- surface interaction, catalycity, base flow prediction,...In order to minimize as small as possible the management risk a first generation of vehicle dubbed Pre_X is designed to validate technological choices and to have as soon as possible re-entry data to calibrate the various tools involved in the future RLV definition. In addition, the main requirement for PRE_X aeroshape definition and the two different design approaches considered by Dassault Aviation and EADS-LV are discussed. Then, the more promising concept for the PRE_X application is presented. Finally, the current status of the ATD activities is given as well as the perspectives.

  8. Wind-tunnel based definition of the AFE aerothermodynamic environment. [Aeroassist Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles G.; Wells, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), scheduled to be performed in 1994, will serve as a precursor for aeroassisted space transfer vehicles (ASTV's) and is representative of entry concepts being considered for missions to Mars. Rationale for the AFE is reviewed briefly as are the various experiments carried aboard the vehicle. The approach used to determine hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics over a wide range of simulation parameters in ground-based facilities is presented. Facilities, instrumentation and test procedures employed in the establishment of the data base are discussed. Measurements illustrating the effects of hypersonic simulation parameters, particularly normal-shock density ratio (an important parameter for hypersonic blunt bodies), and attitude on aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics are presented, and predictions from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer codes are compared with measurement.

  9. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  10. Space Shuttle hypersonic aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic flight research and the comparison to ground test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for the Space Shuttle at hypersonic speeds are discussed. All of the comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the Space Shuttle program. The aerodynamic comparisons include stability and control derivatives, center-of-pressure location, and reaction control jet interaction. Comparisons are also discussed for various forms of heating, including catalytic, boundary layer, top centerline, side fuselage, OMS pod, wing leading edge, and shock interaction. The jet interaction and center-of-pressure location flight values exceeded not only the predictions but also the uncertainties of the predictions. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by the vortex impingement on the OMS pods and for heating caused by the wing leading-edge shock interaction.

  11. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  12. Aerothermodynamic Testing and Boundary Layer Trip Sizing of the HIFiRE Flight 1 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Greene, Frank A.; Kimmel, Roger

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center s 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in support of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation Program. The information in this report is focused on the Flight 1 configuration, the first in a series of flight experiments. This report documents experimental measurements made over a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the Flight 1 payload. Global heat transfer was measured using phosphor thermography and the resulting images and heat transfer distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer on the vehicle windside and leeside surfaces. Boundary layer trips were used to force the boundary layer turbulent, and a brief study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the trips with various heights. The experimental data highlighted in this test report were used to size and place the boundary layer trip for the flight test vehicle.

  13. Aerothermodynamic Testing and Boundary Layer Trip Sizing of the HIFiRE Flight 1 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Greene, Frank A.; Kimmel, Roger; Alba, Christopher; Johnson, Heath

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center s 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel in support of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation Program. The information in this article is focused on the Flight 1 configuration, the first in a series of flight experiments. The article documents experimental measurements made over a Reynolds numbers range of 2.1x10(exp 6)/ft to 5.6x10(exp 6)/ft and angles of attack of -5 to +5 deg on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the Flight 1 configuration. Global heat transfer was measured using phosphor thermography and the resulting images and heat transfer distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer on the vehicle windside and leeside surfaces. Boundary layer trips were used to force the boundary layer turbulent and the experimental data highlighted in this article were used to size and place the boundary layer trip for the flight vehicle. The required height of the flight boundary layer trip was determined to be 0.079 in and the trip was moved from the design location of 7.87 in to 20.47 in to ensure that augmented heating would not impact the laminar side of the vehicle. Allowable roughness was selected to be 3.2x10(exp -3) in.

  14. Computational aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.; Green, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Computational aerothermodynamics (CAT) has in the past contributed to the understanding of real-gas flows encountered by hypervelocity reentry vehicles. With advances in computational fluid dynamics, in the modeling of high temperature phenomena, and in computer capability, CAT is an enabling technology for the design of many future space vehicles. An overview of the current capabilities of CAT is provided by describing available methods and their applications. Technical challenges that need to be met are discussed.

  15. Assessment and Mission Planning Capability For Quantitative Aerothermodynamic Flight Measurements Using Remote Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Splinter, Scott; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Wood, William; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin

    2008-01-01

    High resolution calibrated infrared imagery of vehicles during hypervelocity atmospheric entry or sustained hypersonic cruise has the potential to provide flight data on the distribution of surface temperature and the state of the airflow over the vehicle. In the early 1980 s NASA sought to obtain high spatial resolution infrared imagery of the Shuttle during entry. Despite mission execution with a technically rigorous pre-planning capability, the single airborne optical system for this attempt was considered developmental and the scientific return was marginal. In 2005 the Space Shuttle Program again sponsored an effort to obtain imagery of the Orbiter. Imaging requirements were targeted towards Shuttle ascent; companion requirements for entry did not exist. The engineering community was allowed to define observation goals and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved measurement capability over a series of flights. These imaging opportunities were extremely beneficial and clearly demonstrated capability to capture infrared imagery with mature and operational assets of the US Navy and the Missile Defense Agency. While successful, the usefulness of the imagery was, from an engineering perspective, limited. These limitations were mainly associated with uncertainties regarding operational aspects of data acquisition. These uncertainties, in turn, came about because of limited pre-flight mission planning capability, a poor understanding of several factors including the infrared signature of the Shuttle, optical hardware limitations, atmospheric effects and detector response characteristics. Operational details of sensor configuration such as detector integration time and tracking system algorithms were carried out ad hoc (best practices) which led to low probability of target acquisition and detector saturation. Leveraging from the qualified success during Return-to-Flight, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored an

  16. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  17. X-38 Experimental Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Fitzgerald, Steve M.

    2000-01-01

    The X-38 program seeks to demonstrate an autonomously returned orbital test flight vehicle to support the development of an operational Crew Return Vehicle for the International Space Station. The test flight, anticipated in 2002, is intended to demonstrate the entire mission profile of returning Space Station crew members safely back to earth in the event of medical or mechanical emergency. Integral to the formulation of the X-38 flight data book and the design of the thermal protection system, the aerothermodynamic environment is being defined through a synergistic combination of ground based testing and computational fluid dynamics. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in support of the X-38 development. Global and discrete surface heat transfer force and moment, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on scaled models of the proposed X-38 configuration in different test gases at Mach 6, 10 and 20. The test parametrics include angle of attack from 0 to 50 degs, unit Reynolds numbers from 0.3 x 10 (exp 6) to 16 x 10 (exp 6)/ ft, rudder deflections of 0, 2, and 5 deg. and body flap deflections from 0 to 30 deg. Results from hypersonic aerodynamic screening studies that were conducted as the configuration evolved to the present shape at, presented. Heavy gas simulation tests have indicated that the primary real gas effects on X-38 aerodynamics at trim conditions are expected to favorably influence flap effectiveness. Comparisons of the experimental heating and force and moment data to prediction and the current aerodynamic data book are highlighted. The effects of discrete roughness elements on boundary layer transition were investigated at Mach 6 and the development of a transition correlation for the X-38 vehicle is described. Extrapolation of ground based heating measurements to flight radiation equilibrium wall temperatures at Mach 6 and 10 were

  18. Aerothermodynamics at NASA-Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weilmuenster, K. James

    2001-01-01

    The Aerothermodynamics Branch at NASA - Langley Research Center is tasked with developing, assessing and applying aerothermodynamic technologies to enable the development of hypersonic aircraft, launch vehicles, and planetary/earth entry systems. To accomplish this mission, the Branch capitalizes on the synergism between the experimental and computational facilities/tools which reside in the branch and a staff that can draw on five decades of experience in aerothermodynamics. The Aerothermodynamics Branch is staffed by 30 scientists/engineers. The staff, of which two-thirds are less than 40 years old, is split evenly between experimentalists and computationalists. Approximately 90 percent of the staff work on space transportation systems while the remainder work on planetary missions. The Branch manages 5 hypersonic wind tunnels which are staffed by 14 technicians, numerous high end work stations and a SGI Origin 2000 system. The Branch also utilizes other test facilities located at Langley as well as other national and international test sites. Large scale computational requirements are met by access to Agency resources.

  19. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Thomas; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    This document summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)'s Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The document is intended to serve as both an introduction to the type of support carried out by the FDAB (Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch), as well as a concise reference summarizing key analysis results and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles assumed over the past year. The major accomplishments in the FDAB in FY99 were: 1) Provided flight dynamics support to the Lunar Prospector and TRIANA missions among a variety of spacecraft missions; 2) Sponsored the Flight Mechanics Symposium; 3) Supported the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) workshops; 4) Performed numerous analyses and studies for future missions; 5) Started the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch Lab for in-house mission analysis and support; and 6) Complied with all requirements in support of GSFC IS09000 certification.

  20. Aerothermodynamic Insight From The HIFIRE Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmel, Roger L.; Adamczak, David; Dolvin, Douglas; Borg, Matthew; Stanfield, Scott

    2011-05-01

    The HIFiRE (Hypersonic International Flight Research and Experimentation) program is a joint venture of the United States Air Force Research Laboratory and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation to utilize economical flight research opportunities in the exploration of flight science issues for space access systems. Flights 1 and 5 focus on collecting high-resolution experimental data on critical aerothermodynamic phenomena, including laminar-turbulent transition and shock/boundary layer interactions. Flight 1, successfully flown in March 2010, employed a test article composed of a 7-deg right angle cone, followed by a cylinder and flare. The test article remained attached to the second-stage booster throughout the ballistic trajectory. Flight 5, to be launched in a similar fashion, will feature a 2:1 elliptic cross-section cone as the test article. For both flights significant resources have been invested in pre-flight aerothermodynamic analysis and testing. This manuscript will summarize the overall strategy of the HIFiRE program, review the pre-flight aerothermodynamic analysis for Flights 1 and 5, and present a brief look at preliminary results from the post-flight analysis of Flight 1.

  1. A Perspective on Computational Aerothermodynamics at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving role of computational aerothermodynamics (CA) within NASA over the past 20 years is reviewed. The presentation highlights contributions to understanding the Space Shuttle pitching moment anomaly observed in the first shuttle flight, prediction of a static instability for Mars Pathfinder, and the use of CA for damage assessment in post-Columbia mission support. In the view forward, several current challenges in computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics for hypersonic vehicle applications are discussed. Example simulations are presented to illustrate capabilities and limitations. Opportunities to advance the state-of-art in algorithms, grid generation and adaptation, and code validation are identified.

  2. Aerothermodynamic Characteristics of Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness of the HIFiRE Flight 5 Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Rufer, Shann J.; Kimmel, Roger; Adamczak, David

    2009-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center s 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel in support of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation Program. The information in this report is focused on the Flight 5 configuration, one in a series of flight experiments. This report documents experimental measurements made over a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the Flight 5 vehicle. The heat transfer rate was measured using global phosphor thermography and the resulting images and heat transfer rate distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer on the windside, leeside and side surfaces. Boundary layer trips were used to force the boundary layer turbulent, and a study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the trips with various heights. The experimental data highlighted in this test report were used determine the allowable roughness height for both the windside and side surfaces of the vehicle as well as provide for future tunnel-to-tunnel comparisons.

  3. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2005 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based), spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning, attitude analysis, attitude determination and sensor calibration, and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangus, David (Editor); Mendelsohn, Chad (Editor); Starin, Scott (Editor); Stengle, Tom (Editor); Truong, Son (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including navigation, spacecraft trajectory design, attitude analysis, attitude determination and attitude control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  5. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 2004 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLion, Anne (Editor); Stengle, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2004. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  6. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch End of Fiscal Year 1999 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, T.; Flores-Amaya, F.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key analysis results and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the discipline of flight dynamics, which involves spacecraft trajectory (orbit) and attitude analysis, as well as orbit and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions involving NASA, government, university, and commercial space missions, at various stages in the mission life cycle.

  7. Flight Planning Branch NASA Co-op Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, Aja M.

    2013-01-01

    This semester I worked with the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. I learned about the different aspects of flight planning for the International Space Station as well as the software that is used internally and ISSLive! which is used to help educate the public on the space program. I had the opportunity to do on the job training in the Mission Control Center with the planning team. I transferred old timeline records from the planning team's old software to the new software in order to preserve the data for the future when the software is retired. I learned about the operations of the International Space Station, the importance of good communication between the different parts of the planning team, and enrolled in professional development classes as well as technical classes to learn about the space station.

  8. Aerothermodynamic Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. A list of documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration is presented. The listing provides an up to date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program. Tables are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  9. NASA Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenger, Jennifer D.; Bristol, Douglas J.; Whitney, Gregory R.; Blanton, Mark R.; Reynolds, F. Fisher, III

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allowed the mission Flight Control Teams and the Astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission were developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. As the Space Shuttle Program came to a close, lessons learned were collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Space Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines have been analyzed and will be discussed. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the Space Shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in improving the control team s effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from the Mission Control Center to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons were vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning and have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of Space Shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed regarding how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  10. An Overview of the Space Shuttle Aerothermodynamic Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System was one of the three areas that required the development of new technology. The talk discusses the pre-flight development of the aerothermodynamic environment which was based on Mach 8 wind tunnel data. A high level overview of the pre-flight heating rate predictions and comparison to the Orbiter Flight Test (OFT) data is presented, along with a discussion of the dramatic improvement in the state-of-the-art in aerothermodynamic capability that has been used to support the Shuttle Program. A high level review of the Orbiter aerothermodynamic design is discussed, along with improvements in Computational Fluid Dynamics and wind tunnel testing that was required for flight support during the last 30 years. The units have been removed from the plots, and the discussion is kept at a high level.

  11. Aerothermodynamics of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul; Davies, Carol B.

    1989-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic problems associated with the aerobraking of the spacecraft proposed for the manned Mars mission are studied. The propulsive Delta V necessary at departure from earth and Mars and the velocities of the atmospheric entries into the two planets are deduced. It is shown that the propulsive Delta V can be reduced by increasing the entry velocities and that entry velocities up to about 15 km/sec are appropriate at both earth and Mars. L/D values of 0.8 and 2.0 are found to be necessary at earth and Mars, respectively. Density, pressure, and stagnation-point convective-heat-transfer rates are calculated for the typical aerobraking flights. Assuming the shock layer flow to be in equilibrium, the stagnation-point radiative-heat-transfer rates are calculated to be larger than the convective-heat-transfer rates. The possible impact of ablation, turbulence, and nonequilibrium are discussed.

  12. Overview of aerothermodynamic loads definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, NASA has been conducting the Advanced Earth-to-Orbit (AETO) Propulsion Technology Program to provide the knowledge, understanding, and design methodology that will allow the development of advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion systems with high performance, extended service life, automated operations, and diagnostics for in-flight health monitoring. The objective of the Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition Study is to develop methods to more accurately predict the operating environment in AETO propulsion systems, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The approach taken consists of 2 parts: to modify, apply, and disseminate existing computational fluid dynamics tools in response to current needs and to develop new technology that will enable more accurate computation of the time averaged and unsteady aerothermodynamic loads in the SSME powerhead. The software tools are detailed. Significant progress was made in the area of turbomachinery, where there is an overlap between the AETO efforts and research in the aeronautical gas turbine field.

  13. NASA's hypersonic fluid and thermal physics program (Aerothermodynamics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A.; Hunt, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This survey paper gives an overview of NASA's hypersonic fluid and thermal physics program (recently renamed aerothermodynamics). The purpose is to present the elements of, example results from, and rationale and projection for this program. The program is based on improving the fundamental understanding of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic flow phenomena over hypersonic vehicles in the continuum, transitional, and rarefied flow regimes. Vehicle design capabilities, computational fluid dynamics, computational chemistry, turbulence modeling, aerothermal loads, orbiter flight data analysis, orbiter experiments, laser photodiagnostics, and facilities are discussed.

  14. Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1999-01-01

    A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the aerothermodynamic chain, the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing.

  15. Shuttle entry technology payloads. [for aerothermodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III

    1975-01-01

    The flight frequency of the Space Transportation System (STS) coupled with its large payload-carrying capability will provide an unprecedented opportunity for conducting aerothermodynamic/entry technology research. This STS research opportunity can be characterized into two distinct categories: (1) that research which will utilize the STS orbiter as the test vehicle, and (2) that research which will utilize a vehicle launched from the orbiter for entry. To date, on-going studies have defined experiments as well as the support systems required for the shuttle launched research program. The proposed Entry Technology Program will provide a flight data base from which accurate correlations can be performed relative to ground test and analysis data. These correlations will result in optimized designs for future flight systems.

  16. HEART Aerothermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations.

  17. Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Revised 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.; Cooke, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Natural Environment Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide natural environments engineering support to programs and projects. The Natural Environments Branch is responsible for natural environments definitions, modeling, database development, and analytical assessments of effects. Natural Environments Branch personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, models and analytical tools have been developed in the areas of planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modeling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. This paper will build on a previous paper published in 2006 and provide updated descriptions of the capabilities within the Natural Environments Branch1. Updates describing improvements and new releases of several analytical tools and models will be presented. Separate sections will specifically describe modifications in the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), and the Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation (MSAFE) capabilities.

  18. Aerothermodynamics of the Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shane, Russell W.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerothermodynamics characteristics of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft are investigated and reported. These results have been used by the Mars Global Surveyor mission planners to design the aerobraking phase of the mission. Analytical and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo computer codes were used with a detailed, three dimensional model of the spacecraft to evaluate spacecraft aerobraking characteristics for flight in free molecular and transitional flow regimes. The spacecraft is found to be aerodynamically stable in aerobraking and planned contingency configurations. Aerodynamic forces, moments, and heating are found to be highly dependent on atmospheric density. Accommodation coefficient. is seen to strongly influence drag coefficient. Transitional flow effects are found to reduce overall solar panel heating. Attitude control thruster plumes are shown to interact with the freestream, diminishing the effectiveness of the attitude control system and even leading to thrust reversal. These plume-freestream interaction effects are found to be highly dependent on freestream density.

  19. Survey of aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics efforts carried out in the frame of Mars exploration projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynier, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    This contribution is a survey of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics data related to Mars entry. The survey includes the studies carried out in the frame of projects aiming at preparing exploration missions involving entry probes into Mars atmosphere and the efforts have been concentrated on the aerothermodynamics developments. Russian (including former Soviet Union), European and NASA aerothermodynamics developments for preparing such missions have been accounted for. If a focus has been dedicated to the flight data gathered during Viking and Mars Pathfinder entries, the experimental and numerical activities carried out for the different projects have been also considered. The emphasis has been put on the post-flight analysis of flight experiments. The objective of the activity has been to develop a database of the developments performed for Mars entry that will be of interest for the preparation of future missions and for testing new models related to radiative transfer, and chemical kinetics schemes based on a state-to-state approach.

  20. Capabilities of the Natural Environments Branch at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Suggs, Rob; Roberts, Barry C.

    2006-01-01

    The Natural Environment Branch at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the responsibility to provide engineering support to programs and projects in natural environments. The Natural Environments Branch (EV13) is responsible for natural environments definitions, modelling, database development and effects assessments. EV13 personnel develop requirements for flight projects and provide operational support for space and launch vehicle systems. To accomplish these responsibilities, Branch . personnel have developed modelling and analytical tools which include planetary atmospheres, meteoroids, ionizing radiation, plasmas and ionospheres, magnetic and gravitational fields, spacecraft charging modelling, and radiation effects on electronic parts. NASA s Meteoroid Environment Office is operated within the EV13 and provides meteoroid engineering models and shower forecasts to spacecraft designers and operators. This paper will describe the capabilities within the Natural Environments Effects Branch including; examples of natural environment definitions, radiation transport, output from the Global Reference Atmosphere Models for Earth, Venus, Mars, Titan, and Neptune), recent NASCAP 2K results from solar sail modelling, and meteor stream models

  1. Uncertainty Assessment of Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Brown, James L.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gnoffo, Peter; Johnston, Christopher O.; Hollis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The present paper provides the background of a focused effort to assess uncertainties in predictions of heat flux and pressure in hypersonic flight (airbreathing or atmospheric entry) using state-of-the-art aerothermodynamics codes. The assessment is performed for four mission relevant problems: (1) shock turbulent boundary layer interaction on a compression corner, (2) shock turbulent boundary layer interaction due a impinging shock, (3) high-mass Mars entry and aerocapture, and (4) high speed return to Earth. A validation based uncertainty assessment approach with reliance on subject matter expertise is used. A code verification exercise with code-to-code comparisons and comparisons against well established correlations is also included in this effort. A thorough review of the literature in search of validation experiments is performed, which identified a scarcity of ground based validation experiments at hypersonic conditions. In particular, a shortage of useable experimental data at flight like enthalpies and Reynolds numbers is found. The uncertainty was quantified using metrics that measured discrepancy between model predictions and experimental data. The discrepancy data is statistically analyzed and investigated for physics based trends in order to define a meaningful quantified uncertainty. The detailed uncertainty assessment of each mission relevant problem is found in the four companion papers.

  2. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  3. Capabilities of the Environmental Effects Branch at Marshall Space Flight Cente

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; Finckenor, Miria; Nehls, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center supports a myriad array of programs for NASA, DoD, and commercial space including human exploration, advanced space propulsion, improving life on Earth, and the study of the Sun, the Earth, and the solar system. The branch provides testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials for use on external spacecraft surfaces and in contamination-sensitive systems. Space environment capabilities include charged particle radiation, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, impact, plasma, and thermal vacuum, anchored by flight experiments and analysis of returned space hardware. These environmental components can be combined for solar wind or planetary surface environment studies or to evaluate synergistic effects. The Impact Testing Facility allows simulation of impacts ranging from sand and rain to micrometeoroids and orbital debris in order to evaluate materials and components for flight and ground-based systems. The Contamination Control Team is involved in the evaluation of environmentally-friendly replacements for HCFC-225 for use in propulsion oxygen systems, developing cleaning methods for additively manufactured hardware, and reducing risk for the Space Launch System.

  4. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  5. Aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A reference source for various aspects of aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design is presented. Air conditioning load analysis is addressed, including physiological requirements, heat and cooling load equations, skin temperature computational methods, cooling loads due to radiation through transparent areas, heating and cooling loads due to internal sources, and practical considerations in the determination of overall heating and cooling loads. Refrigeration system design is considered, including air cycle systems, vapor cycle systems, combined vapor cycle and air cycle systems, and thermoelectric cooling. Heating methods is heating system design and low pressure and high pressure systems in air distribution system design are addressed. Procedures and equations commonly used for aerospace applications of these technologies are included.

  6. Opportunities for research in aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    "Aerothermodynamics' involves the disciplines of chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer which have collaborative importance in propulsion systems. There are growing opportunities for the further application of these disciplines to improve the methodology for the design of advanced gas turbines; particularly, the combustor and turbine. Design procedures follow empirical or cut and try guidelines. The tremendous advances in computational analysis and in instrumentation techniques hold promise for research answers to complex physical processes that are currently not well understood. The transfer of basic research understanding to engineering design should result in shorter, less expensive development commitments for engines. The status and anticipated opportunities in research topics relevant to combustors and turbines is reviewed.

  7. Aerothermodynamics Overview and Prediction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the Aerothermodynamics Discipline within NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is given. The primary focus of the presentation is on the research efforts conducted in fiscal year 2007. This year (2007), the work primarily consisted of efforts under level 1 (foundational research) and level 2 (tools and technology development). Examples of work under level 1 are large eddy simulation development, advanced turbine cooling concept development, and turbomachinery flow control development. Examples of level 2 research are the development of highly-loaded compressor and turbine test programs and advanced turbomachinery simulation development, including coupled inlet-fan simulations. An overview of the NRA research activity is also provided. This NRA focused on plasma and aspiration flow control for low pressure turbine application. Finally, a status report on the turbomachinery CFD code assessment activity is provided. This activity focuses on the use of several NASA in-house codes for the NASA rotor 37 and stage 35 test cases.

  8. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  9. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  10. Development and application of computational aerothermodynamics flowfield computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1994-01-01

    Research was performed in the area of computational modeling and application of hypersonic, high-enthalpy, thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flow (Aerothermodynamics) problems. A number of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes were developed and applied to simulate high altitude rocket-plume, the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE), hypersonic base flow for planetary probes, the single expansion ramp model (SERN) connected with the National Aerospace Plane, hypersonic drag devices, hypersonic ramp flows, ballistic range models, shock tunnel facility nozzles, transient and steady flows in the shock tunnel facility, arc-jet flows, thermochemical nonequilibrium flows around simple and complex bodies, axisymmetric ionized flows of interest to re-entry, unsteady shock induced combustion phenomena, high enthalpy pulsed facility simulations, and unsteady shock boundary layer interactions in shock tunnels. Computational modeling involved developing appropriate numerical schemes for the flows on interest and developing, applying, and validating appropriate thermochemical processes. As part of improving the accuracy of the numerical predictions, adaptive grid algorithms were explored, and a user-friendly, self-adaptive code (SAGE) was developed. Aerothermodynamic flows of interest included energy transfer due to strong radiation, and a significant level of effort was spent in developing computational codes for calculating radiation and radiation modeling. In addition, computational tools were developed and applied to predict the radiative heat flux and spectra that reach the model surface.

  11. Aerothermodynamic Design of the Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2009-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic design environments are presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry capsule heatshield. The design conditions are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on shallow (maximum total heat load) and steep (maximum heat flux, shear stress, and pressure) entry trajectories from a 2009 launch. Boundary layer transition is expected prior to peak heat flux, a first for Mars entry, and the heatshield environments were defined for a fully-turbulent heat pulse. The effects of distributed surface roughness on turbulent heat flux and shear stress peaks are included using empirical correlations. Additional biases and uncertainties are based on computational model comparisons with experimental data and sensitivity studies. The peak design conditions are 197 W/sq cm for heat flux, 471 Pa for shear stress, 0.371 Earth atm for pressure, and 5477 J/sq cm for total heat load. Time-varying conditions at fixed heatshield locations were generated for thermal protection system analysis and flight instrumentation development. Finally, the aerothermodynamic effects of delaying launch until 2011 are previewed.

  12. Overview of Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition were studied to develop methods to more accurately predict the operating environment in the space shuttle main engine (SSME) components. Development of steady and time-dependent, three-dimensional viscous computer codes and experimental verification and engine diagnostic testing are considered. The steady, nonsteady, and transient operating loads are defined to accurately predict powerhead life. Improvements in the structural durability of the SSME turbine drive systems depends on the knowledge of the aerothermodynamic behavior of the flow through the preburner, turbine, turnaround duct, gas manifold, and injector post regions.

  13. Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  14. Aerothermodynamic Analyses of Towed Ballutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Buck, Greg; Moss, James N.; Nielsen, Eric; Berger, Karen; Jones, William T.; Rudavsky, Rena

    2006-01-01

    A ballute (balloon-parachute) is an inflatable, aerodynamic drag device for application to planetary entry vehicles. Two challenging aspects of aerothermal simulation of towed ballutes are considered. The first challenge, simulation of a complete system including inflatable tethers and a trailing toroidal ballute, is addressed using the unstructured-grid, Navier-Stokes solver FUN3D. Auxiliary simulations of a semi-infinite cylinder using the rarefied flow, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo solver, DSV2, provide additional insight into limiting behavior of the aerothermal environment around tethers directly exposed to the free stream. Simulations reveal pressures higher than stagnation and corresponding large heating rates on the tether as it emerges from the spacecraft base flow and passes through the spacecraft bow shock. The footprint of the tether shock on the toroidal ballute is also subject to heating amplification. Design options to accommodate or reduce these environments are discussed. The second challenge addresses time-accurate simulation to detect the onset of unsteady flow interactions as a function of geometry and Reynolds number. Video of unsteady interactions measured in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and CFD simulations using the structured grid, Navier-Stokes solver LAURA are compared for flow over a rigid spacecraft-sting-toroid system. The experimental data provides qualitative information on the amplitude and onset of unsteady motion which is captured in the numerical simulations. The presence of severe unsteady fluid - structure interactions is undesirable and numerical simulation must be able to predict the onset of such motion.

  15. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model, experimental results. Volume 1: Mach 6 component integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project was initiated for the purpose of advancing the technology of airbreathing propulsion for hypersonic flight. A large component (inlet, combustor, and nozzle) and structures development program was encompassed by the project. The tests of a full-scale (18 in. diameter cowl and 87 in. long) HRE concept, designated the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM), at Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7. Computer program results for Mach 6 component integration tests are presented.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  17. Intermediate Experimental Vehicle, ESA Program Aerothermodynamics- Transition And Steps And Gaps Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verand, Jean-Luc; Pelissier, Christian; Sourgen, Frederic; Fontaine, Joelle; Garcon, Francois; Spel, Martin; van Hauwaert, Pierre; Charbonnier, Dominique; Vos, Jan; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Pibarot, Julien; Tribot, Jean-Pierre; Mareschi, Vincenzo; Ferrarella, Daniella; Rufolo, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project objectives are the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system, which is highly flexible and manoeuvrable. The IXV vehicle is a flying test bed for securing the next step of operational space vehicle development by supporting technology demonstration and system concept through the following objectives: a) Aerothermodynamics b) Advanced In Flight Experiments c) Thermal Protection System d) Guidance Navigation and Control e) System design The assessment of the general aerothermodynamic environment of IXV vehicle is mainly performed considering a smooth simplified geometry. However, the thermal protection system of IXV includes a mono-block ceramic matrix composite nose and an assembly of shingles between which steps and gaps are generated. From an aerothermodynamic point of view, such a distributed roughness layout cannot be ignored in terms of modification of the interaction between the flow and the body. To assess this effect, dedicated Mach number 5.5 wind tunnel tests (ONERA, S3MA facility) and numerical simulations (RTECH and CFS Engineering) have been performed during the phase C2 of the project. The paper presents the general logic of the work, with emphasis on the wind tunnel model design, tests involving infrared thermal measurements as well as the CFD rebuilding of the flow in the wind tunnel and the extrapolation from ground-to-flight.

  18. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  19. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2005-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Path finder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  20. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Weilmuenster, K. James; Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1997-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  1. Computational Aerothermodynamic Design Issues for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David R.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the evolutionary progress in computational aerothermodynamics is presented. The current status of computational aerothermodynamics is then discussed, with emphasis on its capabilities and limitations for contributions to the design process of hypersonic vehicles. Some topics to be highlighted include: (1) aerodynamic coefficient predictions with emphasis on high temperature gas effects; (2) surface heating and temperature predictions for thermal protection system (TPS) design in a high temperature, thermochemical nonequilibrium environment; (3) methods for extracting and extending computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solutions for efficient utilization by all members of a multidisciplinary design team; (4) physical models; (5) validation process and error estimation; and (6) gridding and solution generation strategies. Recent experiences in the design of X-33 will be featured. Computational aerothermodynamic contributions to Mars Pathfinder, METEOR, and Stardust (Comet Sample return) will also provide context for this discussion. Some of the barriers that currently limit computational aerothermodynamics to a predominantly reactive mode in the design process will also be discussed, with the goal of providing focus for future research.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was the development of nonequilibrium radiation and chemistry models suitable for engineering applications associated with the flow fields about aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), the aero-assisted flight experiment vehicle (AFE), and other vehicles operating at superorbital velocities and very high attitudes.

  3. Development of X-33/X-34 Aerothermodynamic Data Bases: Lessons Learned and Future Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    A synoptic of programmatic and technical lessons learned in the development of aerothermodynamic data bases for the X-33 and X-34 programs is presented in general terms and from the perspective of the NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamics Branch. The format used is that of the "aerothermodynamic chain," the links of which are personnel, facilities, models/test articles, instrumentation, test techniques, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Because the aerodynamic data bases upon which the X-33 and X-34 vehicles will fly are almost exclusively from wind tunnel testing, as opposed to CFD, the primary focus of the lessons learned is on ground-based testing. The period corresponding to the development of X-33 and X-34 aerothermodynamic data bases was challenging, since a number of other such programs (e.g., X-38, X-43) competed for resources at a time of downsizing of personnel, facilities, etc., outsourcing, and role changes as NASA Centers served as subcontractors to industry. The impact of this changing environment is embedded in the lessons learned. From a technical perspective, the relatively long times to design and fabricate metallic force and moment models, delays in delivery of models, and a lack of quality assurance to determine the fidelity of model outer mold lines (OML) prior to wind tunnel testing had a major negative impact on the programs. On the positive side, the application of phosphor thermography to obtain global, quantitative heating distributions on rapidly fabricated ceramic models revolutionized the aerothermodynamic optimization of vehicle OMLs, control surfaces, etc. Vehicle designers were provided with aeroheating information prior to, or in conjunction with, aerodynamic information early in the program, thereby allowing trades to be made with both sets of input; in the past only aerodynamic data were available as input. Programmatically, failure to include transonic aerodynamic wind tunnel tests early in the assessment phase

  4. Nonequilibrium effects on the aerothermodynamics of transatmospheric and aerobraking vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, Basil; Candler, Graham V.

    1993-01-01

    A 3D CFD algorithm is used to study the effect of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium on slender and blunt body aerothermodynamics. Both perfect gas and reacting gas air models are used to compute the flow over a generic transatmospheric vehicle and a proposed lunar transfer vehicle. The reacting air is characterized by a translational-rotational temperature and a vibrational-electron-electronic temperature and includes eight chemical species. The effects of chemical reaction, vibrational excitation, and ionization on lift-to-drag ratio and trim angle are investigated. Results for the NASA Ames All-body Configuration show a significant difference in center of gravity location for a reacting gas flight case when compared to a perfect gas wind tunnel case at the same Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack. For the same center of gravity location, the wind tunnel model trims at lower angle of attack than the full-scale flight case. Nonionized and ionized results for a proposed lunar transfer vehicle compare well to computational results obtained from a previously validated reacting gas algorithm. Under the conditions investigated, effects of weak ionization on the heat transfer and aerodynamic coefficients were minimal.

  5. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of the Project FIRE II Afterbody Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Micheal J.; Loomis, Mark; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    35 years later, the Project FIRE II ballistic reentry to Earth at a nominal velocity of 11.4 km/s remains one of the best sources of heating data for the design of sample return capsules. The data from this flight experiment encompass both the thermochemical non-equilibrium and equilibrium flow regimes and include measurements of both radiative and total heating on the forebody and afterbody. Because of this, a number of researchers have performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the forebody of the FIRE II entry vehicle, with generally good results. In particular, Olynick et. al. coupled a Navier-Stokes solver (GIANTS) with a radiation code (NOVAR) and showed excellent agreement in surface heat transfer over the FIRE II trajectory between 1634 and 1651 seconds (77 km to 37 km). However, in most cases the primary motivation of the previous work was to understand and model the coupling between shock layer radiation and aerothermodynamics, and thus the simulations concentrated on the forebody flow only. To our knowledge there have been no prior published attempts to reproduce the afterbody heating data. However, an understanding of this data is critical to our efforts to design the next generation of Earth and planetary entry vehicles and to assess our need for additional flight data.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics and aerothermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Leland A.

    1988-03-01

    Approximations applicable to the radiating, reacting, and conducting stagnation region of a hypervelocity vehicle were incorporated into a method for rapidly obtaining approximate solutions. This solution utilizes a coordinate system based upon the origin of the radiative losses and includes in a phenomenologically correct manner the effects of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium, and nonequilibrium, nongray radiative transfer. Results were presented which demonstrate the usefulness of the method and indicate which radiation parameters require further study and definition. Excellent comparisons were obtained with published results for the Fire2 data. An axisymmetric nonequilibrium inverse method was modified and extended and used to investigate and compare various vibration dissociation chemistry coupling models and radiative heat transfer approximations. The similarities, differences, and consequences of using these models in the Aero-assist Orbital Transfer Vehicles flight regime will be discussed.

  7. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Controls Systems Design and Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center maintains a critical national capability in the analysis of launch vehicle flight dynamics and flight certification of GN&C algorithms. MSFC analysts are domain experts in the areas of flexible-body dynamics and control-structure interaction, thrust vector control, sloshing propellant dynamics, and advanced statistical methods. Marshall's modeling and simulation expertise has supported manned spaceflight for over 50 years. Marshall's unparalleled capability in launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control technology stems from its rich heritage in developing, integrating, and testing launch vehicle GN&C systems dating to the early Mercury-Redstone and Saturn vehicles. The Marshall team is continuously developing novel methods for design, including advanced techniques for large-scale optimization and analysis.

  8. A Review of Hypersonics Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics and Plasmadynamics Activities within NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Manuel D.

    2007-01-01

    The research program of the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and plasmadynamics discipline of NASA's Hypersonic Project is reviewed. Details are provided for each of its three components: 1) development of physics-based models of non-equilibrium chemistry, surface catalytic effects, turbulence, transition and radiation; 2) development of advanced simulation tools to enable increased spatial and time accuracy, increased geometrical complexity, grid adaptation, increased physical-processes complexity, uncertainty quantification and error control; and 3) establishment of experimental databases from ground and flight experiments to develop better understanding of high-speed flows and to provide data to validate and guide the development of simulation tools.

  9. Langley Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex: Enhancements and Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Description, capabilities, recent upgrades, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex (AFC) are presented. The AFC consists of five hypersonic, blow-down-to-vacuum wind tunnels that collectively provide a range of Mach number from 6 to 20, unit Reynolds number from 0.04 to 22 million per foot and, most importantly for blunt configurations, normal shock density ratio from 4 to 12. These wide ranges of hypersonic simulation parameters are due, in part, to the use of three different test gases (air, helium, and tetrafluoromethane), thereby making several of the facilities unique. The Complex represents nearly three-fourths of the conventional (as opposed to impulse)-type hypersonic wind tunnels operational in this country. AFC facilities are used to assess and optimize the hypersonic aerodynamic performance and aeroheating characteristics of aerospace vehicle concepts and to provide benchmark aerodynamic/aeroheating data fr generating the flight aerodynamic databook and final design of the thermal protection system (TPS) (e.g., establishment of flight limitations not to exceed TPS design limits). Modifications and enhancements of AFC hardware components and instrumentation have been pursued to increase capability, reliability, and productivity in support of programmatic goals. Examples illustrating facility utilization in recent years to generate essentially all of the experimental hypersonic aerodynamic and aeroheating information for high-priority, fast-paced Agency programs are presented. These programs include Phase I of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Advanced Technology Demonstrator, X-33 program, PHase II of the X-33 program, X-34 program, the Hyper-X program ( a Mach 5,7, and 10 airbreathing propulsion flight experiment), and the X-38 program (Experimental Crew Return Vehicle, X-CRV). Current upgrades/enchancements and future plans for the AFC are discussed.

  10. Experimental Aerothermodynamics In Support Of The Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The technical foundation for the most probable damage scenario reported in the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's final report was largely derived from synergistic aerodynamic/aerothermodynamic wind tunnel measurements and inviscid predictions made at NASA Langley Research Center and later corroborated with engineering analysis, high fidelity numerical viscous simulations, and foam impact testing near the close of the investigation. This report provides an overview of the hypersonic aerothermodynamic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley and illustrates how the ground-based heating measurements provided early insight that guided the direction and utilization of agency resources in support of the investigation. Global surface heat transfer mappings, surface streamline patterns, and shock shapes were measured on 0.0075 scale models of the Orbiter configuration with and without postulated damage to the thermal protection system. Test parametrics include angle of attack from 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of 38 to 42 degs, sideslip angles of plus or minus 1 deg, Reynolds numbers based upon model length from 0.05 x 10(exp 6) to 6.5 x 10(exp 6), and normal shock density ratios of 5 (Mach 6 Air) and 12 (Mach 6 CF4). The primary objective of the testing was to provide surface heating characteristics on scaled Orbiter models with outer mold line perturbations to simulate various forms of localized surface damage to the thermal protection system. Initial experimental testing conducted within two weeks of the accident simulated a broad spectrum of thermal protection system damage to the Orbiter windward surface and was used to refute several hypothesized forms of thermal protection system damage, which included gouges in the windward thermal protection system tiles, breaches through the wing new the main landing gear door, and protuberances along the wing leading edge that produced asymmetric boundary layer transition. As the forensic phase of the investigation

  11. Aerothermodynamic data base. Data file contents report, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration is listed to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program. Tables provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.

  12. Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamics Research Facilty (STARFAC) instrumentation requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M.; Siemers, P. M.; Carlomagno, G. M.; Hoffman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation requirements for the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC) are presented. The typical physical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere are given along with representative atmospheric daytime ion concentrations and the equilibrium and nonequilibrium gas property comparison from a point away from a wall. STARFAC science and engineering measurements are given as are the TSS free stream gas analysis. The potential nonintrusive measurement techniques for hypersonic boundary layer research are outlined along with the quantitative physical measurement methods for aerothermodynamic studies.

  13. Overview of aerothermodynamic loads definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Aerothermodynamic Loads Definition Study is to develop methods of accurately predicting the operating environment in advanced Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) propulsion systems, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. Development of time averaged and time dependent three dimensional viscous computer codes as well as experimental verification and engine diagnostic testing are considered to be essential in achieving that objective. Time-averaged, nonsteady, and transient operating loads must all be well defined in order to accurately predict powerhead life. Described here is work in unsteady heat flow analysis, improved modeling of preburner flow, turbulence modeling for turbomachinery, computation of three dimensional flow with heat transfer, and unsteady viscous multi-blade row turbine analysis.

  14. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  15. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  16. [Formation and development of flight-surgeon examination in the Branch No. 1 of Main Military Clinical Hospital n. a. N.N.Burdenko].

    PubMed

    Esipov, A V; Tsyganok, V A; Vartbaronov, R A

    2012-10-01

    The history of formation and development of branch No. 1 FSI "Main Military Clinical Hospital n. a. N.N.Burdenko of the Ministry of Defense of the RF" is described in the article. The hospital celebrates in this year the 65-years anniversary of scientific and medical activity in the field of military clinical medicine, aviation clinical medicine and a fight-surgeon's examination. The leading historical role of this establishment in support of flight safety, combat readiness and anti-aircraft rocket troops is shown, and then last 10 years and in Air Forces of Russia, and also the basic achievements of branch in successful scientific and medical activity from 1946 till present time are given. Prospects of the further development of this branch are substantially connected to the increase of intensification of research works together with leading military-medical establishments of an aviation profile: Institute of Military medicine of Military-medical Academy, the Central flight-surgeon commission and 3 branch of FSI "3 Central military Clinical Hospital MD RF" etc.,--in solution of the large state problem of decrease of accident rate and rising of a medical flight safety of the RF State aviation. PMID:23213778

  17. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  18. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  19. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis. PMID:27412335

  20. Computational Aerothermodynamic Assessment of Space Shuttle Orbiter Tile Damage: Open Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulsonetti, Maria; Wood, William

    2005-01-01

    Computational aerothermodynamic simulations of Orbiter windside tile damage in flight were performed in support of the Space Shuttle Return-to-Flight effort. The simulations were performed for both hypervelocity flight and low-enthalpy wind tunnel conditions and contributed to the Return-to-Flight program by providing information to support a variety of damage scenario analyses. Computations at flight conditions were performed at or very near the peak heating trajectory point for multiple damage scenarios involving damage windside acreage reaction cured glass (RCG) coated silica tile(s). The cavities formed by the missing tile examined in this study were relatively short leading to flow features which indicated open cavity behavior. Results of the computations indicated elevated heating bump factor levels predicted for flight over the predictions for wind tunnel conditions. The peak heating bump factors, defined as the local heating to a reference value upstream of the cavity, on the cavity floor for flight simulation were 67% larger than the peak wind tunnel simulation value. On the downstream face of the cavity the flight simulation values were 60% larger than the wind tunnel simulation values. On the outer mold line (OML) downstream of the cavity, the flight values are about 20% larger than the wind tunnel simulation values. The higher heating bump factors observed in the flight simulations were due to the larger driving potential in terms of energy entering the cavity for the flight simulations. This is evidenced by the larger rate of increase in the total enthalpy through the boundary layer prior to the cavity for the flight simulation.

  1. Prediction of the Aerothermodynamic Environment of the Huygens Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Striepe, Scott A.; Wright, Michael J.; Bose, Deepak; Sutton, Kenneth; Takashima, Naruhisa

    2005-01-01

    An investigation of the aerothermodynamic environment of the Huygens entry probe has been conducted. A Monte Carlo simulation of the trajectory of the probe during entry into Titan's atmosphere was performed to identify a worst-case heating rate trajectory. Flowfield and radiation transport computations were performed at points along this trajectory to obtain convective and radiative heat-transfer distributions on the probe's heat shield. This investigation identified important physical and numerical factors, including atmospheric CH4 concentration, transition to turbulence, numerical diffusion modeling, and radiation modeling, which strongly influenced the aerothermodynamic environment.

  2. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness, volume 3. Attachment B: Flight STS-35 report, section A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, and STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume presents flight data for flight STS-35 in graphical format.

  3. Aerothermodynamic heating and performance analysis of a high-lift aeromaneuvering AOTV concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.; Brown, K. G.; Wilson, J. F.; Davies, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal-control requirements for design-optimized aeromaneuvering performance are determined for space-based applications and low-earth orbit sorties involving large, multiple plane-inclination changes. The leading-edge heating analysis is the most advanced developed for hypersonic-rarefied flow over lifting surfaces at incidence. The effects of leading-edge bluntness, low-density viscous phenomena, and finite-rate flow-field chemistry and surface catalysis are accounted for. The predicted aerothermodynamic heating characteristics are correlated with thermal-control and flight-performance capabilities. The mission payload capability for delivery, retrieval, and combined operations is determined for round-trip sorties extending to polar orbits. Recommendations are given for future design refinements. The results help to identify technology issues required to develop prototype operational systems.

  4. Legacy of the Space Shuttle from an Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system heating environment is described from a design stand point that began in the early 1970s. The desire for a light weight, reusable heat shield required the development of new technology, relative to previous manned spacecraft, and a systems approach to the design of the vehicle, entry guidance, and thermal protection system. Several unanticipated issues had to be resolved in both the entry and ascent phases of flight, which are discussed at a high level. During the life of the Program, significant improvements in computing power and numerical methods have been applied to Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic issues, with the Shuttle Program often being the motivation, and or sponsor of the analysis development.

  5. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Some combustor test results of NASA aerothermodynamic integration model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Y. H.; Gaede, A. E.; Sainio, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test results of the NASA Aerothermodynamic Integration Model are presented of a ramjet engine developed for operation between Mach 3 and 8. Ground-based and flight experiments which provide the data required to advance the technology of hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems as well as to evaluate facility and testing techniques are described. The engine was tested with synthetic air at Mach 5, 6, and 7. The hydrogen fuel was heated to 1500 R prior to injection to simulate a regeneratively cooled system. Combustor efficiencies up to 95 percent at Mach 6 were achieved. Combustor process in terms of effectiveness, pressure integral factor, total pressure recovery and Crocco's pressure-area relationship are presented and discussed. Interactions between inlet-combustor, combustor stages, combustor-nozzle, and the effects of altitude, combustor step, and struts are observed and analyzed.

  6. Low density aerothermodynamics studies performed by means of the tethered satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Low density gas flow modeling and current ground wind-tunnel technologies are not presently able to produce fully reliable data concerning low density flow regimes. In order to answer some of these issues, the Shuttle Continuous Open Wind Tunnel (SCOWT) program has been proposed, which makes use of the tethered satellite system (TSS). SCOWT's objective is to investigate the energy and momentum transfer between the tethered satellite and its environmental medium within the range of the thermofluid-dynamic conditions experienced by TSS during its atmospheric flights. The feasibility and capability of SCOWT to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies are investigated. Some of the results, obtained by means of a tether simulation program, and the instrumentation and TSS design main requirements to meet SCOWT objectives are described.

  7. SHARP Demonstration Flight: Video Broadcast System for Research in Intelligent Flight Characterization and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (Thermal Protection Materials and Systems Branch) is investigating new ceramic materials for the thermal protection of atmospheric entry vehicles. An incremental approach to proving the capabilities of these materials calls for a lifting entry flight test of a sharp leading edge component on the proposed SHARP (Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe) vehicle. This flight test will establish the aerothermal performance constraint under real lifting entry conditions. NASA Ames has been developing the SHARP test flight with SSDL (responsible for the SHARP S I vehicle avionics), Montana State University (responsible for the SHARP S I vehicle airframe), the Wickman Spacecraft and Propulsion Company (responsible for the sounding rocket and launch operations), and with the SCU Intelligent Robotics Program, The SCU team was added well after the rest of the development team had formed. The SCU role was to assist with the development of a real-time video broadcast system which would relay onboard flight video to a communication groundstation. The SCU team would also assist with general vehicle preparation as well as flight operations. At the time of the submission of the original SCU proposal, a test flight in Wyoming was originally targeted for September 2000. This date was moved several times into the Fall of 2000. It was then postponed until the Spring of 2001, and later pushed into late Summer 2001. To date, the flight has still not taken place. These project delays resulted in SCU requesting several no-cost extensions to the project. Based on the most recent conversations with the project technical lead, Paul Kolodjiez, the current plan is for the overall SHARP team to assemble what exists of the vehicle, to document the system, and to 'mothball' the vehicle in anticipation of future flight and funding opportunities.

  8. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness, volume 8. Attachment B: Flight STS-35 report, section F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume presents tabular and graphical spectral data of the reentry of flight STS-35.

  9. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness, volume 9. Attachment C: Flight STS-40 report. Attachment D: SUMS software listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation begins about 1 hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continues until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS flew a total of three missions, 61C, STS-35, STS-40. Between flights, the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399. This volume provides a software listing and graphical data gathered from flight STS-40.

  10. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  11. The definition of the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Wood, G. M., Jr.; Wolf, H.; Flanagan, P. F.; Henry, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to define the feasibility and practical limitations of the Shuttle Orbiter Tethered 'wind-tunnel' concept. This concept, referred to as the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC), is proposed to provide researchers access to altitudes above 90 km to accomplish aerothermodynamic research in the rarefied upper atmosphere. Determining the feasibility and limitations of the concept has required the enhancement and/or development of mission simulation analytical techniques and control laws; the accomplishment of candidate mission simulations; the definition of instrumentation requirements, both for science and engineering; and the establishment of tether and satellite design requirements to meet STARFAC objectives. The results of the study, to date, indicate that such a concept is both feasible and practical. Representative results are presented, as are recommendations for continued studies which would result in program implementation.

  12. The tethered satellite system for low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, P. M., III; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of the operation of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) as a continuous open wind tunnel for low-density aerothermodynamic studies (applicable to the design of hypersonic space vehicles including STARFAC, AOTV, and ERV) is considered. The Shuttle Continuous Open Wind Tunnel (SCOWT) program, for the study of the energy and momentum transfer between the tethered satellite and its environmental medium during the TSS/2 mission, is described. Instrumentation and TSS design requirements to meet SCOWT objectives are also considered. SCOWT will provide information on the gasdynamic processes occurring downstream of the bow wave standing in front of the TS, the chemistry and physics of the upper atmosphere related to satellite aerothermodynamics, and TSS's overall experimental envelope of operation.

  13. Downward-deployed tethered platforms for high enthalpy aerothermodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M.; Siemers, Paul M.; Squires, R. Kenneth; Wolf, Henry; Carlomagno, Giovanni M.

    1988-01-01

    The data on aerothermodynamic and aerodynamic interactions at altitudes above 50 km is extremely limited because of the relative inaccessibility of the region to research vehicles of any sort. This paper addresses the practicability of using downward deployed satellites tethered to an orbiting host vehicle in order to obtain steady-state data in the upper reaches of the region above 80 or 90 km.

  14. User's Manual for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    This user's manual provides detailed instructions for the installation and the application of version 4.1 of the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA). Also provides simulation of flow field in thermochemical nonequilibrium around vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities through the atmosphere. Earlier versions of LAURA were predominantly research codes, and they had minimal (or no) documentation. This manual describes UNIX-based utilities for customizing the code for special applications that also minimize system resource requirements. The algorithm is reviewed, and the various program options are related to specific equations and variables in the theoretical development.

  15. Heterogeneous oxidation products of branched and linear unsaturated hydrocarbons as characterized by two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nah, T.; Zhang, H.; Worton, D. R.; Ruehl, C. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Leone, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has shown that molecular structure (e.g. degree of branching) can influence reaction rates and mechanisms in heterogeneous hydrocarbon oxidation. In this study, we provide new insights into the influence of molecular structure on product formation chemistry in the OH-initiated oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbon aerosols. Submicron aerosol particles composed of either squalene (branched alkene) or linolenic acid (linear unsaturated fatty acid) were oxidized by OH radicals in the presence and absence of oxygen in a photochemical flow reactor. Oxidation products are collected on filters and analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography, with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection utilizing vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and electron impact ionization. The oxidation products were separated, identified, and quantified. We observed that in the absence of oxygen, the OH oxidation of squalene aerosol mainly leads to the formation of functionalization products with one alcohol functional group. These functionalization products are found to be a result of intermolecular hydrogen atom abstraction by the hydroxyalkyl radical (i.e. chain propagation) and are consistent with previously measured squalene effective uptake coefficients that are observed to be larger than one. Reaction pathways that cleave C-C bonds are observed to be strongly suppressed when oxygen is absent, but become more prevalent when oxygen is present in the oxidation of squalene aerosol. In contrast, the presence of oxygen generally does not influence the formation of functionalization and fragmentation products in the OH oxidation of linolenic acid aerosols. These results provide new molecular and mechanistic insights into the reaction pathways in the OH-initiated oxidation of branched and linear unsaturated hydrocarbon aerosols.

  16. Experimental Stage Separation Tool Development in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Scallion, William I.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the research effort at NASA in support of the stage separation and ascent aerothermodynamics research program, proximity testing of a generic bimese wing-body configuration was conducted in NASA Langley's Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in the 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The objective of this work is the development of experimental tools and testing methodologies to apply to hypersonic stage separation problems for future multi-stage launch vehicle systems. Aerodynamic force and moment proximity data were generated at a nominal Mach number of 6 over a small range of angles of attack. The generic bimese configuration was tested in a belly-to-belly and back-to-belly orientation at 86 relative proximity locations. Over 800 aerodynamic proximity data points were taken to serve as a database for code validation. Longitudinal aerodynamic data generated in this test program show very good agreement with viscous computational predictions. Thus a framework has been established to study separation problems in the hypersonic regime using coordinated experimental and computational tools.

  17. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) Reentry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William A.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Rault, Didier F. G.

    1996-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic analysis of the Commercial Experiment Transporter (COMET) reentry capsule has been performed using the laminar thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm. Flowfield solutions were obtained at Mach numbers 1.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 27.5. Axisymmetric and 5, 10, and 20 degree angles of attack were considered across the Mach-number range, with the Mach 25 conditions taken to 90 degrees angle of attack and the Mach 27.5 cases taken to 60 degrees angle of attack. Detailed surface heat-transfer rates were computed at Mach 20 and 25, revealing that heating rates on the heat-shield shoulder ,can exceed the stagnation-point heating by 230 percent. Finite-rate chemistry solutions were performed above Mach 10, otherwise perfect gas computations were made. Drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients are computed and details of a wake flow are presented. The effect of including the wake in the solution domain was investigated and base pressure corrections to forebody drag coefficients were numerically determined for the lower Mach numbers. Pitching moment comparisons are made with direct simulation Monte Carlo results in the more rarefied flow at the highest Mach numbers, showing agreement within two-percent. Thin-layer Navier-Stokes computations of the axial force are found to be 15 percent higher across the speed range than the empirical/Newtonian based results used during the initial trajectory analyses.

  18. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  19. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil

    2010-01-01

    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver - flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  20. Overview of the Aerothermodynamics Analysis Conducted in Support of the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    A graphic presentation of the aerothermodynamics analysis conducted in support of the STS-107 accident investigation. Investigation efforts were conducted as part of an integrated AATS team (Aero, Aerothermal, Thermal, Stress) directed by OVEWG. Graphics presented are: STS-107 Entry trajectory and timeline (1st off-nominal event to Post-LOS); Indications from OI telemetry data; Aero/aerothermo/thermal analysis process; Selected STS-107 side fuselage/OMS pod off-nominal temperatures; Leading edge structural subsystem; Relevant forensics evidence; External aerothermal environments; STS-107 Pre-entry EOM3 heating profile; Surface heating and temperatures; Orbiter wing leading edge damage survey; Internal aerothermal environments; Orbiter wing CAD model; Aerodynamic flight reconstruction; Chronology of aerodynamic/aerothermoydynamic contributions; Acreage TPS tile damage; Larger OML perturbations; Missing RCC panel(s); Localized damage to RCC panel/missing T-seal; RCC breach with flow ingestion; and Aero-aerothermal closure. NAIT served as the interface between the CAIB and NASA investigation teams; and CAIB requests for study were addressed.

  1. The NASA Sharp Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasky, Daniel J.; Salute, Joan; Kolodziej, Paul; Bull, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    The Slender Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Research Program (SHARP) was initiated by NASA Ames, and executed in partnership with Sandia National Laboratory and the US Air Force, to demonstrate sharp, passive leading edge designs for hypersonic vehicles, incorporating new ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC's). These new ceramic composites have been undergoing development, characterization and ground testing at NASA Ames for the last nine years. This paper will describe the background, flight objectives, design and pertinent flight results of SHARP, and some of the potential implications for future hypersonic vehicle designs.

  2. Aerothermodynamic design feasibility of a Mars aerocapture/aeromaneuver vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Lifting aerodynamic configurations have been screened and selected for the Mars aerocapture mission that (1) meet the geometric packaging requirements of the various payloads and the Space Shuttle cargo bay and (2) provide the aerodynamic performance characteristics required to obtain the atmospheric exit steering accuracy and the parachute deployment conditions desired. Hypersonic heat transfer and aerodynamic loads to the vehicle in the CO2 atmosphere are evaluated. Contemporary low density ablative thermal protection materials were selected that meet all the atmospheric entry requirements and provide a minimum mass solution. Results are presented of the aerodynamic configuration and thermal protection materials screening and selection. It is concluded that the aerothermodynamic design of this concept is feasible using state-of-the-art technology.

  3. Aerothermodynamic methods for a Mars environmental survey Mars entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models for the thermodynamics and transport properties used in an equilibrium version of the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm (LAURA) for Mars atmospheric entries are described. In addition, the physical models used in a nonequilibrium version of LAURA for Mars-entry flows are described. Uncertainties exist in defining constants used in the transport properties for the equilibrium model and in many of the physical models for the nonequilibrium version. Solutions from the two codes using the best available constants are examined at the Mars-entry conditions characteristics of the Mars environmental survey mission. While the flowfields are near thermal equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium effects are present in the entry cases examined. Convective heating at the stagnation point for these flows (assuming fully catalytic wall boundary conditions) is approximately 100 W/cm(exp 2). Radiative heating is negligible.

  4. High-Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test Aerothermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations

  5. Team Software Development for Aerothermodynamic and Aerodynamic Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N.; Atkins, H. L.; Bibb, K. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Carpenter, M. H.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Hammond, D. P.; Jones, W. T.; Kleb, W. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    A collaborative approach to software development is described. The approach employs the agile development techniques: project retrospectives, Scrum status meetings, and elements of Extreme Programming to efficiently develop a cohesive and extensible software suite. The software product under development is a fluid dynamics simulator for performing aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis and design. The functionality of the software product is achieved both through the merging, with substantial rewrite, of separate legacy codes and the authorship of new routines. Examples of rapid implementation of new functionality demonstrate the benefits obtained with this agile software development process. The appendix contains a discussion of coding issues encountered while porting legacy Fortran 77 code to Fortran 95, software design principles, and a Fortran 95 coding standard.

  6. Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

  7. Experimental and Computational Aerothermodynamics of a Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic database has been generated through both experimental testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations for a 70 deg sphere-cone configuration based on the NASA Mars Pathfinder entry vehicle. The aerothermodynamics of several related parametric configurations were also investigated. Experimental heat-transfer data were obtained at hypersonic test conditions in both a perfect gas air wind tunnel and in a hypervelocity, high-enthalpy expansion tube in which both air and carbon dioxide were employed as test gases. In these facilities, measurements were made with thin-film temperature-resistance gages on both the entry vehicle models and on the support stings of the models. Computational results for freestream conditions equivalent to those of the test facilities were generated using an axisymmetric/2D laminar Navier-Stokes solver with both perfect-gas and nonequilibrium thermochemical models. Forebody computational and experimental heating distributions agreed to within the experimental uncertainty for both the perfect-gas and high-enthalpy test conditions. In the wake, quantitative differences between experimental and computational heating distributions for the perfect-gas conditions indicated transition of the free shear layer near the reattachment point on the sting. For the high enthalpy cases, agreement to within, or slightly greater than, the experimental uncertainty was achieved in the wake except within the recirculation region, where further grid resolution appeared to be required. Comparisons between the perfect-gas and high-enthalpy results indicated that the wake remained laminar at the high-enthalpy test conditions, for which the Reynolds number was significantly lower than that of the perfect-gas conditions.

  8. Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Implementation on OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the boundary layer transition experiment flown on Discovery. The purpose of the boundary layer transition flight experiment was to obtain hypersonic aero-thermodynamic data for the purpose of better understanding the flow transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer using a known height protuberance. The preparation of the shuttle is described, with the various groups responsibilities outlined. Views of the shuttle in flight with the experimental results are shown.

  9. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

  10. Aerothermodynamics Feasibility Assessment of a Mars Atmoshperic Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracina, L.; Larranaga, J.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    ESA's optional Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) programme is based on a long term collaboration with NASA, by taking Mars exploration as global objective, and Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission as long term goal to be achieved by the mid 2020's. Considering today's uncertainties, different missions are envisaged and prepared by ESA as possible alternative missions to MSR in the timeframe of 2020- 2026, in case the required technology readiness is not reached by 2015 or landed mass capabilities are exceeded for any of the MSR mission elements. One of the ESA considered missions within this framework is the Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Mission. This mission has been recently assessed by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), aiming to enter with a probe at Mars low altitudes (≈50 km), collect a sample of airborne atmosphere (gas and dust) and return the sample back to Earth. This paper aim at reporting the preliminary aerothermodynamic assessment of the design of the Martian entry probe conducted within the CDF study. Special attention has been paid to the selection of aerodynamically efficient vehicle concepts compare to blunt bodies and to the effect of the hot-temperature shock to the cavity placed at stagnation point and used in the atmospheric sampling system.

  11. Multi-Component Diffusion with Application To Computational Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Kenneth; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and complexity of solving multicomponent gaseous diffusion using the detailed multicomponent equations, the Stefan-Maxwell equations, and two commonly used approximate equations have been examined in a two part study. Part I examined the equations in a basic study with specified inputs in which the results are applicable for many applications. Part II addressed the application of the equations in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) computational code for high-speed entries in Earth's atmosphere. The results showed that the presented iterative scheme for solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is an accurate and effective method as compared with solutions of the detailed equations. In general, good accuracy with the approximate equations cannot be guaranteed for a species or all species in a multi-component mixture. 'Corrected' forms of the approximate equations that ensured the diffusion mass fluxes sum to zero, as required, were more accurate than the uncorrected forms. Good accuracy, as compared with the Stefan- Maxwell results, were obtained with the 'corrected' approximate equations in defining the heating rates for the three Earth entries considered in Part II.

  12. Aerothermodynamic environments of aerobraking vehicles for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledoux, Stephen T.; Vas, Irwin E.

    1991-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic environments of manned spacraft aerobraking in the Martian and earth atmospheres are evaluated. Thermal performance of aerobrake concepts are examined for current cryogenic-aerobrake and advanced propulsion missions entailing three different modes of aerobraking: (1) aerocapture into an orbit about Mars, (2) descent and landing at Mars, and (3) Mars return direct entry at earth. Analyses for these vehicles and modes included both radiative and convective heating, where radiative heating is shown to be a significant portion of the total stagnation point heating induced on the vehicle. A comprehensive parametric study of the effects of ballistic coefficient, nose radius, entry velocity, and L/D on stagnation point heating is described. Optimal nose radii for ranges of ballistic coefficient and entry velocity are determined. The peak heating rates are shown to be 83 W/sq cm and 90 W/sq cm for a low and high L/D Mars transfer vehicle configuration, respectively. Heating profiles for these vehicles using boundary layer techniques show that a high L/D shape will result in a smaller high-temperature region provided the flow is laminar. An examination of a crew return vehicle for a Mars return direct entry trajectory shows that the thermal protection for this aerobrake will require an ablative material for heat rejection due to the large heating rates (about 1 kW/sq cm).

  13. Aerothermodynamic Environment Definition for the Genesis Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Merski, N. Ronald, Jr.; Riley, Christopher J.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Genesis sample return mission will be the first to return material from beyond the Earth-Moon system. NASA Langley Research Center supported this mission with aerothermodynamic analyses of the sample return capsule. This paper provides an overview of that effort. The capsule is attached through its forebody to the spacecraft bus. When the attachment is severed prior to Earth entry, forebody cavities remain. The presence of these cavities could dramatically increase the heating environment in their vicinity and downstream. A combination of computational fluid dynamics calculations and wind tunnel phosphor thermography tests were employed to address this issue. These results quantify the heating environment in and around the cavities, and were a factor in the decision to switch forebody heat shield materials. A transition map is developed which predicts that the flow aft of the penetrations will still be laminar at the peak heating point of the trajectory. As the vehicle continues along the trajectory to the peak dynamic pressure point, fully turbulent flow aft of the penetrations could occur. The integrated heat load calculations show that a heat shield sized to the stagnation point levels will be adequate for the predicted environment aft of the penetrations.

  14. The use of the tethered satellite system to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; Deluca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a cooperative space system development activity of the U.S.A. and Italy. It is comprised of the Tether Satellite (TS) and the deployer. Within TSS, the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC) concept has the potential to provide access to vast portions of the upper atmosphere for atmospheric and aerothermodynamic research. The feasibility and capability of the TSS to operate as a continuous open wind tunnel and to perform low density aerothermodynamic studies are investigated. This is accomplished through a modified version of the TS simulation program (SKYHOOK). The results indicate that STARFAC concept is both feasible and practical. The TS can go below 100 km but, if thrust is used, large velocity variation (delta V) maneuvers and an attitude control are required; if a satellite lift is considered, large tether tension is produced and an attitude control is required.

  15. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  16. Flight test derived heating math models for critical locations on the orbiter during reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzler, E. K.; Phillips, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis technique was developed for expanding the aerothermodynamic envelope of the Space Shuttle without subjecting the vehicle to sustained flight at more stressing heating conditions. A transient analysis program was developed to take advantage of the transient maneuvers that were flown as part of this analysis technique. Heat rates were derived from flight test data for various locations on the orbiter. The flight derived heat rates were used to update heating models based on predicted data. Future missions were then analyzed based on these flight adjusted models. A technique for comparing flight and predicted heating rate data and the extrapolation of the data to predict the aerothermodynamic environment of future missions is presented.

  17. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  18. Preliminary analysis of remote infrared imagery of shuttle during entry: An aerothermodynamic flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, B. L.; Edsinger, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary feasibility of remote high-resolution infrared imagery of the space shuttle orbiter lower surface during entry to obtain accurate measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer to that vehicle was examined. In general, it was determined that such such images can be taken from an existing aircraft/telescope system (the C-141 AIRO) with a minimum modification or addition of systems using available technology. These images will have a spatial resolution of about 0.3 m and a temperature resolution much better than 2.5 percent. The data from these images will be at conditions and at a scale not reproducible in ground based facilities and should aid in the reduction of the prudent factors of safety required to account for phenomenological uncertainties on the thermal protection system design. Principal phenomena to be observed include laminar heating, boundary-layer transition, turbulent heating, surface catalysis, and flow separation and reattachment.

  19. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of the Spaceliner-7.1 vehicle in high altitude flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppardi, Gennaro; Morsa, Luigi; Sippel, Martin; Schwanekamp, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    SpaceLiner, designed by DLR, is a visionary, extremely fast passenger transportation concept. It consists of two stages: a winged booster, a vehicle. After separation of the two stages, the booster makes a controlled re-entry and returns to the launch site. According to the current project, version 7-1 of SpaceLiner (SpaceLiner-7.1), the vehicle should be brought at an altitude of 75 km and then released, undertaking the descent path. In the perspective that the vehicle of SpaceLiner-7.1 could be brought to altitudes higher than 75 km, e.g. 100 km or above and also for a speculative purpose, in this paper the aerodynamic parameters of the SpaceLiner-7.1 vehicle are calculated in the whole transition regime, from continuum low density to free molecular flows. Computer simulations have been carried out by three codes: two DSMC codes, DS3V in the altitude interval 100-250 km for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients and DS2V at the altitude of 60 km for the evaluation of the heat flux and pressure distributions along the vehicle nose, and the DLR HOTSOSE code for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients in continuum, hypersonic flow at the altitude of 44.6 km. The effectiveness of the flaps with deflection angle of -35 deg. was evaluated in the above mentioned altitude interval. The vehicle showed longitudinal stability in the whole altitude interval even with no flap. The global bridging formulae verified to be proper for the evaluation of the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude interval 80-100 km where the computations cannot be fulfilled either by CFD, because of the failure of the classical equations computing the transport coefficients, or by DSMC because of the requirement of very high computer resources both in terms of the core storage (a high number of simulated molecules is needed) and to the very long processing time.

  20. Overview of X-38 Hypersonic Aerothermodynamic Wind Tunnel Data and Comparison with Numerical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C.; Caram, J.; Berry, S.; Horvath, T.; Merski, N.; Loomis, M.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2004-01-01

    A NASA team of engineers has been organized to design a crew return vehicle for returning International Space Station crew members from orbit. The hypersonic aerothermodynamic characteristics of the X-23/X-24A derived X-38 crew return vehicle are being evaluated in various wind tunnels in support of this effort. Aerothermodynamic data from two NASA hypersonic tunnels at Mach 6 and Mach 10 has been obtained with cast ceramic models and a thermographic phosphorus digital imaging system. General windward surface heating features are described based on experimental surface heating images and surface oil flow patterns for the nominal hypersonic aerodynamic orientation. Body flap reattachment heating levels are examined. Computational Fluid Dynamics tools have been applied at the appropriate wind tunnel conditions to make comparisons with this data.

  1. Numerical Simulations Of High-Altitude Aerothermodynamics Of A Prospective Spacecraft Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenkov, P. V.; Kaskovsky, A. V.; Krylov, A. N.; Ivanov, M. S.

    2011-05-01

    The paper describes the computations of aerothermodynamic characteristics of a promising spacecraft (Prospective Piloted Transport System) along its de- scent trajectory at altitudes from 120 to 60 km. The computations are performed by the DSMC method with the use of the SMILE software system and by the engineering technique (local bridging method) with the use of the RuSat software system. The influence of real gas effects (excitation of rotational and vibrational energy modes and chemical reactions) on aerothermodynamic characteristics of the vehicle is studied. A comparison of results obtained by the approximate engineering method and the DSMC method allow the accuracy of prediction of aerodynamic characteristics by the local bridging method to be estimated.

  2. Real-Gas Flow Properties for NASA Langley Research Center Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed which can be employed to determine the flow properties of an arbitrary real (virial) gas in a wind tunnel. A multiple-coefficient virial gas equation of state and the assumption of isentropic flow are used to model the gas and to compute flow properties throughout the wind tunnel. This algorithm has been used to calculate flow properties for the wind tunnels of the Aerothermodynamics Facilities Complex at the NASA Langley Research Center, in which air, CF4. He, and N2 are employed as test gases. The algorithm is detailed in this paper and sample results are presented for each of the Aerothermodynamic Facilities Complex wind tunnels.

  3. The use of the Tethered Satellite System to perform low density aerothermodynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi; Siemers, Paul M.; Wood, George M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is a cooperative space system development activity being carried out by USA and Italy. Within TSS, the Shuttle Tethered Aerothermodynamic Research Facility (STARFAC) concept has the potential to provide access to vast portions of the upper atmosphere for the purpose of atmospheric and aerothermodynamic research. The implementation of this capability will push Tether System (TS) state of the art to its limits; the primary problems being tether/satellite drag, heating, tension control, deployment/retrieval control. In this paper parametric studies are accomplished to assess some of these problems and to delineate the tradeoffs available to missions design to meet the engineering constraints. The utilization of aerodynamic rather than spherical shapes - (TSS) - as well as elementary satellite thrusting and lift are included in the present study.

  4. Aerothermodynamic flow phenomena of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-11-01

    The unique component flow phenomena is discussed of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) in a format geared towards new players in the arena of hypersonic propulsion. After giving an overview of the scramjet aerothermodynamic cycle, the characteristics are then covered individually of the vehicle forebody, inlet, combustor, and vehicle afterbody/nozzle. Attention is given to phenomena such as inlet speeding, inlet starting, inlet spillage, fuel injection, thermal choking, and combustor-inlet interaction.

  5. Aerothermodynamic flow phenomena of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    The unique component flow phenomena is discussed of the airframe-integrated supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) in a format geared towards new players in the arena of hypersonic propulsion. After giving an overview of the scramjet aerothermodynamic cycle, the characteristics are then covered individually of the vehicle forebody, inlet, combustor, and vehicle afterbody/nozzle. Attention is given to phenomena such as inlet speeding, inlet starting, inlet spillage, fuel injection, thermal choking, and combustor-inlet interaction.

  6. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, W. L.; Kado, L.

    1975-01-01

    The Hypersonic Research Engine-Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE-AIM) was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. The HRE-AIM is described along with its installation in the wind tunnel facility. Test conditions to which the HRE-AIM was subjected and observations made during the tests are discussed. The overall engine performance, component interaction, and ignition limits for the design are evaluated.

  7. Impact of ETO propellants on the aerothermodynamic analyses of propulsion components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Boyle, R. J.; Mcconnaughey, H. V.

    1988-01-01

    The operating conditions and the propellant transport properties used in Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) applications affect the aerothermodynamic design of ETO turbomachinery in a number of ways. Some aerodynamic and heat transfer implications of the low molecular weight fluids and high Reynolds number operating conditions on future ETO turbomachinery are discussed. Using the current SSME high pressure fuel turbine as a baseline, the aerothermodynamic comparisons are made for two alternate fuel turbine geometries. The first is a revised first stage rotor blade designed to reduce peak heat transfer. This alternate design resulted in a 23 percent reduction in peak heat transfer. The second design concept was a single stage rotor to yield the same power output as the baseline two stage rotor. Since the rotor tip speed was held constant, the turbine work factor doubled. In this alternate design, the peak heat transfer remained the same as the baseline. While the efficiency of the single stage design was 3.1 points less than the baseline two stage turbine, the design was aerothermodynamically feasible, and may be structurally desirable.

  8. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Aerothermodynamics: Design and Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Bose, Deepak; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory heatshield was designed to withstand a fully turbulent heat pulse based on test results and computational analysis on a pre-flight design trajectory. Instrumentation on the flight heatshield measured in-depth temperatures in the thermal protection system. The data indicate that boundary layer transition occurred at 5 of 7 thermocouple locations prior to peak heating. Data oscillations at 3 pressure measurement locations may also indicate transition. This paper presents the heatshield temperature and pressure data, possible explanations for the timing of boundary layer transition, and a qualitative comparison of reconstructed and computational heating on the as-flown trajectory. Boundary layer Reynolds numbers that are typically used to predict transition are compared to observed transition at various heatshield locations. A uniform smooth-wall transition Reynolds number does not explain the timing of boundary layer transition observed during flight. A roughness-based Reynolds number supports the possibility of transition due to discrete or distributed roughness elements on the heatshield. However, the distributed roughness height would have needed to be larger than the pre-flight assumption. The instrumentation confirmed the predicted location of maximum turbulent heat flux near the leeside shoulder. The reconstructed heat flux at that location is bounded by smooth-wall turbulent calculations on the reconstructed trajectory, indicating that augmentation due to surface roughness probably did not occur. Turbulent heating on the downstream side of the heatshield nose exceeded smooth-wall computations, indicating that roughness may have augmented heating. The stagnation region also experienced heating that exceeded computational levels, but shock layer radiation does not fully explain the differences.

  10. Thermo Physics Facilities Branch Brochure ARC Jet Complex Fact Sheets, Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility Fact Sheets, Ames Vertical Gun Range Fact Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fretter, E. F. (Editor); Kuhns, Jay (Editor); Nuez, Jay (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Arc Jet Complex has a rich heritage of over 40 years in Thermal Protection System (TPS) development for every NASA Space Transportation and Planetary program, including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Viking, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder,Stardust, NASP,X-33,X-34,SHARP-B1 and B2,X-37 and Mars Exploration Rovers. With this early TPS history came a long heritage in the development of the arc jet facilities. These are used to simulate the aerodynamic heating that occurs on the nose cap, wing leading edges and on other areas of the spacecraft requiring thermal protection. TPS samples have been run in the arc jets from a few minutes to over an hour,from one exposure to multiple exposures of the same sample, in order t o understand the TPS materials response to a hot gas flow environment (representative of real hyperthermal environments experienced in flight). The Ames Arc l e t Complex is a key enabler for customers involved in the three major areas of TPS development: selection, validation, and qualification. The arc jet data are critical for validating TPS thermal models, heat shield designs and repairs, and ultimately for flight qualification.

  11. Aerothermodynamic Testing of Protuberances and Penetrations on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle Heat Shield in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of an Agency wide effort to develop a replacement for the Space Shuttle and to support the NASA s long-term objective of returning to the moon and then on to Mars. This paper documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions obtained using phosphor thermography were used to infer interference heating on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Cycle 1 heat shield from local protuberances and penetrations for both laminar and turbulent heating conditions. Test parametrics included free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.0x10(exp 6)/ft to 7.25x10(exp 6)/ft in Mach 6 air at a fixed angle-of-attack. Single arrays of discrete boundary layer trips were used to trip the boundary layer approaching the protuberances/penetrations to a turbulent state. Also, the effects of three compression pad diameters, two radial locations of compression pad/tension tie location, compression pad geometry, and rotational position of compression pad/tension tie were examined. The experimental data highlighted in this paper are to be used to validate CFD tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Heat transfer measurements will also assist in the determination of the most appropriate engineering methods that will be used to assess local flight environments associated with protuberances/penetrations of the CEV thermal protection system.

  12. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  13. Integrated Design Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Thermal Protection System Integration Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during from March 2010 October 2011. The Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed environment using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as the underlying framework. This report will focus on describing the work done in the area of extending the aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics module using S/HABP, CBAERO, PREMIN and LANMIN. It will also detail the work done integrating EXITS as the TPS sizing tool.

  14. An inlet analysis for the NASA hypersonic research engine aerothermodynamic integration model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Russell, J. W.; Mackley, E. A.; Simmonds, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical analysis for the inlet of the NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) has been undertaken by use of a method-of-characteristics computer program. The purpose of the analysis was to obtain pretest information on the full-scale HRE inlet in support of the experimental AIM program (completed May 1974). Mass-flow-ratio and additive-drag-coefficient schedules were obtained that well defined the range effected in the AIM tests. Mass-weighted average inlet total-pressure recovery, kinetic energy efficiency, and throat Mach numbers were obtained.

  15. Distributed-Memory Computing With the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Christopher J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1997-01-01

    The Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), a Navier-Stokes solver, has been modified for use in a parallel, distributed-memory environment using the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) standard. A standard domain decomposition strategy is used in which the computational domain is divided into subdomains with each subdomain assigned to a processor. Performance is examined on dedicated parallel machines and a network of desktop workstations. The effect of domain decomposition and frequency of boundary updates on performance and convergence is also examined for several realistic configurations and conditions typical of large-scale computational fluid dynamic analysis.

  16. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  17. Aerothermodynamic Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 and 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of a NASA wide effort to develop a Space Shuttle replacement and to support the Agency s long term objective of returning to the Moon and Mars. This article documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Crew Module. The experimental data highlighted in this article are to be used to assess numerical tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions were obtained over a range of freestream Reynolds numbers and angles of attack with the phosphor thermography technique. Heat transfer data were measured on the forebody and afterbody and were used to infer the heating on the vehicle as well as the boundary layer state on the forebody surface. Several model support configurations were assessed to minimize potential support interference. In addition, the ability of the global phosphor thermography method to provide quantitative heating measurements in the low temperature environment of the capsule base region was assessed. While naturally fully developed turbulent levels were not obtained on the forebody, the use of boundary layer trips generated fully developed turbulent flow. Laminar and turbulent computational results were shown to be in good agreement with the data. Backshell testing demonstrated the ability to obtain data in the low temperature region as well as demonstrating the lack of significant model support hardware influence on heating.

  18. Aerothermodynamic Testing of the Crew Exploration Vehicle in the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 and 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of a NASA wide effort to develop a Space Shuttle replacement and to support the Agency s long term objective of returning to the Moon and Mars. This report documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Crew Module. The experimental data highlighted in this test report are to be used to assess numerical tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions were obtained over a range of freestream Reynolds numbers and angles of attack with the phosphor thermography technique. Heat transfer data were measured on the forebody and afterbody and were used to infer the heating on the vehicle as well as the boundary layer state on the forebody surface. Several model support configurations were assessed to minimize potential support interference. In addition, the ability of the global phosphor thermography method to provide quantitative heating measurements in the low temperature environment of the capsule base region was assessed. While naturally fully developed turbulent levels were not obtained on the forebody, the use of boundary layer trips generated fully developed turbulent flow. Laminar and turbulent computational results were shown to be in good agreement with the data. Backshell testing demonstrated the ability to obtain data in the low temperature region as well as demonstrating the lack of significant model support hardware influence on heating.

  19. Space Flight Software Development Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis C.; Crumbley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The slide presentation examines the Marshall Space Flight Center Flight Software Branch, including software development projects, mission critical space flight software development, software technical insight, advanced software development technologies, and continuous improvement in the software development processes and methods.

  20. Flight Experiment Verification of Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Prediction Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Berger, Karen T.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Boundary layer transition at hypersonic conditions is critical to the design of future high-speed aircraft and spacecraft. Accurate methods to predict transition would directly impact the aerothermodynamic environments used to size a hypersonic vehicle's thermal protection system. A transition prediction tool, based on wind tunnel derived discrete roughness correlations, was developed and implemented for the Space Shuttle return-to-flight program. This tool was also used to design a boundary layer transition flight experiment in order to assess correlation uncertainties, particularly with regard to high Mach-number transition and tunnel-to-flight scaling. A review is provided of the results obtained from the flight experiment in order to evaluate the transition prediction tool implemented for the Shuttle program.

  1. Orbiter Return-To-Flight Entry Aeroheating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian; Bourland, Gary; Bouslog, Stan; Cassady, Amy; Horvath, Tom; Berry, Scott A.; Gnoffo, Peter; Wood, Bill; Reuther, James; Driver, Dave; Chao, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia accident on February 1, 2003 began an unprecedented level of effort within the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community to support the Space Shuttle Program. During the approximately six month time frame of the primary Columbia Accident Investigation Board activity, many technical disciplines were involved in a concerted effort to reconstruct the last moments of the Columbia and her crew, and understand the critical events that led to that loss. Significant contributions to the CAIB activity were made by the hypersonic aerothermodynamic community(REF CAIB) in understanding the re-entry environments that led to the propagation of an ascent foam induced wing leading edge damage to a subsequent breech of the wing spar of Columbia, and the subsequent breakup of the vehicle. A core of the NASA hypersonic aerothermodynamics team that was involved in the CAIB investigation has been combined with the United Space Alliance and Boeing Orbiter engineering team in order to position the Space Shuttle Program with a process to perform in-flight Thermal Protection System damage assessments. This damage assessment process is now part of the baselined plan for Shuttle support, and is a direct out-growth of the Columbia accident and NASAs response. Multiple re-entry aeroheating tools are involved in this damage assessment process, many of which have been developed during the Return To Flight activity. In addition, because these aeroheating tools are part of an overall damage assessment process that also involves the thermal and stress analyses community, in addition to a much broader mission support team, an integrated process for performing the damage assessment activities has been developed by the Space Shuttle Program and the Orbiter engineering community. Several subsets of activity in the Orbiter aeroheating communities support to the Return To Flight effort have been described in previous publications (CFD?, Cavity Heating? Any BLT? Grid Generation?). This work will

  2. New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    2008-04-28

    The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization.

  3. Massively parallel computational fluid dynamics calculations for aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.L.; Hassan, B.

    1998-09-01

    Massively parallel computers have enabled the analyst to solve complicated flow fields (turbulent, chemically reacting) that were previously intractable. Calculations are presented using a massively parallel CFD code called SACCARA (Sandia Advanced Code for Compressible Aerothermodynamics Research and Analysis) currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). Computations were made on a generic reentry vehicle in a hypersonic flowfield utilizing three different distributed parallel computers to assess the parallel efficiency of the code with increasing numbers of processors. The parallel efficiencies for the SACCARA code will be presented for cases using 1, 150, 100 and 500 processors. Computations were also made on a subsonic/transonic vehicle using both 236 and 521 processors on a grid containing approximately 14.7 million grid points. Ongoing and future plans to implement a parallel overset grid capability and couple SACCARA with other mechanics codes in a massively parallel environment are discussed.

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  5. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic integration model development, data item no. 55-4-21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jilly, L. F. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) of the Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) is described. The feasibility of integrating the various analytical and experimental data available for the design of the hypersonic ramjet engine was verified and the operational characteristic and the overall performance of the selected design was determined. The HRE-AIM was designed for operation at speeds of Mach 3 through Mach 8.

  6. Preliminary results of the calculated and experimental studies of the basic aerothermodynamic parameters of the ExoMars landing module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finchenko, V. S.; Ivankov, A. A.; Shmatov, S. I.; Mordvinkin, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The article presents the initial data for the ExoMars landing module aerothermodynamic calculations, used calculation methods, the calculation results of aerodynamic characteristics of the landing module shape and structural parameters of thermal protection selected during the conceptual design phase. Also, the test results of the destruction of the thermal protection material and comparison of the basic characteristics of the landing module with a front shield in the form of a cone and a spherical segment are presented.

  7. The IXV experience, from the mission conception to the flight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumino, G.; Mancuso, S.; Gallego, J.-M.; Dussy, S.; Preaud, J.-P.; Di Vita, G.; Brunner, P.

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric re-entry domain is a cornerstone of a wide range of space applications, ranging from reusable launcher stages developments, robotic planetary exploration, human space flight, to innovative applications such as reusable research platforms for in orbit validation of multiple space applications technologies. The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced demonstrator which has performed in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies aspects, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flight experiences, consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission objectives were the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention was paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight, successfully performed on February 11th, 2015.

  8. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  9. Space Shuttle orbiter entry heating and TPS response: STS-1 predictions and flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Goodrich, W. D.; Li, C. P.; Scott, C. D.; Derry, S. M.; Maraia, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic development flight test data from the first orbital flight test of the Space Transportation System (STS) transmitted after entry blackout is given. Engineering predictions of boundary layer transition and numerical simulations of the orbiter flow field were confirmed. The data tended to substantiate preflight predictions of surface catalysis phenomena. The thermal response of the thermal protection system was as expected. The only exception is that internal free convection was found to be significant in limiting the peak temperature of the structure in areas which do not have internal insulation.

  10. Transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) research & development at Wright Laboratory{close_quote}s Flight Dynamics Directorate

    SciTech Connect

    Karasopoulos, H.

    1996-03-01

    The Structures and Aeromechanics Divisions of the Flight Dynamics Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio have a long history of activities in transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) technology development. Included in these activities were research and development efforts in thermal protection systems (TPS), cryogenic fuel tanks, and hot structures. Additional efforts existed in the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and performance of transatmospheric, hypersonic, and lifting reentry vehicle configurations. High payoff TAVresearch and development activities in the Flight Dynamics Directorate continue today and are planned for the future. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Overview of a Proposed Flight Validation of Aerocapture System Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Oh, David Y.; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerocapture is a very useful capability for NASA that can be used across a wide range of planetary mission sizes and destinations. A substantial mass advantage may be realized through aerocapture maneuver implementation. The mass advantage is enabling for certain outer planet mission profiles. Aerocapture technology provides corollary benefits to the related applications of atmospheric entry and precision landing on worlds with atmospheres through aero/aerothermodynamic model validation, hypersonic guided flight, tps materials, and performance model validation. The ST9 Aerocapture flight validation will be sufficient to immediately infuse aerocapture technology into future NASA science missions. The advanced technologies being flight validated will enable the system level goal of performing an aerocapture maneuver. The advanced technologies include: The GN&C System, TPS materials, plus Advanced recession and heat flux sensors.

  12. Hypersonic aerodynamics and entry-maneuver: Aerothermodynamic interactions for two lifting entry vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, J. P.; Woods, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The longitudinal, directional, and lateral static stability and control characteristics of a delta lifting body and a delta-wing body were obtained at a Mach number of 20 in helium for operational Reynolds numbers over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 55 deg. The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing body were then evaluated in an entry study to examine the effects of vehicle performance on the aerothermodynamic parameters associated with constant and variable angle-of-attack modes for a 1500-n. mi. cross range. The experimental results indicated that the vehicles were stable, except for neutral directional stability for the wing-body shape, and could be trimmed over the operational angle-of-attack range; however, the wing-body vehicle had adverse yaw due to roll control. This roll-yaw coupling was not examined for the lifting body. The trajectory analysis indicated that a 17-percent decrease in performance required little change in the constant angle-of-attack entry mode and, in turn, resulted in a small decrease in the total heat load. For the pitch-modulated entry, the performance decrease required the pitch maneuver to begin earlier during entry and to last longer in order to meet the 1500-n. mi. cross range without a major heating penalty. The performance reduction also had little effect on the maximum laminar radiation equilibrium temperature over a major portion of the lower surface of the wing-body vehicle regardless of the entry mode.

  13. Aerothermodynamic Measurement and Prediction for Modified Orbiter at Mach 6 and 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed heat-transfer rate distributions measured laterally over the windward surface of an orbiter-like configuration using thin-film resistance heat-transfer gauges and globally using the newly developed relative intensity, two-color thermographic phosphor technique are presented for Mach 6 and 10 in air. The angle of attack was varied from 0 to 40 deg, and the freestream Reynolds number based on the model length was varied from 4 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 6) at Mach 6, corresponding to laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers; the Reynolds number at Mach 10 was 4 x 10(exp 5), corresponding to laminar flow. The primary objective of the present study was to provide detailed benchmark heat-transfer data for the calibration of computational fluid-dynamics codes. Predictions from a Navier-Stokes solver referred to as the Langley aerothermodynamic upwind relaxation algorithm and an approximate boundary-layer solving method known as the axisymmetric analog three-dimensional boundary layer code are compared with measurement. In general, predicted laminar heat-transfer rates are in good agreement with measurements.

  14. Aerothermodynamics of compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yang; Dai, Yi; Li, Genong; Hu, Yitao; Lai, Ming-Chia

    2015-11-01

    Compressible flow past a flat plate in the slip-flow regime features a very simple geometry and flow field, but it retains the most relevant and interesting physics in high-speed rarefied gas dynamics. In the slip-flow regime, the aerothermodynamic issues, especially the recovery factors and the convection heat transfer correlation, are the focus of this presentation. We first present the detailed similarity equations, especially the transformed Maxwell's slip and jump boundary conditions, and the equations for the Chapman-Rubesin parameter as well as how we incorporate the variable gas properties and the constitutive scaling model for the Knudsen layer in the similarity equations. The similarity solutions are compared with results published by E. R. van Driest [NACA Technical Note 2597, 1952]. We point out that van Driest's solutions were computed by using no-slip and no-jump boundary conditions. The recovery factor and Nusselt number of the plate are shown as functions of the Reynolds number and the Mach number. Finally, the similarity solutions are also compared with simulations of a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model solving the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations with slip and jump boundary conditions.

  15. Blunt-Body Entry Vehicle Aerothermodynamics: Transition and Turbulence on the CEV and MSL Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent, current, and planned NASA missions that employ blunt-body entry vehicles pose aerothermodynamic problems that challenge the state-of-the art of experimental and computational methods. The issues of boundary-layer transition and turbulent heating on the heat shield have become important in the designs of both the Mars Science Laboratory and Crew Exploration Vehicle. While considerable experience in these general areas exists, that experience is mainly derived from simple geometries; e.g. sharp-cones and flat-plates, or from lifting bodies such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter. For blunt-body vehicles, application of existing data, correlations, and comparisons is questionable because an all, or mostly, subsonic flow field is produced behind the bow shock, as compared to the supersonic (or even hypersonic) flow of other configurations. Because of the need for design and validation data for projects such as MSL and CEV, many new experimental studies have been conducted in the last decade to obtain detailed boundary-layer transition and turbulent heating data on this class of vehicle. In this paper, details of several of the test programs are reviewed. The laminar and turbulent data from these various test are shown to correlate in terms of edge-based Stanton and Reynolds number functions. Correlations are developed from the data for transition onset and turbulent heating augmentation as functions of momentum thickness Reynolds number. These correlation can be employed as engineering-level design and analysis tools.

  16. Adding-Point Strategy for Reduced-Order Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics Modeling Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Liu, Li; Zhou, Sida; Yue, Zhenjiang

    2016-04-01

    Reduced order models(ROMs) based on the snapshots on the CFD high-fidelity simulations have been paid great attention recently due to their capability of capturing the features of the complex geometries and flow configurations. To improve the efficiency and precision of the ROMs, it is indispensable to add extra sampling points to the initial snapshots, since the number of sampling points to achieve an adequately accurate ROM is generally unknown in prior, but a large number of initial sampling points reduces the parsimony of the ROMs. A fuzzy-clustering-based adding-point strategy is proposed and the fuzzy clustering acts an indicator of the region in which the precision of ROMs is relatively low. The proposed method is applied to construct the ROMs for the benchmark mathematical examples and a numerical example of hypersonic aerothermodynamics prediction for a typical control surface. The proposed method can achieve a 34.5% improvement on the efficiency than the estimated mean squared error prediction algorithm and shows same-level prediction accuracy.

  17. Proposed aerothermodynamic experiments in transition flow using the NASA/ASI tethered satellite system-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George M.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Carlomagno, Giovanni M.; De Luca, Luigi

    1990-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic, aerodynamic, and atmospheric science data acquired between 55 and 150 km has been limited by the lack of vehicles or platforms capable of sustained operation at these altitudes. Tethered satellites, which have been under study for this purpose by NASA, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and others for more than a decade, are expected to become a reality by mid-1991. This approach, in which an instrumented platform is maintained at a desired altitude by a tether attached to a host vehicle orbiting at higher altitudes, will provide the first opportunity to obtain steady state data over an extended period encompassing one or more orbital revolutions. This paper describes the objectives and measurement methods for the first of the facility-class satellites, the TSS-2, which is proposed for a 1995 deployment, and gives the status of the experiment definition. Monte Carlo modeling of the flow fields at 130 km around the baseline 1.6 m diameter sphere is discussed and illustrative results of the modeling given.

  18. Aerothermodynamic Design of the Mars Science Laboratory Backshell and Parachute Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2009-01-01

    Aerothermodynamic design environments are presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry capsule backshell and parachute cone. The design conditions are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on shallow (maximum total heat load) and steep (maximum heat flux) design entry trajectories from a 2009 launch. Transient interference effects from reaction control system thruster plumes were included in the design environments when necessary. The limiting backshell design heating conditions of 6.3 W/sq cm for heat flux and 377 J/sq cm for total heat load are not influenced by thruster firings. Similarly, the thrusters do not affect the parachute cover lid design environments (13 W/sq cm and 499 J/sq cm). If thruster jet firings occur near peak dynamic pressure, they will augment the design environments at the interface between the backshell and parachute cone (7 W/sq cm and 174 J/sq cm). Localized heat fluxes are higher near the thruster fairing during jet firings, but these areas did not require additional thermal protection material. Finally, heating bump factors were developed for antenna radomes on the parachute cone

  19. Aerothermodynamic environment and thermal protection for a Titan aerocapture vehicle. [Saturn satellite atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. J.; Moss, J. N.; Wilson, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents thermal protection system (TPS) requirements for a potential Titan aerocapture vehicle. Shock-layer solutions are obtained for a nominal trajectory through the current Titan model atmosphere. Fully laminar and fully turbulent solutions are presented along the blunted fore-cone in the windward symmetry plane of a bent-biconic vehicle. Using these solutions to define the aerothermodynamic environment, transient material-response solutions are obtained for a Galileo-type TPS with a carbon-phenolic ablator heat shield. Shock-layer results indicate that turbulent flow is the more realistic flow condition. They also show that the lengthy aerocapture heating pulse is dominated by convective heating. The TPS results show that the required insulation thickness is uniformly about 4 cm along the fore-cone because of the long heat-soak period. The total heat-shield thickness is 6.4 cm at the stagnation point, and 4.7 cm near the end of the fore-cone. These TPS requirements are greater than those presented in a previous Titan aerocapture study.

  20. Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion: An Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Acoustics Competency White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Exton, Reginald J.; Guy, R. Wayne; Hoppe, John C.; Puster, Richard L.; Rogers, R. Clayton

    2002-01-01

    This White Paper examines the current state of Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion at the NASA Langley Research Center and the factors influencing this area of work and its personnel. Using this knowledge, the paper explores beyond the present day and suggests future directions and strategies for the field. Broad views are first taken regarding potential missions and applications of hypersonic propulsion. Then, candidate propulsion systems that may be applicable to these missions are suggested and discussed. Design tools and experimental techniques for developing these propulsion systems are then described, and approaches for applying them in the design process are considered. In each case, current strategies are reviewed and future approaches that may improve the techniques are considered. Finally, the paper concentrates on the needs to be addressed in each of these areas to take advantage of the opportunities that lay ahead for both the NASA Langley Research Center and the Aerodynamic Aerothermodynamic, and Aeroacoustics Competency. Recommendations are then provided so that the goals set forth in the paper may be achieved.

  1. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 9: Aerothermodynamics (M-3). A: Statement. B: Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2). D. Additional assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Twelve aerothermodynamic space technology needs were identified to reduce the design uncertainties in aerodynamic heating and forces experienced by heavy lift launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, and advanced single stage to orbit vehicles for the space transportation system, and for probes, planetary surface landers, and sample return vehicles for solar system exploration vehicles. Research and technology needs identified include: (1) increasing the fluid dynamics capability by at least two orders of magnitude by developing an advanced computer processor for the solution of fluid dynamic problems with improved software; (2) predicting multi-engine base flow fields for launch vehicles; and (3) developing methods to conserve energy in aerothermodynamic ground test facilities.

  2. Numerical Simulations of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Chun Y.; Trumble, Kerry A.; Campbell, Charles H.; Lessard, Victor R.; Wood, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were used to study the possible effects that the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiments may have on the heating environment of the Space Shuttle during its entry to Earth. To investigate this issue, hypersonic calculations using the Data-Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) and Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation (LAURA) CFD codes were computed for a 0.75 tall protuberance at flight conditions of Mach 15 and 18. These initial results showed high surface heating on the BLT trip and the areas surrounding the protuberance. Since the predicted peak heating rates would exceed the thermal limits of the materials selected to construct the BLT trip, many changes to the geometry were attempted in order to reduce the surface heat flux. The following paper describes the various geometry revisions and the resulting heating environments predicted by the CFD codes.

  3. A review of design issues specific to hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziroczak, D.; Smith, H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current technical issues and challenges associated with the design of hypersonic vehicles. Two distinct classes of vehicles are reviewed; Hypersonic Transports and Space Launchers, their common features and differences are examined. After a brief historical overview, the paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach to these vehicles, discusses various design aspects, and technical challenges. Operational issues are explored, including mission profiles, current and predicted markets, in addition to environmental effects and human factors. Technological issues are also reviewed, focusing on the three major challenge areas associated with these vehicles: aerothermodynamics, propulsion, and structures. In addition, matters of reliability and maintainability are also presented. The paper also reviews the certification and flight testing of these vehicles from a global perspective. Finally the current stakeholders in the field of hypersonic flight are presented, summarizing the active programs and promising concepts.

  4. Wind Tunnel Measurements of Shuttle Orbiter Global Heating with Comparisons to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Merski, N. Ronald; Blanchard, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    An aerothermodynamic database of global heating images was acquired of the Shuttle Orbiter in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. These results were obtained for comparison to the global infrared images of the Orbiter in flight from the infrared sensing aeroheating flight experiment (ISAFE). The most recent ISAFE results from STS-103, consisted of port side images, at hypersonic conditions, of the surface features that result from the strake vortex scrubbing along the side of the vehicle. The wind tunnel results were obtained with the phosphor thermography system, which also provides global information and thus is ideally suited for comparison to the global flight results. The aerothermodynamic database includes both windward and port side heating images of the Orbiter for a range of angles of attack (20 to 40 deg), freestream unit Reynolds number (1 x 10(exp 6))/ft to 8 x 10(exp 6)/ft, body flap deflections (0, 5, and 10 deg), speed brake deflections (0 and 45 deg), as well as with boundary layer trips for forced transition to turbulence heating results. Sample global wind tunnel heat transfer images were extrapolated to flight conditions for comparison to Orbiter flight data. A windward laminar case for an angle of attack of 40 deg was extrapolated to Mach 11.6 flight conditions for comparison to STS-2 flight thermocouple results. A portside wind tunnel image for an angle of attack of 25 deg was extrapolated for Mach 5 flight conditions for comparison to STS-103 global surface temperatures. The comparisons showed excellent qualitative agreement, however the extrapolated wind tunnel results over-predicted the flight surface temperatures on the order of 5% on the windward surface and slightly higher on the portside.

  5. IXV re-entry demonstrator: Mission overview, system challenges and flight reward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Roberto; Denaro, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an advanced re-entry demonstrator vehicle aimed to perform in-flight experimentation of atmospheric re-entry enabling systems and technologies. The IXV integrates key technologies at the system level, with significant advancements on Europe's previous flying test-beds. The project builds on previous achievements at system and technology levels, and provides a unique and concrete way of establishing and consolidating Europe's autonomous position in the strategic field of atmospheric re-entry. The IXV mission and system objectives are the design, development, manufacturing, assembling and on-ground to in-flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, integrating critical re-entry technologies at system level. Among such critical technologies of interest, special attention is paid to aerodynamic and aerothermodynamics experimentation, including advanced instrumentation for aerothermodynamics phenomena investigations, thermal protections and hot-structures, guidance, navigation and flight control through combined jets and aerodynamic surfaces (i.e. flaps), in particular focusing on the technologies integration at system level for flight. Following the extensive detailed design, manufacturing, qualification, integration and testing of the flight segment and ground segment elements, IXV has performed a full successful flight on February 11th 2015. After the launch with the VEGA launcher form the CSG spaceport in French Guyana, IXV has performed a full nominal mission ending with a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. During Flight Phase, the IXV space and ground segments worked perfectly, implementing the whole flight program in line with the commanded maneuvers and trajectory prediction, performing an overall flight of 34.400 km including 7.600 km with hot atmospheric re-entry in automatic guidance, concluding with successful precision landing at a distance of ~1

  6. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... INFORMATION CONTACT: Joe Jacobsen, FAA, Airplane and Flight Crew Interface Branch, ANM-111,...

  7. Overview of the In-Flight Experimentations and Measurements on the IXV Experimental Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosson, E.; Giusto, S.; Del Vecchio, A.; Mancuso, S.

    2009-01-01

    After an assessment and then a trade-off of all the passenger experiments proposed by different partners within Europe, a selection of Core Experiments to be embarked on-board IXV to fulfil the Mission and System Requirements has been made. Some Passenger Experiments have also been identified to be potentially embarked, provided it is compatible with the system allocations, since they could bring valuable additional in-flight data. All those experiments include Thermal Protection System (TPS) experiments (including innovative TPS materials), AeroThermoDynamic (ATD) experiments and Health Monitoring System (HMS) experiments. Aside the previously mentioned experiments, a specific Vehicle Model Identification experiment (VMI) aims at validating in-flight the mathematical models of flight dynamics for a gliding re-entry vehicle. This paper also presents a preliminary version of the in- flight measurement plan, encompassing both conventional instrumentation and advanced sensors or even innovative measurement techniques.

  8. Experimental study of unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena on shock-tube wall using fast-response temperature-sensitive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes an experimental study that used a fast-response temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) to investigate the unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena occurring on a shock-tube wall. To understand these phenomena in detail, a fast-response TSP with high temperature sensitivity developed for transient temperature measurement was applied to the wall. The shock-tube experiment was carried out under the over-tailored condition, with a pressure ratio of 110 for test gases of air in driver/driven tubes. The following aspects were clarified using the TSP: (a) the TSP could be used to visualize the unsteady aerothermodynamic phenomena and estimate the quantitative heat flux on the shock-tube wall; (b) an x-t diagram based on the TSP response showed shock-tube wall characteristics that included the incident/reflected shocks, laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition, streaks in the turbulent boundary layer, reflected shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction, and waves reflected from a contact surface; (c) the TSP graphically showed that a transition front from the plate's leading edge and turbulent spots moved with 80% of the free-stream velocity behind the incident shock. In addition, the TSP could track the growth of the turbulent spots on the wall.

  9. Trends in shuttle entry heating from the correction of flight test maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique was developed to systematically expand the aerothermodynamic envelope of the Space Shuttle Protection System (TPS). The technique required transient flight test maneuvers which were performed on the second, fourth, and fifth Shuttle reentries. Kalman filtering and parameter estimation were used for the reduction of embedded thermocouple data to obtain best estimates of aerothermal parameters. Difficulties in reducing the data were overcome or minimized. Thermal parameters were estimated to minimize uncertainties, and heating rate parameters were estimated to correlate with angle of attack, sideslip, deflection angle, and Reynolds number changes. Heating trends from the maneuvers allow for rapid and safe envelope expansion needed for future missions, except for some local areas.

  10. Medical Operation KC-135 Familiarization Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Chris; Stoner, Paul; Arenare, Brian; Strickland, Angie; Rudge, Fredrick; Lowdermilk, Greg

    1999-01-01

    As new personnel join the Medical Operations Branch, it is critical that they understand the effects of microgravity on medical procedures, hardware, and supplies. The familiarization flight provided new personnel with a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on (1) medical procedures, (2) patient and rescuer restraint, (3) medical fluids, and (4) medical training for space flight. The flight process also provided experience in flight proposal preparation, flight test plan preparation and execution, and final report preparation. In addition, first time flyers gained insight on their performance level in microgravity for future flights.

  11. Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan

    2009-01-01

    Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.

  12. Overview of Boundary Layer Transition Research in Support of Orbiter Return To Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Greene, Francis A.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Wang, K. C.

    2006-01-01

    A predictive tool for estimating the onset of boundary layer transition resulting from damage to and/or repair of the thermal protection system was developed in support of Shuttle Return to Flight. The boundary layer transition tool is part of a suite of tools that analyze the aerothermodynamic environment to the local thermal protection system to allow informed disposition of damage for making recommendations to fly as is or to repair. Using mission specific trajectory information and details of each damage site or repair, the expected time (and thus Mach number) at transition onset is predicted to help define the aerothermodynamic environment to use in the subsequent thermal and stress analysis of the local thermal protection system and structure. The boundary layer transition criteria utilized for the tool was developed from ground-based measurements to account for the effect of both protuberances and cavities and has been calibrated against select flight data. Computed local boundary layer edge conditions were used to correlate the results, specifically the momentum thickness Reynolds number over the edge Mach number and the boundary layer thickness. For the initial Return to Flight mission, STS-114, empirical curve coefficients of 27, 100, and 900 were selected to predict transition onset for protuberances based on height, and cavities based on depth and length, respectively.

  13. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  14. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  15. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) data reduction computer program, data item no. 54.16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaede, A. E.; Platte, W. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The data reduction program used to analyze the performance of the Aerothermodynamic Integration Model is described. Routines to acquire, calibrate, and interpolate the test data, to calculate the axial components of the pressure area integrals and the skin function coefficients, and to report the raw data in engineering units are included along with routines to calculate flow conditions in the wind tunnel, inlet, combustor, and nozzle, and the overall engine performance. Various subroutines were modified and used to obtain species concentrations and transport properties in chemical equilibrium at each of the internal and external engine stations. It is recommended that future test plans include the configuration, calibration, and channel assignment data on a magnetic tape generated at the test site immediately before or after a test, and that the data reduction program be designed to operate in a batch environment.

  16. Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Stability Modeling at Flight Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Matt; Johnson, Heath; Candler, Graham; Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    State of the art boundary layer stability modeling capabilities are increasingly seeing application to entry flight vehicles. With the advent of user friendly and robust implementations of two-dimensional chemical nonequilibrium stability modeling with the STABL/PSE-CHEM software, the need for flight data to calibrate such analyses capabilities becomes more critical. Recent efforts to perform entry flight testing with the Orbiter geometry related to entry aerothermodynamics and boundary layer transition is allowing for a heightened focus on the Orbiter configuration. A significant advancement in the state of the art can likely be achieved by establishing a basis of understanding for the occurrence of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter due to discrete protruding gap fillers and the nominal distributed roughness of the actual thermal protection system. Recent success in demonstrating centerline two-dimensional stability modeling on the centerline of the Orbiter at flight entry conditions provides a starting point for additional investigations. The more detailed paper will include smooth Orbiter configuration boundary layer stability results for several typical orbiter entry conditions. In addition, the numerical modeling approach for establishing the mean laminar flow will be reviewed and the method for determining boundary layer disturbance growth will be overviewed. In addition, if actual Orbiter TPS surface data obtained via digital surface scans become available, it may be possible to investigate the effects of an as-flown flight configuration on boundary layer transition compared to a smooth CAD reference.

  17. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  18. A comparison of hypersonic flight and prediction results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for four hypersonic vehicles are discussed. The four vehicles are the X-15, the Reentry F, the Sandia Energetic Reentry Vehicle Experiment (SWERVE), and the Space Shuttle. The comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the various programs. Aerodynamic comparisons include reaction control jet interaction on the Space Shuttle. Various forms of heating including catalytic, boundary layer, shock interaction and interference, and vortex impingement are compared. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by vortex impingement (on the Space Shuttle OMS pods) and for heating caused by shock interaction and interference on the X-15 and the Space Shuttle. Predictions of boundary-layer state were in error on the X-15, the SWERVE, and the Space Shuttle vehicles.

  19. A comparison of hypersonic vehicle flight and prediction results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Shafer, Mary F.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic comparisons between flight and ground test for four hypersonic vehicles are discussed. The four vehicles are the X-15, the Reentry F, the Sandia Energetic Reentry Vehicle Experiment (SWERVE), and the Space Shuttle. The comparisons are taken from papers published by researchers active in the various programs. Aerodynamic comparisons include reaction control jet interaction on the Space Shuttle. Various forms of heating including catalytic, boundary layer, shock interaction and interference, and vortex impingement are compared. Predictions were significantly exceeded for the heating caused by vortex impingement (on the Space Shuttle OMS pods) and for heating caused by shock interaction and interference on the X-15 and the Space Shuttle. Predictions of boundary-layer state were in error on the X-15, the SWERVE, and the Space Shuttle vehicles.

  20. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  1. Investigation of aerothermodynamics and optical radiation in the AFE hypersonic flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Giusseppe; Craig, Roger A.; Davy, William C.

    1993-01-01

    Research for the radiation experiments on the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) was performed to obtain a data base for development of engineering requirements for aerobrakes. Due to funding restrictions, the necessary Aerobrake design data were obtained from ground based experiments, specifically arc-jet wind tunnels. Except for the instrument windows, final development of the AFE radiometers was completed. Window definition included several designs to be flight validated in arc-jets. This work was completed, and successful designs have evolved which will yield full scientific return from the flight experiment. The theoretical work includes final code development to describe the spacecraft environment to support instrument definition, optical radiation codes that operate at significantly improved speeds, and calculation of radiation forebody loads and effects on experiment objectives for varying AFE weights and trajectories. Furthermore, radiant flux vectors at the AFE base were predicted to be used for afterbody instrument definition. The Vacuum Ultraviolet Experiment for the Arc-Jet was completed, and arc-jet experiment conditions and experiment objectives were refined to incorporate the most current thinking. Ballistic range experiments were completed. Several shadowgraphs indicating corner turning angles and waviness structures were obtained, and the results were used to estimate the compression region location for the AFE flight. The waviness measured has helped to model the temporal variations of wake radiation for purposes of defining radiometers to measure the energy content of wake dynamics.

  2. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing Aerothermodynamics: NASA Langley Experimental Capabilities and Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berger, Karen T.; Berry, Scott A.; Bruckmann, Gregory J.; Buck, Gregory M.; DiFulvio, Michael; Horvath, Thomas J.; Liechty, Derek S.; Merski, N. Ronald; Murphy, Kelly J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A review is presented of recent research, development, testing and evaluation activities related to entry, descent and landing that have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. An overview of the test facilities, model development and fabrication capabilities, and instrumentation and measurement techniques employed in this work is provided. Contributions to hypersonic/supersonic flight and planetary exploration programs are detailed, as are fundamental research and development activities.

  4. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  5. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  6. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  7. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.; Yeh, T.Y.

    1996-04-01

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows an individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.

  8. Prediction of aerodynamic heating and pressures on Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nose cap and comparison with STS-61C flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Paul C.; Rochelle, William C.; Curry, Donald M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from predictions of aerothermodynamic heating rates, temperatures, and pressures on the surface of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS) nosecap during Orbiter reentry. These results are compared with data obtained by the first actual flight of the SEADS system aboard STS-61C. The data also used to predict heating rates and surface temperatures for a hypothetical Transatlantic Abort Landing entry trajectory, whose analysis involved ascertaining the increases in heating rate as the airstream flowed across regions of the lower surface catalycity carbon/carbon composite to the higher surface catalycity columbium pressure ports.

  9. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  10. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  11. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  12. Miracle Flights for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights to distant specialized care and valuable second opinions. Miracle Flights Through June 2016 Flights Coordinated: 101,862 ...

  13. Flight (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)

  14. Postflight aerothermodynamic analysis of Pegasus(tm) using computational fluid dynamic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective was to validate the computational capability of the NASA Ames Navier-Stokes code, F3D, for flows at high Mach numbers using comparison flight test data from the Pegasus (tm) air launched, winged space booster. Comparisons were made with temperature and heat fluxes estimated from measurements on the wing surfaces and wing-fuselage fairings. Tests were conducted for solution convergence, sensitivity to grid density, and effects of distributing grid points to provide high density near temperature and heat flux sensors. The measured temperatures were from sensors embedded in the ablating thermal protection system. Surface heat fluxes were from plugs fabricated of highly insulative, nonablating material, and mounted level with the surface of the surrounding ablative material. As a preflight design tool, the F3D code produces accurate predictions of heat transfer and other aerodynamic properties, and it can provide detailed data for assessment of boundary layer separation, shock waves, and vortex formation. As a postflight analysis tool, the code provides a way to clarify and interpret the measured results.

  15. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  16. NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center Dynamics and Controls Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    NASA Armstrong continues its legacy of exciting work in the area of Dynamics and Control of advanced vehicle concepts. This presentation describes Armstrongs research in control of flexible structures, peak seeking control and adaptive control in the Spring of 2015.

  17. Underwater branch connection study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing underwater connections of branch pipelines to main lines at existing tap valves and with hot taps in diver accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch pipelines of up to twelve inches in diameter that conform to API Specification 5L minimum. Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, intemal and external pressure, thermal expansion, hydrodynamics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature, cover, bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report. Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references. Lotus 123'' spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pressure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A program diskette is included with the report. The report summarizes, and draws from, the results of a survey of the relevant practice and experience of fifteen gas pipeline operating companies. The survey indicates that most existing branch connections do not provide for pigging of the lateral lines, but that there is a growing consensus that cleaning and inspection pigging of lateral lines is desirable or necessary.

  18. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  19. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  20. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  1. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Cavity Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of an isolated rectangular cavity on hypersonic boundary layer transition of the windward surface of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamics Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental study was initiated to provide a cavity effects database for developing hypersonic transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair a damaged thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using 0.0075-scale Orbiter models with simulated tile damage (rectangular cavities) of varying length, width, and depth. The database contained within this report will be used to formulate cavity-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  3. Shuttle Return To Flight Experimental Results: Protuberance Effects on Boundary Layer Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of isolated roughness elements on the windward boundary layer of the Shuttle Orbiter has been experimentally examined in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory in support of an agency-wide effort to prepare the Shuttle Orbiter for return to flight. This experimental effort was initiated to provide a roughness effects database for developing transition criteria to support on-orbit decisions to repair damage to the thermal protection system. Boundary layer transition results were obtained using trips of varying heights and locations along the centerline and attachment lines of 0.0075-scale models. Global heat transfer images using phosphor thermography of the Orbiter windward surface and the corresponding heating distributions were used to infer the state of the boundary layer (laminar, transitional, or turbulent). The database contained within this report will be used to formulate protuberance-induced transition correlations using predicted boundary layer edge parameters.

  4. A research study for the preliminary definition of an aerophysics free-flight laboratory facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Thomas N.

    1988-01-01

    A renewed interest in hypervelocity vehicles requires an increase in the knowledge of aerodynamic phenomena. Tests conducted with ground-based facilities can be used both to better understand the physics of hypervelocity flight, and to calibrate and validate computer codes designed to predict vehicle performance in the hypervelocity environment. This research reviews the requirements for aerothermodynamic testing and discusses the ballistic range and its capabilities. Examples of the kinds of testing performed in typical high performance ballistic ranges are described. We draw heavily on experience obtained in the ballistics facilities at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Prospects for improving the capabilities of the ballistic range by using advanced instrumentation are discussed. Finally, recent developments in gun technology and their application to extend the capability of the ballistic range are summarized.

  5. cFE/CFS (Core Flight Executive/Core Flight System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildermann, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes in detail the requirements and goals of the Core Flight Executive (cFE) and the Core Flight System (CFS). The Core Flight Software System is a mission independent, platform-independent, Flight Software (FSW) environment integrating a reusable core flight executive (cFE). The CFS goals include: 1) Reduce time to deploy high quality flight software; 2) Reduce project schedule and cost uncertainty; 3) Directly facilitate formalized software reuse; 4) Enable collaboration across organizations; 5) Simplify sustaining engineering (AKA. FSW maintenance); 6) Scale from small instruments to System of Systems; 7) Platform for advanced concepts and prototyping; and 7) Common standards and tools across the branch and NASA wide.

  6. Preliminary Analysis Of The USV_2 Hypersonic Flight Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, G.; Pezzella, G.; Richiello, C.; Russo, G.; Tirtey, S. C.; Boyce, R. R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the activities and the results of the feasibility analysis, performed by CIRA and UQ, of the project Unmanned Space Vehicle USV2 Hypersonic Flight Test (HFT) whose aim is to provide a flight opportunity for acquisition and augmentation of experience on hypersonic flight aspects, such as aerodynamics, GN&C (Guidance Navigation, & Control), and vehicle design. Main mission objectives are to fly the unmanned winged vehicle FTB_4 (Flying Test Bed) at a Mach number ≥6 in the altitude range 10- 60 km for a time greater than 10s in order to perform experimental activities. The USV2 reference mission shall be accomplished from the Woomera Test Range in Australia, being the launch service provided by the Australian Defence Science & Technology Organisation (DSTO) together with DLR MORABA. Figure 1 represents a preliminary sketch-up of the FTB_4 vehicle. An overview of system-level design will be herein given with respect to: mission design, configuration trade-off, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics development, flight mechanics investigation as well as conceptual definition of vehicle architecture. It is worth to remind that CIRA has already flown two flying test beds of USV1 family [3, 6], namely Castore and Polluce, respectively launched in the 2007 (Castore) and 2010 (Polluce) by means of an atmospheric balloons (see Figure 2 and Figure 3). Flight tests were successful and provided a great amount of scientific data in transonic and low supersonic regime. Furthermore, The University of Queensland (UQ) and DSTO have flown several sounding-rocket-launched hypersonic flight experiments at Woomera in recent years[7]. UQ and CIRA are actively involved under a Heads of Agreement to pursue collaborative hypersonic ground-based and flight-based research, and UQ, CIRA and DSTO are partners (with others) in the international SCRAMSPACE flight experiment. So then, the USV2 project aims at providing an opportunity to further push knowledge and technology

  7. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  8. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  9. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  10. Review of a code development and calibration program in support of the aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and calibration program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) is reviewed, with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE). The flight project is designed to obtain data which will be used in the validation of computational fluid dynamic approximation methods. Comparisons between experimental data and numerical simulation focus on perfect-gas tests over a scale model of the AFE and on flight and ground tests which challenge some aspect of the thermochemical nonequilibrium model. In the first case, the gas model is simple, but the grid-related problems of defining the real vehicle are present. In the second case, the vehicle geometries are simple, but thermochemical processes must be modeled correctly in order to compare with the experimental data. These comparisons are described as calibration runs because they test elements of the numerical simulation, but no single data set adequately simulates the full-scale AFE flight conditions. Comparisons between computation and experiment over a broad range of data sets show generally good agreement, though some aspects of the numerical model require further development.

  11. Small Payload Flight Systems (SPFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Small Payload Flight System (SPFS) provides a simple and cost-effective approach to carrying small size experiments on the space shuttle. The system uses a bridge-like structure which spans the orbiter cargo bay but is only 3 feet in length. The structure can carry up to 4300 lb of payload weight and can be positioned at any location along the length of the cargo bay. In addition to the structural support, the SPFS provides avionics services to experiments. These include electrical power distribution and control, command and telemetry for control of the experiments and subsystem health monitoring, and software computations. The avionics system includes a flight qualified electrical power branching distributor, and a system control unit based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor. Data can be recorded on magnetic tape or transmitted to the ground. Finally, a Freon pump and cold plate system provides environmental control for both the avionics hardware and the experiments as necessary.

  12. Modeling branching in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose–response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance. PMID:24133499

  13. Enhancement of computer system for applications software branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykat, Alex

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a compilation of the history of a two-month project concerned with a survey, evaluation, and specification of a new computer system for the Applications Software Branch of the Software and Data Management Division of Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory of Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA. Information gathering consisted of discussions and surveys of branch activities, evaluation of computer manufacturer literature, and presentations by vendors. Information gathering was followed by evaluation of their systems. The criteria of the latter were: the (tentative) architecture selected for the new system, type of network architecture supported, software tools, and to some extent the price. The information received from the vendors, as well as additional research, lead to detailed design of a suitable system. This design included considerations of hardware and software environments as well as personnel issues such as training. Design of the system culminated in a recommendation for a new computing system for the Branch.

  14. SnapShot: Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Bhat, Ramray; Widelitz, Randall B; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-08-28

    Ectodermal appendages such as feathers, hair, mammary glands, salivary glands, and sweat glands form branches, allowing much-increased surface for functional differentiation and secretion. Here, the principles of branching morphogenesis are exemplified by the mammary gland and feathers. PMID:25171418

  15. Branching mechanisms in surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    The mechanisms of branch formation in surfactant micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in presence of sodium salicylate (NaSal) counter ions in water are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The curvature energy associated with the formation of micelle branches and the effect of branching on the solution viscosity are quantified. Highly curved surfaces are energetically stabilized by a higher density of binding counter ions near the branch points. Simulations show that micellar branches result in a significant reduction in the solution viscosity as observed in experiments [Dhakal & Sureshkumar, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024905 (2015)]. This reduction in viscosity has long been attributed to the sliding motion of micelle branches across the main chain. However, to date, such dynamics of micelle branches have never been visualized in either experiments or simulations. Here, we explicitly illustrate and quantify, for the first time, how branches slide along the micelle contour to facilitate stress relaxation. We acknowledged the computational resources provided by XSEDE which is supported by NSF Grant Number OCI-1053575 and the financial support by National Science Foundation under Grants 1049489 and 1049454.

  16. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  17. Aerothermodynamic radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, K.; Reinecke, W. G.; Rossi, D.; Marinelli, W. J.; Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have built and made operational a 6 in. electric arc driven shock tube which alloys us to study the non-equilibrium radiation and kinetics of low pressure (0.1 to 1 torr) gases processed by 6 to 12 km/s shock waves. The diagnostic system allows simultaneous monitoring of shock radiation temporal histories by a bank of up to six radiometers, and spectral histories with two optical multi-channel analyzers. A data set of eight shots was assembled, comprising shocks in N2 and air at pressures between 0.1 and 1 torr and velocities of 6 to 12 km/s. Spectrally resolved data was taken in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium shock regions on all shots. The present data appear to be the first spectrally resolved shock radiation measurements in N2 performed at 12 km/s. The data base was partially analyzed with salient features identified.

  18. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  19. STS-114: Discovery Return to Flight: Langley Engineers Analysis Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This video features a briefing on NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) contributions to the Space Shuttle fleet's Return to Flight (RTF). The briefing is split into two sections, which LaRC Shuttle Project Manager Robert Barnes and Deputy Manager Harry Belvin deliver in the form of a viewgraph presentation. Barnes speaks about LaRC contributions to the STS-114 mission of Space Shuttle Discovery, and Belvin speaks about LaRC contributions to subsequent Shuttle missions. In both sections of the briefing, LaRC contributions are in the following areas: External Tank (ET), Orbiter, Systems Integration, and Corrosion/Aging. The managers discuss nondestructive and destructive tests performed on ET foam, wing leading edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) composites, on-orbit tile repair, aerothermodynamic simulation of reentry effects, Mission Management Team (MMT) support, and landing gear tests. The managers briefly answer questions from reporters, and the video concludes with several short video segments about LaRC contributions to the RTF effort.

  20. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  1. Tension in Highly Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a systematic method of designing branched macromolecules capable of building up high tension in their covalent bonds, which can be controlled by changing solvent quality. This tension is achieved exclusively due to intramolecular interactions by focusing lower tensions from its numerous branches to a particular section of the designed molecule. The simplest molecular architecture, which allows this tension amplification, is a so-called pom-pom macromolecule consisting of a relatively short linear spacer and two z-arm stars at its ends. Tension developed in the stars due to crowding of their branches is amplified by a factor of z and focused to the spacer. There are other highly branched macromolecules, such as molecular brushes - comb polymers with high density of side branches, that have similar focusing and amplification properties. In addition molecular brushes transmit tension along their backbone. Adsorption or grafting of these branched molecules on a substrate results in further increase in tension as compared to molecules in solution. Molecular architectures similar to pom-pom and molecular brushes with a high tension amplification parts can be used in numerous sensor applications. Unique conformations of molecular brushes in a pre-wetting layer allow direct visualization by atomic force microscope. Detailed images of individual molecules spreading along the surface enable critical evaluation of theories of chain dynamics in polymer monolayer. Strong spreading of densely branched macromolecules on a planar substrate can lead to high tension in the molecular backbone sufficient to break covalent bonds.

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  3. Hypersonic research engine/aerothermodynamic integration model: Experimental results. Volume 3: Mach 7 component integration and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA Hypersonic Research Engine Project was undertaken to design, develop, and construct a hypersonic research ramjet engine for high performance and to flight test the developed concept on the X-15-2A airplane over the speed range from Mach 3 to 8. Computer program results are presented here for the Mach 7 component integration and performance tests.

  4. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Flight Opportunities Program is facilitating low-cost access to suborbital space, where researchers can test technologies using commercially developed vehicles. Suborbital flights can quickl...

  5. European Experimental Re-Entry Testbed EXPERT: Qualification of Payloads for Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratti, F.; Gavira, J.; Thirkettle, A. C.; Erba, F.; Muylaert, J.-M.; Walpot, L.; Rembiasz, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed EXPERT is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of its General Technological Research Program (GSTP). The aim of EXPERT is to improve the understanding of critical aero-thermodynamic phenomena associated with hypersonic re-entry flights. The EXPERT project provides an opportunity to the scientific community and industries throughout Europe to propose and perform experiments in order to obtain aero-thermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground to flight extrapolation methodologies. During the last years an intense activity has been performed at ESA in order to select the most suitable experiments, bring them to a mature design, manufacture the qualification model and qualify the experiments for flight. ESA staffs coordinated and supported the work of the principal investigators of the experiments from European institutions and industrial organizations in order to maximize the scientific output in compliance with the budget resources made available to the EXPERT project and the programmatic constraints. EXPERT is a re-entry capsule having the shape of a blunted cone. The front part consists of a nose made of ceramic material developed at DLR Stuttgart. No ablative material is implemented so as not to contaminate the specific measurements of Payloads on board. The ceramic nose hosts a set of experiments: the Flush Air Data System (FADS) developed by HTG aiming at collecting free flow data required for post flight analysis, the pyrometer PYREX developed at IRS in Stuttgart collecting data on the temperature and heat flux of the ceramic nose, and the IRS spectrometer RESPECT aiming at resolving the different species generated in the plasma region during re-entry. The sides of the blunted cone are protected by a metallic thermal protection system in which several experiments are located. Two Payloads developed by IRS and VKI are dedicated to the measurement of catalytic effects. One aims

  6. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  7. F-8 SCW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The F-8A Supercritical Wing (SCW) aircraft in flight. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb began work on the supercritical wing in the early 1960s. Although the design was highly efficient in wind-tunnel testing, it was so unusual that few accepted the concept as practical. Larry Loftin of NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, said, 'We're going to have a flight demonstration. This thing is so different from anything that we've ever done before that nobody's going to touch it with a ten foot pole without somebody going out and flying it.' The Navy supplied NASA with an F-8A (Navy Bureau Number 141353/NASA tail number 810), while North American Aviation built the supercritical wing. The SCW team attached it to the stock F-8 fuselage. This 1971 photo shows its original paint finish. Tom McMurtry, who was the lead project pilot, recalled that there was no time or money for a fancier finish. In fact, on the first flight, made on March 9, 1971, the 'SCW' on the tail was actually taped on. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every

  8. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Etiolated Juvenile Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia Branches during Different Cutting Periods

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Nan; Xu, Zhaohe; Meng, Bingnan; Sun, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiangtao; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of hard-branch cuttings of tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is restricted by the low rooting rate; however, etiolated juvenile tetraploid black locust branches result in a significantly higher rooting rate of cuttings compared with non-etiolated juvenile tetraploid branches. To identify proteins that influence the juvenile tetraploid branch rooting process, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) were used to analyze proteomic differences in the phloem of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated and non-etiolated juvenile branches during different cutting periods. A total of 58 protein spots differed in expression level, and 16 protein spots were only expressed in etiolated branches or non-etiolated ones. A total of 40 highly expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, 14 of which were accurately retrieved. They include nucleoglucoprotein metabolic proteins, signaling proteins, lignin synthesis proteins and phyllochlorin. These results help to reveal the mechanism of juvenile tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated branch rooting and provide a valuable reference for the improvement of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia cutting techniques. PMID:24756090

  10. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a) In any operation in which one flight engineer or flight navigator is required, the flight...

  11. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section 166.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the firm of which it is a branch for all...

  12. Analysis of experimental results of the inlet for the NASA hypersonic research engine aerothermodynamic integration model. [wind tunnel tests of ramjet engine hypersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. H., Jr.; Mackley, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    An aerodynamic engine inlet analysis was performed on the experimental results obtained at nominal Mach numbers of 5, 6, and 7 from the NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM). Incorporation on the AIM of the mixed-compression inlet design represented the final phase of an inlet development program of the HRE Project. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the AIM inlet experimental results with theoretical results. Experimental performance was based on measured surface pressures used in a one-dimensional force-momentum theorem. Results of the analysis indicate that surface static-pressure measurements agree reasonably well with theoretical predictions except in the regions where the theory predicts large pressure discontinuities. Experimental and theoretical results both based on the one-dimensional force-momentum theorem yielded inlet performance parameters as functions of Mach number that exhibited reasonable agreement. Previous predictions of inlet unstart that resulted from pressure disturbances created by fuel injection and combustion appeared to be pessimistic.

  13. A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's 1 1/2 stage vehicle configuration and Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle configuration. [Using the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's (NLS's) 1 1/2 stage and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) configurations is presented. Shadowgraphs are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 0.6 to 5.0 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. Since the 1 1/2 stage configuration is generally symmetric, no shadowgraphs of any roll angle are shown for this configuration. The major flow field phenomena over the NLS 1 1/2 stage and HLLV configurations are shown in the shadowgraphs. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle would encounter during the ascent stage of flight. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992.

  14. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  15. Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

  16. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will... approval number, to Information Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift...

  17. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  18. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  19. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  20. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  1. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  2. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  3. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  4. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  5. Flight experience with flight control redundancy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.; Larson, R. R.; Glover, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience with both current and advanced redundancy management schemes was gained in recent flight research programs using the F-8 digital fly by wire aircraft. The flight performance of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) methods for sensors, computers, and actuators is reviewed. Results of induced failures as well as of actual random failures are discussed. Deficiencies in modeling and implementation techniques are also discussed. The paper also presents comparison off multisensor tracking in smooth air, in turbulence, during large maneuvers, and during maneuvers typical of those of large commercial transport aircraft. The results of flight tests of an advanced analytic redundancy management algorithm are compared with the performance of a contemporary algorithm in terms of time to detection, false alarms, and missed alarms. The performance of computer redundancy management in both iron bird and flight tests is also presented.

  6. Project Flight: Integrating Language Arts, Science, and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottle, Jean L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the genesis of a workshop for elementary and middle school teachers that would start with literature and then branch out to the sciences and mathematics, focusing on the topic "flight," and taking as its starting point the Greek myth of Daedalus and Icarus. Includes the first two class activities of the workshop. (SR)

  7. Mars Ascent Vehicle Flight Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P. N.; Braun, R. D.; Engelund, W. C.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Kangas, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific objective of the Mars Surveyor Program 2005 mission is to return Mars rock, soil, and atmospheric samples to Earth for detailed analysis. The present investigation focuses on design of Mars Ascent Vehicle for this mission. Aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and trajectory design considerations are addressed to assess the ascent configuration, determine aerodynamic stability, characterize thermal protection system requirements, and ascertain the required system mass. Aerodynamic analysis reveals a subsonic static instability with the baseline configuration; however, stability augmentation options are proposed to mitigate this problem. The ascent aerothermodynamic environment is shown to be benign (on the order of the sea-level boiling point of water on Earth). As a result of these low thermal and pressure loads, a lightweight, low rigidity material can be employed as the aftbody aerodynamic shroud. The required nominal MAV lift-off mass is 426 kg for a December 2006 equatorial launch into a 300-km circular orbit with 30-degree inclination. Off-nominal aerodynamic and atmospheric conditions are shown to increase this liftoff mass by approximately 10%. Through performance of these analyses, the Mars Ascent Vehicle is deemed feasible with respect to the current mission mass and size constraints.

  8. 'Mighty Eagle' Takes Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    The "Mighty Eagle," a NASA robotic prototype lander, had a successful first untethered flight Aug. 8 at the Marshall Center. During the 34-second flight, the Mighty Eagle soared and hovered at 30 f...

  9. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  10. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  11. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  12. Flight control experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    A multidisciplinary medical-management team at mission control provided Skylab crew support by monitoring health, retrieving and compiling experimental data, assisting in the development of flight plans, and by contributing to in-flight procedures and checklists. Real time computers assisted the flight crews in performing medical and other experiments.

  13. In Flight, Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  14. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  15. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  16. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Interactions between axillary branches of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Veronica; Bainbridge, Katherine; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline

    2008-03-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean, in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches. In these two-branch shoots, a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other, prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals, which are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis, using consecutive branches on the bolting stem. As with the classical studies in pea and bean, these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth. Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch, but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch, illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals. Using mutants, we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch, the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak, and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem. PMID:19825548

  18. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  19. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  20. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  1. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  2. Ariane flight testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedrenne, M.

    1983-11-01

    The object of this paper is to present the way in which the flight development tests of the Ariane launch vehicle have enabled the definition to be frozen and its qualification to be demonstrated before the beginning of the operational phase. A first part is devoted to the in-flight measurement facilities, the acquisition and evaluation systems, and to the organization of the in-flight results evaluation. The following part consists of the comparison between ground predictions and flight results for the main parameters as classified by system (stages, trajectory, propulsion, flight mechanics, auto pilot and guidance). The corrective actions required are then identified and the corresponding results shown.

  3. Impact of clocking on the aero-thermodynamics of a second stator tested in a one and a half stage HP turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billiard, N.; Paniagua, Guillermo; Dénos, R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental investigation of the time-averaged and time-accurate aero-thermodynamics of a second stator tested in a 1.5 stage high-pressure turbine. The effect of clocking on aerodynamic and heat transfer are investigated. Tests are performed under engine representative conditions in the VKI compression tube CT3. The test program includes four different clocking positions, i.e. relative pitch-wise positions between the first and the second stator. Probes located upstream and downstream of the second stator provide the thermodynamic conditions of the flow field. On the second stator airfoil, measurements are taken around the blade profile at 15, 50 and 85% span with pressure sensors and thin-film gauges. Both time-averaged and time-resolved aspects of the flow field are addressed. Regarding the time-averaged results, clocking effects are mainly observed within the leading edge region of the second stator, the largest effects being observed at 15% span. The surface static pressure distribution is changed locally, hence affecting the overall airfoil performance. For one clocking position, the thermal load of the airfoil is noticeably reduced. Pressure fluctuations are attributed to the passage of the upstream transonic rotor and its associated pressure gradients. The pattern of these fluctuations changes noticeably as a function of clocking. The time-resolved variations of heat flux and static pressure are analyzed together showing that the major effect is due to a potential interaction. The time-resolved pressure distribution integrated along the second stator surface yields the unsteady forces on the vane. The magnitude of the unsteady force is very dependent on the clocking position.

  4. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  9. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  10. Risking Exposure: Branch Campus Writers Go Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    For students who live and study at a branch campus of a mid-sized state university in southwest Pennsylvania, the 30 miles between them and their parent university represents a geographic gulf. No courier carries mail or deliveries between the main campus and the branches, and as a result, students at the branches have no access to the campus…

  11. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  12. Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Fisher, J B

    1978-02-24

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

  13. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  14. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  15. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well. PMID:27333567

  16. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  17. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.493 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. (a)...

  20. TPS: From Arc-Jet to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buslog, Stanley A.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of thermal protection system materials. All space vehicles that reenter Earth's atmosphere from either LEO or from Lunar/Mars missions require thermal protection system (TPS) materials. These TPS materials requires ground test facilities that simulate the aerothermodynamic environments experienced by reentry. The existing arc-jet facility requires expansion to combine convective and radiation heating and to test the capability to protect with the CO2 atmosphere that will be encountered for Martian entry.

  1. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  2. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  3. Pilot's Desk Flight Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft flight station designs have generally evolved through the incorporation of improved or modernized controls and displays. In connection with a continuing increase in the amount of information displayed, this process has produced a complex and cluttered conglomeration of knobs, switches, and electromechanical displays. The result was often high crew workload, missed signals, and misinterpreted information. Advances in electronic technology have now, however, led to new concepts in flight station design. An American aerospace company in cooperation with NASA has utilized these concepts to develop a candidate conceptual design for a 1995 flight station. The obtained Pilot's Desk Flight Station is a unique design which resembles more an operator's console than today's cockpit. Attention is given to configuration, primary flight controllers, front panel displays, flight/navigation display, approach charts and weather display, head-up display, and voice command and response systems.

  4. YF-17 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator aircraft in flight during a 1976 flight research program at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. From May 27 to July 14, 1976, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, flew the Northrop Aviation YF-17 technology demonstrator to test the high-performance U.S. Air Force fighter at transonic speeds. The objectives of the seven-week flight test program included the study of maneuverability of this aircraft at transonic speeds and the collection of in-flight pressure data from around the afterbody of the aircraft to improve wind-tunnel predictions for future fighter aircraft. Also studied were stability and control and buffeting at high angles of attack as well as handling qualities at high load factors. Another objective of this program was to familiarize center pilots with the operation of advanced high-performance fighter aircraft. During the seven-week program, all seven of the center's test pilots were able to fly the aircraft with Gary Krier serving as project pilot. In general the pilots reported no trouble adapting to the aircraft and reported that it was easy to fly. There were no familiarization flights. All 25 research flights were full-data flights. They obtained data on afterbody pressures, vertical-fin dynamic loads, agility, pilot physiology, and infrared signatures. Average flight time was 45 minutes, although two flights involving in-flight refueling lasted approximately one hour longer than usual. Dryden Project Manager Roy Bryant considered the program a success. Center pilots felt that the aircraft was generations ahead of then current active military aircraft. Originally built for the Air Force's lightweight fighter program, the YF-17 Cobra left Dryden to support the Northrop/Navy F-18 Program. The F-18 Hornet evolved from the YF-17.

  5. Flight Checklists And Interruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, C.; Goguen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Report examines relation between performances of flight checklists and interruptions. Based on study of simulated flights of Boeing 707 Airplane. During each flight series of overlapping problems introduced. Study investigated patterns of communication that in carrying out checklists, may contribute to accidents. Showed good crews had high continuity in following checklists and it is not number of interruptions but rather duration of interruptions associated with quality of performance. Suggests greater burden placed on memory by one long interruption than by several short ones.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  7. Unified powered flight guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, T. J.; Brown, D. W.; Higgins, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A complete revision of the orbiter powered flight guidance scheme is presented. A unified approach to powered flight guidance was taken to accommodate all phases of exo-atmospheric orbiter powered flight, from ascent through deorbit. The guidance scheme was changed from the previous modified version of the Lambert Aim Point Maneuver Mode used in Apollo to one that employs linear tangent guidance concepts. This document replaces the previous ascent phase equation document.

  8. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. PMID:25740899

  9. Buckling of Branched Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    In vitro experiments of growing dendritic actin networks demonstrate reversible stress-softening at high loads, above some critical load. The transition to the stress-softening regime has been attributed to the elastic buckling of individual actin filaments. To estimate the critical load above which softening should occur, we extend the elastic theory of buckling of individual filaments embedded in a network to include the buckling of branched filaments, a signature trait of growing dendritic actin networks. Under certain assumptions, there will be approximately a seven-fold increase in the classical critical bucking load, when compared to the unbranched filament, which is entirely due to the presence of a branch. Moreover, we go beyond the classical buckling regime to investigate the effect of entropic fluctuations. The result of compressing the filament in this case leads to an increase in these fluctuations and eventually the harmonic approximation breaks down signifying the onset of the buckling transition. We compute corrections to the classical critical buckling load near this breakdown.

  10. Technology review of flight crucial flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a technology survey in flight crucial flight controls conducted as a data base for planning future research and technology programs are provided. Free world countries were surveyed with primary emphasis on the United States and Western Europe because that is where the most advanced technology resides. The survey includes major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments, and major research and technology programs. The survey was not intended to be an in-depth treatment of the technology elements, but rather a study of major trends in systems level technology. The information was collected from open literature, personal communications and a tour of several companies, government organizations and research laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany.

  11. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length. PMID:26040560

  12. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length.

  13. Pilot/Vehicle display development from simulation to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dare, Alan R.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-01-01

    The Pilot Vehicle Interface Group, Cockpit Technology Branch, Flight Management Division, at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing display concepts for air combat in the next generation of highly maneuverable aircraft. The High-Alpha Technology Program, under which the research is being done, is involved in flight tests of many new control and display concepts on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle, a highly modified F-18 aircraft. In order to support display concept development through flight testing, a software/hardware system is being developed which will support each phase of the project with little or no software modifications, thus saving thousands of manhours in software development time. Simulation experiments are in progress now and flight tests are slated to begin in FY1994.

  14. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  15. How learn the branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2014-10-01

    Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).

  16. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  17. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  18. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  19. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  20. Java for flight software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  1. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  3. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  4. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows over the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and application program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) in the near term and Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design in the long term is reviewed. LAURA is an upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for 3-D, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. The algorithm is derived using a finite volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over an AFE wind tunnel model. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium over the full scale AFE configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.

  5. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  6. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  7. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General...

  8. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  9. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  10. Single Molecule Dynamics of Branched DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Sing, Charles; Schroeder, Charles

    This work focuses on extending the field of single polymer dynamics to topologically complex polymers. Here, we report the direct observation of DNA-based branched polymers. Recently, we recently demonstrated a two-step synthesis method to generate star, H-shaped, and comb polymers for single molecule visualization. Following synthesis, we use single-color or dual-color single molecule fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize branched polymer dynamics in flow, in particular tracking side branches and backbones independently. In this way, our imaging method allows for characterization of molecular properties, including quantification of polymer contour length and branch distributions. Moving beyond characterization, we use molecular rheology and single molecule techniques to study the dynamics of single branched polymers in flow. Here, we utilize precision microfluidics to directly observe branched DNA polymer conformations during transient stretching, steady-state extension, and relaxation from high stretch. We specifically measure backbone end-to-end distance as a function of time. Experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations show that branched polymer relaxation is a strong function of the number of branches and position of branch points along the main chain backbone.

  11. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  12. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  13. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  14. Gold replica of olive branch left on moons surface by Apollo 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, which was left on the Moon's surface by the Apollo 11 crew members. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, was in charge of placing the replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represents a fresh wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  15. Mission and spacecraft support functions of the Materials Engineering Branch: A space oriented technology resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A.; Staugaitis, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) of the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, are surveyed. The specific functions of spacecraft materials review, materials processing and information dissemination, and laboratory support, are outlined in the Activity Report. Further detail is provided by case histories of laboratory satellite support and equipment. Project support statistics are shown, and complete listings of MEB publications, patents, and tech briefs are included. MEB staff, and their respective discipline areas and spacecraft liaison associations, are listed.

  16. Flight mechanics applications for tethers in space: Cooperative Italian-US programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilacqua, Franco; Merlina, Pietro; Anderson, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1974 proposal by Giuseppe Colombo to fly a tethered subsatellite from the Shuttle Orbiter, the creative thinking of many scientists and engineers from Italy and U.S. has generated a broad range of potential tether applications in space. Many of these applications have promise for enabling innovative research and operational activities relating to flight mechanics in earth orbit and at suborbital altitudes. From a flight mechanics standpoint the most interesting of the currently proposed flight demonstrations are: the second Tethered Satellite System experiment which offers both the potential for aerothermodynamics and hypersonics research and for atmospheric science research; the Tethered Initiated Space Recovery System which would enable orbital deboost and recovery of a re-entry vehicle and waste removal from a space station; and the Tether Elevator/Crawler System which would provide a variable microgravity environment and space station center of mass management. The outer atmospheric and orbital flight mechanics characteristics of these proposed tether flight demonstrations are described. The second Tethered Satellite System mission will deploy the tethered satellite earthward and will bring it as low as 130 km from ground and thus into the transition region between the atmosphere (non-ionized) and the partially ionized ionosphere. The atmospheric flight mechanics of the tethered satellite is discussed and simulation results are presented. The Tether Initiated Space Recovery System experiment will demonstrate the ability of a simple tether system to deboost and recover a reentry vehicle. The main feature of this demonstration is the utilization of a Small Expendable Deployment System (SEDS) and the low-tension deployment assumed to separate the reentry vehicle from the Shuttle. This low-tension deployment maneuver is discussed and its criticalities are outlined. The Tether Elevator/Crawler System is a new space element able to move in a controlled way

  17. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  18. Branch Mode Selection during Early Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  19. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    PubMed

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  20. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  1. Aero Commander in flight - Upswept fuselage study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The NASA Flight Research Center's Aero Commander 680F is shown in flight with tufts attached to the side and bottom sections of the aircraft. These were placed on the aircraft for a Upswept Fuselage Study to see if the flow separated on the aft section of a small aircraft for comparison of data acquired from a large cargo-type aircraft with an upswept aft section. The photo of the tufts demonstrates that the flow is attached with no turbulence present. (Note the straight lines of tufts). The Aero Commander was used both for support and as a research aircraft. Among other uses, it was flown to outlying dry lakebeds, used as emergency landing sites, before X-15 flights. It could reach the lakebeds quickly and land on the hard-packed surfaces to ensure they were not soft from rainfall or some other cause. Between 1964 and 1966, the Flight Research Center used the aircraft in the Aviation Safety and Operating Problems Program to evaluate the aerodynamics of various light aircraft and to define possible technological improvements. The Aero Commander left what had become the Dryden Flight Research Center on March 14, 1979, and was transferred to the Customs Air Branch in San Diego. The Aero Commander 680F (N6297), built by the Aero Commander Company of Bethany, Oklahoma, is a pressurized five-place aircraft that is powered by two 380-horsepower reciprocating engines built by Lycoming Company. The fuselage length is 24.2 feet with a wing span of 35.98 feet.

  2. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  3. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  4. Epithelial dynamics of pancreatic branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana C.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Cleaver, Ondine

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian pancreas is a highly branched gland, essential for both digestion and glucose homeostasis. Pancreatic branching, however, is poorly understood, both at the ultrastructural and cellular levels. In this article, we characterize the morphogenesis of pancreatic branches, from gross anatomy to the dynamics of their epithelial organization. We identify trends in pancreatic branch morphology and introduce a novel mechanism for branch formation, which involves transient epithelial stratification and partial loss of cell polarity, changes in cell shape and cell rearrangements, de novo tubulogenesis and epithelial tubule remodeling. In contrast to the classical epithelial budding and tube extension observed in other organs, a pancreatic branch takes shape as a multi-lumen tubular plexus coordinately extends and remodels into a ramifying, single-lumen ductal system. Moreover, our studies identify a role for EphB signaling in epithelial remodeling during pancreatic branching. Overall, these results illustrate distinct, step-wise cellular mechanisms by which pancreatic epithelium shapes itself to create a functional branching organ. PMID:21098570

  5. Optimal branching designs in respiratory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    In nature, the size of the flow channels systematically decreases with multiple generations of branching, and a mother branch is ultimately divided into numerous terminal daughters. One important feature of branching designs is an increase in the total cross-sectional area along with generation, which provide more time and area for mass transfer at the terminal branches. However, the expansion of the total cross-sectional area can be costly due to the maintenance of redundant branches or the additional viscous resistance. Accordingly, we expect to find optimal designs in natural branching systems. Here we present two examples of branching designs in respiratory systems: fish gills and human lung airways. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures. By developing a mathematical model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the dimensions of fish gills, we demonstrate that the interlamellar distance has been optimized to maximize the oxygen transfer rate. Using the same framework, we examine the diameter reduction ratio in human lung airways, which branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. Our mathematical model for oxygen transport in the airways enables us to unveil the design principle of human lung airways.

  6. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  7. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  8. Existing branches correlatively inhibit further branching in Trifolium repens: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. G.; Hay, M. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Trifolium repens removal of any number of existing branches distal to a nodal root stimulates development of axillary buds further along the stem such that the complement of branches distal to a nodal root remains constant. This study aimed to assess possible mechanisms by which existing branches correlatively inhibit the outgrowth of axillary buds distal to them. Treatments were applied to basal branches to evaluate the roles of three postulated inhibitory mechanisms: (I) the transport of a phloem-mobile inhibitory feedback signal from branches into the main stem; (II) the polar flow of auxin from branches into the main stem acting to limit further branch development; or (III) the basal branches functioning as sinks for a net root-derived stimulatory signal (NRS). Results showed that transport of auxin, or of a non-auxin phloem-mobile signal, from basal branches did not influence regulation of correlative inhibition and were consistent with the possibility that the intra-plant distribution of NRS could be involved in the correlative inhibition of distal buds by basal branches. This study supports existing evidence that regulation of branching in T. repens is dominated by a root-derived stimulatory signal, initially distributed via the xylem, the characterization of which will progress the generic understanding of branching regulation. PMID:21071681

  9. Identification of atypical flight patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Whitney, Paul D. (Inventor); White, Amanda M. (Inventor); Willse, Alan R. (Inventor); Cooley, Scott K. (Inventor); Jay, Joseph Griffith (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Mosbrucker, Chris (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing aircraft data, including multiple selected flight parameters for a selected phase of a selected flight, and for determining when the selected phase of the selected flight is atypical, when compared with corresponding data for the same phase for other similar flights. A flight signature is computed using continuous-valued and discrete-valued flight parameters for the selected flight parameters and is optionally compared with a statistical distribution of other observed flight signatures, yielding atypicality scores for the same phase for other similar flights. A cluster analysis is optionally applied to the flight signatures to define an optimal collection of clusters. A level of atypicality for a selected flight is estimated, based upon an index associated with the cluster analysis.

  10. Pseudohyphal variations of yeasts exposed to specific space flight parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Hunter, R L

    1998-01-01

    Phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodotorula rubra exposed to specific parameters of space flight, which were measured both quantitatively and qualitatively, produced variations in pseudohyphal formation. Both the length of the parent and branch psuedohyphal filaments varied according to specific wavelengths and energy levels of UV light exposures when phenotypic isolates were compared with the parent or ground control isolate of each yeast species. PMID:9881461

  11. Reliability Practice at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruessner, Paula S.; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes in brief the Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) Programs performed directly by the reliability branch at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The mission assurance requirements flow down is explained. GSFC practices for PRA, reliability prediction/fault tree analysis/reliability block diagram, FMEA, part stress and derating analysis, worst case analysis, trend analysis, limit life items are presented. Lessons learned are summarized and recommendations on improvement are identified.

  12. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  13. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  14. Space flight hazards catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The most significant hazards identified on manned space flight programs are listed. This summary is of special value to system safety engineers in developing safety checklists and otherwise tailoring safety tasks to specific systems and subsystems.

  15. SR-71 Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two SR-71A aircraft were loaned from the U.S. Air Force for use for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. One of them was later returned...

  16. Reflecting Random Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, Alessandro; Orsingher, Enzo

    2015-09-01

    We consider random flights in reflecting on the surface of a sphere with center at the origin and with radius R, where reflection is performed by means of circular inversion. Random flights studied in this paper are motions where the orientation of the deviations are uniformly distributed on the unit-radius sphere . We obtain the explicit probability distributions of the position of the moving particle when the number of changes of direction is fixed and equal to . We show that these distributions involve functions which are solutions of the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. The unconditional probability distributions of the reflecting random flights are obtained by suitably randomizing n by means of a fractional-type Poisson process. Random flights reflecting on hyperplanes according to the optical reflection form are considered and the related distributional properties derived.

  17. Orion Abort Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Peggy Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Constellation project is to create the new generation of spacecraft for human flight to the International Space Station in low-earth orbit, the lunar surface, as well as for use in future deep-space exploration. One portion of the Constellation program was the development of the Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV) to be used in spaceflight. The Orion spacecraft consists of a crew module, service module, space adapter and launch abort system. The crew module was designed to hold as many as six crew members. The Orion crew exploration vehicle is similar in design to the Apollo space capsules, although larger and more massive. The Flight Test Office is the responsible flight test organization for the launch abort system on the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The Flight Test Office originally proposed six tests that would demonstrate the use of the launch abort system. These flight tests were to be performed at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and were similar in nature to the Apollo Little Joe II tests performed in the 1960s. The first flight test of the launch abort system was a pad abort (PA-1), that took place on 6 May 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Primary flight test objectives were to demonstrate the capability of the launch abort system to propel the crew module a safe distance away from a launch vehicle during a pad abort, to demonstrate the stability and control characteristics of the vehicle, and to determine the performance of the motors contained within the launch abort system. The focus of the PA-1 flight test was engineering development and data acquisition, not certification. In this presentation, a high level overview of the PA-1 vehicle is given, along with an overview of the Mobile Operations Facility and information on the White Sands tracking sites for radar & optics. Several lessons learned are presented, including detailed information on the lessons learned in the development of wind

  18. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  19. Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed. PMID:23801487

  20. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Istria].

    PubMed

    Labinac-Peteh, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Istrian branch of Croatian Medical Association was established at the Assembly in 1948. at the General Hospital Pula. From the beginning, the seat of the branch is located in Pula. During the last time the work of branch went through different periods, but has never stopped its activity, leading to the basic postulates of professionality in addition with promotion of collegiality. Istrian branch od Croatian Medical Association now has 630 members, most of members are doctors of medicine, slightly less doctors of dental medicine. At the local level Istrian branch today is recognized as expert entity for the helth and as adviser is involved in work of Department of Health in the Istrian County. PMID:25648003

  1. F-8 SCW in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A Vought F-8A Crusader was selected by NASA as the testbed aircraft (designated TF-8A) to install an experimental Supercritical Wing in place of the conventional wing. The unique design of the Supercritical Wing (SCW) reduces the effect of shock waves on the upper surface near Mach 1, which in turn reduces drag. In this photograph a Vought F-8A Crusader is shown being used as a flying testbed for an experimental Supercritical Wing airfoil. The smooth fairing of the fiberglass glove with the wing is illustrated in this view. This is the configuration of the F-8 SCW aircraft late in the program. The SCW team fitted the fuselage with bulges fore and aft of the wings. This was similar to the proposed shape of a near-sonic airliner. Both the SCW airfoil and the bulged-fuselage design were optimal for cruise at Mach 0.98. Dr. Whitcomb (designer of the SCW) had previously spent about four years working on supersonic transport designs. He concluded that these were impractical due to their high operating costs. The high drag at speeds above Mach 1 resulted in greatly increased costs. Following the fuel-price rises caused by the October 1973 oil embargo, airlines lost interest in near-sonic transports. Rather, they wanted a design that would have lower fuel consumption. Dr. Whitcomb developed a modified supercritical-wing shape that provided higher lift-to-drag ratios at the same speeds. He did this by using thicker airfoil sections and a reduced wing sweepback. This resulted in an increased aspect ratio without an increase in wing weight. In the three decades since the F-8 SCW flew, the use of such airfoils has become common. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the

  2. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  3. The flight robotics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Williamson, Marlin J.; Glaese, John R.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Robotics Laboratory of the Marshall Space Flight Center is described in detail. This facility, containing an eight degree of freedom manipulator, precision air bearing floor, teleoperated motion base, reconfigurable operator's console, and VAX 11/750 computer system, provides simulation capability to study human/system interactions of remote systems. The facility hardware, software and subsequent integration of these components into a real time man-in-the-loop simulation for the evaluation of spacecraft contact proximity and dynamics are described.

  4. Dexterous manipulator flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    The Dexterous Manipulator Flight Experiment, an outgrowth of the Dexterous End Effector project, is an experiment to demonstrate newly developed equipment and methods that make for a dexterous manipulator which can be used on the Space Shuttle or other space missions. The goals of the project, the objectives of the flight experiment, the experiment equipment, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  5. Adaptive Structures Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Maurice

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  6. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  7. Heat pipe flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1973-01-01

    OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  9. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  10. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  11. Student Parabolic Flight Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentse, N. S. M.; Ockels, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    After the successful Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns held in 1994 and 1995, the European Space Agency resumed their organisation of parabolic flight campaigns, dedicated to students of all ESA member states on an annual basis. The Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns are in order to promote microgravity research among students, tomorrow's scientists, since students can bring new ideas and initiatives to the space industry. Already four parabolic flight campaigns have flown and the 2002 student parabolic flight campaign has just flown in September. Thirty experiments are selected to fly in each campaign using the criteria of originality, demonstration of zero G, technical complexity and outreach performed by the team. Each experiment team consists of four university students. This is the chance for students to have the real weightlessness experience on board of the A300 ZERO-G aircraft. In addition, for one or two of the very best student experiments from each campaign, there will be the possibility to re-fly themselves and their experiment on ESA's Professional Parabolic Flight Campaigns. Eventually, one student experiment will be flying to the International Space Station. Conclusively, students' experiments can get fundamentally new and exciting results!

  12. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  13. Computational imaging of light in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullin, Matthias B.

    2014-10-01

    Many computer vision tasks are hindered by image formation itself, a process that is governed by the so-called plenoptic integral. By averaging light falling into the lens over space, angle, wavelength and time, a great deal of information is irreversibly lost. The emerging idea of transient imaging operates on a time resolution fast enough to resolve non-stationary light distributions in real-world scenes. It enables the discrimination of light contributions by the optical path length from light source to receiver, a dimension unavailable in mainstream imaging to date. Until recently, such measurements used to require high-end optical equipment and could only be acquired under extremely restricted lab conditions. To address this challenge, we introduced a family of computational imaging techniques operating on standard time-of-flight image sensors, for the first time allowing the user to "film" light in flight in an affordable, practical and portable way. Just as impulse responses have proven a valuable tool in almost every branch of science and engineering, we expect light-in-flight analysis to impact a wide variety of applications in computer vision and beyond.

  14. Automated flight path planning for virtual endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Paik, D S; Beaulieu, C F; Jeffrey, R B; Rubin, G D; Napel, S

    1998-05-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for rapid and automatic computation of flight paths for guiding virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images is described. While manually planning flight paths is a tedious and time consuming task, our algorithm is automated and fast. Our method for positioning the virtual camera is based on the medial axis transform but is much more computationally efficient. By iteratively correcting a path toward the medial axis, the necessity of evaluating simple point criteria during morphological thinning is eliminated. The virtual camera is also oriented in a stable viewing direction, avoiding sudden twists and turns. We tested our algorithm on volumetric data sets of eight colons, one aorta and one bronchial tree. The algorithm computed the flight paths in several minutes per volume on an inexpensive workstation with minimal computation time added for multiple paths through branching structures (10%-13% per extra path). The results of our algorithm are smooth, centralized paths that aid in the task of navigation in virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images. PMID:9608471

  15. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flight review. (i) A flight simulator or flight training device may be used to meet the flight review requirements of this section subject to the following conditions: (1) The flight simulator or flight training... under part 142 of this chapter. (2) Unless the flight review is undertaken in a flight simulator that......

  16. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  17. A Laboratory Glass-Cockpit Flight Simulator for Automation and Communications Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Gregory M.; Heers, Susan T.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory glass-cockpit flight simulator supporting research on advanced commercial flight deck and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation and communication interfaces has been developed at the Aviation Operations Branch at the NASA Ames Research Center. This system provides independent and integrated flight and ATC simulator stations, party line voice and datalink communications, along with video and audio monitoring and recording capabilities. Over the last several years, it has been used to support the investigation of flight human factors research issues involving: communication modality; message content and length; graphical versus textual presentation of information, and human accountability for automation. This paper updates the status of this simulator, describing new functionality in the areas of flight management system, EICAS display, and electronic checklist integration. It also provides an overview of several experiments performed using this simulator, including their application areas and results. Finally future enhancements to its ATC (integration of CTAS software) and flight deck (full crew operations) functionality are described.

  18. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  19. X-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This inflight photograph of the X-2 (46-674) shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine. The Curtiss-Wright XLR-25 rocket engine caused one of several problems that delayed flight of the X-2. At one point, people in the project suggested its replacement. It was the first 'man-rated' (in the terminology of the day) rocket engine that was throttleable, and the technology was not yet mature. Other problems included the X-2's landing gear and the replacement of the planned electronic flight controls with a conventional hydromechanical system like that used in the F-86. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was

  20. Computational Aerothermodynamics in Aeroassist Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Aeroassisted planetary entry uses atmospheric drag to decelerate spacecraft from super-orbital to orbital or suborbital velocities. Numerical simulation of flow fields surrounding these spacecraft during hypersonic atmospheric entry is required to define aerothermal loads. The severe compression in the shock layer in front of the vehicle and subsequent, rapid expansion into the wake are characterized by high temperature, thermo-chemical nonequilibrium processes. Implicit algorithms required for efficient, stable computation of the governing equations involving disparate time scales of convection, diffusion, chemical reactions, and thermal relaxation are discussed. Robust point-implicit strategies are utilized in the initialization phase; less robust but more efficient line-implicit strategies are applied in the endgame. Applications to ballutes (balloon-like decelerators) in the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Titan, Saturn, and Neptune and a Mars Sample Return Orbiter (MSRO) are featured. Examples are discussed where time-accurate simulation is required to achieve a steady-state solution.

  1. F-14 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA 991, an F-14 Navy Tomcat designated the F-14 (1X), cruises over the desert on a research flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The F-14 was used at Dryden between 1979 and 1985 in extensive high-angle-of-attack and spin-control-and-recovery tests. The NASA/Navy program, which included 212 total flights, achieved considerable improvement in the F-14 high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, improved departure and spin resistance, and contributed to substantial improvements in reducing 'wing rock,' (i.e., tilting from one side to another), at high angles of attack. NASA 991 had numerous special additions for high-angle-of-attack and spin-recovery research. These included a battery-powered auxiliary power unit, a flight test nose boom, and a special spin recovery system, consisting of forward mounted, hydraulically actuated canards and an emergency spin chute. NASA's F-14 was first flown by NASA research pilots, but was later flown by Grumman, and by Navy test pilots from Patuxent River Naval Air Station (NAS). The Navy test flights with the spin research vehicle constituted the first program that incorporated air combat maneuvering in its test flights at Dryden. The Navy brought F-14s from Point Mugu and Miramar NAS in San Diego to test the new spin control laws in combat situations. Although the new control laws proved valuable, the Navy did not incorporate them into production F-14s until the F-14D, nearly 15 years later. Among the 212 flights completed for this research project, the F-14 also tested a flush air data system, for gathering data about air speed; provided an updated aeromodel, which is currently in use on Navy F-14 training simulators; created natural laminar flow baseline data for many of NASA's later laminar flow programs; and tested low altitude, asymetric thrust.

  2. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  3. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  4. DAST in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  5. Relaxation dynamics of branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arnav

    The Rouse model for star polymers was successfully derived by solving the differential equations governing the net force acting on each bead in a star polymer chain. As opposed to a linear polymer, where we have N unique roots for N beads, in the case of star polymers, there are only 2 Na+1 unique roots and all odd unique roots (except the last root corresponding to the branch point) starting with the first root have a multiplicity of f-1. The relaxation time of the pth unique Rouse mode of a star polymer varies as (2Na + 1)2/p2. Since alternate Rouse modes in a star polymer have a multiplicity of f-1, they add to the terminal modulus of the star polymers and the terminal modulus, G(tau) ends up being proportional to f-1 (besides being inversely proportional to N, which is also the case with linear polymers). A self-consistent theory for the relaxation of entangled star polymers was developed based on the work done by Colby and Rubinstein on linear blends. This theory considers the duality of relaxation dynamics (direct stress relaxation and indirect relaxation by release of constraints) and models the relaxation due to constraint release R(t) based on Dean's approach in solving the vibration frequencies of glassy chains with random spring constants. In our case, the mobilities of beads were considered to be random and based on the relative weight of the prefactor of a Maxwell function, a group of which was fitted to the stress relaxation function mu(t) of a star polymer (proposed and derived by Doi). The tube dilation model for star and comb polymers was investigated in detail and predictions compared to rheological data from polypropylene, polybutadiene and polystyrene comb polymers along with PEP star polymers. The relaxation time from the Tube Dilation Model was compared with the classical Tube Model and was shown to have an extra power dependence on the fraction of the comb backbone.

  6. Implementation of NASA Materials and Processes Requirements at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history and current practices of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Included in the presentation is a review of the general Materials and Processes (M&P) requirements in the NASA-STD-6016. The work that the Materials Engineering Branch does to support GSFC Projects is also reviewed. The Materials Engineering Branch capabilities are listed, the expertise that is available to GSFC projects is also listed. Included in the backup slides are forms that the MEB uses to identify the materials in the spacecraft under development.

  7. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

  8. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  9. New branch of Kaluza-Klein compactification

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Shunichiro

    2007-12-15

    We found a new branch of solutions in Freund-Rubin type flux compactifications. The geometry of these solutions is described as the external space which has a de Sitter symmetry and the internal space which is topologically spherical. However, it is not a simple form of dS{sub p}xS{sup q} but a warped product of de Sitter space and a deformed sphere. We explicitly constructed numerical solutions for a specific case with p=4 and q=4. We show that the new branch of solutions emanates from the marginally stable solution in the branch of dS{sub 4}xS{sup 4} solutions.

  10. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  11. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-command flight time in the make and model of airplane; and (4) The pilot in command and the instructor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  12. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  13. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  14. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2005-11-01

    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  15. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  16. HARV ANSER Flight Test Data Retrieval and Processing Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Jessie C.

    1997-01-01

    Under the NASA High-Alpha Technology Program the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to conduct flight tests of advanced control effectors, advanced control laws, and high-alpha design guidelines for future super-maneuverable fighters. The High-Alpha Research Vehicle is a pre-production F/A-18 airplane modified with a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) to augment body-axis yaw control power. Flight testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) began in July 1995 and continued until May 1996. Flight data will be utilized to evaluate control law performance and aircraft dynamics, determine aircraft control and stability derivatives using parameter identification techniques, and validate design guidelines. To accomplish these purposes, essential flight data parameters were retrieved from the DFRC data system and stored on the Dynamics and Control Branch (DCB) computer complex at Langley. This report describes the multi-step task used to retrieve and process this data and documents the results of these tasks. Documentation includes software listings, flight information, maneuver information, time intervals for which data were retrieved, lists of data parameters and definitions, and example data plots.

  17. Implications of Responsive Space on the Flight Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmot, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The Responsive Space initiative has several implications for flight software that need to be addressed not only within the run-time element, but the development infrastructure and software life-cycle process elements as well. The runtime element must at a minimum support Plug & Play, while the development and process elements need to incorporate methods to quickly generate the needed documentation, code, tests, and all of the artifacts required of flight quality software. Very rapid response times go even further, and imply little or no new software development, requiring instead, using only predeveloped and certified software modules that can be integrated and tested through automated methods. These elements have typically been addressed individually with significant benefits, but it is when they are combined that they can have the greatest impact to Responsive Space. The Flight Software Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing the runtime, infrastructure and process elements needed for rapid integration with the Core Flight software System (CFS) architecture. The CFS architecture consists of three main components; the core Flight Executive (cFE), the component catalog, and the Integrated Development Environment (DE). This paper will discuss the design of the components, how they facilitate rapid integration, and lessons learned as the architecture is utilized for an upcoming spacecraft.

  18. Flight Dynamics Mission Support and Quality Assurance Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, InHwan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the method of the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Operation (FDO) quality assurance approach to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Support Branch. Historically, a strong need has existed for developing systematic quality assurance using methods that account for the unique nature and environment of satellite Flight Dynamics mission support. Over the past few years FDO has developed and implemented proactive quality assurance processes applied to each of the six phases of the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle: systems and operations concept, system requirements and specifications, software development support, operations planing and training, launch support, and on-orbit mission operations. Rather than performing quality assurance as a final step after work is completed, quality assurance has been built in as work progresses in the form of process assurance. Process assurance activities occur throughout the Flight Dynamics mission support life cycle. The FDO Product Assurance Office developed process checklists for prephase process reviews, mission team orientations, in-progress reviews, and end-of-phase audits. This paper will outline the evolving history of FDO quality assurance approaches, discuss the tailoring of Computer Science Corporations's process assurance cycle procedures, describe some of the quality assurance approaches that have been or are being developed, and present some of the successful results.

  19. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  20. Decision Model of Flight Safety Based on Flight Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-yu, Zhang; Jiu-sheng, Chen

    To improve the management of flight safety for airline company, the hierarchy model is established about the evaluation of flight safety by flight event. Flight safety is evaluated by improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The method to rectify the consistency judgment matrix is given to improve the AHP. Then the weight can be given directly without consistency judgment matrix. It ensures absolute consistent of judgment matrix. By statistic of flight event incidence history data, the flight safety analysis is processed by means of static evaluation and dynamic evaluation. The hierarchy structure model is implemented based on .NET, and the simulation result proves the validity of the method.

  1. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  2. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use...

  8. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... evidencing written permission from the host country to establish the branch that explicitly recognizes NCUA's... the account agreement, at a U.S. office of the credit union. If the host country requires...

  9. INDUSTRIAL MULTIMEDIA BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Industrial Multimedia Branch (IMB) is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate timely and integrated innovative engineering and scientific approaches to reduce air, water, and land toxic pollution generated by the production. processing, and use of materials. ...

  10. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  11. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar].

    PubMed

    Maštrović, Zelimir

    2014-01-01

    Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zadar was founded on 11 October 1947. During the war time in Croatia doctors and local medical community took tremendous part in organizing health care system. PMID:25648014

  12. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  13. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Sibenik].

    PubMed

    Mihovilcević, Danći

    2014-01-01

    Since the opening of the newly built Sibenik hospital on June 29, 1883, the physicians had the need for association in a free organization where they could solve the problems of medical profession and strive for the development of modern medicine. On December 15, 1939, physicians from Sibenik joined the Croatian Medical Association as the Sibenik branch. Activities of the branch were renewed after the Second World War by the arrivial of new physicians. The branch was founded in 1946, and Dr. Baldo Politeo was elected its president. In 1989 the research unit was founded,and in 2001 for the first time in the history of the Association telepresentation of a book was performed. Since its founding the members of our branch have stood out with their professional, scientific and humanitarian work for which many got deserved acknowledgment from their colleagues, CMA and the town. PMID:25648011

  14. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  15. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  16. Branched dart leaders preceding lightning return strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas C.; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Orville, Richard E.

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the occurrence of branches in lightning dart leaders, based on data acquired in Florida using a high-speed video camera and electric field change sensors. More than half (57%) of 72 flashes with analyzable dart leaders show at least one successful branched dart leader (BDL), and nine flashes have two successful BDLs. Overall, 18% of 282 visible successful dart leaders are branched. Most (42 of 50) cases of BDLs occur in the first dart leader after a stepped leader/return stroke sequence, and the data indicate that 55% of first dart leaders are visibly branched. Compared to first dart leaders in the 31 flashes without any branched dart leaders, BDLs tend to follow stepped leader/return strokes with significantly larger average peak currents (-31.3 versus -20.6 kA) and shorter average interstroke intervals (71.94 versus 94.64 ms). Average peak current of BDL strokes is 62% larger (-17.8 versus -11 kA) than that for unbranched first dart leader strokes. Branched dart leaders generally travel in the some of the most recently used lightning channels, but they are not always within the main channel of the prior return stroke. Successful BDLs may dart all the way to ground when in a prior stroke channel, or they may become stepped leaders when they reach the lower end of the prior stroke branch. Electric field change data for all the BDL cases exhibit an erratic pulse character for at least part of the leader duration; in some cases, the erratic character ends when the branches vanish.

  17. Fiber-Optic Communication Technology Branching Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. C.

    1985-02-01

    This tutorial review of fiber-optic branching devices covers example uses of branching devices, device types, device-performance characteristics, examples of current technology, and system-design methodology. The discussion is limited to passive single- and multimode devices fabricated from optical fibers or graded-index components. Integrated-optic, wavelength-division-multiplexing, and polarization-selective devices are not specifically addressed.

  18. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  19. ATIC Flight Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Ampe, J.; Case, G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment from McMurdo, Antarctica lasted for 16 days, starting on December 28, 2000. The ATIC instrument consists of a fully active 320-crystal, 960-channel Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, 202 scintillator strips (808 channels) in 3 hodoscopes, interleaved with graphite target layers, and a 4480-pixel silicon matrix charge detector. We have developed an object-oriented data processing package based on ROOT. In this paper, we describe the data processing scheme used in handling the accumulated 45 GB of flight data. We discuss calibration issues, particularly the time-dependence of housekeeping information.

  20. Theory of flapping flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, Alexander

    1925-01-01

    Before attempting to construct a human-powered aircraft, the aviator will first try to post himself theoretically on the possible method of operating the flapping wings. This report will present a graphic and mathematical method, which renders it possible to determine the power required, so far as it can be done on the basis of the wing dimensions. We will first consider the form of the flight path through the air. The simplest form is probably the curve of ordinary wave motion. After finding the flight curve, we must next determine the change in the angle of attack while passing through the different phases of the wave.

  1. Soaring flight in Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idrac, P

    1920-01-01

    The term soaring is applied here to the flight of certain large birds which maneuver in the air without moving their wings. The author explains the methods of his research and here gives approximate figures for the soaring flight of the Egyptian Vulture and the African White backed Vulture. Figures are given in tabular form for relative air speed per foot per second, air velocity per foot per second, lift/drag ratio, and selected coefficients. The author argues that although the figures given were taken from a very limited series of observations, they have nevertheless thrown some light on the use by birds of the internal energy of the air.

  2. C-47 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Center's Douglas R4D-5/C-47H (Bu. No. 17136) in flight, with its landing gear extended, in 1963. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) from 1952 to 1956 and flew at least one cross-country flight to the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The second R4D, used from 1956 to 1979, made many flights to the Ames Research Center, Mountain

  3. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  4. Detection of branching points in noisy processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Michael; Liebscher, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Processes in engineering mechanics often contain branching points at which the system can follow different physical paths. In this paper a method for the detection of these branching points is proposed for processes that are affected by noise. It is assumed that a bundle of process records are available from numerical simulations or from experiments, and branching points are concealed by the noise of the process. The bundle of process records is then evaluated at a series of discrete values of the independent process coordinates. At each discrete point of the process, the associated point set of process values is investigated with the aid of cluster analysis. The detected branching points are verified with a recursive algorithm. The revealed information about the branching points can be used to identify the physical and mechanical background for the branching. This helps to better understand a mechanical system and to design it optimal for a specific purpose. The proposed method is demonstrated by means of both a numerical example and a practical example of a crashworthiness investigation.

  5. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  6. Branch management: mechanisms of axon branching in the developing vertebrate CNS

    PubMed Central

    Kalil, Katherine; Dent, Erik W.

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable ability of a single axon to extend multiple branches and form terminal arbors allows vertebrate neurons to integrate information from divergent regions of the nervous system. Axons select appropriate pathways during development, but it is the branches that extend interstitially from the axon shaft and arborize at specific targets that are responsible for virtually all of the synaptic connectivity in the vertebrate CNS. How do axons form branches at specific target regions? Recent studies have identified molecular cues that activate intracellular signalling pathways in axons and mediate dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton to promote the formation of axon branches. PMID:24356070

  7. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  8. F-104 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    F-104G N826NA during a 1993 flight over the Mojave desert, outfitted with an experiment pylon under the center fuselage and wing racks. The F-104 was originally designed by Kelly Johnson of the Lockheed Skunk Works as a day fighter. The aircraft soon proved ideal for both research and training. For instance, a modified F-104 tested the reaction control jets for the X-15. The F-104's short wings and low lift to drag ratio made it ideal to simulate the X-15 landing profile, which the F-104s often undertook before X-15 flights in order to acquaint pilots with the rocket plane's landing characteristics. This training role continued with the lifting bodies. NASA F-104s were also used for high-speed research after the X-1E was retired. Finally, the F-104s were also used as chase planes for research missions. The F-104G was a late model designed as a fighter bomber for low-level strike missions. It was built for use by the West German Air Force and other foreign governments. N826NA accomplished a wide-range of research activities, including tests of the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles. The aircraft made 1,415 flights before being retired. It is now on display at the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  9. Weather and Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.

  10. F-106 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Convair NF-106B designated #816 in level flight over cloud cover. This side view shows the tandem seating arrangement in the cockpit for two pilots and the relationship of the inlet to the cockpit area and leading edge of the wing.

  11. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  12. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  13. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  14. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing can be seen clearly in this photo from beneath the vehicle. The photo was taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights conducted in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds

  15. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, narrow wing design and lightweight structure of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered flight tests with the aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the

  16. Centurion in Banked Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  17. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Centurion remotely piloted flying wing during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar-powered aircraft

  18. Centurion in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The long, curved wing of the Centurion remotely piloted flying wing is clearly visible in this photo, taken during an initial series of low-altitude, battery-powered test flights in late 1998 at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight

  19. NASA Life Support Branch staff photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center's Life Support staff is a very important group of people. They are responsible for the emergency escape systems in all the aircraft. Their other role is to maintain the pilot's personal survival flight equipment such as flight pressure suits, helmets, etc.. If instruction is needed for new equipment the staff are ready to give support. Left to right: Rick Borsch (Chief), Steve Spandorf, Ray Kinney, Ed Ortiz (seated front), Nick Kiriokos, Kelly Snapp and Bob McElwain.

  20. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  1. Defining and Applying Limits for Test and Flight Through the Project Lifecycle GSFC Standard. [Scope: Non-Cryogenic Systems Tested in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015, NCTS 21070-15) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). The powerpoint presentation details the process of defining limits throughout the lifecycle of a flight project.

  2. Branch Architecture, Light Interception and Crown Development in Saplings of a Plagiotropically Branching Tropical Tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    OSADA, NORIYUKI; TAKEDA, HIROSHI

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch‐level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves (‘bare’ branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of ‘leafy’ parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch‐level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first‐order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch‐level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  3. Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch Education and Public Outreach Support of NASA's Strategic Goals in Fiscal Year 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.

    2013-01-01

    As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientists, and the general public. This is so important to NASA s future that it is one of the agency s strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in achieving this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.

  4. Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch Education and Public Outreach Support of NASA's Strategic Goals in Fiscal Year 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA plans to send people beyond low Earth orbit, it is important to educate and inspire the next generation of astronauts, engineers, scientist, and general public. This is so important to NASA future that it is one of the agencies strategic goals. The Space Suits and Crew Survival Systems Branch at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is actively involved in helping to achieve this goal by sharing our hardware and technical experts with students, educators, and the general public and educating them about the challenges of human space flight, with Education and Public Outreach (EPO). This paper summarizes the Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch EPO efforts throughout fiscal year 2012.

  5. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  6. YF-12 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the Blackbirds, were designed by Clarence 'Kelly' Johnson. They were constructed mostly of titanium to withstand aerodynamic heating. Fueled by JP-7, the Blackbirds were capable of cruising at Mach 3.2 and attaining altitudes in excess of 80,000 feet. The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-12. An

  7. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D) co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10) recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2) and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to form branching

  8. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  9. Renal branching morphogenesis: morphogenetic and signaling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Blake, Joshua; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2014-12-01

    The human kidney is composed of an arborized network of collecting ducts, calyces and urinary pelvis that facilitate urine excretion and regulate urine composition. The renal collecting system is formed in utero, completed by the 34th week of gestation in humans, and dictates final nephron complement. The renal collecting system arises from the ureteric bud, a derivative of the intermediate-mesoderm derived nephric duct that responds to inductive signals from adjacent tissues via a process termed ureteric induction. The ureteric bud subsequently undergoes a series of iterative branching and remodeling events in a process called renal branching morphogenesis. Altered signaling that disrupts patterning of the nephric duct, ureteric induction, or renal branching morphogenesis leads to varied malformations of the renal collecting system collectively known as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and is the most frequently detected congenital renal aberration in infants. Here, we describe critical morphogenetic and cellular events that govern nephric duct specification, ureteric bud induction, renal branching morphogenesis, and cessation of renal branching morphogenesis. We also highlight salient molecular signaling pathways that govern these processes, and the investigative techniques used to interrogate them. PMID:25080023

  10. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  11. Branch migration enzyme as a Brownian ratchet

    PubMed Central

    Rasnik, Ivan; Jeong, Yong-Joo; McKinney, Sean A; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Patel, Smita S; Ha, Taekjip

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that helicases are able to perform functions beyond their traditional role in unwinding of double-stranded nucleic acids; yet the mechanistic aspects of these different activities are not clear. Our kinetic studies of Holliday junction branch migration catalysed by a ring-shaped helicase, T7 gp4, show that heterology of as little as a single base stalls catalysed branch migration. Using single-molecule analysis, one can locate the stall position to within a few base pairs of the heterology. Our data indicate that the presence of helicase alone promotes junction unfolding, which accelerates spontaneous branch migration, and individual time traces reveal complex trajectories consistent with random excursions of the branch point. Our results suggest that instead of actively unwinding base pairs as previously thought, the helicase exploits the spontaneous random walk of the junction and acts as a Brownian ratchet, which walks along duplex DNA while facilitating and biasing branch migration in a specific direction. PMID:18511910

  12. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  13. UAVSAR Flight-Planning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A system of software partly automates planning of a flight of the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) -- a polarimetric synthetic-aperture radar system aboard an unpiloted or minimally piloted airplane. The software constructs a flight plan that specifies not only the intended flight path but also the setup of the radar system at each point along the path.

  14. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This DVD has several short videos showing some of the work that Dryden is involved in with experimental aircraft. These are: shots showing the Active AeroElastic Wing (AAW) loads calibration tests, AAW roll maneuvers, AAW flight control surface inputs, Helios flight, and takeoff, and Pathfinder takeoff, flight and landing.

  15. Flight crew health stabilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.; Mccollum, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The flight crew health stabilization program was developed to minimize or eliminate the possibility of adverse alterations in the health of flight crews during immediate preflight, flight, and postflight periods. The elements of the program, which include clinical medicine, immunology, exposure prevention, and epidemiological surveillance, are discussed briefly. No crewmember illness was reported for the missions for which the program was in effect.

  16. The Future of Washington's Branch Campuses. HECB Report on Branch Campus Development Plans-HB 2707

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Washington's research university branch campuses were created in 1989 to increase opportunities for students in several regions of the state to complete their baccalaureate and graduate-level studies at public universities close to their homes. Currently, the University of Washington operates branch campuses in Bothell and Tacoma. The Bothell…

  17. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  18. ATIC Flight Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment from McMurdo, Antarctica lasted for 16 days, starting in December, 2000. The ATIC instrument consists of a fully active 320-crystal, 960-channel Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, 202 scintillator strips in 3 hodoscopes interleaved with a graphite target, and a 4480-pixel silicon matrix charge detector. We have developed an Object Oriented data processing package based on ROOT. In this paper, we will describe the data processing scheme used in handling the accumulated 45 GB of flight data. We will also discuss trigger issues by comparing the measured energy-dependent trigger efficiency with its simulation and calibration issues by considering the time-dependence of housekeeping information, etc.

  19. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  20. Engineering flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The primary objective was to determine if the two-segment profile equipment, and operational procedures as defined by the B-727 Simulation Evaluation are operationally sound under all flight conditions expected to be encountered in line service. The evaluation was divided into the following areas: (1) to verify that the two-segment system operates as it was designed; (2) to conduct sufficient tests to secure a supplemental type certificate for line operation of the system; (3) to evaluate the normal operation of the equipment and procedures; (4) to evaluate the need for an autothrottle system for two-segment approaches; (5) to investigate abnormal operation of the equipment and procedures, including abused approaches and malfunctions of airborne and ground components; (6) to determine the accuracy and ease of flying the two-segment approach; (7) to determine the improvement in ground noise levels; and (8) to develop a guest pilot flight test syllabus.

  1. Daedalus - Last Dryden flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Daedalus 88, with Glenn Tremml piloting, is seen here on its last flight for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  2. Building Virtual Spaces for Children in the Digital Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBroy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A digital branch is just like a physical branch except that content is delivered digitally via the web. A digital branch has staff, a collection, a community, and a building. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of building individual spaces for different user groups, specifically children, within a digital branch.…

  3. Heterogeneity of coronary arterial branching geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shu-Yen; Reyes, Denise A.; Higgins, William E.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Past measurements of arterial branching geometry have indicated that the branching geometry is somewhat consistent with an optimal trade-off between the work needed to build and maintain the arterial tree and the work needed to operate the tree as a transport system. The branching geometry is also consistent with the mechanism that acutely adjusts the lumen diameter by way of maintaining a constant shear stress by dilating (or constricting) the arteries via the nitric oxide mechanism. However, those observations also indicate that there is considerable variation about the predicted optimization, both within any one individual and between individuals. Possible causes for this variation include: (1) measurement noise -- both due to the imprecision of the method but also the preparation of the specimen for applying the measurement technique, (2) the fact that the measurement task presents a major logistic problem, which increases as the vessel size decreases (but the number of branches correspondingly doubles at each branching) and results in progressive under-sampling as the vessel size decreases, (3) because of the logistic task involved the number of arterial trees analyzed is also greatly limited, and (4) there may indeed be actual heterogeneity in the geometry which is due to slight variation in implementation of the 'rules' used to construct a vascular tree. Indeed, it is this latter possibility that is of considerable physiological interest as it could result in the observed heterogeneity of organ perfusion and also provide some insight into the relative importance of 'initial ' conditions (i.e., how the vascular tree initially develops during embryogenesis) and the adaptive mechanisms operative in the maturing individual. The use of micro-CT imaging to provide 3D images of the intact vascular tree within the intact organ overcomes or minimizes the logistic problems listed above. It is the purpose of this study to examine whether variability in the branching

  4. Flight loads and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mowery, D. K.; Winder, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    The prediction of flight loads and their potential reduction, using various control logics for the space shuttle vehicles, is very complex. Some factors, not found on previous launch vehicles, that increase the complexity are large lifting surfaces, unsymmetrical structure, unsymmetrical aerodynamics, trajectory control system coupling, and large aeroelastic effects. Discussed are these load producing factors and load reducing techniques. Identification of potential technology areas is included.

  5. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  6. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  7. Flight Software Math Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  8. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  9. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  10. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  11. ATS-6 - Flight accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) flight accelerometers were designed to provide data for verifying the basic spacecraft vibration modes during launch, to update the analytical model of the ATA structure, and to provide a capability for detection and diagnosis of inflight and anomalies. The experiment showed accelerations less than 2.5 g during liftoff and 1.1 g or less during staging with frequencies below 80 Hz. Measured values were generally within 1 g of predicted.

  12. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-05-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modelling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can only be reproduced by accounting for a range of initial He abundances, in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence, and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modelling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and cluster properties, such as heavy element abundances, reddening, and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17M⊙ for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65M⊙ and ~0.73M⊙ (the range driven by the range of initial helium abundances). We also derive that in this cluster the amount of mass lost along the asymptotic giant branch stars is comparable to the mass lost during the previous red giant branch phase. These results confirm, for this cluster, the disagreement between colour-magnitude-diagram analyses and inferences from recent studies of the dynamics of the cluster stars, which predict a much less efficient red giant branch mass loss. A comparison between the results from these two techniques applied to other clusters is required to gain more insights about the origin of this disagreement.

  13. Flight Project Data Book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) is responsible for the overall planning, directing, executing, and evaluating that part of the overall NASA program that has the goal of using the unique characteristics of the space environment to conduct a scientific study of the universe, to understand how the Earth works as an integrated system, to solve practical problems on Earth, and to provide the scientific and technological research foundation for expanding human presence beyond Earth orbit into the solar system. OSSA guides its program toward leadership through its pursuit of excellence across the full spectrum of disciplines. OSSA pursues these goals through an integrated program of ground-based laboratory research and experimentation, suborbital flight of instruments on airplanes, balloons, and sounding rockets; flight of instruments and the conduct of research on the Shuttle/Spacelab system and on Space Station Freedom; and development and flight of automated Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft. The OSSA program is conducted with the participation and support of other Government agencies and facilities, universities throughout the United States, the aerospace contractor community, and all of NASA's nine Centers. In addition, OSSA operates with substantial international participation in many aspects of our Space Science and Applications Program. OSSA's programs currently in operation, those approved for development, and those planned for future missions are described.

  14. The IBEX Flight Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.

    2009-08-01

    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  15. Radioastron flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  16. Space flight visual simulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, L

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, based on the scenes of stars seen by astronauts in their orbital flights, we have studied the mathematical model which must be constructed for CGI system to realize the space flight visual simulation. Considering such factors as the revolution and rotation of the Earth, exact date, time and site of orbital injection of the spacecraft, as well as its orbital flight and attitude motion, etc., we first defined all the instantaneous lines of sight and visual fields of astronauts in space. Then, through a series of coordinate transforms, the pictures of the scenes of stars changing with time-space were photographed one by one mathematically. In the procedure, we have designed a method of three-times "mathematical cutting." Finally, we obtained each instantaneous picture of the scenes of stars observed by astronauts through the window of the cockpit. Also, the dynamic conditions shaded by the Earth in the varying pictures of scenes of stars could be displayed. PMID:11542842

  17. Solar array flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Emerging satellite designs require increasing amounts of electrical power to operate spacecraft instruments and to provide environments suitable for human habitation. In the past, electrical power was generated by covering rigid honeycomb panels with solar cells. This technology results in unacceptable weight and volume penalties when large amounts of power are required. To fill the need for large-area, lightweight solar arrays, a fabrication technique in which solar cells are attached to a copper printed circuit laminated to a plastic sheet was developed. The result is a flexible solar array with one-tenth the stowed volume and one-third the weight of comparably sized rigid arrays. An automated welding process developed to attack the cells to the printed circuit guarantees repeatable welds that are more tolerant of severe environments than conventional soldered connections. To demonstrate the flight readiness of this technology, the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) was developed and flown on the space shuttle Discovery in September 1984. The tests showed the modes and frequencies of the array to be very close to preflight predictions. Structural damping, however, was higher than anticipated. Electrical performance of the active solar panel was also tested. The flight performance and postflight data evaluation are described.

  18. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  19. -delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

  20. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  1. Flight experience with windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifel, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Windshear alerts resulting from the Honeywell Windshear Detection and Guidance System are presented based on data from approximately 248,000 revenue flights at Piedmont Airlines. The data indicate that the detection system provides a significant benefit to the flight crew of the aircraft. In addition, nuisance and false alerts were found to occur at an acceptably low rate to maintain flight crew confidence in the system. Data from a digital flight recorder is also presented which shows the maximum and minimum windshear magnitudes recorded for a representative number of flights in February, 1987. The effect of the boundary layer of a steady state wind is also discussed.

  2. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel that controls the elevator and ailerons, in place of fixed, dual controls, when—...

  3. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  4. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  5. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  6. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    In the early days of transonic flight research, many aerodynamicists believed that eliminating conventional tail surfaces could reduce the problems created by shock wave interaction with the tail's lifting surfaces. To address this issue, the Army Air Forces's Air Technical Service awarded a contract to Northrop Aircraft Corporation on 5 April 1946 to build a piloted 'flying laboratory.' Northrop already had experience with tailless flying wing designs such as the N-1M, N-9M, XB-35, and YB-49. Subsequently, the manufacturer built two semi-tailless X-4 research aircraft, the first of which flew half a century ago. The X-4 was designed to investigate transonic compressibility effects at speeds near Mach 0.85 to 0.88, slightly below the speed of sound. Northrop project engineer Arthur Lusk designed the aircraft with swept wings and a conventional fuselage that housed two turbojet engines. It had a vertical stabilizer, but no horizontal tail surfaces. It was one of the smallest X-planes ever built, and every bit of internal space was used for systems and instrumentation. The first X-4 arrived at Muroc Air Force Base by truck on 15 November 1948. Over the course of several weeks, engineers conducted static tests, and Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker made initial taxi runs. Although small of stature, he barely fit into the diminutive craft. Tucker, a veteran Northrop test pilot, had previously flown the XB-35 and YB-49 flying wing bomber prototypes. Prior to flying for Northrop, he had logged 400 hours in jet airplanes as a test pilot for Lockheed and the Air Force. He would now be responsible for completing the contractor phase of the X-4 flight test program. Finally, all was ready. Tucker climbed into the cockpit, and made the first flight on 15 December 1948. It only lasted 18 minutes, allowing just enough time for the pilot to become familiar with the basic handling qualities of the craft. The X-4 handled well, but Tucker noted some longitudinal instability at all

  7. Nonlinear Mechanics of Athermal Branched Biopolymer Networks.

    PubMed

    Rens, R; Vahabi, M; Licup, A J; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2016-07-01

    Naturally occurring biopolymers such as collagen and actin form branched fibrous networks. The average connectivity in branched networks is generally below the isostatic threshold at which central force interactions marginally stabilize the network. In the submarginal regime, for connectivity below this threshold, such networks are unstable toward small deformations unless stabilized by additional interactions such as bending. Here we perform a numerical study on the elastic behavior of such networks. We show that the nonlinear mechanics of branched networks is qualitatively similar to that of filamentous networks with freely hinged cross-links. In agreement with a recent theoretical study,1 we find that branched networks also exhibit nonlinear mechanics consistent with athermal critical phenomena controlled by strain. We obtain the critical exponents capturing the nonlinear elastic behavior near the critical point by performing scaling analysis of the stiffening curves. We find that the exponents evolve with the connectivity in the network. We show that the nonlinear mechanics of disordered networks, independent of the detailed microstructure, can be characterized by a strain-driven second-order phase transition, and that the primary quantitative differences among different architectures are in the critical exponents describing the transition. PMID:26901575

  8. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  9. Re-Envisioning New York's Branch Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Estima, Jeanette; Francois, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two years ago, the Center for an Urban Future published "Branches of Opportunity," a report documenting that New York City's public libraries have become more vital than ever, and are serving more New Yorkers in more ways than ever before. This new report provides an exhaustive analysis of the libraries' capital needs and offers a…

  10. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  11. Tribology and Mechanical Components Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of NASA Glenn Research Center's Tribology & Mechanical Components Branch is provided. Work in space mechanisms, seals, oil-free turbomachinery, and mechanical components is presented. An overview of current research for these technology areas is contained in this overview.

  12. National Museum of American History Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Rhoda S.

    1986-01-01

    Subject concentration in the National Museum of American History Branch Library, a part of Smithsonian Institution Libraries system, is in the history of science and technology and American history, with emphasis on material culture and on documenting and servicing the museum's collections. Special collections include trade literature and…

  13. Branching instability in expanding bacterial colonies

    PubMed Central

    Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Self-organization in developing living organisms relies on the capability of cells to duplicate and perform a collective motion inside the surrounding environment. Chemical and mechanical interactions coordinate such a cooperative behaviour, driving the dynamical evolution of the macroscopic system. In this work, we perform an analytical and computational analysis to study pattern formation during the spreading of an initially circular bacterial colony on a Petri dish. The continuous mathematical model addresses the growth and the chemotactic migration of the living monolayer, together with the diffusion and consumption of nutrients in the agar. The governing equations contain four dimensionless parameters, accounting for the interplay among the chemotactic response, the bacteria–substrate interaction and the experimental geometry. The spreading colony is found to be always linearly unstable to perturbations of the interface, whereas branching instability arises in finite-element numerical simulations. The typical length scales of such fingers, which align in the radial direction and later undergo further branching, are controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whereas the emergence of branching is favoured if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis. The model is able to predict the experimental morphologies, confirming that compact (resp. branched) patterns arise for fast (resp. slow) expanding colonies. Such results, while providing new insights into pattern selection in bacterial colonies, may finally have important applications for designing controlled patterns. PMID:25652464

  14. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR 11800.... 12674, 54 FR 15159, 3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 215, as modified by E.O. 12731, 55 FR 42547, 3 CFR, 1990 Comp... the use of a qualified blind trust is the lack of knowledge, or actual ``blindness,'' by an...

  15. Genetic interactions underlying tree branch orientation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expanding our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms behind branch orientation in trees both addresses a fundamental developmental phenomenon and can lead to significant impacts on tree crop agriculture and forestry. Using the p-nome (pooled genome) sequencing-based mapping approac...

  16. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension D(c) and information dimension D1) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index f and evenness variation coefficient J(cv)) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

  17. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  18. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  19. Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-01

    We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

  20. Dynamic flight stability of a model dronefly in vertical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Mao

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic flight stability of a model dronefly in hovering and upward flight is studied. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the stability derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector used to solve the equations of motion. The major finding is as following. Hovering flight of the model dronefly is unstable because of the existence of an unstable longitudinal and an unstable lateral natural mode of motion. Upward flight of the insect is also unstable, and the instability increases as the upward flight speed increases. Inertial force generated by the upward flight velocity coupled with the disturbance in pitching angular velocity is responsible for the enhancement of the instability.

  1. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  2. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  3. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  4. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The flight service experience of 111 graphite-epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground based environmental exposure of graphite-epoxy material specimens is covered. Spoilers have been installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. An extended flight service evaluation program of 15 years is presently underway. As of December 1984, a total of 2,092, 155 spoiler flight hours and 2,954,814 spoiler landings had been accumulated by this fleet.

  5. Pregnant Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Pregnant Guppy is a modified Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser used to transport the S-IV (second) stage for the Saturn I launch vehicle between manufacturing facilities on the West coast, and testing and launch facilities in the Southeast. The fuselage of the B-377 was lengthened to accommodate the S-IV stage and the plane's cabin section was enlarged to approximately double its normal volume. The idea was originated by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, in Van Nuys, California. The former Stratocruiser became a B-377 PG: the Pregnant Guppy. This photograph depicts the Pregnant Guppy in flight.

  6. Flight Mechanics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  7. The Third Flight Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, R. Wayne

    1998-01-01

    A self-shielded superconducting magnet was designed for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator Program. This is the third magnet built from this design. The magnets utilize Cryomagnetics' patented ultra-low current technology. The magnetic system is capable of reaching a central field of two tesla at slightly under two amperes and has a total inductance of 1068 henries. This final report details the requirements of the magnet, the specifications of the resulting magnet, the test procedures and test result data for the third magnet (Serial # C-654-M), and recommended precautions for use of the magnet.

  8. Statistical analysis of flight times for space shuttle ferry flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, M. E.; Perlmutter, M.

    1974-01-01

    Markov chain and Monte Carlo analysis techniques are applied to the simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter Ferry flights to obtain statistical distributions of flight time duration between Edwards Air Force Base and Kennedy Space Center. The two methods are compared, and are found to be in excellent agreement. The flights are subjected to certain operational and meteorological requirements, or constraints, which cause eastbound and westbound trips to yield different results. Persistence of events theory is applied to the occurrence of inclement conditions to find their effect upon the statistical flight time distribution. In a sensitivity test, some of the constraints are varied to observe the corresponding changes in the results.

  9. Enhanced Flight Termination System Flight Demonstration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tow, David; Arce, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodology, requirements, tests, and implementation plan for the live demonstration of the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) using a missile program at two locations in Florida: Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) and Tyndall AFB. The demonstration included the integration of EFTS Flight Termination Receivers (FTRs) onto the missile and the integration of EFTS-program-developed transmitter assets with the mission control system at Eglin and Tyndall AFBs. The initial test stages included ground testing and captive-carry flights, followed by a launch in which EFTS was designated as the primary flight termination system for the launch.

  10. The 737 graphite composite flight spoiler flight service evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The ninth flight service report was prepared in compliance with the requirements of Contract NAS1-11668. It covers the flight service experience of 111 graphite-epoxy spoilers on 737 transport aircraft and related ground-based environmental exposure of graphite epoxy material specimens for the period 1 Jan. 1985 through 31 Dec. 1986. Spoilers have been installed on 28 aircraft representing seven major airlines operating throughout the world. An extended flight service evaluation program of 15 years is presently underway. As of 31 Dec. 1986, a total of 3,339,608 spoiler flight-hours and 3,320,952 spoiler landings had been accumulated by this fleet.

  11. 14 CFR 417.219 - Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Analysis § 417.219 Data loss flight time and planned safe flight state analyses. (a) General. For each launch, a flight safety analysis must establish data loss flight times, as identified by paragraph (b) of...) contains requirements for flight termination rules. (b) Data loss flight times. A flight safety...

  12. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in...

  13. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  14. Flight- and Ground-Based Materials Science Programs at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds research programs in all branches of materials science including ceramics and glasses. A NASA Research Announcement (NRA)is currently planned with proposals due in March 1999. Proposals are accepted for both flight- definition and ground- based research projects with a main criterion being a strong justification for microgravity. A review of the program in its entirety will be given, with special emphasis on microgravity related ceramics research. The topics of current interest in the NRA will be discussed in terms of International Space Station research and NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative.

  15. Precision orbit determination at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putney, B.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Smith, D.; Dunn, P.; Torrence, M. H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the GEODYN computer program developed by the Geodynamics Branch at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and outlines the procedure for accurate satellite orbit and tracking-data analyses. The capabilities of the program allow the development of gravity fields as large as 90 by 90, and a complete modeling of tidal parameters. It is also feasible to numerically integrate a continuous orbit of a satellite such as Lageos for up to 12 years. The evolution of the orbit can be studied, and, by comparison with locally determined orbits, force model improvements can be made. The GEODYN flow diagrams are presented.

  16. In-Flight System Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  17. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  18. Accelerations in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, F H; Allen, E T

    1921-01-01

    This report deals with the accelerations obtained in flight on various airplanes at Langley Field for the purpose of obtaining the magnitude of the load factors in flight and to procure information on the behavior of an airplane in various maneuvers. The instrument used in these tests was a recording accelerometer of a new type designed by the technical staff of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The instrument consists of a flat steel spring supported rigidly at one end so that the free end may be deflected by its own weight from its neutral position by any acceleration acting at right angles to the plane of the spring. This deflection is measured by a very light tilting mirror caused to rotate by the deflection of the spring, which reflected the beam of light onto a moving film. The motion of the spring is damped by a thin aluminum vane which rotates with the spring between the poles of an electric magnet. Records were taken on landings and takeoffs, in loops, spins, spirals, and rolls.

  19. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed just-in-time training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This just-in-time concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete medical examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). An American md Russian ISS crewmember received 2-hours of hands on ultrasound training 8 months prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember six days prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. Results of the CD ROM based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35 minute real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were excellent and adequate for clinical decision-making. Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited pre-flight training and CD-ROM-based in-flight review, despite a 2-second communication latency.

  20. NASA - Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).