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Sample records for aeruginosa bacillus subtilis

  1. Comparison of plant growth-promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Adesemoye, A.O.; Obini, M.; Ugoji, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to compare some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) properties of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as representatives of their two genera. Solanum lycopersicum L. (tomato), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), and Amaranthus sp. (African spinach) were inoculated with the bacterial cultures. At 60 days after planting, dry biomass for plants treated with B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa increased 31% for tomato, 36% and 29% for okra, and 83% and 40% for African spinach respectively over the non-bacterized control. Considering all the parameters tested, there were similarities but no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the overall performances of the two organisms. PMID:24031240

  2. Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Amuguni, Hellen; Tzipori, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Mucosal immunization, a non-invasive needle-free route, often stimulates a mucosal immune response that is both effective against mucosal and systemic pathogens. The development of mucosally administered heat-stable vaccines with long shelf life would therefore significantly enhance immunization programs in developing countries by avoiding the need for a cold chain or systemic injections. Currently, recombinant vaccine carriers are being used for antigen delivery. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for use as a non-invasive and heat stable antigen delivery system has proven successful. Bacterial spores protected by multiple layers of protein are known to be robust and resistant to desiccation. Stable constructs have been created by integration into the bacterial chromosome of immunogens. The spore coat has been used as a vehicle for heterologous antigen presentation and protective immunization. Sublingual (SL) and intranasal (IN) routes have recently received attention as delivery routes for therapeutic drugs and vaccines and recent attempts by several investigators, including our group, to develop vaccines that can be delivered intranasally and sublingually have met with a lot of success. As discussed in this Review, the use of Bacillus subtilis to express antigens that can be administered either intranasally or sublingually is providing new insights in the area of mucosal vaccines. In our work, we evaluated the efficacy of SL and IN immunizations with B. subtilis engineered to express tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) in mice and piglets. These bacteria engineered to express heterologous antigen either on the spore surface or within the vegetative cell have been used for oral, IN and SL delivery of antigens. A Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein, CotC was used as a fusion partner to express the tetanus fragment C. B. subtilis spores known to be highly stable and safe are also easy to purify making this spore

  3. Cloning of Pf3, a filamentous bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, into the pBD214 vector of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Putterman, D G; Gryczan, T J; Dubnau, D; Day, L A

    1983-01-01

    The genome of Pf3, a filamentous single-stranded DNA bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a gram-negative organism) was cloned into pBD214, a plasmid cloning vector of Bacillus subtilis (a gram-positive organism). Cloning in the gram-positive organism was done to avoid anticipated lethal effects. The entire Pf3 genome was inserted in each orientation at a unique Bc/I site within a thymidylate synthetase gene (from B. subtilis phage beta 22) on the plasmid. Additional clones were made by inserting EcoRI fragments of Pf3 DNA into a unique EcoRI site within this gene. Images PMID:6306273

  4. Crude petroleum-oil biodegradation efficiency of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from a petroleum-oil contaminated soil from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Das, Kishore; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2007-05-01

    The efficiency of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains isolated from a petroleum contaminated soil sample from North-East India was compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in soil and shake flask study. These bacterial strains could utilize crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and energy. Bioaugmentation of TPH contaminated microcosm with P. aeruginosa M and NM consortia and B. subtilis strain showed a significant reduction of TPH levels in treated soil as compared to control soil at the end of experiment (120 d). P. aeruginosa strains were more efficient than B. subtilis strain in reducing the TPH content from the medium. The plate count technique indicated expressive growth and biosurfactant production by exogenously seeded bacteria in crude petroleum-oil rich soil. The results showed that B. subtilis DM-04 and P. aeruginosa M and NM strains could be effective for in situ bioremediation.

  5. Unrelatedness of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Welker, N. E.; Campbell, L. Leon

    1967-01-01

    Eight strains of highly amylolytic, sporeforming bacilli (hereafter referred to as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) were compared with respect to their taxonomic relationship to B. subtilis. The physiological-biochemical properties of these two groups of organisms showed that B. amyloliquefaciens differed from B. subtilis by their ability to grow in 10% NaCl, characteristic growth on potato plugs, increased production of α-amylase, and their ability to ferment lactose with the production of acid. The base compositions of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the B. subtilis strains consistently fell in the range of 41.5 to 43.5% guanine + cytosine (G + C), whereas that of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains was in the 43.5 to 44.9% G + C range. Hybrid formation between B. subtilis W23 and B. amyloliquefaciens F DNA revealed only a 14.7 to 15.4% DNA homology between the two species. Transducing phage, SP-10, was able to propagate on B. subtilis W23 and B. amyloliquefaciens N, and would transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−) and B. amyloliquefaciens N-10 (arginine−) to prototrophy with a frequency of 3.9 × 10−4 and 2.4 × 10−5 transductants per plaque-forming unit, respectively. Attempts to transduce between the two species were unsuccessful. These data show that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a valid species and should not be classified as a strain or variety of B. subtilis. Images PMID:4963774

  6. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  7. Experimental evolution of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Daniel R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2017-09-01

    The endospore-forming bacteria have persisted on earth perhaps 3Ga, leveraging the flexibility of their distinctive lifestyle to adapt to a remarkably wide range of environments. This process of adaptation can be investigated through the simple but powerful technique of laboratory evolution. Evolved strains can be analyzed by whole genome sequencing and an array of omics technologies. The intensively studied, genetically tractable endospore-former, Bacillus subtilis, is an ideal subject for laboratory evolution experiments. Here, we describe the use of the B. subtilis model system to study the adaptation of these bacteria to reduced and stringent selection for endospore formation, as well as to novel environmental challenges of low atmospheric pressure, high ultraviolet radiation, and unfavourable growth temperatures. In combination with other approaches, including comparative genomics and environmental field work, laboratory evolution may help elucidate how these bacteria have so successfully adapted to life on earth, and perhaps beyond. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MEMBRANE SYNTHESIS IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS

    PubMed Central

    Mindich, Leonard; Dales, Samuel

    1972-01-01

    The results of several lines of investigation indicate that membrane growth in Bacillus subtilis does not occur at one or a small number of discrete zones. No indications of large regions of membrane conservation were observed. Kinetic labeling experiments of mesosomal and plasma membrane lipids indicate that the mesosomal lipids are not precursors of the plasma membrane lipids. Density shift experiments, in which the changes in buoyant density of membranes were studied after growth in deuterated media, showed no indication of large zones of conservation during membrane growth. Radioautography of thin sections of cells pulse labeled with tritiated glycerol showed no indication of specific zones of lipid synthesis. The consequences of these results for models of cell growth and division are discussed. PMID:4653419

  9. The Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ramos, H; Glaser, P; Wray, L V; Fisher, S H

    1997-05-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon encodes homologs of the three subunits of urease enzymes of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Disruption of ureC prevented utilization of urea as a nitrogen source and resulted in a partial growth defect in minimal medium containing limiting amounts of arginine or allantoin as the sole nitrogen source.

  10. EFFECTS OF COPPER ON BACILLUS SUBTILIS1

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Lawrence L.

    1963-01-01

    Weed, Lawrence L. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio). Effects of copper on Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 85:1003–1010. 1963.—Variants have been isolated from liquid cultures of Bacillus subtilis 168 after exposure to copper. The variations manifested are in terms of loss of capacity to be transformed from tryptophan auxotrophy to prototrophy as shown by variant NTCu, and in terms of colony size and altered base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid as shown by variant SC-22. In addition to the data on altered morphology and chemical composition of the variants, detailed studies on the reversion of one of the variants to B. subtilis are presented. Images PMID:14043986

  11. Morphologies and phenotypes in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Meng, Shuo; Han, Jingshi

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we explored Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth under various conditions such as the use of substrates with different stiffnesses and nutrient levels using a well-developed optical imaging technique to spatially and temporally track biofilm growth. We also developed a quantitative method to characterize B. subtilis biofilm morphologies under various growth conditions. To determine biofilm rim irregularities, we used the dimensionless P2A ratio, defined as P 2 /4πA, where P is the perimeter and A is the area of the biofilm. To estimate biofilm thickness from transmission images, we developed a calibration procedure based on Beer- Lambert's law and cross sectioning. Furthermore, to determine the distributions of different B. subtilis cell phenotypes during biofilm growth, we used a triple-fluorescence-labeled B. subtilis strain that expressed motility, matrix production, and sporulation. Based on this work, we are able to tune biofilm growth by changing its growing environment.

  12. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M.; Caro, Lews

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis. Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis-produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA, for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis. Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis. IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis. The interaction is

  13. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  14. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shank, Elizabeth Anne; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain-level and species-level. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Anne Shank, Elizabeth; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain- and species-levels. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. PMID:22024380

  16. Hyaluronic Acid Production in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Widner, Bill; Behr, Régine; Von Dollen, Steve; Tang, Maria; Heu, Tia; Sloma, Alan; Sternberg, Dave; DeAngelis, Paul L.; Weigel, Paul H.; Brown, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The hasA gene from Streptococcus equisimilis, which encodes the enzyme hyaluronan synthase, has been expressed in Bacillus subtilis, resulting in the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the 1-MDa range. Artificial operons were assembled and tested, all of which contain the hasA gene along with one or more genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of the UDP-precursor sugars that are required for HA synthesis. It was determined that the production of UDP-glucuronic acid is limiting in B. subtilis and that overexpressing the hasA gene along with the endogenous tuaD gene is sufficient for high-level production of HA. In addition, the B. subtilis-derived material was shown to be secreted and of high quality, comparable to commercially available sources of HA. PMID:16000785

  17. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, Pascale B.; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant. PMID:23569226

  18. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially.

  19. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  20. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  1. Swarming motility in undomesticated Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Daniel B; Losick, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Swarming motility was identified and characterized in an undomesticated strain of Bacillus subtilis. Rapid surface migration was preceded by a cell density-dependent lag period, which could be eliminated if actively swarming cells were used as the inoculum. The leading edge of the swarm was characterized by multicellular rafts of highly flagellated cells. Flagellum biosynthesis and surfactant production were required for swarming. Swarming was not found in any of several standard laboratory strains. Laboratory strains are characteristically unable to produce surfactant, but such a strain remained unable to swarm even when surfactant was provided by extracellular complementation. We conclude that robust swarming is a feature of undomesticated B. subtilis and that this behaviour has been lost or attenuated in laboratory strains through the accumulation of multiple genetic defects.

  2. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    PubMed

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  3. Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhenglong; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Chun; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Chengde; Chu, Shijin

    2009-06-01

    To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

  4. Susceptibilities of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis spores to liquid biocides.

    PubMed

    Hilgren, J; Swanson, K M J; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Cords, B

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis to treatment with hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, a peroxy-fatty acid mixture, sodium hypochlorite, and acidified sodium chlorite was investigated. Results indicated that B. cereus spores may be reasonable predictors of B. anthracis spore inactivation by peroxyacetic acid-based biocides. However, B. cereus was not a reliable predictor of B. anthracis inactivation by the other biocides. In studies comparing B. cereus and B. subtilis, B. cereus spores were more resistant (by 1.5 to 2.5 log CFU) than B. subtilis spores to peroxyacetic acid, the peroxy-fatty acid mixture, and acidified sodium chlorite. Conversely, B. subtilis spores were more resistant than B. cereus spores to hydrogen peroxide. These findings indicated the relevance of side-by-side testing of target organisms and potential surrogates against categories of biocides to determine whether both have similar properties and to validate the use of the surrogate microorganisms.

  5. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  6. A love affair with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-30

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Biofilm-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chagneau, Claudia; Saier, Milton H

    2004-01-01

    Many bacteria can adopt organized, sessile, communal lifestyles. The gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis,forms biofilms on solid surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces, and biofilm development is dependent on environmental conditions. We demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. subtilis strain JH642 can be either activated or repressed by glucose, depending on the growth medium used, and that these glucose effects are at least in part mediated by the catabolite control protein, CcpA. Starting with a chromosomal Tn917-LTV3 insertional library, we isolated mutants that are defective for biofilm formation. The biofilm defects of these mutants were observable in both rich and minimal media, and both on polyvinylchloride abiotic surfaces and in borosilicate tubes. Two mutants were defective in flagellar synthesis. Chemotaxis was shown to be less important for biofilm formation than was flagellar-driven motility. Although motility is known to be required for biofilm formation in other bacteria, this had not previously been demonstrated for B. subtilis. In addition, our study suggests roles for glutamate synthase, GltAB, and an aminopeptidase, AmpS. The loss of these enzymes did not decrease growth or cellular motility but had dramatic effects on biofilm formation under all conditions assayed. The effect of the gltAB defect on biofilm formation could not be due to a decrease in poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis since this polymer proved to be nonessential for robust biofilm formation. High exogenous concentrations of glutamate, aspartate, glutamine or proline did not override the glutamate synthase requirement. This is the first report showing that glutamate synthase and a cytoplasmic aminopeptidase play roles in bacterial biofilm formation. Possible mechanistic implications and potential roles of biofilm formation in other developmental processes are discussed. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Logarithmic sensing in Bacillus subtilis aerotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Menolascina, Filippo; Rusconi, Roberto; Fernandez, Vicente I; Smriga, Steven; Aminzare, Zahra; Sontag, Eduardo D; Stocker, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen’s fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device, spanning the full spectrum of conditions from quasi-anoxic to oxic (60 n mol/l–1 m mol/l), we resolved B. subtilis’ ‘oxygen preference conundrum’ by demonstrating consistent migration towards maximum oxygen concentrations (‘monotonic aerotaxis’). Surprisingly, the strength of aerotaxis was largely unchanged over three decades in oxygen concentration (131 n mol/l–196 μ mol/l). We discovered that in this range B. subtilis responds to the logarithm of the oxygen concentration gradient, a rescaling strategy called ‘log-sensing’ that affords organisms high sensitivity over a wide range of conditions. In these experiments, high-throughput single-cell imaging yielded the best signal-to-noise ratio of any microbial taxis study to date, enabling the robust identification of the first mathematical model for aerotaxis among a broad class of alternative models. The model passed the stringent test of predicting the transient aerotactic response despite being developed on steady-state data, and quantitatively captures both monotonic aerotaxis and log-sensing. Taken together, these results shed new light on the oxygen-seeking capabilities of B. subtilis and provide a blueprint for the quantitative investigation of the many other forms of microbial taxis. PMID:28725484

  9. Cannibalism Enhances Biofilm Development in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of cells that differentiates into cannibals is the same subpopulation that produces the extracellular matrix that holds cells together in biofilms. Cannibalism and matrix formation are both triggered in response to the signaling molecule surfactin. Nutrients released by the cannibalized cells are preferentially used by matrix-producing cells, as they are the only cells expressing resistance to the Skf and Sdp toxins. As a result this subpopulation increases in number and matrix production is enhanced when cannibalism toxins are produced. The cannibal/matrix-producing subpopulation is also generated in response to antimicrobials produced by other microorganisms and may thus constitute a defense mechanism to protect B. subtilis from the action of antibiotics in natural settings. PMID:19775247

  10. Cannibalism enhances biofilm development in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of cells that differentiates into cannibals is the same subpopulation that produces the extracellular matrix that holds cells together in biofilms. Cannibalism and matrix formation are both triggered in response to the signalling molecule surfactin. Nutrients released by the cannibalized cells are preferentially used by matrix-producing cells, as they are the only cells expressing resistance to the Skf and Sdp toxins. As a result this subpopulation increases in number and matrix production is enhanced when cannibalism toxins are produced. The cannibal/matrix-producing subpopulation is also generated in response to antimicrobials produced by other microorganisms and may thus constitute a defense mechanism to protect B. subtilis from the action of antibiotics in natural settings.

  11. Identification of regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Irnov, Irnov; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Vogel, Jörg; Winkler, Wade C.

    2010-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are widespread in bacteria. Interestingly, current published data hint that some of these mechanisms may be non-random with respect to their phylogenetic distribution. Although small, trans-acting regulatory RNAs commonly occur in bacterial genomes, they have been better characterized in Gram-negative bacteria, leaving the impression that they may be less important for Firmicutes. It has been presumed that Gram-positive bacteria, in particular the Firmicutes, are likely to utilize cis-acting regulatory RNAs located within the 5′ mRNA leader region more often than trans-acting regulatory RNAs. In this analysis we catalog, by a deep sequencing-based approach, both classes of regulatory RNA candidates for Bacillus subtilis, the model microorganism for Firmicutes. We successfully recover most of the known small RNA regulators while also identifying a greater number of new candidate RNAs. We anticipate these data to be a broadly useful resource for analysis of post-transcriptional regulatory strategies in B. subtilis and other Firmicutes. PMID:20525796

  12. Aerobic chromate reduction by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Garbisu, C; Alkorta, I; Llama, M J; Serra, J L

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to the less toxic trivalent form by using cell suspensions and cell-free extracts from the common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis was able to grow and reduce chromate at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 mM K2CrO4. Chromate reduction was not affected by a 20-fold excess of nitrate-compound that serves as alternate electron acceptor and antagonizes chromate reduction by anaerobic bacteria. Metabolic poisons including sodium azide and sodium cyanide inhibited chromate reduction. Reduction was effected by a constitutive system associated with the soluble protein fraction and not with the membrane fraction. The reducing activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 188 microns CrO4(2)-. The reductase can mediate the transfer of electrons from NAD(P)H to chromate. The results suggest that chromate is reduced via a detoxification system rather than dissimilatory electron transport.

  13. Storage stability of Bacillus subtilis ethylene oxide biological indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, R R

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biological indicators, stored at ambient and freezer conditions for 24 months, demonstrated no statistical difference in ethylene oxide resistance and spore viability from initial production levels. PMID:6766701

  14. Genome of a Gut Strain of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Cláudia R.; Lapointe, Thomas; Pereira-Leal, José B.; Potot, Sébastien; Fickers, Patrick; Perkins, John B.; Wyss, Markus; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium. We present the genome sequence of an undomesticated strain, BSP1, isolated from poultry. The sequence of the BSP1 genome supports the view that B. subtilis has a biphasic lifestyle, cycling between the soil and the animal gastrointestinal tract, and it provides molecular-level insight into the adaptation of B. subtilis to life under laboratory conditions. PMID:23409263

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Strain ∆6

    PubMed Central

    Reuß, Daniel R.; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Quax, Wim J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis ∆6 is a genome-reduced strain that was cured from six prophages and AT-rich islands. This strain is of great interest for biotechnological applications. Here, we announce the full-genome sequence of this strain. Interestingly, the conjugative element ICEBs1 has most likely undergone self-excision in B. subtilis ∆6. PMID:27469946

  16. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  17. Three asparagine synthetase genes of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Fujita, Y; Ehrlich, S D

    1999-10-01

    Three asparagine synthetase genes, asnB, asnH, and asnO (yisO), were predicted from the sequence of the Bacillus subtilis genome. We show here that the three genes are expressed differentially during cell growth. In a rich sporulation medium, expression of asnB was detected only during exponential growth, that of asnH was drastically elevated at the transition between exponential growth and stationary phase, and that of asnO was seen only later in sporulation. In a minimal medium, both asnB and asnH were expressed constitutively during exponential growth and in stationary phase, while the expression of asnO was not detected in either phase. However, when the minimal medium was supplemented with asparagine, only the expression of asnH was partially repressed. Transcription analyses revealed that asnB was possibly cotranscribed with a downstream gene, ytnA, while the asnH gene was transcribed as the fourth gene of an operon comprising yxbB, yxbA, yxnB, asnH, and yxaM. The asnO gene is a monocistronic operon, the expression of which was dependent on one of the sporulation sigma factors, sigma-E. Each of the three genes, carried on a low-copy-number plasmid, complemented the asparagine deficiency of an Escherichia coli strain lacking asparagine synthetases, indicating that all encode an asparagine synthetase. In B. subtilis, deletion of asnO or asnH, singly or in combination, had essentially no effect on growth rates in media with or without asparagine. In contrast, deletion of asnB led to a slow-growth phenotype, even in the presence of asparagine. A strain lacking all three genes still grew without asparagine, albeit very slowly, implying that B. subtilis might have yet another asparagine synthetase, not recognized by sequence analysis. The strains lacking asnO failed to sporulate, indicating an involvement of this gene in sporulation.

  18. Expression of UGA-Containing Mycoplasma Genes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, T. R.; Baseman, Joel B.

    2000-01-01

    We used Bacillus subtilis to express UGA-containing Mycoplasma genes encoding the P30 adhesin (one UGA) of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and methionine sulfoxide reductase (two UGAs) of Mycoplasma genitalium. Due to natural UGA suppression, these Mycoplasma genes were expressed as full-length protein products, but at relatively low efficiency, in recombinant wild-type Bacillus. The B. subtilis-expressed Mycoplasma proteins appeared as single bands and not as multiple bands compared to expression in recombinant Escherichia coli. Bacillus mutants carrying mutations in the structural gene (prfB) for release factor 2 markedly enhanced the level of readthrough of UGA-containing Mycoplasma genes. PMID:10762276

  19. Regulation of two aspartokinases in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Hampton, M L; McCormick, N G; Behforouz, N C; Freese, E

    1971-12-01

    When grown on minimal glucose medium, transformable Bacillus subtilis strains contained two distinct aspartokinases (ATP:l-aspartate 4-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.4). One of these enzymes was inhibited by l-lysine (Lys), whereas the other was insensitive to inhibition but was activated by l-leucine. None of the other amino acids tested had any effect, and the addition of l-threonine did not enhance the inhibition by Lys, in contrast to the concerted inhibition observed for other bacilli. At the end of exponential growth, the Lys-sensitive aspartokinase activity decreased, whereas the Lys-insensitive activity remained relatively constant throughout the stationary phase. The two activities were separated by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Growth in the presence of Lys reduced the specific activity of aspartokinase by about 50% and eliminated the inhibition by Lys. In extracts of these cells, only Lys-insensitive activity was found upon (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Lys apparently repressed the synthesis of the Lys-sensitive enzyme.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  10. Effect of Mono and Di-rhamnolipids on Biofilms Pre-formed by Bacillus subtilis BBK006.

    PubMed

    De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Martin, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Different microbial inhibition strategies based on the planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilms communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms. In this work, we explore the aspects of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 biofilms and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (rhamnolipids) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006. The ability of mono-rhamnolipids (Rha-C10-C10) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and the di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C14-C14) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis E264, and phosphate-buffered saline to disrupt biofilm of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was evaluated. The biofilm produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was more sensitive to the di-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis than the mono-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Rhamnolipids are biologically produced compounds safe for human use. This makes them ideal candidates for use in new generations of bacterial dispersal agents and useful for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies.

  11. Transfer of Plasmids between Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Baigorí, Mario; Sesma, Fernando; de Ruiz Holgado, Aída P.; de Mendoza, Diego

    1988-01-01

    The shuttle plasmid pGK12, as well as several Staphylococcus aureus plasmids, was introduced into Streptococcus lactis by intergeneric protoplast fusion with Bacillus subtilis. The S. aureus plasmids were stably inherited in S. lactis, and so they may possibly be used as cloning vectors in lactic streptococci. PMID:16347642

  12. Isolation, identification and characterization of novel Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenxiang; Guo, Weina; Liu, Chang

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we have identified a bacterium that can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and further analyzed its antibacterial activity and other biological characteristics and laid the foundation for its future application. Through isolation and culture of the unknown bacteria, the culture characteristics, morphology observation, biochemical test, preliminary antibacterial test, 16S rRNA PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and homology analysis were performed. It was found that the bacteria are Gram positive spore chain Bacillus. The bacteria could only ferment glucose for acid production, but could not utilize lactose and maltose. The VP test for this bacteria was positive, while indole and methyl red tests were negative. Further analysis showed that these bacteria shared a homology up to 99.4% with Bacillus subtilis DQ198162.1. Thus, this newly identified bacterium was classified as Bacillus subtilis. Importantly, the crude bacteriocin of this Bacillus subtilis could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Salmonella, which implies its potential usage in the future.

  13. Pulmonary Clearance of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J.R.; Sebunya, T.N.K.; Osborne, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The pulmonary clearance rate of Bacillus subtilis was determined in ten pigs (23-39 kg) exposed simultaneously for 15 minutes to an aerosol generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer. Two pigs were killed at each interval of zero, two, four, eight and 12 hours and the concentrations of B. subtilis in lungs (all lobes), dorsal and ventral nasal turbinates, trachea, pharyngeal and bronchial lymph nodes were determined. The mean percent (± standard error) pulmonary clearance of B.subtilis was 54.2±11.7, 53.0±11.8, 77.4±5.2 and 88.1±3.7 at two, four, eight and 12 hours, respectively. The numbers of B. subtilis retained in the posterior (caudal and accessory) lobes at zero time were significantly greater than those in the anterior (cranial and middle) lobes (P<0.05). However, by 12 hours postinoculation the numbers of organisms retained in the two regions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The mean percentage of B. subtilis retained by the turbinates, trachea, pharyngeal and bronchial lymph nodes varied between pigs at each time interval, but was usually less than that retained by the lungs. It was concluded that deposition of B. subtilis spores took place in all parts of the respiratory tract when pigs were exposed to aerosols and that the spores were progressively cleared by the normal lung. PMID:6403207

  14. Excretion and Degradation of Ribonucleic Acid by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Demain, A. L.; Burg, R. W.; Hendlin, D.

    1965-01-01

    Demain, A. L. (Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N.J.), R. W. Burg, and D. Hendlin. Excretion and degradation of ribonucleic acid by Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 89:640–646. 1965.—Bacillus subtilis MB-1480 was found to produce several 5′-ribonucleotides in the extracellular medium, in addition to the previously found 5′-guanosine monophosphate and guanosine diphosphate. The nucleotides accumulated after excretion of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid (RNA) and subsequent extracellular breakdown. Excretion of RNA paralleled growth closely, and was accompanied by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein excretion. The process occurred in the absence of visible lysis. Whereas extracellular DNA was stable, the other macromolecules were degraded after excretion. With extracellular DNA as a measure of maximal lysis, it was calculated that the major part of the extracellular RNA must have been excreted by cells which had not undergone lysis. PMID:14273638

  15. [Bacillus subtilis undergoes natural genetic transformation on agar plates].

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Chen, Q; Xie, Z; Shen, P

    2000-02-01

    This paper conducted preliminary investigation on natural genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis on agar plates. The results showed that, under same conditions, the natural transformation of the strain on agar plate was much more efficient than that of standard liquid method, and the transformation system could sustain higher DNase concentration. In addition, that the LB culture, which usually did not support the strain acquire competency, could undergo transformation as soon as it being spread on agar plate, suggested that the natural genetic transformation of Bacillus subtilis on solid plates may be different form the standard liquid transformation method. The cell-to-cell transformation between strains having different genetic makers could also be observed on agar plates.

  16. Chloramphenicol Restores Sigma Factor Activity to Sporulating Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Segall, Jacqueline; Tjian, Robert; Pero, Janice; Losick, Richard

    1974-01-01

    The σ subunit of RNA polymerase from sporulating Bacillus subtilis is markedly inhibited in its ability to direct active transcription of phage ϕe DNA in vitro. Treatment of sporulating bacteria with chloramphenicol rapidly restores σ activity, suggesting that sporulating cells contain an inhibitor of σ that is physiologically unstable or that becomes unstable after drug treatment. The hypothetical inhibitor is depleted exponentially with an apparent half-life of 11 min at 37°. Images PMID:4216024

  17. Identification of a biosurfactant producing strain: Bacillus subtilis HOB2.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Namir I A; Wang, Ji; Mu, Bozhong

    2009-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing strain was isolated from the production water of an oil-field and was identified as Bacillus subtilis HOB2 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The production of biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis HOB2 has been investigated using different carbon and nitrogen sources, under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The strain was able to grow and to produce surfactant, reducing the surface tension of medium to 27 mN/m on sucrose, and 28 mN/m on glucose after 24 h of cultivation. The strain was able to produce the maximum amount of biosurfactant when ammonium ions were used as nitrogen source. The surface-active compound was stable during exposure to elevate temperature (100degreesC), high salinity (25% NaCl) and a wide range of pH values (5.0-11.0). The biosurfactant was capable of forming a promising emulsification index (E(24)= 68%) with kerosene. The kinetic studies revealed that biosurfactant production is a cell growth-associated process. Preliminary chemical characterization revealed that the surfactant has a lipopeptide composition similar to surfactin as confirmed by TLC and IR analysis. Properties and characteristics of the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis HOB2 suggesting potential commercial applications, such as enhanced oil recovery, bioremediation of soil and marine environments, and food industries.

  18. Water surface tension modulates the swarming mechanics of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Ching; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Many Bacillus subtilis strains swarm, often forming colonies with tendrils on agar medium. It is known that B. subtilis swarming requires flagella and a biosurfactant, surfactin. In this study, we find that water surface tension plays a role in swarming dynamics. B. subtilis colonies were found to contain water, and when a low amount of surfactin is produced, the water surface tension of the colony restricts expansion, causing bacterial density to rise. The increased density induces a quorum sensing response that leads to heightened production of surfactin, which then weakens water surface tension to allow colony expansion. When the barrier formed by water surface tension is breached at a specific location, a stream of bacteria swarms out of the colony to form a tendril. If a B. subtilis strain produces surfactin at levels that can substantially weaken the overall water surface tension of the colony, water floods the agar surface in a thin layer, within which bacteria swarm and migrate rapidly. This study sheds light on the role of water surface tension in regulating B. subtilis swarming, and provides insight into the mechanisms underlying swarming initiation and tendril formation. PMID:26557106

  19. Water surface tension modulates the swarming mechanics of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Ching; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Many Bacillus subtilis strains swarm, often forming colonies with tendrils on agar medium. It is known that B. subtilis swarming requires flagella and a biosurfactant, surfactin. In this study, we find that water surface tension plays a role in swarming dynamics. B. subtilis colonies were found to contain water, and when a low amount of surfactin is produced, the water surface tension of the colony restricts expansion, causing bacterial density to rise. The increased density induces a quorum sensing response that leads to heightened production of surfactin, which then weakens water surface tension to allow colony expansion. When the barrier formed by water surface tension is breached at a specific location, a stream of bacteria swarms out of the colony to form a tendril. If a B. subtilis strain produces surfactin at levels that can substantially weaken the overall water surface tension of the colony, water floods the agar surface in a thin layer, within which bacteria swarm and migrate rapidly. This study sheds light on the role of water surface tension in regulating B. subtilis swarming, and provides insight into the mechanisms underlying swarming initiation and tendril formation.

  20. Expression of low endotoxin 3-O-sulfotransferase in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenya; Englaender, Jacob A; Xu, Peng; Mehta, Krunal K; Suwan, Jiraporn; Dordick, Jonathan S; Zhang, Fuming; Yuan, Qipeng; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2013-10-01

    A key enzyme for the biosynthesis and bioengineering of heparin, 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1), was expressed and purified in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium. Western blotting, protein sequence analysis, and enzyme activity measurement confirmed the expression. The enzymatic activity of 3-OST-1 expressed in Bacillus species were found to be similar to those found when expressed in Escherichia coli. The endotoxin level in 3-OST-1 from B. subtilis and B. megaterium were 10(4)-10(5)-fold lower than that of the E. coli-expressed 3-OST-1, which makes the Bacillus expression system of particular interest for the generation of pharmaceutical grade raw heparin from nonanimal sources.

  1. Antibiotic Stimulation of a Bacillus subtilis Migratory Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongjin; Kyle, Steven

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Competitive interactions between bacteria reveal physiological adaptations that benefit fitness. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive species with several adaptive mechanisms for competition and environmental stress. Biofilm formation, sporulation, and motility are the outcomes of widespread changes in a population of B. subtilis. These changes emerge from complex, regulated pathways for adapting to external stresses, including competition from other species. To identify competition-specific functions, we cultured B. subtilis with multiple species of Streptomyces and observed altered patterns of growth for each organism. In particular, when plated on agar medium near Streptomyces venezuelae, B. subtilis initiates a robust and reproducible mobile response. To investigate the mechanistic basis for the interaction, we determined the type of motility used by B. subtilis and isolated inducing metabolites produced by S. venezuelae. Bacillus subtilis has three defined forms of motility: swimming, swarming, and sliding. Streptomyces venezuelae induced sliding motility specifically in our experiments. The inducing agents produced by S. venezuelae were identified as chloramphenicol and a brominated derivative at subinhibitory concentrations. Upon further characterization of the mobile response, our results demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, and spectinomycin all activate a sliding motility response by B. subtilis. Our data are consistent with sliding motility initiating under conditions of protein translation stress. This report underscores the importance of hormesis as an early warning system for potential bacterial competitors and antibiotic exposure. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a major challenge for the effective treatment of infectious diseases. Identifying adaptive mechanisms that bacteria use to survive low levels of antibiotic stress is important for understanding pathways to

  2. Screen for agents that induce autolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Lacriola, Christopher J; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections underscores the need to discover new antibiotics and to use them with maximum effectiveness. In response to these needs, we describe a screening protocol for the discovery of autolysis-inducing agents that uses two Bacillus subtilis reporter strains, SH-536 and BAU-102. To screen chemical libraries, autolysis-inducing agents were first identified with a BAU-102-based screen and then subdivided with SH-536 into two major groups: those that induce autolysis by their direct action on the cell membrane and those that induce autolysis secondary to inhibition of cell wall synthesis. SH-536 distinguishes between the two groups of autolysis-inducing agents by synthesizing and then releasing β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in late stationary phase at a time that cells have nearly stopped growing and are therefore tolerant of cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Four hits, named compound 2, compound 3, compound 5, and compound 24, obtained previously as inducers of autolysis by screening a 10,080-compound discovery library with BAU-102, were probed with SH-536 and found to release β-Gal, indicating that their mode of action was to permeabilize the B. subtilis cell membrane. The four primary hits inhibited growth in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis, with MICs in the 12.5- to 25-μg/ml (20 to 60 μM) range. The four primary hits were further used to probe B. subtilis, and their action was partially characterized with respect to the dependence of induced autolysis on specific autolysins.

  3. Screen for Agents That Induce Autolysis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lacriola, Christopher J.; Falk, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections underscores the need to discover new antibiotics and to use them with maximum effectiveness. In response to these needs, we describe a screening protocol for the discovery of autolysis-inducing agents that uses two Bacillus subtilis reporter strains, SH-536 and BAU-102. To screen chemical libraries, autolysis-inducing agents were first identified with a BAU-102-based screen and then subdivided with SH-536 into two major groups: those that induce autolysis by their direct action on the cell membrane and those that induce autolysis secondary to inhibition of cell wall synthesis. SH-536 distinguishes between the two groups of autolysis-inducing agents by synthesizing and then releasing β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in late stationary phase at a time that cells have nearly stopped growing and are therefore tolerant of cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Four hits, named compound 2, compound 3, compound 5, and compound 24, obtained previously as inducers of autolysis by screening a 10,080-compound discovery library with BAU-102, were probed with SH-536 and found to release β-Gal, indicating that their mode of action was to permeabilize the B. subtilis cell membrane. The four primary hits inhibited growth in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis, with MICs in the 12.5- to 25-μg/ml (20 to 60 μM) range. The four primary hits were further used to probe B. subtilis, and their action was partially characterized with respect to the dependence of induced autolysis on specific autolysins. PMID:23089762

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis.more » A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.« less

  5. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus affect access of germinants in spores. J Bacteriol 182, 1987 1994. Black, E.P., Koziol Dube, K., Guan, D., Wei...medium composition on transcription of ger operons and the germination response of spores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 3746...1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with W911NF-09-l-0286 alterations in levels and types of

  6. Characterisation and profiling of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Díaz-Bao, M; Cepeda, A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus genus includes species such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, some of which may be pathogenic or causative agents in the spoilage of food products. The main goal of this work was to apply matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass fingerprinting to the classification of these Bacillus species. Genetic analyses were also compared to phyloproteomic analyses. A collection of 57 Bacillus strains isolated from fresh and processed food and from culture collections were studied and their mass spectra compiled. The resulting mass fingerprints were compared and characteristic peaks at the strain and species levels were assigned. The results showed that MALDI-TOF was a good complementary approach to 16S rRNA sequencing and even a more powerful tool in the accurate classification of Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. MALDI-TOF was also found to provide valuable information at both intra- and interspecies levels in the Bacillus species studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Homolactic fermentation from glucose and cellobiose using Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Hernández-Bustos, Claudia; Merino, Enrique; Gosset, Guillermo; Martinez, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Backgroung Biodegradable plastics can be made from polylactate, which is a polymer made from lactic acid. This compound can be produced from renewable resources as substrates using microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a GRAS microorganism (generally regarded as safe) by the FDA. B. subtilis produces and secretes different kind of enzymes, such as proteases, cellulases, xylanases and amylases to utilize carbon sources more complex than the monosaccharides present in the environment. Thus, B. subtilis could be potentially used to hydrolyze carbohydrate polymers contained in lignocellulosic biomass to produce chemical commodities. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic fraction of agroindustrial wastes produces cellobiose and a lower amount of glucose. Under aerobic conditions, B. subtilis grows using cellobiose as substrate. Results In this study, we proved that under non-aerated conditions, B. subtilis ferments cellobiose to produce L-lactate with 82% of the theoretical yield, and with a specific rate of L-lactate production similar to that one obtained fermenting glucose. Under fermentative conditions in a complex media supplemented with glucose, B. subtilis produces L-lactate and a low amount of 2,3-butanediol. To increase the L-lactate production of this organism, we generated the B subtilis CH1 alsS- strain that lacks the ability to synthesize 2,3-butanediol. Inactivation of this pathway, that competed for pyruvate availability, let a 15% increase in L-lactate yield from glucose compared with the parental strain. CH1 alsS- fermented 5 and 10% of glucose to completion in mineral medium supplemented with yeast extract in four and nine days, respectively. CH1 alsS- produced 105 g/L of L-lactate in this last medium supplemented with 10% of glucose. The L-lactate yield was up to 95% using mineral media, and the optical purity of L-lactate was of 99.5% since B. subtilis has only one gene (lctE) that exclusively encodes a L

  8. The Intestinal Life Cycle of Bacillus subtilis and Close Relatives†

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Nguyen K. M.; Uyen, Nguyen Q.; Hong, Huynh A.; Duc, Le H.; Hoa, Tran T.; Serra, Claudia R.; Henriques, Adriano O.; Cutting, Simon M.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is considered a soil organism for which endospore formation provides a means to ensure long-term survival in the environment. We have addressed here the question of what happens to a spore when ingested. Spores displaying on their surface a heterologous antigen, tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC), were shown to generate anti-TTFC responses not to the antigen contained in the primary oral inoculum but to those displayed on spores that had germinated and then resporulated. We then used reverse transcription-PCR to determine expression of vegetative genes and sporulation-specific genes in the mouse gut following oral dosing with spores. Significant levels of germination and sporulation were documented. Using natural isolates of B. subtilis that could form biofilms, we showed that these strains could persist in the mouse gut for significantly longer than the laboratory strain. Moreover, these isolates could grow and sporulate anaerobically and exhibited a novel phenomenon of being able to form spores in almost half the time required for the laboratory isolate. This suggests that spores are not transient passengers of the gastrointestinal tract but have adapted to carry out their entire life cycle within this environment. This is the first report showing an intestinal life cycle of B. subtilis and suggests that other Bacillus species could also be members of the gut microflora. PMID:16547057

  9. Molecular mechanisms involved in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Lopez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Biofilms are the predominant lifestyle of bacteria in natural environments, and they severely impact our societies in many different fashions. Therefore, biofilm formation is a topic of growing interest in microbiology, and different bacterial models are currently studied to better understand the molecular strategies that bacteria undergo to build biofilms. Among those, biofilms of the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis are commonly used for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis biofilms show remarkable architectural features that are a consequence of sophisticated programs of cellular specialization and cell-cell communication within the community. Many laboratories are trying to unravel the biological role of the morphological features of biofilms, as well as exploring the molecular basis underlying cellular differentiation. In this review, we present a general perspective of the current state of knowledge of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. In particular, a special emphasis is placed on summarizing the most recent discoveries in the field and integrating them into the general view of these truly sophisticated microbial communities. PMID:24909922

  10. Inhibition of Cell Differentiation in Bacillus subtilis by Pseudomonas protegens

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Matthew J.; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo; Bowers, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interspecies interactions have been described for numerous bacterial systems, leading to the identification of chemical compounds that impact bacterial physiology and differentiation for processes such as biofilm formation. Here, we identified soil microbes that inhibit biofilm formation and sporulation in the common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We did so by creating a reporter strain that fluoresces when the transcription of a biofilm-specific gene is repressed. Using this reporter in a coculture screen, we identified Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas protegens as bacteria that secrete compounds that inhibit biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. The active compound produced by P. protegens was identified as the antibiotic and antifungal molecule 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). Colonies of B. subtilis grown adjacent to a DAPG-producing P. protegens strain had altered colony morphologies relative to B. subtilis colonies grown next to a DAPG-null P. protegens strain (phlD strain). Using a subinhibitory concentration of purified DAPG in a pellicle assay, we saw that biofilm-specific gene transcription was delayed relative to transcription in untreated samples. These transcriptional changes also corresponded to phenotypic alterations: both biofilm biomass and spore formation were reduced in B. subtilis liquid cultures treated with subinhibitory concentrations of DAPG. Our results add DAPG to the growing list of antibiotics that impact bacterial development and physiology at subinhibitory concentrations. These findings also demonstrate the utility of using coculture as a means to uncover chemically mediated interspecies interactions between bacteria. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to surfaces by an extracellular matrix; such biofilms can have important effects in both clinical and agricultural settings. To identify chemical compounds that inhibited biofilm formation, we used a fluorescent reporter to screen for bacteria that

  11. Inhibition of Cell Differentiation in Bacillus subtilis by Pseudomonas protegens.

    PubMed

    Powers, Matthew J; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo; Bowers, Albert A; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Interspecies interactions have been described for numerous bacterial systems, leading to the identification of chemical compounds that impact bacterial physiology and differentiation for processes such as biofilm formation. Here, we identified soil microbes that inhibit biofilm formation and sporulation in the common soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We did so by creating a reporter strain that fluoresces when the transcription of a biofilm-specific gene is repressed. Using this reporter in a coculture screen, we identified Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas protegens as bacteria that secrete compounds that inhibit biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. The active compound produced by P. protegens was identified as the antibiotic and antifungal molecule 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). Colonies of B. subtilis grown adjacent to a DAPG-producing P. protegens strain had altered colony morphologies relative to B. subtilis colonies grown next to a DAPG-null P. protegens strain (phlD strain). Using a subinhibitory concentration of purified DAPG in a pellicle assay, we saw that biofilm-specific gene transcription was delayed relative to transcription in untreated samples. These transcriptional changes also corresponded to phenotypic alterations: both biofilm biomass and spore formation were reduced in B. subtilis liquid cultures treated with subinhibitory concentrations of DAPG. Our results add DAPG to the growing list of antibiotics that impact bacterial development and physiology at subinhibitory concentrations. These findings also demonstrate the utility of using coculture as a means to uncover chemically mediated interspecies interactions between bacteria. Biofilms are communities of bacteria adhered to surfaces by an extracellular matrix; such biofilms can have important effects in both clinical and agricultural settings. To identify chemical compounds that inhibited biofilm formation, we used a fluorescent reporter to screen for bacteria that inhibited biofilm

  12. A part toolbox to tune genetic expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Guiziou, Sarah; Sauveplane, Vincent; Chang, Hung-Ju; Clerté, Caroline; Declerck, Nathalie; Jules, Matthieu; Bonnet, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Libraries of well-characterised components regulating gene expression levels are essential to many synthetic biology applications. While widely available for the Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli, such libraries are lacking for the Gram-positive model Bacillus subtilis, a key organism for basic research and biotechnological applications. Here, we engineered a genetic toolbox comprising libraries of promoters, Ribosome Binding Sites (RBS), and protein degradation tags to precisely tune gene expression in B. subtilis. We first designed a modular Expression Operating Unit (EOU) facilitating parts assembly and modifications and providing a standard genetic context for gene circuits implementation. We then selected native, constitutive promoters of B. subtilis and efficient RBS sequences from which we engineered three promoters and three RBS sequence libraries exhibiting ∼14 000-fold dynamic range in gene expression levels. We also designed a collection of SsrA proteolysis tags of variable strength. Finally, by using fluorescence fluctuation methods coupled with two-photon microscopy, we quantified the absolute concentration of GFP in a subset of strains from the library. Our complete promoters and RBS sequences library comprising over 135 constructs enables tuning of GFP concentration over five orders of magnitude, from 0.05 to 700 μM. This toolbox of regulatory components will support many research and engineering applications in B. subtilis. PMID:27402159

  13. Crystal structure of thymidylate synthase A from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, K. M.; Maley, F.; Garibian, A.; Changchien, L. M.; Van Roey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) converts dUMP to dTMP by reductive methylation, where 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate is the source of both the methylene group and reducing equivalents. The mechanism of this reaction has been extensively studied, mainly using the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis contains two genes for TSs, ThyA and ThyB. The ThyB enzyme is very similar to other bacterial TSs, but the ThyA enzyme is quite different, both in sequence and activity. In ThyA TS, the active site histidine is replaced by valine. In addition, the B. subtilis enzyme has a 2.4-fold greater k(cat) than the E. coli enzyme. The structure of B. subtilis thymidylate synthase in a ternary complex with 5-fluoro-dUMP and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate has been determined to 2.5 A resolution. Overall, the structure of B. subtilis TS (ThyA) is similar to that of the E. coli enzyme. However, there are significant differences in the structures of two loops, the dimer interface and the details of the active site. The effects of the replacement of histidine by valine and a serine to glutamine substitution in the active site area, and the addition of a loop over the carboxy terminus may account for the differences in k(cat) found between the two enzymes. PMID:10091656

  14. Natural Genetic Competence in Bacillus subtilis Natto OK2

    PubMed Central

    Ashikaga, Sayaka; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Fujio

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Bacillus subtilis natto strain, designated OK2, from a lot of commercial fermented soybean natto and studied its ability to undergo natural competence development using a comG-lacZ fusion at the amyE locus. Although transcription of the late competence genes was not detected in the B. subtilis natto strain OK2 during competence development, these genes were constitutively transcribed in the OK2 strain carrying either the mecA or the clpC mutation derived from B. subtilis 168. In addition, both OK2 mutants exhibited high transformation frequencies, comparable with that observed for B. subtilis 168. Moreover, as expected from these results, overproduction of ComK derived from strain 168 in strain OK2 resulted in a high transformation frequency as well as in induction of the late competence genes. These results clearly indicated that ComK produced in both the mecA and clpC mutants of strain OK2 (ComKOK2) could activate the transcription of the whole set of late competence genes and suggested that ComKOK2 was not activated in strain OK2 during competence development. We therefore sequenced the comS gene of OK2 and compared it with that of 168. The comSOK2 had a single-base change, resulting in the replacement of Ser (strain 168) by Cys (strain OK2) at position 11. PMID:10762239

  15. VITAMIN K-MEDIATED ELECTRON TRANSFER IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS

    PubMed Central

    Downey, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    Downey, Ronald J. (University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind.). Vitamin K-mediated electron transfer in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 88:904–911. 1964.—Electron transfer enzymes were obtained from log-phase cells of Bacillus subtilis after aerobic and anaerobic cultivation. The cytochrome content was found to be related to oxygen tension, there being little, if any, cytochrome operative in anaerobic cells. Vitamin K levels in the two cell types did not vary as markedly. A soluble diaphorase-type flavoprotein was obtained from both types of cells which reacted with vitamin K2, K3, and certain dyes but not bovine cytochrome c. Almost 90% of this diaphorase activity was leached from intact protoplasts without the use of solvating agents or sonic oscillation. Electron transport particles capable of coupled phosphorylation were inhibited by light (360 mμ) or 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), whereas these had no effect on the diaphorase activity. Phosphorylation in a BAL-inhibited system was restored after addition of the soluble diaphorase from either aerobic or anaerobic cells. The results suggested that soluble flavoprotein components are linked to vitamin K in both fermentative and phosphorylative pathways, and that this segment is indispensable to aerobic and anaerobic respiration in the bacillus. PMID:14219053

  16. [Plasmid and chromosomal gene transfer in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in natural transformation].

    PubMed

    Kosovich, P B; Prozorov, A A

    1990-09-01

    The transfer of hDHFR gene by natural transformation between Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis cells has been studied, as well as intrageneric gene transfer in Bacillus subtilis. The gene was transferred by natural transformation in bacterial cells and included into the chromosome or the plasmid.

  17. Ethidium bromide-resistant mutant of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P E; Brown, L R

    1973-09-01

    An ethidium bromide-resistant mutant (EB8) derived from a Marburg strain of Bacillus subtilis was found to be conditionally resistant to 10 mug of ethidium bromide per ml. Expression of resistance is complete only during vegetative growth at incubation temperatures above 30 C in complex medium or minimal medium supplemented with Casamino Acids. Strain EB8 is cross-resistant to acriflavine and proflavine. The ethidium bromide resistance marker is co-transduced with hisA1 at a frequency of 6% and is located to the right of hisA1 on the B. subtilis chromosome as it is usually represented on the map. Incorporation of [5-(3)H] uridine by strain EB8 showed that ribonucleic acid synthesis in both whole cells and protoplasts is ethidium bromide-resistant.

  18. Studies on the competence-inducing factor of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Akrigg, A.; Ayad, S. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. Aqueous extracts of competent cells of Bacillus subtilis 168I− were shown to contain a competence-inducing factor. The aqueous extracts were fractionated on DEAE-cellulose columns. 2. Those fractions from DEAE-cellulose columns containing the competence-inducing factor were shown to exhibit a powerful lytic effect on isolated cell walls of B. subtilis 168I−. Little or no lytic activity was exhibited by the other fractions. 3. The kinetics of the lytic enzyme were investigated and found to be first-order. Treatment of cell wall lysates with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene suggested that the enzyme may be identical with N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase. The amino acid composition of the partially purified enzyme was determined. 4. It is suggested that competence-induction may be dependent on the limited action of the autolytic amidase. PMID:4986873

  19. Characterization of high hydrostatic pressure-injured Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Inaoka, Takashi; Kimura, Keitarou; Morimatsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects various cellular processes. Using a sporulation-deficient Bacillus subtilis strain, we characterized the properties of vegetative cells subjected to HHP. When stationary-phase cells were exposed to 250 MPa of HHP for 10 min at 25 °C, approximately 50% of cells were viable, although they exhibited a prolonged growth lag. The HHP-injured cells autolyzed in the presence of NaCl or KCl (at concentrations ≥100 mM). Superoxide dismutase slightly protected the viability of HHP-treated cells, whereas vegetative catalases had no effect. Thus, unlike HHP-injured Escherichia coli, oxidative stress only slightly affected vegetative B. subtilis subjected to HHP.

  20. [Molecular cloning and expression of Nattokinase gene in Bacillus subtilis].

    PubMed

    Liu, B Y; Song, H Y

    2002-05-01

    In order to characterize biochemically the nattokinase,the nucleotide sequence of the nattokinase gene was amplified from the chromosomal DNA of B.subtilis (natto) by PCR. The expression plasmid pBL NK was constructed and was used to transform Bacillus subtilis containing a chromosomal deletion in its subtilisin gene. The supernatant of the culture was collected after 15 h culture. The target proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE. Nattokinase was purified by a method including ultrafiltration, Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration and S-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, and 100 mg of purified nattokinase was obtained from one liter of culture. The purity of the protein and the specific activity were 95% and 12 000 u/mg (compared to tPA), respectively.

  1. Enhanced secretion of natto phytase by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shogo; Tanaka, Kosei; Takenaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Phytases comprise a group of phosphatases that trim inorganic phosphates from phytic acid (IP6). In this study, we aimed to achieve the efficient secretion of phytase by Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis laboratory standard strain 168 and its derivatives exhibit no phytase activity, whereas a natto starter secretes phytase actively. The natto phytase gene was cloned into strain RIK1285, a protease-defective derivative of 168, to construct a random library of its N-terminal fusions with 173 different signal peptides (SPs) identified in the 168 genome. The library was screened to assess the efficiency of phytase secretion based on clear zones around colonies on plates, which appeared when IP6 was hydrolyzed. The pbp SP enhanced the secretion of the natto phytase most efficiently, i.e. twice that of the original SP. Thus, the secreted natto phytase was purified and found to remove up to 3 phosphates from IP6.

  2. Phosphate starvation induces the sporulation killing factor of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Allenby, Nicholas E E; Watts, Carys A; Homuth, Georg; Prágai, Zoltán; Wipat, Anil; Ward, Alan C; Harwood, Colin R

    2006-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis produces and exports a peptide sporulation killing factor (SkfA) that induces lysis of sibling cells. skfA is part of the skf operon (skfA-H), which is responsible for immunity to SkfA, as well as for production and export of SkfA. Here we report that transcription of skfA is markedly induced when cells of B. subtilis are subjected to phosphate starvation. The role of PhoP in regulation of the skf operon was confirmed by in vitro gel shift assays, which showed that this operon is a new member of the PhoP regulon. A putative stem-loop structure in the skfA-skfB intergenic region is proposed to act as a stabilizer of an skfA-specific transcript.

  3. Phosphate Starvation Induces the Sporulation Killing Factor of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Allenby, Nicholas E. E.; Watts, Carys A.; Homuth, Georg; Prágai, Zoltán; Wipat, Anil; Ward, Alan C.; Harwood, Colin R.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis produces and exports a peptide sporulation killing factor (SkfA) that induces lysis of sibling cells. skfA is part of the skf operon (skfA-H), which is responsible for immunity to SkfA, as well as for production and export of SkfA. Here we report that transcription of skfA is markedly induced when cells of B. subtilis are subjected to phosphate starvation. The role of PhoP in regulation of the skf operon was confirmed by in vitro gel shift assays, which showed that this operon is a new member of the PhoP regulon. A putative stem-loop structure in the skfA-skfB intergenic region is proposed to act as a stabilizer of an skfA-specific transcript. PMID:16816204

  4. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1309 - Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1309 Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060, in or on all food commodities, when applied...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1309 - Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1309 Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060, in or on all food commodities, when applied...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1309 - Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1309 Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain CX-9060, in or on all food commodities, when applied...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  14. Expression of a pepT homologue from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Schrögel, O; Krispin, O; Allmansberger, R

    1996-12-15

    We isolated pepT from Bacillus subtilis, a gene with homology to various tripeptidases from different bacterial sources. pepT is preceded by genes encoding a two component regulatory system. Its expression is activated during stationary phase. In minimal medium this activation is boosted in the presence of phosphate. The response regulator is preceded by putative promoter consensus sequences recognized by the stationary phase specific sigma factors sigma H, sigma F, and sigma G. This is in accordance with the initiation of expression at the beginning of stationary phase. Inactivation of pepT causes no obvious phenotype.

  15. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  16. Viability of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Rocket Propellants

    PubMed Central

    Godding, Rogene M.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    The sporicidal activity of components used in liquid and solid rocket propellants was tested by use of spores of Bacillus subtilis dried on powdered glass. Liquid propellant ingredients tested were N2O4, monomethylhydrazine and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. N2O4 was immediately sporicidal; the hydrazines were effective within several days. Solid propellants consisted of ammonium perchlorate in combination with epoxy resin (EPON 828), tris-1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl phosphine oxide, bis-1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl phenylphosphine oxide, and three modified polybutadiene polymers. There was no indication of appreciable sporicidal activity of these components. PMID:14264838

  17. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way

    PubMed Central

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preface Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium. PMID:23353768

  18. The project of sequencing the entire Bacillus subtilis genome.

    PubMed

    Kunst, F; Devine, K

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained during the first year of the project involving the sequencing of the Bacillus subtilis genome are presented. Different gene libraries using a yeast artificial chromosome vector and bacteriophage vectors, lambda FixII and phi 105J124, have been constructed. A total of 300 kbp have been cloned using the lambda FixII vector, 68 kbp of which have been fully sequenced. Several open reading frames showing homologies with genes of other organisms were found. Two genes, previously unknown in this organism, have been identified.

  19. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  20. Properties of Thermosensitive Extracellular α-Amylases of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Kunio; Maruo, Bunji

    1974-01-01

    Enzymological properties of four thermosensitive α-amylases (M3, M9, M18, and M20) brought by different mutation sites in α-amylase structural gene of Bacillus subtilis were compared with those of the parental α-amylase NA64. Two thermosensitive α-amylases (M9 and M20) were altered not only in their thermosensitivity but also in their immunological properties, catalytic properties, molecular weights determined by the gel filtration on a Bio-Gel P-100 column, and others. The other two thermosensitive α-amylases (M3 and M18) were altered only in their thermosensitivity. Images PMID:4218234

  1. Genetic Competence Drives Genome Diversity in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Chevreux, Bastien; Serra, Cláudia R; Schyns, Ghislain; Henriques, Adriano O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prokaryote genomes are the result of a dynamic flux of genes, with increases achieved via horizontal gene transfer and reductions occurring through gene loss. The ecological and selective forces that drive this genomic flexibility vary across species. Bacillus subtilis is a naturally competent bacterium that occupies various environments, including plant-associated, soil, and marine niches, and the gut of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we quantify the genomic diversity of B. subtilis and infer the genome dynamics that explain the high genetic and phenotypic diversity observed. Phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses of 42 B. subtilis genomes uncover a remarkable genome diversity that translates into a core genome of 1,659 genes and an asymptotic pangenome growth rate of 57 new genes per new genome added. This diversity is due to a large proportion of low-frequency genes that are acquired from closely related species. We find no gene-loss bias among wild isolates, which explains why the cloud genome, 43% of the species pangenome, represents only a small proportion of each genome. We show that B. subtilis can acquire xenologous copies of core genes that propagate laterally among strains within a niche. While not excluding the contributions of other mechanisms, our results strongly suggest a process of gene acquisition that is largely driven by competence, where the long-term maintenance of acquired genes depends on local and global fitness effects. This competence-driven genomic diversity provides B. subtilis with its generalist character, enabling it to occupy a wide range of ecological niches and cycle through them. PMID:29272410

  2. Heterologous expression of antigenic peptides in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Cédric M; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Aguilar, Claudio; Eichwald, Catherine

    2016-08-11

    Numerous strategies have been developed for the display of heterologous proteins in the surface of live bacterial carriers, which can be used as vaccines, immune-modulators, cancer therapy or bioremediation. Bacterial biofilms have emerged as an interesting approach for the expression of proteins of interest. Bacillus subtilis is a well-described, endospore-forming organism that is able to form biofilms and also used as a probiotic, thus making it a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous proteins within the biofilm. Here, we describe the use of TasA, an important structural component of the biofilms formed by B. subtilis, as a genetic tool for the display of heterologous proteins. We first engineered the fusion protein TasA-mCherry and showed that was widely deployed within the B. subtilis biofilms. A significant enhancement of the expression of TasA-mCherry within the biofilm was obtained when depleting both tasA and sinR genes. We subsequently engineered fusion proteins of TasA to antigenic peptides of the E. granulosus parasite, paramyosin and tropomyosin. Our results show that the antigens were well expressed within the biofilm as denoted by macrostructure complementation and by the detection of the fusion protein in both immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that the recombinant endospores of B. subtilis preserve their biophysical and morphological properties. In this work we provide strong evidence pointing that TasA is a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous peptides, such as antigens, cytokines, enzymes or antibodies, in the B. subtilis biofilms. Finally, our data portray that the recombinant endospores preserve their morphological and biophysical properties and could be an excellent tool to facilitate the transport and the administration.

  3. Dimethylglycine Provides Salt and Temperature Stress Protection to Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Abdallah; Hoffmann, Tamara; Smits, Sander H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycine betaine is a potent osmotic and thermal stress protectant of many microorganisms. Its synthesis from glycine results in the formation of the intermediates monomethylglycine (sarcosine) and dimethylglycine (DMG), and these compounds are also produced when it is catabolized. Bacillus subtilis does not produce sarcosine or DMG, and it cannot metabolize these compounds. Here we have studied the potential of sarcosine and DMG to protect B. subtilis against osmotic, heat, and cold stress. Sarcosine, a compatible solute that possesses considerable protein-stabilizing properties, did not serve as a stress protectant of B. subtilis. DMG, on the other hand, proved to be only moderately effective as an osmotic stress protectant, but it exhibited good heat stress-relieving and excellent cold stress-relieving properties. DMG is imported into B. subtilis cells primarily under osmotic and temperature stress conditions via OpuA, a member of the ABC family of transporters. Ligand-binding studies with the extracellular solute receptor (OpuAC) of the OpuA system showed that OpuAC possesses a moderate affinity for DMG, with a Kd value of approximate 172 μM; its Kd for glycine betaine is about 26 μM. Docking studies using the crystal structures of the OpuAC protein with the sulfur analog of DMG, dimethylsulfonioacetate, as a template suggest a model of how the DMG molecule can be stably accommodated within the aromatic cage of the OpuAC ligand-binding pocket. Collectively, our data show that the ability to acquire DMG from exogenous sources under stressful environmental conditions helps the B. subtilis cell to cope with growth-restricting osmotic and temperature challenges. PMID:24561588

  4. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  5. Studies on Sporulation Optimization and Chracterization of Bacillus subtilis Spore Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    W-A. ; Pinyupa, P. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement. Can. J. Microbial. 2008, 54, 861 - 867...Optimization and Characterization of Bacillus subtilis Spore Quality Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Smith...Environmental Protection Agency for the production of Bacillus subtilis spores. The cells require 12- 14 days to sporulate. Our goal was to conduct a study

  6. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent B; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Bea; Derkx, Patrick M F

    2017-02-01

    To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. A novel concept has been investigated-to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis by UV was combined with selection on Trp and purine analogues in an iterative process. Two mutants from different wild types were obtained, mutant 1 (M1) produced 1 mg Trp/l and mutant 2 (M2) 14 mg Trp/l. Genome sequence analysis revealed that M1 had three single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and M2 had two SNPs compared to the wild type strains. In both mutants SNPs were found in genes regulating tryptophan synthesis. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed up-regulation of the tryptophan synthesis genes in both mutants, the expression was up to 3 times higher in M2 than in M1. Tryptophan-excreting B. subtilis strains were obtained with UV-mutagenesis and analogue selection and can be used in animal feed applications.

  7. Bottleneck in secretion of α-amylase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2017-07-19

    Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B. subtilis uses its energy for production and secretion.

  8. Assessment of the Requirements for Magnesium Transporters in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Wakeman, Catherine A.; Goodson, Jonathan R.; Zacharia, Vineetha M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is the most abundant divalent metal in cells and is required for many structural and enzymatic functions. For bacteria, at least three families of proteins function as magnesium transporters. In recent years, it has been shown that a subset of these transport proteins is regulated by magnesium-responsive genetic control elements. In this study, we investigated the cellular requirements for magnesium homeostasis in the model microorganism Bacillus subtilis. Putative magnesium transporter genes were mutationally disrupted, singly and in combination, in order to assess their general importance. Mutation of only one of these genes resulted in strong dependency on supplemental extracellular magnesium. Notably, this transporter gene, mgtE, is known to be under magnesium-responsive genetic regulatory control. This suggests that the identification of magnesium-responsive genetic mechanisms may generally denote primary transport proteins for bacteria. To investigate whether B. subtilis encodes yet additional classes of transport mechanisms, suppressor strains that permitted the growth of a transporter-defective mutant were identified. Several of these strains were sequenced to determine the genetic basis of the suppressor phenotypes. None of these mutations occurred in transport protein homologues; instead, they affected housekeeping functions, such as signal recognition particle components and ATP synthase machinery. From these aggregate data, we speculate that the mgtE protein provides the primary route of magnesium import in B. subtilis and that the other putative transport proteins are likely to be utilized for more-specialized growth conditions. PMID:24415722

  9. Computational design of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Li; Wang, Jia-Le; Hu, Yu; Qian, Bing-Jun; Yao, Xiao-Min; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis natto is widely used in industry to produce natto, a traditional and popular Japanese soybean food. However, during its secondary fermentation, high amounts of ammonia are released to give a negative influence on the flavor of natto. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme for the ammonia produced and released, because it catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate using NAD(+) or NADP(+) as co-factor during carbon and nitrogen metabolism processes. To solve this problem, we employed multiple computational methods model and re-design GDH from Bacillus subtilis natto. Firstly, a structure model of GDH with cofactor NADP(+) was constructed by threading and ab initio modeling. Then the substrate glutamate were flexibly docked into the structure model to form the substrate-binding mode. According to the structural analysis of the substrate-binding mode, Lys80, Lys116, Arg196, Thr200, and Ser351 in the active site were found could form a significant hydrogen bonding network with the substrate, which was thought to play a crucial role in the substrate recognition and position. Thus, these residues were then mutated into other amino acids, and the substrate binding affinities for each mutant were calculated. Finally, three single mutants (K80A, K116Q, and S351A) were found to have significant decrease in the substrate binding affinities, which was further supported by our biochemical experiments.

  10. Oscillating behavior of Clostridium difficile Min proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Makroczyová, Jana; Jamroškovič, Ján; Krascsenitsová, Eva; Labajová, Nad'a; Barák, Imrich

    2016-06-01

    In rod-shaped bacteria, the proper placement of the division septum at the midcell relies, at least partially, on the proteins of the Min system as an inhibitor of cell division. The main principle of Min system function involves the formation of an inhibitor gradient along the cell axis; however, the establishment of this gradient differs between two well-studied gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. While in gram-negative Escherichia coli, the Min system undergoes pole-to-pole oscillation, in gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, proper spatial inhibition is achieved by the preferential attraction of the Min proteins to the cell poles. Nevertheless, when E.coli Min proteins are inserted into B.subtilis cells, they still oscillate, which negatively affects asymmetric septation during sporulation in this organism. Interestingly, homologs of both Min systems were found to be present in various combinations in the genomes of anaerobic and endospore-forming Clostridia, including the pathogenic Clostridium difficile. Here, we have investigated the localization and behavior of C.difficile Min protein homologs and showed that MinDE proteins of C.difficile can oscillate when expressed together in B.subtilis cells. We have also investigated the effects of this oscillation on B.subtilis sporulation, and observed decreased sporulation efficiency in strains harboring the MinDE genes. Additionally, we have evaluated the effects of C.difficile Min protein expression on vegetative division in this heterologous host. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cyclic Di-AMP Homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mehne, Felix M. P.; Gunka, Katrin; Eilers, Hinnerk; Herzberg, Christina; Kaever, Volkhard; Stülke, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis encodes three potential diadenylate cyclases that may synthesize the signaling nucleotide cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP). These enzymes are expressed under different conditions in different cell compartments, and they localize to distinct positions in the cell. Here we demonstrate the diadenylate cyclase activity of the so far uncharacterized enzymes CdaA (previously known as YbbP) and CdaS (YojJ). Our work confirms that c-di-AMP is essential for the growth of B. subtilis and shows that an excess of the molecule is also harmful for the bacteria. Several lines of evidence suggest that the diadenylate cyclase CdaA is part of the conserved essential cda-glm module involved in cell wall metabolism. In contrast, the CdaS enzyme seems to provide c-di-AMP for spores. Accumulation of large amounts of c-di-AMP impairs the growth of B. subtilis and results in the formation of aberrant curly cells. This phenotype can be partially suppressed by elevated concentrations of magnesium. These observations suggest that c-di-AMP interferes with the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery. The activity of the diadenylate cyclases is controlled by distinct molecular mechanisms. CdaA is stimulated by a regulatory interaction with the CdaR (YbbR) protein. In contrast, the activity of CdaS seems to be intrinsically restricted, and a single amino acid substitution is sufficient to drastically increase the activity of the enzyme. Taken together, our results support the idea of an important role for c-di-AMP in B. subtilis and suggest that the levels of the nucleotide have to be tightly controlled. PMID:23192352

  12. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  13. Abbreviated Pathway for Biosynthesis of 2-Thiouridine in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Black, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2-thiouridine (s2U) modification of the wobble position in glutamate, glutamine, and lysine tRNA molecules serves to stabilize the anticodon structure, improving ribosomal binding and overall efficiency of the translational process. Biosynthesis of s2U in Escherichia coli requires a cysteine desulfurase (IscS), a thiouridylase (MnmA), and five intermediate sulfur-relay enzymes (TusABCDE). The E. coli MnmA adenylates and subsequently thiolates tRNA to form the s2U modification. Bacillus subtilis lacks IscS and the intermediate sulfur relay proteins, yet its genome contains a cysteine desulfurase gene, yrvO, directly adjacent to mnmA. The genomic synteny of yrvO and mnmA combined with the absence of the Tus proteins indicated a potential functionality of these proteins in s2U formation. Here, we provide evidence that the B. subtilis YrvO and MnmA are sufficient for s2U biosynthesis. A conditional B. subtilis knockout strain showed that s2U abundance correlates with MnmA expression, and in vivo complementation studies in E. coli IscS- or MnmA-deficient strains revealed the competency of these proteins in s2U biosynthesis. In vitro experiments demonstrated s2U formation by YrvO and MnmA, and kinetic analysis established a partnership between the B. subtilis proteins that is contingent upon the presence of ATP. Furthermore, we observed that the slow-growth phenotype of E. coli ΔiscS and ΔmnmA strains associated with s2U depletion is recovered by B. subtilis yrvO and mnmA. These results support the proposal that the involvement of a devoted cysteine desulfurase, YrvO, in s2U synthesis bypasses the need for a complex biosynthetic pathway by direct sulfur transfer to MnmA. IMPORTANCE The 2-thiouridine (s2U) modification of the wobble position in glutamate, glutamine, and lysine tRNA is conserved in all three domains of life and stabilizes the anticodon structure, thus guaranteeing fidelity in translation. The biosynthesis of s2U in Escherichia coli requires

  14. [Features of Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 and its streptomycin-resistant strain].

    PubMed

    Roĭ, A A; Iatsenko, I P; Gordienko, A S; Kurdish, I K

    2011-01-01

    Features of phosphate-mobilizing bacteria Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 and its streptomycin-resistant strain were investigated. While cultivated in medium with glucose and glycerophosphate, the growth rate of the antibiotic-marked strain was approximately similar to this parameter for Bacillus subtilis IMB B-7023 but cell sizes were 1.3-fold less. Both strains significantly stimulated the germinating of plant seeds, attached to their roots, and insignificantly differed in antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens and quantitative content of cell fatty acids and phosphatase activity. Streptomycin-resistant strain may be used for monitoring of Bacillus subtilis introduced to agroecosystem.

  15. A Generic Protocol for Intracellular Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Trang; Huynh, Phuong; Truong, Tuom; Nguyen, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a potential and attractive host for the production of recombinant proteins. Different expression systems for B. subtilis have been developed recently, and various target proteins have been recombinantly synthesized and purified using this host. In this chapter, we introduce a generic protocol to express a recombinant protein in B. subtilis. It includes protocols for (1) using our typical expression vector (plasmid pHT254) to introduce a target gene, (2) transformation of the target vector into B. subtilis, and (3) evaluation of the actual expression of a recombinant protein.

  16. Regulation of fatty acid desaturation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, María C; Aguilar, Pablo S; Albanesi, Daniela; Cybulski, Larisa E; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego

    2003-02-01

    The Des pathway of Bacillus subtilis regulates the expression of the acyl-lipid desaturase, Des, thereby controlling the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids from saturated phospholipid precursors. Activation of this pathway takes place when cells are shifted to low growth temperature or when they are grown in minimal media in the absence of isoleucine supplies. The master switch for the Des pathway is a two-component regulatory system composed of a membrane-associated kinase, DesK, and a soluble transcriptional regulator, DesR, which stringently controls transcription of the des gene. We propose that both, a decrease in membrane fluidity at constant temperature and a temperature downshift induce des by the same mechanism, involving the ability of DesK to sense a decrease in membrane fluidity.

  17. 5-Bromouracil-tolerant mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R J; Sueoka, N

    1972-11-01

    5-Bromouracil (BU)-tolerant mutants of Bacillus subtilis 23 (thy his) have been isolated. Several classes of tolerant mutants were obtained by a sequential selection procedure. The classes can be distinguished by their relative BU tolerance as well as several other phenotypic characteristics. The mutants can grow for an extended period of time in minimal medium supplemented with amino acids and BU, in which the sensitive parental strain (Bu(+)) undergoes rapid cell death. Both mutants But-1 and But-1310 have a greater rate of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis by a factor of two in the presence of BU than Bu(+), But-1 being somewhat faster than But-1310. The preferential incorporation of thymine to BU of But-1 is about half that of the Bu(+) strain during DNA replication in minimal medium supplemented with 10 mug of BU/ml and 1 mug of thymine/ml. It is not known at what step or steps this reduction in selectivity occurs.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menp1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Taber, H W

    1996-02-01

    The Bacillus subtilis men genes encode biosynthetic enzymes for formation of the respiratory chain component menaquinone. The menp1 promoter previously was shown to be the primary cis element for menFD gene expression. In the present work, it was found that either supplementation with nonfermentable carbon sources or reutilization of glycolytic end products increased menp1 activity in the late postexponential phase. The effect on menp1 activity by a particular end product (such as acetoin or acetate) was prevented by blocking the corresponding pathway for end product utilization. Alteration of a TGAAA motif within the promoter region resulted in unregulated menp1 activity throughout the culture cycle, irrespective of the carbon source added.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menp1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Qin, X; Taber, H W

    1996-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis men genes encode biosynthetic enzymes for formation of the respiratory chain component menaquinone. The menp1 promoter previously was shown to be the primary cis element for menFD gene expression. In the present work, it was found that either supplementation with nonfermentable carbon sources or reutilization of glycolytic end products increased menp1 activity in the late postexponential phase. The effect on menp1 activity by a particular end product (such as acetoin or acetate) was prevented by blocking the corresponding pathway for end product utilization. Alteration of a TGAAA motif within the promoter region resulted in unregulated menp1 activity throughout the culture cycle, irrespective of the carbon source added. PMID:8550504

  20. Bioproperties of potent nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis YJ1.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Jung; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2010-05-12

    Fibrinolytic enzyme activity was observed during cultivation of Bacillus subtilis YJ1 in a medium containing 1% skim milk, 1% rice husk, 0.5% NaCl, and 0.25% glucose. It was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity after CM-sepharose FF chromatography. The specific activity and yield were 1791.9 FU/mg and 9.5%, respectively. This purified fibrinolytic enzyme had M of 27.5 kDa, optimal temperature and pH at 50 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. It was stable at pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-40 degrees C and inhibited by Fe(3+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and PMSF. Compared the N terminal of amino acids and full DNA sequence with those in NCBI, it was considered to be a nattokinase.

  1. Response of Bacillus subtilis to Cerulenin and Acquisition of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Schujman, Gustavo E.; Choi, Keum-Hwa; Altabe, Silvia; Rock, Charles O.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2001-01-01

    Cerulenin is a fungal mycotoxin that potently inhibits fatty acid synthesis by covalent modification of the active site thiol of the chain-elongation subtypes of β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthases. The Bacillus subtilis fabF (yjaY) gene (fabFb) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of malonyl-ACP with acyl-ACP to extend the growing acyl chain by two carbons. There were two mechanisms by which B. subtilis adapted to exposure to this antibiotic. First, reporter gene analysis demonstrated that transcription of the operon containing the fabF gene increased eightfold in response to a cerulenin challenge. This response was selective for the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, since triclosan, an inhibitor of enoyl-ACP reductase, triggered an increase in fabF reporter gene expression while nalidixic acid did not. Second, spontaneous mutants arose that exhibited a 10-fold increase in the MIC of cerulenin. The mutation mapped at the B. subtilis fabF locus, and sequence analysis of the mutant fabF allele showed that a single base change resulted in the synthesis of FabFb[I108F]. The purified FabFb and FabFb[I108F] proteins had similar specific activities with myristoyl-ACP as the substrate. FabFb exhibited a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of cerulenin of 0.1 μM, whereas the IC50 for FabFb[I108] was 50-fold higher (5 μM). These biochemical data explain the absence of an overt growth defect coupled with the cerulenin resistance phenotype of the mutant strain. PMID:11325930

  2. Inventory, assembly and analysis of Bacillus subtilis ABC transport systems.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Y; Fichant, G; Denizot, F

    1999-04-02

    We have undertaken the inventory and assembly of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter systems in the complete genome of Bacillus subtilis. We combined the identification of the three protein partners that compose an ABC transporter (nucleotide-binding domain, NBD; membrane spanning domain, MSD; and solute-binding protein, SBP) with constraints on the genetic organization. This strategy allowed the identification of 86 NBDs in 78 proteins, 103 MSD proteins and 37 SBPs. The analysis of transcriptional units allows the reconstruction of 59 ABC transporters, which include at least one NBD and one MSD. A particular class of five dimeric ATPases was not associated to MSD partners and is assumed to be involved either in macrolide resistance or regulation of translation elongation. In addition, we have detected five genes encoding ATPases without any gene coding for MSD protein in their neighborhood and 11 operons that encode only the membrane and solute-binding proteins. On the bases of similarities, three ATP-binding proteins are proposed to energize ten incomplete systems, suggesting that one ATPase may be recruited by more than one transporter. Finally, we estimate that the B. subtilis genome encodes for at least 78 ABC transporters that have been split in 38 importers and 40 extruders. The ABC systems have been further classified into 11 sub-families according to the tree obtained from the NBDs and the clustering of the MSDs and the SBPs. Comparisons with Escherichia coli show that the extruders are over-represented in B. subtilis, corresponding to an expansion of the sub-families of antibiotic and drug resistance systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of natural ionic Microreservoirs: Bacillus subtilis dormant spores.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Sergey; Bonvouloir, Elizabeth; Gazaryan, Irina

    2008-02-21

    The kinetics of proton exchange between dormant spores and aqueous environment was examined by time-resolved micropotentiometry, the method we recently introduced for hydrogel particles of micro- and nanometer diameter (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 15107). In this work, the method was applied to the suspensions of dormant Bacillus subtilis spore of different concentrations to show that proton uptake kinetics was a multistep process involving a number of successively approximately 10-fold slower steps of proton penetration into the bulk and their binding to the ionizable groups within different layers of a spore structure. By analyzing the proton equilibrium binding to ionizable groups inside a spore, it was shown that each Bacillus subtilis spore behaves like almost infinite ionic reservoir capable of accumulating billions of protons (N approximately 2 x 10(10) per spore). The obtained pK(a) value of 4.7 for the spores studied is the first quantitative indication on carboxyl groups as the major ionizable groups fixed in a spore matrix. In general, proton equilibrium binding within the spore matrix obeys the fundamental law of the Langmuir isotherm. The proton binding to the ionizable groups slows down the free proton diffusion within a spore, but this effect is substantially weakened by increasing the initial concentration of protons added. On the basis of the diffusion time analysis, it was found that the effective diffusion coefficient for hydrogen ions within the spore core can be up to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that within the coats and cortex. We speculate that the spore inner membrane which separates core from cortex and coats in a dormant spore is a major permeability barrier for protons to penetrate into a lockbox of the genetic information (core).

  4. Streptomycin-resistant, asporogenous mutant of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K M; Chambliss, G H

    1977-12-30

    A streptomycin-resistant mutantant of Bacillus subtilis that is also asporogenous, was isolated and partially characterized. This strain, SRB15, sporulated at a frequency of about 1% compared to the wild type frequency of greater than 70%. The two phenotypes were inseparable by transformation, suggesting that this strain carries a single mutation that causes it to be both streptomycin-resistant and spore-minus. The mutation cotransduces with cysA, the closest auxotrophic marker to the "ribosomal region" of the B. subtilis chromosome, with a frequency of 68%. SRB15 showed no cross resistence to other antiobiotics tested, including the aminoglycosides kanamycin, neomycin and spectinomycin. Ribosomes obtained from the mutant were at least 200-fold more resistant in vitro to streptomycin than were wild type ribosomes in the translation of phage SPO1 RNA. The kinetics of in vitro translation of this natural message were indistinguishable for mutant and wild type ribosomes. The level of misreading, as measured by poly(U)-directed isoleucine incorporation, by mutant ribosomes was less than that by wild type ribosomes.

  5. DNA Repair and Genome Maintenance in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Justin S.; Schroeder, Jeremy W.; Walsh, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: From microbes to multicellular eukaryotic organisms, all cells contain pathways responsible for genome maintenance. DNA replication allows for the faithful duplication of the genome, whereas DNA repair pathways preserve DNA integrity in response to damage originating from endogenous and exogenous sources. The basic pathways important for DNA replication and repair are often conserved throughout biology. In bacteria, high-fidelity repair is balanced with low-fidelity repair and mutagenesis. Such a balance is important for maintaining viability while providing an opportunity for the advantageous selection of mutations when faced with a changing environment. Over the last decade, studies of DNA repair pathways in bacteria have demonstrated considerable differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Here we review and discuss the DNA repair, genome maintenance, and DNA damage checkpoint pathways of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We present their molecular mechanisms and compare the functions and regulation of several pathways with known information on other organisms. We also discuss DNA repair during different growth phases and the developmental program of sporulation. In summary, we present a review of the function, regulation, and molecular mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria, with a strong emphasis on B. subtilis. PMID:22933559

  6. The acetylproteome of Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dooil; Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Choi, Soo-Geun; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-05-01

    N(ε) -lysine acetylation, a reversible and highly regulated PTM, has been shown to occur in the model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Here, we extend this acetylproteome analysis to Bacillus subtilis, a model Gram-positive bacterium. Through anti-acetyllysine antibody-based immunoseparation of acetylpeptides followed by nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis, we identified 332 unique lysine-acetylated sites on 185 proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in cellular housekeeping functions such as central metabolism and protein synthesis. Fifity-nine of the lysine-acetylated proteins showed homology with lysine-acetylated proteins previously identified in E. coli, suggesting that acetylated proteins are more conserved. Notably, acetylation was found at or near the active sites predicted by Prosite signature, including SdhA, RocA, Kbl, YwjH, and YfmT, indicating that lysine acetylation may affect their activities. In 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase Kbl, a class II aminotransferase, a lysine residue involved in pyridoxal phosphate attachment was found to be acetylated. This data set provides evidence for the generality of lysine acetylation in eubacteria and opens opportunities to explore the consequences of acetylation modification on the molecular physiology of B. subtilis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Transient growth requirement in Bacillus subtilis following the cessation of exponential growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, H M; Yasbin, R E

    2000-03-01

    During an investigation of the parameters controlling mutations in Bacillus subtilis we observed that this bacterium exhibits a transient growth requirement for two nonessential amino acids (glutamic acid and isoleucine) during a type of postexponential growth on a minimal medium.

  8. Correlation Between Pigment Production and Amino Acid Requirements in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Martha J.; Lawton, William D.; Goldberg, Ivan D.

    1970-01-01

    Several Bacillus subtilis W-23 auxotrophs were unable to produce wild-type pigment normally on minimal agars supplemented sufficiently for growth. This offers a reliable means for scoring genotypes. Images PMID:4988046

  9. 75 FR 16113 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... strains: Strain GB03; Strain MBI 600; Strain QST 713; and var. amyloliquefaciens Strain FZB24. All four.... Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 is used for plant strengthening, enhancing growth...

  10. Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Hideto; Nakasone, Kaoru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Maeno, Go; Sasaki, Rumie; Masui, Noriaki; Fuji, Fumie; Hirama, Chie; Nakamura, Yuka; Ogasawara, Naotake; Kuhara, Satoru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2000-01-01

    The 4 202 353 bp genome of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans C-125 contains 4066 predicted protein coding sequences (CDSs), 2141 (52.7%) of which have functional assignments, 1182 (29%) of which are conserved CDSs with unknown function and 743 (18.3%) of which have no match to any protein database. Among the total CDSs, 8.8% match sequences of proteins found only in Bacillus subtilis and 66.7% are widely conserved in comparison with the proteins of various organisms, including B.subtilis. The B.halodurans genome contains 112 transposase genes, indicating that transposases have played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer and also in internal genetic rearrangement in the genome. Strain C-125 lacks some of the necessary genes for competence, such as comS, srfA and rapC, supporting the fact that competence has not been demonstrated experimentally in C-125. There is no paralog of tupA, encoding teichuronopeptide, which contributes to alkaliphily, in the C-125 genome and an ortholog of tupA cannot be found in the B.subtilis genome. Out of 11 σ factors which belong to the extracytoplasmic function family, 10 are unique to B.halodurans, suggesting that they may have a role in the special mechanism of adaptation to an alkaline environment. PMID:11058132

  11. Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis to Life at Extreme Potassium Limitation.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, Jan; Herzberg, Christina; Hertel, Dietrich; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Link, Hannes; Stülke, Jörg

    2017-07-05

    Potassium is the most abundant metal ion in every living cell. This ion is essential due to its requirement for the activity of the ribosome and many enzymes but also because of its role in buffering the negative charge of nucleic acids. As the external concentrations of potassium are usually low, efficient uptake and intracellular enrichment of the ion is necessary. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis possesses three transporters for potassium, KtrAB, KtrCD, and the recently discovered KimA. In the absence of the high-affinity transporters KtrAB and KimA, the bacteria were unable to grow at low potassium concentrations. However, we observed the appearance of suppressor mutants that were able to overcome the potassium limitation. All these suppressor mutations affected amino acid metabolism, particularly arginine biosynthesis. In the mutants, the intracellular levels of ornithine, citrulline, and arginine were strongly increased, suggesting that these amino acids can partially substitute for potassium. This was confirmed by the observation that the supplementation with positively charged amino acids allows growth of B. subtilis even at the extreme potassium limitation that the bacteria experience if no potassium is added to the medium. In addition, a second class of suppressor mutations allowed growth at extreme potassium limitation. These mutations result in increased expression of KtrAB, the potassium transporter with the highest affinity and therefore allow the acquisition and accumulation of the smallest amounts of potassium ions from the environment. IMPORTANCE Potassium is essential for every living cell as it is required for the activity for many enzymes and for maintaining the intracellular pH by buffering the negative charge of the nucleic acids. We have studied the adaptation of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to life at low potassium concentrations. If the major high-affinity transporters are missing, the bacteria are unable to grow

  12. Genomic comparisons of two Bacillus subtilis biocontrol strains with different modes of actions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus subtilis strains AS 43.3 and OH131.1 were isolated from wheat anthers and shown to be efficacious in managing Fusarium head blight in greenhouse and some field trials. Chemical analysis of the cell-free culture supernatant identified B. subtilis strain AS 43.3 to be a potent producer of the...

  13. Transfer of Transposon Tn916 from Bacillus subtilis into a Natural Soil Population

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, M. R.; Oriel, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis transconjugant with a Tn916 chromosomal insert was obtained through mating with Escherichia coli carrying the transposon as a plasmid insert. Actinomycetes were identified as frequent transposon recipients following the introduction of the B. subtilis transconjugant into a soil microcosm. Images PMID:16348759

  14. Engineering the Xylan Utilization System in Bacillus subtilis for Production of Acidic Xylooligosaccharides

    Treesearch

    Mun Su Rhee; Lusha Wei; Neha Sawhney; John D. Rice; Franz J. St. John; Jason C. Hurlbert; James F. Preston

    2014-01-01

    Xylans are the predominant polysaccharides in hemicelluloses and an important potential source of biofuels and chemicals. The ability of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis strain 168 to utilize xylans has been ascribed to secreted glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) and GH30 endoxylanases, encoded by the xynA and...

  15. Acid-soluble spore proteins of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W C; Tipper, D J

    1981-01-01

    Acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) comprise about 5% of the total protein of mature spores of different Bacillus subtilis strains. They consist of three abundant species, alpha, beta, and gamma, four less abundant species, and several minor species, alpha, beta, and gamma make up about 18, 18 and 36%, respectively, of the total ASSPs of strain 168, have molecular weights of 5,900, 5,9000, and 11,000, respectively, and resemble the major (A, C, and B) components of Bacillus megaterium ASSPs in several respects, including sensitivity to a specific B. megaterium spore endopeptidase. However, they have pI's of 6.58, 6.67, and 7.96, all lower than those of any of the B. megaterium ASSPs. Although strains varied in the proportions of different ASSPs, to overall patterns seen on gel electrophoresis are constant. ASSPs are located interior to the cortex, presumably in the spore cytoplasm, and are synthesized during sporulation and degraded during germination. Images PMID:6787020

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Biegalska, Anna; Łoś, Marcin; Richert, Malwina

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages) or noncontractile (ARπ phage) tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0) and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0) pH. PMID:26273592

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J A; Ferrari, E; Henner, D J; Estell, D A; Chen, E Y

    1983-01-01

    The subtilisin gene from B. amyloliquefaciens has been cloned and expressed under its own promoter on a high copy plasmid, pBS42, in Bacillus subtilis I-168 (Marburg strain). Greater than 95 percent of the expressed protease activity is secreted, and the activity is sensitive to inhibition by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride as expected for subtilisin. Bacillus subtilis transformants carrying the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin gene in pBS42 (called pS4) secreted large amounts of a protein not seen in control pBS42 transformants. This protein migrated in SDS gels near the position of authentic subtilisin. The complete nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene has been determined using dideoxy sequencing methods. Ba131 exonuclease digestion studies at the 5' end of the gene have defined a 31 base pair stretch necessary for efficient expression of subtilisin. In addition to this putative promoter region, sequences have been assigned for ribosome binding, translation initiation, a signal peptide, the mature enzyme, and translation and transcription termination. A most interesting feature of the gene is a sequence of unknown function coding for roughly 75 amino acids between the signal sequence and the mature enzyme. It is proposed that this region serve as a pro-peptide as is commonly found in eukaryotic secreted proteases. Images PMID:6316278

  18. Anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis requires deoxyribonucleosides or DNA.

    PubMed

    Folmsbee, Martha J; McInerney, Michael J; Nagle, David P

    2004-09-01

    Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 (ATCC 39307), ROB2, and ABO21191(T) and Bacillus subtilis strains 168 (ATCC 23857) and ATCC 12332 required four deoxyribonucleosides or DNA for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. Bacillus licheniformis strains L89-11 and L87-11, Bacillus sonorensis strain TG8-8, and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) did not require DNA for anaerobic growth. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides or DNA did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. The addition of a mixture of five nucleic acid bases, four ribonucleotides, or four ribonucleosides to the basal medium did not replace the requirement of B. mojavensis JF-2 for the four deoxyribonucleosides. However, the addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Escherichia coli DNA, or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to the basal medium supported anaerobic growth. The addition of four deoxyribonucleosides to the basal medium allowed aerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 in the presence of hydroxyurea. B. mojavensis did not grow in DNA-supplemented basal medium that lacked sucrose as the energy source. These data provide strong evidence that externally supplied deoxyribonucleosides can be used to maintain a balanced deoxyribonucleotide pool for DNA synthesis and suggest that ribonucleotide reductases may not be essential to the bacterial cell cycle nor are they necessarily part of a minimal bacterial genome.

  19. Identification of Poly-N-acetylglucosamine as a Major Polysaccharide Component of the Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Damien; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Pons, Stephanie; Konkol, Melissa; Kearns, Daniel B.; Little, Dustin J.; Howell, P. Lynne; Skurnik, David; Pier, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is intensively studied as a model organism for the development of bacterial biofilms or pellicles. A key component is currently undefined exopolysaccharides produced from proteins encoded by genes within the eps locus. Within this locus are four genes, epsHIJK, known to be essential for pellicle formation. We show they encode proteins synthesizing the broadly expressed microbial carbohydrate poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG). PNAG was present in both pellicle and planktonic wild-type B. subtilis cells and in strains with deletions in the epsA–G and -L–O genes but not in strains deleted for epsH–K. Cloning of the B. subtilis epsH–K genes into Escherichia coli with in-frame deletions in the PNAG biosynthetic genes pgaA–D, respectively, restored PNAG production in E. coli. Cloning the entire B. subtilis epsHIJK locus into pga-deleted E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or alginate-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa restored or conferred PNAG production. Bioinformatic and structural predictions of the EpsHIJK proteins suggest EpsH and EpsJ are glycosyltransferases (GT) with a GT-A fold; EpsI is a GT with a GT-B fold, and EpsK is an α-helical membrane transporter. B. subtilis, E. coli, and pga-deleted E. coli carrying the epsHIJK genes on a plasmid were all susceptible to opsonic killing by antibodies to PNAG. The immunochemical and genetic data identify the genes and proteins used by B. subtilis to produce PNAG as a significant carbohydrate factor essential for pellicle formation. PMID:26078454

  20. Construction of probe of the plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus subtilis useful for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Posada, Luisa F; Alvarez, Javier C; Hu, Chia-Hui; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2016-09-01

    Strains of Bacillus subtilis are plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) of many crops and are used as inoculants. PGPB colonization is an important trait for success of a PGPB on plants. A specific probe, based on the 16 s rRNA of Bacillus subtilis, was designed and evaluated to distinguishing, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), between this species and the closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The selected target for the probe was between nucleotides 465 and 483 of the gene, where three different nucleotides can be identified. The designed probe successfully hybridized with several strains of Bacillus subtilis, but failed to hybridize not only with B. amyloliquefaciens, but also with other strains such as Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus gibsonii, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus; and with the external phylogenetic strains Azospirillum brasilense Cd, Micrococcus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. The results showed the specificity of this molecular probe for B. subtilis.

  1. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  2. MutS2 Promotes Homologous Recombination in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Burby, Peter E; Simmons, Lyle A

    2017-01-15

    Bacterial MutS proteins are subdivided into two families, MutS1 and MutS2. MutS1 family members recognize DNA replication errors during their participation in the well-characterized mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. In contrast to the well-described function of MutS1, the function of MutS2 in bacteria has remained less clear. In Helicobacter pylori and Thermus thermophilus, MutS2 has been shown to suppress homologous recombination. The role of MutS2 is unknown in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis In this work, we investigated the contribution of MutS2 to maintaining genome integrity in B. subtilis We found that deletion of mutS2 renders B. subtilis sensitive to the natural antibiotic mitomycin C (MMC), which requires homologous recombination for repair. We demonstrate that the C-terminal small MutS-related (Smr) domain is necessary but not sufficient for tolerance to MMC. Further, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system to test if the inducible prophage PBSX was the underlying cause of the observed MMC sensitivity. Genetic analysis revealed that MMC sensitivity was dependent on recombination and not on nucleotide excision repair or a symptom of prophage PBSX replication and cell lysis. We found that deletion of mutS2 resulted in decreased transformation efficiency using both plasmid and chromosomal DNA. Further, deletion of mutS2 in a strain lacking the Holliday junction endonuclease gene recU resulted in increased MMC sensitivity and decreased transformation efficiency, suggesting that MutS2 could function redundantly with RecU. Together, our results support a model where B. subtilis MutS2 helps to promote homologous recombination, demonstrating a new function for bacterial MutS2. Cells contain pathways that promote or inhibit recombination. MutS2 homologs are Smr-endonuclease domain-containing proteins that have been shown to function in antirecombination in some bacteria. We present evidence that B. subtilis MutS2 promotes recombination

  3. Acid and base stress and transcriptomic responses in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Jessica C; Kitko, Ryan D; Cleeton, Sarah H; Lee, Grace E; Ugwu, Chinagozi S; Jones, Brian D; BonDurant, Sandra S; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2009-02-01

    Acid and base environmental stress responses were investigated in Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis AG174 cultures in buffered potassium-modified Luria broth were switched from pH 8.5 to pH 6.0 and recovered growth rapidly, whereas cultures switched from pH 6.0 to pH 8.5 showed a long lag time. Log-phase cultures at pH 6.0 survived 60 to 100% at pH 4.5, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived <15%. Cells grown at pH 9.0 survived 40 to 100% at pH 10, whereas cells grown at pH 7.0 survived <5%. Thus, growth in a moderate acid or base induced adaptation to a more extreme acid or base, respectively. Expression indices from Affymetrix chip hybridization were obtained for 4,095 protein-encoding open reading frames of B. subtilis grown at external pH 6, pH 7, and pH 9. Growth at pH 6 upregulated acetoin production (alsDS), dehydrogenases (adhA, ald, fdhD, and gabD), and decarboxylases (psd and speA). Acid upregulated malate metabolism (maeN), metal export (czcDO and cadA), oxidative stress (catalase katA; OYE family namA), and the SigX extracytoplasmic stress regulon. Growth at pH 9 upregulated arginine catabolism (roc), which generates organic acids, glutamate synthase (gltAB), polyamine acetylation and transport (blt), the K(+)/H(+) antiporter (yhaTU), and cytochrome oxidoreductases (cyd, ctaACE, and qcrC). The SigH, SigL, and SigW regulons were upregulated at high pH. Overall, greater genetic adaptation was seen at pH 9 than at pH 6, which may explain the lag time required for growth shift to high pH. Low external pH favored dehydrogenases and decarboxylases that may consume acids and generate basic amines, whereas high external pH favored catabolism-generating acids.

  4. Function of the SpoVAEa and SpoVAF Proteins of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    of the catalytic domain of the Bacillus cereus SleB protein important in cortex degradation during spore germination. J. Bacteriol. 194:4537– 4545...1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER Function of the SpoVAEa and SpoVAF proteins of Bacillus W911NF-09-1-0286 subtilis spores 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT The Bacillus subtilis spoVAEa and spoVAF genes are expressed in developng spores as members of the spoVA operon that encodes proteins essential

  5. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of preweaning calves.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Zhang, H T

    2010-12-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of dairy calves during the preweaning phase were investigated in this study. Twelve Holstein male calves 7 ± 1 d of age were randomly allotted to 2 treatments of 6 calves. The Bacillus subtilis natto was mixed with milk and fed directly to the calves. The calves were weaned when their starter intake reached 2% of their weight. Blood was collected and IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and cytokine levels in the serum of all the calves were determined. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis natto increased general performance by improving the average daily gain and feed efficiency and advanced the weaning age of the calves. No difference was observed in serum IgE, IgA, and IgM, whereas serum IgG was higher in the Bacillus subtilis natto-supplemented calves than in the control calves. Furthermore, calves fed with Bacillus subtilis natto were found to secrete more IFN-γ, but tended to produce less IL-4 than did the control calves, although serum IL-6 and IL-10 were not affected. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis natto did not stimulate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but increased serum IgG and IFN-γ levels in the probiotic-fed calves. We propose that the viable probiotic characteristics of Bacillus subtilis natto benefit calf immune function. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne

    2009-09-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome-wide expression during mid-exponential growth on rich (LB) and minimal (M9) medium. The identified TARs account for 77.3% of the genes as they are currently annotated and additionally we find 84 putative non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and 127 antisense transcripts. One ncRNA, ncr22, is predicted to act as a translational control on cstA and an antisense transcript was observed opposite the housekeeping sigma factor sigA. Through this work we have discovered a long conserved 3' untranslated region (UTR) in a group of membrane-associated genes that is predicted to fold into a large and highly stable secondary structure. One of the genes having this tail is efeN, which encodes a target of the twin-arginine translocase (Tat) protein translocation system.

  7. Growth medium-independent genetic competence mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Dubnau, D; Roggiani, M

    1990-07-01

    The development of competence in Bacillus subtilis is normally dependent on the growth medium. Expression of late competence genes occurs in glucose-minimal salts-based media but not in complex media. Expression is also inhibited when glutamine is added to competence medium and when glycerol is substituted for glucose. Mutations have been identified in two regulatory loci, mecA and mecB, which render competence development independent of these variables. Although in mec mutants the expression of late competence genes, as well as of competence itself, occurred in all media tested, this expression was still growth stage regulated. Thus at least some forms of medium-dependent and growth stage-specific regulation are genetically separable. One of the mecB mutations (mecB31) conferred oligosporogenicity. The mecB mutations were tightly linked by transformation to rif, lpm, and std markers and were located between rif-2103 and cysA14. The mecA42 mutant was linked by transduction to argC4.

  8. Complex regulation of the Bacillus subtilis aconitase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Sam-In; Ratnayake-Lecamwasam, Manoja; Tachikawa, Kiyoshi; Sonenshein, Abraham L; Strauch, Mark

    2003-03-01

    The roles of the CcpC, CodY, and AbrB proteins in regulation of the Bacillus subtilis aconitase (citB) gene were found to be distinct and to vary with the conditions and phase of growth. CcpC, a citrate-inhibited repressor that is the primary factor regulating citB expression in minimal-glucose-glutamine medium, also contributed to repression of citB during exponential-phase growth in broth medium. A null mutation in codY had no effect on citB expression during growth in minimal medium even when combined with ccpC and abrB mutations. However, a codY mutation slightly relieved repression during exponential growth in broth medium and completely derepressed citB expression when combined with a ccpC mutation. An abrB mutation led to decreased expression of citB during stationary phase in both broth and minimal medium. All three proteins bound in vitro to specific and partially overlapping sites within the citB regulatory region. Interaction of CcpC and CodY with the citB promoter region was partially competitive.

  9. Recombinant Bacillus subtilis that grows on untreated plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Timothy D; Miller, J Izaak; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre; Clubb, Robert T

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock to produce biofuels and other valuable biocommodities. A major obstacle to its commercialization is the high cost of degrading biomass into fermentable sugars, which is typically achieved using cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei. Here, we explore the use of microbes to break down biomass. Bacillus subtilis was engineered to display a multicellulase-containing minicellulosome. The complex contains a miniscaffoldin protein that is covalently attached to the cell wall and three noncovalently associated cellulase enzymes derived from Clostridium cellulolyticum (Cel48F, Cel9E, and Cel5A). The minicellulosome spontaneously assembles, thus increasing the practicality of the cells. The recombinant bacteria are highly cellulolytic and grew in minimal medium containing industrially relevant forms of biomass as the primary nutrient source (corn stover, hatched straw, and switch grass). Notably, growth did not require dilute acid pretreatment of the biomass and the cells achieved densities approaching those of cells cultured with glucose. An analysis of the sugars released from acid-pretreated corn stover indicates that the cells have stable cellulolytic activity that enables them to break down 62.3% ± 2.6% of the biomass. When supplemented with beta-glucosidase, the cells liberated 21% and 33% of the total available glucose and xylose in the biomass, respectively. As the cells display only three types of enzymes, increasing the number of displayed enzymes should lead to even more potent cellulolytic microbes. This work has important implications for the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to value-added biocommodities.

  10. Self-sensing in Bacillus subtilis quorum-sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Bareia, Tasneem; Pollak, Shaul; Eldar, Avigdor

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell signalling, or quorum sensing, is characterized by the secretion and groupwide detection of small diffusible signal molecules called autoinducers. This mechanism allows cells to coordinate their behaviour in a density-dependent manner. A quorum-sensing cell may directly respond to the autoinducers it produces in a cell-autonomous and quorum-independent manner, but the strength of this self-sensing effect and its impact on bacterial physiology are unclear. Here, we explore the existence and impact of self-sensing in the Bacillus subtilis ComQXP and Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems. By comparing the quorum-sensing response of autoinducer-secreting and non-secreting cells in co-culture, we find that secreting cells consistently show a stronger response than non-secreting cells. Combining genetic and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate this effect to be a direct result of self-sensing and rule out an indirect regulatory effect of the autoinducer production genes on response sensitivity. In addition, self-sensing in the ComQXP system affects persistence to antibiotic treatment. Together, these findings indicate the existence of self-sensing in the two most common designs of quorum-sensing systems of Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering of bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusciano, G.; Zito, G.; Pesce, G.; Sasso, A.; Isticato, R.; Ricca, E.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding of the complex interactions of molecules at biological interfaces is a fundamental issue in biochemistry, biotechnology as well as biomedicine. A plethora of biological processes are ruled by the molecular texture of cellular membrane: cellular communications, drug transportations and cellular recognition are just a few examples of such chemically-mediated processes. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) is a novel, Raman-based technique which is ideally suited for this purpose. TERS relies on the combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The basic idea is the use of a metalled tip as a sort of optical nano-antenna, which gives place to SERS effect close to the tip end. Herein, we present the application of TERS to analyze the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. The choice of this biological systems is related to the fact that a number of reasons support the use of spores as a mucosal delivery system. The remarkable and well-documented resistance of spores to various environmental and toxic effects make them clear potentials as a novel, surface-display system. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that TERS is able to provide a nano-scale chemical imaging of spore surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that TERS allows differentiation between wilde-type spore and genetically modified strains. These results hold promise for the characterization and optimization of spore surface for drug-delivery applications.

  12. Detailed structure-function correlations of Bacillus subtilis acetolactate synthase.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Bettina; von Moeller, Holger; Haack, Martina; Qoura, Farah; Langner, Clemens; Bourenkov, Gleb; Garbe, Daniel; Loll, Bernhard; Brück, Thomas

    2015-01-02

    Isobutanol is deemed to be a next-generation biofuel and a renewable platform chemical.1 Non-natural biosynthetic pathways for isobutanol production have been implemented in cell-based and in vitro systems with Bacillus subtilis acetolactate synthase (AlsS) as key biocatalyst.2-6 AlsS catalyzes the condensation of two pyruvate molecules to acetolactate with thiamine diphosphate and Mg(2+) as cofactors. AlsS also catalyzes the conversion of 2-ketoisovalerate into isobutyraldehyde, the immediate precursor of isobutanol. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the ALS enzyme family forms a distinct subgroup of ThDP-dependent enzymes. To unravel catalytically relevant structure-function relationships, we solved the AlsS crystal structure at 2.3 Å in the presence of ThDP, Mg(2+) and in a transition state with a 2-lactyl moiety bound to ThDP. We supplemented our structural data by point mutations in the active site to identify catalytically important residues. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Antigenic changes during spore formation

    PubMed Central

    Waites, W. M.

    1968-01-01

    1. Antisera, prepared against extracts of cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis, were used in immunoelectrophoretic studies of the changes occurring in cell extracts during the course of spore formation. 2. At least 15 antigens could be detected in vegetative-cell extracts by the antiserum prepared against cell extracts and at least seven could be demonstrated in spore extracts by the homologous antiserum. 3. Cross-absorption studies showed that two of these antigens were probably completely specific for vegetative-cell extracts and that one was probably completely specific for spore extracts. The remainder were probably present in very small quantities in the heterologous extract. 4. In extracts of cells sporulating in an `exhaustion medium' those antigens characteristic of the spore began to appear about 1hr. after the end of exponential growth. 5. In cells sporulating in a resuspension medium, spore antigens were detected at 4hr., and by 7hr. a decrease in vegetative-cell antigens was observed. 6. In an asporogenous mutant blocked early in sporulation there was neither an increase in spore antigens nor a decrease in vegetative-cell antigens. 7. In an asporogenous mutant blocked later in sporulation, there was an increase in spore antigens similar to that which occurred in the sporogenous strain. PMID:4972254

  14. Analysis of the peptidoglycan structure of Bacillus subtilis endospores.

    PubMed Central

    Popham, D L; Helin, J; Costello, C E; Setlow, P

    1996-01-01

    Peptidoglycan was prepared from purified Bacillus subtilis spores of wild-type and several mutant strains. Digestion with muramidase resulted in cleavage of the glycosidic bonds adjacent to muramic acid replaced by peptide or alanine side chains but not the bonds adjacent to muramic lactam. Reduction of the resulting muropeptides allowed their separation by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The structures of 20 muropeptides were determined by amino acid and amino sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In wild-type spores, 50% of the muramic acid had been converted to the lactam and 75% of these lactam residues were spaced regularly at every second muramic acid position in the glycan chains. Single L-alanine side chains were found on 25% of the muramic acid residues. The remaining 25% of the muramic acid had tetrapeptide or tripeptide side chains, and 11% of the diaminopimelic acid in these side chains was involved in peptide cross-links. Analysis of spore peptidoglycan produced by a number of mutants lacking proteins involved in cell wall metabolism revealed structural changes. The most significant changes were in the spores of a dacB mutant which lacks the sporulation-specific penicillin-binding protein 5*. In these spores, only 46% of the muramic acid was in the lactam form, 12% had L-alanine side chains, and 42% had peptide side chains containing diaminopimelic acid, 29% of which was involved in cross-links. PMID:8932300

  15. Three deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent adenosine triphosphatases from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, G; Riva, S

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated from Bacillus subtilis three deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) (gamma-phosphohydrolases). The enzymes were extensively purified, and their physicochemical and functional properties were determined. The three enzymes (ATPases I, II, and III) were shown to be different by several criteria. ATPases II and III showed an absolute requirement for single-stranded DNA as a cofactor, whereas ATPase I had some residual activity also with double-stranded DNA. They required Mg2+ and had a pH optimum of 6.5 to 7. Only adenosine 5'-triphosphate and deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate were hydrolyzed. The molecular weights of ATPases I, II, and III were 108,000, 115,000, and 148,000, respectively. Km values for adenosine 5'-triphosphate and DNA were also evaluated and shown to be different for each enzyme. All three enzymes formed physical complexes with single-stranded DNA. We present evidence that ATPases I and II might migrate along DNA during adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis. On the other hand, this effect was not observed with ATPase III, which exhibited the highest affinity for single-stranded DNA. Images PMID:6111551

  16. Synthesis of Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid During Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bonamy, C.; Hirschbein, L.; Szulmajster, J.

    1973-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactive uracil into 50s and 30s ribosomal subunits and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) was studied during the growth cycle of different sporogenic and asporogenic strains of Bacillus subtilis. It was found that partially synchronized cultures of the strains examined incorporated labeled uracil into the two ribosomal subunit species and rRNA during sporulation and during the stationary phase of the asporogenic strains. Kinetic studies have shown that, compared to vegetative cells, the percentage of uracil incorporated into the ribosomal subunits of cells taken 30 min after the end of exponential growth was decreased by about 25 to 35%. This decrease, however, appeared to be a general characteristic of stationary-phase cells and seems to depend on the nature of the sporulation medium and to some extent on the nature of the strain but not on the sp+ or sp− phenotype of the strain. Moreover, by use of actinomycin D it was shown that the labeled uracil incorporated, in the presence of the drug, during the sporulation period was located in the ribosomal subunits (stable RNA). Based on these results, we concluded that during sporulation ribosomal genes are transcribed and consequently rRNA continues to be synthesized, although to a lesser extent than during vegetative growth. These results are discussed in the light of those obtained by Hussey et al. PMID:4632398

  17. Effects of chloramine on Bacillus subtilis deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lu Shih, K; Lederberg, J

    1976-01-01

    The lesions induced in Bacillus subtilis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) after treating bacterial cells (in vivo) and bacterial DNA (in vitro) with chloramine were studied biologically and physically. Single-strand breaks and a few double-strand scissions (at higher chloramine doses) accompanied loss of DNA-transforming activity in both kinds of treatments. Chloramine was about three times more efficient in vitro than in vivo in inducing DNA single-strand breaks. DNA was slowly chlorinated; the subsequent efficiency of producing DNA breaks was high. Chlorination of cells also reduced activity of endonucleases in cells; however, chlorinated DNA of both treatments was sensitized to cleavage by endonucleases. The procedure of extracting DNA from cells treated with chloramine induced further DNA degradation. Both treatments introduced a small fraction of alkali-sensitive lesions in DNA. DNA chlorinated in vitro showed further reduction in transforming activity as well as further degradation after incubation at 50 C for 5 h whereas DNA extracted from chloramine-treated cells did not show such a heat sensitivity. PMID:815252

  18. Hydrolysis of black soybean isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lun-Cheng; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Wu, Ren-Yu; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2006-11-01

    Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18 in black soymilk is reported. At the concentration of 3-5% (w/v), black soymilk in flask cultures, the isoflavones, daidzin, and genistin were highly deglycosylated within 24 h. Deglycosylation of isoflavones was further carried out in a 7-l fermenter with 5% black soymilk. During the fermentation, viable cells increased from 10(3) to 10(9) CFU ml(-1) in 15 h, and the activity of beta-glucosidase appeared at 8 h after inoculation and reached a maximum (3.3 U/ml) at 12 h, then decreased rapidly. Deglycosylation of isoflavone glycosides was observed at the same period, the deglycosylation rate of daidzin and genistin at 24 h was 100 and 75%, respectively. It is significantly higher than the previous reports of fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. In accordance with the deglycosylation of isoflavone glycosides, the estrogenic activity of the 24 h fermented black soymilk for ERbeta estrogen receptor increased to threefold; meanwhile, the fermented broth activated ERalpha estrogen receptor to a less extent than ERbeta. These results suggest that this fermentation effectively hydrolyzed the glycosides from isoflavone in black soymilk and the fermented black soymilk has the potential to be applied to selective estrogen receptor modulator products.

  19. Probing phenotypic growth in expanding Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Koehler, Stephan A; Wilking, James N; Sinha, Naveen N; Cabeen, Matthew T; Srinivasan, Siddarth; Seminara, Agnese; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Sun, Qingping; Brenner, Michael P; Weitz, David A

    2016-05-01

    We develop an optical imaging technique for spatially and temporally tracking biofilm growth and the distribution of the main phenotypes of a Bacillus subtilis strain with a triple-fluorescent reporter for motility, matrix production, and sporulation. We develop a calibration procedure for determining the biofilm thickness from the transmission images, which is based on Beer-Lambert's law and involves cross-sectioning of biofilms. To obtain the phenotype distribution, we assume a linear relationship between the number of cells and their fluorescence and determine the best combination of calibration coefficients that matches the total number of cells for all three phenotypes and with the total number of cells from the transmission images. Based on this analysis, we resolve the composition of the biofilm in terms of motile, matrix-producing, sporulating cells and low-fluorescent materials which includes matrix and cells that are dead or have low fluorescent gene expression. We take advantage of the circular growth to make kymograph plots of all three phenotypes and the dominant phenotype in terms of radial distance and time. To visualize the nonlocal character of biofilm growth, we also make kymographs using the local colonization time. Our technique is suitable for real-time, noninvasive, quantitative studies of the growth and phenotype distribution of biofilms which are either exposed to different conditions such as biocides, nutrient depletion, dehydration, or waste accumulation.

  20. Bacillus subtilis chromosome organization oscillates between two distinct patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xindan; Montero Llopis, Paula; Rudner, David Z

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial chromosomes have been found to possess one of two distinct patterns of spatial organization. In the first, called "ori-ter" and exemplified by Caulobacter crescentus, the chromosome arms lie side-by-side, with the replication origin and terminus at opposite cell poles. In the second, observed in slow-growing Escherichia coli ("left-ori-right"), the two chromosome arms reside in separate cell halves, on either side of a centrally located origin. These two patterns, rotated 90° relative to each other, appear to result from different segregation mechanisms. Here, we show that the Bacillus subtilis chromosome alternates between them. For most of the cell cycle, newly replicated origins are maintained at opposite poles with chromosome arms adjacent to each other, in an ori-ter configuration. Shortly after replication initiation, the duplicated origins move as a unit to midcell and the two unreplicated arms resolve into opposite cell halves, generating a left-ori-right pattern. The origins are then actively segregated toward opposite poles, resetting the cycle. Our data suggest that the condensin complex and the parABS partitioning system are the principal driving forces underlying this oscillatory cycle. We propose that the distinct organization patterns observed for bacterial chromosomes reflect a common organization-segregation mechanism, and that simple modifications to it underlie the unique patterns observed in different species.

  1. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    exceeding 40 nm. Similar surface ridges have been observed on spores of Bacillus anthracis [29], Bacillus cereus [22,23], Bacillus atrophaeus [22,24...thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spore coat surfaces. Langmuir 21: 7892 7898. 24. Plomp M., Leighton TJ, Wheeler KE, Pitesky ME, Malkin AJ (2005...of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis studied by freeze-etching and high resolution electron microscopy. Eur J Cell Biol 20: 283 289. 42

  2. Epr is transcribed from a final sigma(D) promoter and is involved in swarming of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Madhulika; Murudkar, Charuta S; Rao, K Krishnamurthy

    2002-01-01

    Epr is a minor extracellular protease secreted by Bacillus subtilis 168. In this study, we show that epr is transcribed by E sigma(D), the RNA polymerase associated with transcription of genes involved in chemotaxis and motility. Disruption of epr abolished swarming of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting its involvement in motility.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  4. Enhancement of extracellular expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis: Effects of promoter and host.

    PubMed

    Song, Wan; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in industrial applications of starch processing. However, extracellular production of pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis is yet limited due to the issues on regulatory elements of B. subtilis expression system. In this study, the gene encoding B. naganoensis pullulanase (PUL) was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the promoter PHpaII in the shuttle vector pMA0911. The extracellular activity of expressed pullulanase was 3.9 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-PHpaII-pul. To further enhance the yield of PUL, the promoter PHpaII in pMA0911 was replaced by a stronger constitutive promoter P43. Then the activity was increased to 8.7 U ml(-1) from the recombinant B. subtilis WB800/pMA0911-P43-pul. Effect of host on pullulanase expression was further investigated by comparison between B. subtilis WB600 and B. subtilis WB800. In addition to the available B. subtilis WB800 recombinants, the constructed plasmids pMA0911-PHpaII-pul and pMA0911-P43-pul were transformed into B. subtilis WB600, respectively. Consequently, the extracellular production of PUL was significantly enhanced by B. subtilis WB600/pMA0911-P43-pul, resulting in the extracellular pullulanase activity of 24.5 U ml(-1). Therefore, promoter and host had an impact on pullulanase expression and their optimization would be useful to improve heterologous protein expression in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  6. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  7. Cosegregation of cell wall and DNA in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Schlaeppi, J M; Karamata, D

    1982-12-01

    Cosegregation of cell wall and DNA of a lysis-negative mutant of Bacillus subtilis was examined by continuously labeling (i) cell wall, (ii) DNA, and (iii) both cell wall and DNA. After four to five generations of chase in liquid media it was found by light microscope autoradiography that the numbers of wall segregation units per cell are 29 and 9 in rich and minimal medium, respectively. Under the same conditions the numbers of segregation units of DNA were almost 50% lower: 15 and 5, respectively. Simultaneous labeling of cell wall and DNA (iii) provided figures almost identical to those obtained for cell wall alone, (i), implying cosegregation of the two components. Statistical analysis ruled out their random distribution into daughter cells. Measurements of the positions of grain clusters at the end of the chase period along chains of cells, each derived from a single cell at the beginning of chase, show that cell wall units are localized according to a symmetrical pattern, whereas those of DNA are distributed in an asymmetrical but highly regular way. It appears that of two cell wall units of the same age one only has a strand of DNA attached to it. We present a simple diagrammatic model of cell wall organization and DNA-cell wall association which is compatible with our observations. Finally, we discuss previous experiments pertinent to cosegregation of cell wall and DNA obtained with cells grown on solid media as well as with germinating spores; an explanation for the independent segregation of cell wall and DNA observed in the latter case is advanced.

  8. Recombinant Bacillus subtilis That Grows on Untreated Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Timothy D.; Miller, J. Izaak; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock to produce biofuels and other valuable biocommodities. A major obstacle to its commercialization is the high cost of degrading biomass into fermentable sugars, which is typically achieved using cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei. Here, we explore the use of microbes to break down biomass. Bacillus subtilis was engineered to display a multicellulase-containing minicellulosome. The complex contains a miniscaffoldin protein that is covalently attached to the cell wall and three noncovalently associated cellulase enzymes derived from Clostridium cellulolyticum (Cel48F, Cel9E, and Cel5A). The minicellulosome spontaneously assembles, thus increasing the practicality of the cells. The recombinant bacteria are highly cellulolytic and grew in minimal medium containing industrially relevant forms of biomass as the primary nutrient source (corn stover, hatched straw, and switch grass). Notably, growth did not require dilute acid pretreatment of the biomass and the cells achieved densities approaching those of cells cultured with glucose. An analysis of the sugars released from acid-pretreated corn stover indicates that the cells have stable cellulolytic activity that enables them to break down 62.3% ± 2.6% of the biomass. When supplemented with beta-glucosidase, the cells liberated 21% and 33% of the total available glucose and xylose in the biomass, respectively. As the cells display only three types of enzymes, increasing the number of displayed enzymes should lead to even more potent cellulolytic microbes. This work has important implications for the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to value-added biocommodities. PMID:23183968

  9. Selective Heterogeneity in Exoprotease Production by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Fordyce A.; Seon-Yi, Chung; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have elaborate signalling mechanisms to ensure a behavioural response that is most likely to enhance survival in a changing environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that as part of this response, bacteria are capable of cell differentiation and can generate multiple, mutually exclusive co-existing cell states. These cell states are often associated with multicellular processes that bring benefit to the community as a whole but which may be, paradoxically, disadvantageous to an individual subpopulation. How this process of cell differentiation is controlled is intriguing and remains a largely open question. In this paper, we consider an important aspect of cell differentiation that is known to occur in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis: we investigate the role of two master regulators DegU and Spo0A in the control of extra-cellular protease production. Recent work in this area focussed the on role of DegU in this process and suggested that transient effects in protein production were the drivers of cell-response heterogeneity. Here, using a combination of mathematical modelling, analysis and stochastic simulations, we provide a complementary analysis of this regulatory system that investigates the roles of both DegU and Spo0A in extra-cellular protease production. In doing so, we present a mechanism for bimodality, or system heterogeneity, without the need for a bistable switch in the underlying regulatory network. Moreover, our analysis leads us to conclude that this heterogeneity is in fact a persistent, stable feature. Our results suggest that system response is divided into three zones: low and high signal levels induce a unimodal or undifferentiated response from the cell population with all cells OFF and ON, respectively for exoprotease production. However, for intermediate levels of signal, a heterogeneous response is predicted with a spread of activity levels, representing typical “bet-hedging” behaviour. PMID:22745669

  10. A Donnan potential model for metal sorption onto Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Nathan; Fowle, David A.; Ferris, F. Grant

    2004-09-01

    In this study, we conducted electrophoretic mobility, potentiometric titration, and metal sorption experiments to investigate the surface charge characteristics of Bacillus subtilis and the electrostatic interactions between metal cations and the cell surface electric field. Electrophoretic mobility experiments performed as a function of pH and ionic strength show an isoelectric point of pH 2.4, with the magnitude of the electrokinetic potential increasing with increasing pH, and decreasing with increasing ionic strength. Potentiometric titration experiments conducted from pH 2.4 to 9 yield an average surface charge excess of 1.6 μmol/mg (dry mass). Corresponding cell wall charge density values were used to calculate the Donnan potential (Ψ DON) as function of pH and ionic strength. Metal sorption experiments conducted with Ca(II), Sr(II), and Ba(II) exhibit strong ionic strength dependence, suggesting that the metal ions are bound to the bacterial cell wall via an outer-sphere complexation mechanism. Intrinsic metal sorption constants for the sorption reactions were determined by correcting the apparent sorption constant with the Boltzmann factor. A 1:2 metal-ligand stoichiometry provides the best fit to the experimental data with log K2int values of 5.9 ± 0.3, 6.0 ± 0.2, 6.2 ± 0.2 for Ca(II), Sr(II), and Ba(II) respectively. Electrophoretic mobility measurements of cells sorbed with Ca(II), Sr(II), and Ba(II) support the 1:2 sorption stoichiometry. These results indicate that electrical potential parameters derived from the Donnan model can be applied to predict metal binding onto bacterial surfaces over a wide range of pH and ionic strength conditions.

  11. Integrative bacterial artificial chromosomes for DNA integration into the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized model bacterium frequently used for a number of biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Novel strategies combining the advantages of B. subtilis with the DNA assembly and editing tools of Escherichia coli are crucial for B. subtilis engineering efforts. We combined Gibson Assembly and λ red recombineering in E. coli with RecA-mediated homologous recombination in B. subtilis for bacterial artificial chromosome-mediated DNA integration into the well-characterized amyE target locus of the B. subtilis chromosome. The engineered integrative bacterial artificial chromosome iBAC(cav) can accept any DNA fragment for integration into B. subtilis chromosome and allows rapid selection of transformants by B. subtilis-specific antibiotic resistance and the yellow fluorescent protein (mVenus) expression. We used the developed iBAC(cav)-mediated system to integrate 10kb DNA fragment from E. coli K12 MG1655 into B. subtilis chromosome. iBAC(cav)-mediated chromosomal integration approach will facilitate rational design of synthetic biology applications in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Lv, C; Zhuang, P; Zhang, H; Fan, L

    2011-11-01

    The endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis strain GXJM08, isolated from roots of Podocarpus imbricatus B1. Enum. P1. Jav., in roots of the leguminous plant Robinia pseudoacacia L. was investigated. Ultrastructure observations showed that B. subtilis caused morphological changes in the root hair and colonised the plant through infected root hairs. The structure of the infection thread was similar to that of rhizobia, but the structure of infected cells was different. B. subtilis is also different from rhizobia and plant pathogens in terms of the formation of a peribacteroid membrane and the mode of penetration through the host cell wall. Our results provide a basis for studying development of the mutualistic symbiotic relationship between B. subtilis and plants, and a basis for studying the mechanism of the B. subtilis-plant interaction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Bacillus subtilis biofilm extends Caenorhabditis elegans longevity through downregulation of the insulin-like signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Verónica; Ayala, Facundo Rodríguez; Cogliati, Sebastián; Bauman, Carlos; Costa, Juan Gabriel; Leñini, Cecilia; Grau, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria have been shown to affect host longevity, but the molecular mechanisms mediating such effects remain largely unclear. Here we show that formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms increases Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. Biofilm-proficient B. subtilis colonizes the C. elegans gut and extends worm lifespan more than biofilm-deficient isogenic strains. Two molecules produced by B. subtilis — the quorum-sensing pentapeptide CSF and nitric oxide (NO) — are sufficient to extend C. elegans longevity. When B. subtilis is cultured under biofilm-supporting conditions, the synthesis of NO and CSF is increased in comparison with their production under planktonic growth conditions. We further show that the prolongevity effect of B. subtilis biofilms depends on the DAF-2/DAF-16/HSF-1 signalling axis and the downregulation of the insulin-like signalling (ILS) pathway. PMID:28134244

  14. The Bacillus subtilis Acyl Lipid Desaturase Is a Δ5 Desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Altabe, Silvia G.; Aguilar, Pablo; Caballero, Gerardo M.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was recently reported to synthesize unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) with a double bond at positions Δ5, Δ7, and Δ9 (M. H. Weber, W. Klein, L. Muller, U. M. Niess, and M. A. Marahiel, Mol. Microbiol. 39:1321-1329, 2001). Since this finding would have considerable importance in the double-bond positional specificity displayed by the B. subtilis acyl lipid desaturase, we have attempted to confirm this observation. We report that the double bond of UFAs synthesized by B. subtilis is located exclusively at the Δ5 position, regardless of the growth temperature and the length chain of the fatty acids. PMID:12730185

  15. Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, J V; Canibe, N; Soumeh, E A; Jensen, B B; Nielsen, B; Derkx, P; Cantor, M D; Blaabjerg, K; Poulsen, H D

    2016-11-01

    Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance and blood amino acid (AA) concentrations when fed to piglets. Experiment 1 included 18 pigs (15.0±1.1 kg) fed one of three diets containing either 0.63 or 0.69 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 1). Blood samples were obtained 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding and analyzed for AAs. In Experiment 2, 80 piglets (9.1±1.1 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 0.63 or 0.67 SID Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with another Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 2) or its parent wild type. Average daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured on days 7, 14 and 21. On day 17, blood samples were taken and analyzed for AAs. On days 24 to 26, six pigs from each dietary treatment were fitted with a permanent jugular vein catheter, and blood samples were taken for AA analysis 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding. In experiment 1, Bacillus subtilis mutant 1 tended (P<0.10) to increase the plasma levels of Val at 2 and 3 h post-feeding, but this was not confirmed in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, Bacillus subtilis mutant 2 and the wild type did not result in a growth performance different from the negative and positive controls. In conclusion, results obtained with the mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis were not better than results obtained with the wild-type strain, and for both strains, the results were not different than the negative control.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Poly-γ-Glutamate-Synthesizing Bacterium Bacillus subtilis Bs-115.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqing; Gong, Lijuan; Zhou, Lihong; Liang, Jinzhong

    2018-04-19

    Bacillus subtilis Bs-115 was isolated from the soil of a corn field in Yutai County, Jinan City, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, and is characterized by the efficient synthesis of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA), with corn saccharification liquid as the sole energy and carbon source during the process of γ-PGA formation. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis Bs-115 and the genes associated with poly-γ-glutamate synthesis. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an "Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens" within the B. subtilis Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42 T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as " B. amyloliquefaciens ." Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7 T , the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens . We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7 T . Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens , (2) Bacillus siamensis , and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus , and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum . The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7 T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as "operational group B. amyloliquefaciens " consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens , and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis , whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style.

  18. Cotransduction and Cotransformation of Genetic Markers in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Tyeryar, Franklin J.; Taylor, Martha J.; Lawton, William D.; Goldberg, Ivan D.

    1969-01-01

    Bacteriophage SP-15, a large generalized transducing phage of Bacillus, was compared with phages PBS-1 and SP-10 for the ability to cotransduce pairs of genetic markers exhibiting different degrees of linkage. When auxotrophs of B. subtilis W-23 were used as recipients, SP-15 and PBS-1 effected a much higher frequency of cotransduction than did SP-10 with markers that were not closely linked. With more closely linked loci, the differences were not as great. SP-15 cotransduced linked markers at a higher mean frequency than PBS-1, suggesting that SP-15 is able to transfer a larger fragment of the Bacillus genome than any phage heretofore described. The frequency of the joint transfer of genetic markers in B. licheniformis was lower via transforming deoxyribonucleic acid than by transduction with phage SP-10. The availability of three procedures for genetic exchange—transduction by SP-15 and SP-10 as well as transformation—each of which reveals a different degree of linkage, makes B. licheniformis 9945A especially amenable to genetic analysis. Images PMID:4982666

  19. Lytic enzyme-assisted germination of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, B G; Heffron, J D; Popham, D L

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this work was to determine conditions under which external application of a spore germination-specific lytic enzyme (GSLE) can increase the germination efficiency of spore populations. The Bacillus anthracis GSLE SleB was applied to native and coat-disrupted B. anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores. SleB was inactive on native spores but was able to trigger rapid germination of coat-disrupted spores. Using spores lacking their GSLEs or their germinant receptors to model poorly germinating spores, SleB application was able to increase colony-forming efficiency 100-fold for native spores and >1000-fold for coat-disrupted spores. SleB effects on GSLE-deficient spores were greater than on germinant receptor-deficient spores. SleB treatment can increase spore germination efficiency. The greater effect of SleB on coat-disrupted spores is presumably due to the greater access afforded to the cortex. However, SleB apparently gained access to the cortex of native spores after they responded to nutrients and completed stage I of germination, which may result in the disruption of coat structure. Treatment of spore populations with a GSLE can increase germination efficiency. Such a treatment might be utilized to increase the rapid activation of industrial spore-based products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. New inhibitors of colony spreading in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xin; Nguyen, Tam; Kearns, Daniel B; Arpin, Carolynn C; Fall, Ray; Sammakia, Tarek

    2011-09-15

    We have recently characterized sliding motility in Bacillus subtilis strains that lack functional flagella, and here describe the discovery of inhibitors of colony spreading in these strains as well as the aflagellate pathogen, Bacillus anthracis. Aflagellate B. subtilis strains were used to screen for new types of antibacterials that might inhibit colony spreading on semi-solid media. From a diverse set of organic structures, p-nitrophenylglycerol (NPG), an agent used primarily in clinical laboratories to control Proteus swarming, was found to inhibit colony spreading. The four stereoisomers of NPG were synthesized and tested, and only the 1R,2S-(1R-anti) and 1R,2R-(1R-syn) NPG isomers had significant activity in a quantitative colony-spreading assay. Twenty-six NPG analogs and related structures were synthesized and tested to identify more active inhibitors. p-Methylsulfonylphenylglycerol (p-SPG), but not its ortho or meta analogs, was found to be the most effective of these compounds, and synthesis and testing of all four p-SPG stereoisomers showed that the 1R-anti-isomer was the most active with an average IC(50) of 16 μM (3-5 μg mL(-1)). For B. anthracis, the colony-spreading IC(50) values for 1R-anti-SPG and 1R-anti-NPG are 12 μM (2-4 μg mL(-1)) and >150 μM, respectively. For both Bacillus species tested, 1R-anti-SPG inhibits colony spreading of surface cultures on agar plates, but is not bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal in liquid cultures. Work is in progress to find the cellular target(s) of the NPG/SPG class of compounds, since this could lead to an understanding of the mechanism(s) of colony spreading as well as design and development of more potent inhibitors for the control of B. anthracis surface cultures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , and B. subtilis (3, 7). The gerP locus was originally identified by a mutation that de- creased B. cereus ...in the gerP locus of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus affect access of germinants to their targets in spores. J. Bacteriol. 182:1987–1994. 4...yncD. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 283:69 –74. 31. Preston RA, Douthit HA. 1984. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores: critical control by DL-alanine racemase

  3. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV–vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  4. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-02-04

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV-vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid.

  5. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. PMID:28679746

  6. Cellular levels of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Barbara C; Gollnick, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trp genes is negatively regulated by an 11-subunit trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP), which is activated to bind RNA by binding l-tryptophan. We used Western blotting to estimate that there are 200 to 400 TRAP 11-mer molecules per cell in cells grown in either minimal or rich medium.

  7. Thermal Regulation of Membrane Lipid Fluidity by a Two-Component System in "Bacillus Subtilis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeston, L. M.; Marciano, D.; Albanesi, D.; De Mendoza, D.; Delfino, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a simple and robust laboratory exercise on the regulation of membrane unsaturated fatty acid composition in bacteria by a decrease in growth temperature. We take advantage of the well characterized Des pathway of "Bacillus subtilis", composed of a [delta]5-desaturase (encoded by the "des" gene) and the canonical…

  8. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  9. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

  10. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...

  11. Transcriptional Profiling in Cotton Associated with Bacillus Subtilis (UFLA285) Induced Biotic-stress Tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) confer disease resistance in many agricultural crops. In the case of Bacillus subtilis (UFLA285) isolated from the cotton producing state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), in addition to inducing foliar and root growth, disease resistance against damping-off cause...

  12. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  13. Production of mannanase from Bacillus Subtilis LBF-005 and its potential for manno-oligosaccharides production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yopi, Rahmani, Nanik; Jannah, Alifah Mafatikhul; Nugraha, Irfan Pebi; Ramadana, Roni Masri

    2017-11-01

    Endo-β-1, 4-mannanase is the key enzymes for randomly hydrolyzing the β-1,4-linkages within the mannan backbone releasing manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). A marine bacterium of Bacillus subtilis LBF-005 was reported have ability to produce endo-type mannanase. The aims of this research were to compare commercial biomass Locust Bean Gum (LBG) and raw biomass contaning mannan as carbon source for mannanase production from Bacillus subtilis LBF-005, to analyze the optimum condition of mannanase production, and to find out the potential of the mannanase for MOS production. Bacillus subtilis LBF-005 was cultivated in Artificial Sea Water (ASW) medium contain NaCl and various mannan biomass as carbon source for mannanase production. The cells were grown in submerged fermentation. The maximum enzyme activity was obtained with porang potato as a substrate with concentration 1%, pH medium 8, and incubation temperature 50°C with an enzyme activity of 37.7 U/mL. The mainly MOS product released by crude mannanase produced by Bacillus subtilis LBF-005 were mannobiose (M2), mannotriose (M3), mannotetraose (M4), and mannopentaose (M5).

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-'-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 365 strains, including B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting n...

  15. Simple, Inexpensive, and Rapid Way to Produce Bacillus subtilis Spores for the Guthrie Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Martha L.; Clark, William A.

    1981-01-01

    Esculin agar has been found to be a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and reliable means to promote production of spores of inhibitor-sensitive clones of Bacillus subtilis strains ATCC 6051 and 6633 for use in the Guthrie bioassay screening tests for genetic metabolic disorders. Images PMID:6790564

  16. Enhanced production of recombinant nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis by the elimination of limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2006-10-01

    By systematic investigation, glutamate and a mixture of metal ions were identified as factors limiting the production of nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis. Consequently, in medium supplemented with these materials, the recombinant strain secreted 4 times more nattokinase (260 mg l(-1)) than when grown in the unsupplemented medium.

  17. [Transketolase mutation in riboflavin-synthesizing strains of Bacillus subtilis].

    PubMed

    Gershanovich, V N; Kukanova, A Ia; Galushkina, Z M; Stepanov, A I

    2000-01-01

    Unlike its predecessors B. subtilis rosR and 41, riboflavin producing B. subtilis 24 strain does not utilize pentose and gluconate and poorly assimilates glucose. Simultaneous addition of glutamic and shikimic acid restored its capacity to grow and produce riboflavin in medium with pentose and gluconate. This strain lacks the activity of transketolase, the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate cycle, and possesses normal ribulose-5-phosphate-epimerase and glucose phosphate isomerase activities. Like enterobacteria, B. subtilis has two different transport systems for glucose and mannose. The data are discussed from the viewpoint of increasing riboflavin production by transketolase mutants. Probable consequences of cell wall and cytoplasmatic membrane damage in B. subtilis with this mutation are discussed.

  18. Recent progress in Bacillus subtilis spore-surface display: concept, progress, and future.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Wang, Yunxiang; Yang, Ruijin

    2017-02-01

    With the increased knowledge on spore structure and advances in biotechnology engineering, the newly developed spore-surface display system confers several inherent advantages over other microbial cell-surface display systems including enhanced stability and high safety. Bacillus subtilis is the most commonly used Bacillus species for spore-surface display. The expression of heterologous antigen or protein on the surface of B. subtilis spores has now been practiced for over a decade with noteworthy success. As an update and supplement to other previous reviews, we comprehensively summarize recent studies in the B. subtilis spore-surface display technique. We focus on its benefits as well as the critical factors affecting its display efficiency and offer suggestions for the future success of this field.

  19. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao, a traditional fermented soybean food in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inatsu, Y; Nakamura, N; Yuriko, Y; Fushimi, T; Watanasiritum, L; Kawamoto, S

    2006-09-01

    To clarify the diversity of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao that produce high concentrations of products useful in food manufacturing and in health-promoting compounds. Production of amylase, protease, subtilisin NAT (nattokinase), and gamma-polyglutamic acid (PGA) by the Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao was measured. Productivity of protease NAT by these strains tended to be higher than by Japanese commercial natto-producing strains. Molecular diversity of isolated strains was analysed via randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprinting. The strains were divided into 19 types, including a type with the same pattern as a Japanese natto-producing strain. B. subtilis strains that could be a resource for effective production of protease, amylase, subtilisin NAT, or PGA were evident in Thua nao produced in various regions in northern Thailand. This study clearly demonstrated the value of Thua nao as a potential resource of food-processing enzymes and health-promoting compounds.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Applicable to Natto (Fermented Soybean) Production ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group. PMID:21764950

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yuji; Rooney, Alejandro P; Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Rikio; Hasegawa, Hiromasa; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-09-01

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 424 strains, including Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting natto. Biotin auxotrophism was tightly linked to natto fermentation. A multilocus nucleotide sequence of six genes (rpoB, purH, gyrA, groEL, polC, and 16S rRNA) was used for phylogenetic analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was also conducted on the natto-fermenting strains. The ability to ferment natto was inferred from the two principal components of the AFLP banding pattern, and natto-fermenting strains formed a tight cluster within the B. subtilis subsp. subtilis group.

  2. Suitability of different β-galactosidases as reporter enzymes in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Norma; Homuth, Georg; Schweder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of three β-galactosidases as reporter enzymes for promoter expression analyses was investigated in Bacillus subtilis with respect to various temperature conditions during cultivation and assay procedures. Starting from the hypothesis that proteins derived from diverse habitats have different advantages as reporters at different growth temperatures, the beta-galactosidases from the thermophilic organism Bacillus stearothermophilus, from the mesophilic bacterium Escherichia coli and from the psychrophilic organism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAE79 were analysed under control of the constitutive B. subtilis lepA promoter. Subsequent expression of the β-galactosidase genes and determination of specific activities was performed at different cultivation and assay temperatures using B. subtilis as host. Surprisingly, the obtained results demonstrated that the highest activities over a broad cultivation temperature range were obtained using the β-galactosidase from the mesophilic bacterium E. coli whereas the enzymes from the thermophilic and psychrophilic bacteria revealed a more restricted usability in terms of cultivation temperature.

  3. Whole genome assembly of a natto production strain Bacillus subtilis natto from very short read data.

    PubMed

    Nishito, Yukari; Osana, Yasunori; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Popendorf, Kris; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Itaya, Mitsuhiro; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2010-04-16

    Bacillus subtilis natto is closely related to the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis Marburg 168, and functions as a starter for the production of the traditional Japanese food "natto" made from soybeans. Although re-sequencing whole genomes of several laboratory domesticated B. subtilis 168 derivatives has already been attempted using short read sequencing data, the assembly of the whole genome sequence of a closely related strain, B. subtilis natto, from very short read data is more challenging, particularly with our aim to assemble one fully connected scaffold from short reads around 35 bp in length. We applied a comparative genome assembly method, which combines de novo assembly and reference guided assembly, to one of the B. subtilis natto strains. We successfully assembled 28 scaffolds and managed to avoid substantial fragmentation. Completion of the assembly through long PCR experiments resulted in one connected scaffold for B. subtilis natto. Based on the assembled genome sequence, our orthologous gene analysis between natto BEST195 and Marburg 168 revealed that 82.4% of 4375 predicted genes in BEST195 are one-to-one orthologous to genes in 168, with two genes in-paralog, 3.2% are deleted in 168, 14.3% are inserted in BEST195, and 5.9% of genes present in 168 are deleted in BEST195. The natto genome contains the same alleles in the promoter region of degQ and the coding region of swrAA as the wild strain, RO-FF-1. These are specific for gamma-PGA production ability, which is related to natto production. Further, the B. subtilis natto strain completely lacked a polyketide synthesis operon, disrupted the plipastatin production operon, and possesses previously unidentified transposases. The determination of the whole genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis natto provided detailed analyses of a set of genes related to natto production, demonstrating the number and locations of insertion sequences that B. subtilis natto harbors but B. subtilis 168 lacks

  4. Whole genome assembly of a natto production strain Bacillus subtilis natto from very short read data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacillus subtilis natto is closely related to the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis Marburg 168, and functions as a starter for the production of the traditional Japanese food "natto" made from soybeans. Although re-sequencing whole genomes of several laboratory domesticated B. subtilis 168 derivatives has already been attempted using short read sequencing data, the assembly of the whole genome sequence of a closely related strain, B. subtilis natto, from very short read data is more challenging, particularly with our aim to assemble one fully connected scaffold from short reads around 35 bp in length. Results We applied a comparative genome assembly method, which combines de novo assembly and reference guided assembly, to one of the B. subtilis natto strains. We successfully assembled 28 scaffolds and managed to avoid substantial fragmentation. Completion of the assembly through long PCR experiments resulted in one connected scaffold for B. subtilis natto. Based on the assembled genome sequence, our orthologous gene analysis between natto BEST195 and Marburg 168 revealed that 82.4% of 4375 predicted genes in BEST195 are one-to-one orthologous to genes in 168, with two genes in-paralog, 3.2% are deleted in 168, 14.3% are inserted in BEST195, and 5.9% of genes present in 168 are deleted in BEST195. The natto genome contains the same alleles in the promoter region of degQ and the coding region of swrAA as the wild strain, RO-FF-1. These are specific for γ-PGA production ability, which is related to natto production. Further, the B. subtilis natto strain completely lacked a polyketide synthesis operon, disrupted the plipastatin production operon, and possesses previously unidentified transposases. Conclusions The determination of the whole genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis natto provided detailed analyses of a set of genes related to natto production, demonstrating the number and locations of insertion sequences that B. subtilis natto harbors but B

  5. An easy method for screening and isolating rod mutants of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S-H; Lai, W-P; Ng, T-W; Lam, M-W; Cheung, H-Y

    2004-05-01

    A convenient and rapid method for screening and identifying rod mutants of Bacillus subtilis is described. At the restrictive temperature (45 degrees C), all rod mutants of B. subtilis screened lost their ability to sporulate. The morphology and colour of mutant colonies grown on sporulation agar plates differed from those of rod+ cells, which were able to sporulate even at elevated temperature. These characteristics provide an alternative approach for the identification of rod mutants in B. subtilis culture by streaking the cells onto a minimal glucose agar plate and incubating at the restrictive temperature. After 30 h of incubation at this temperature, rod mutants are easily identified. This method will facilitate the screening and isolation of rod mutants of B. subtilis. Copyright 2003 Springer-Verlag

  6. Evaluation of dermal wound healing and in vitro antioxidant efficiency of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Moalla-Rekik, Dorsaf; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebai, Tarek; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-12-01

    Lipopeptide microbial surfactants are endowed with unique surface properties as well as antimicrobial, anti-wrinkle, moisturizing and free radical scavenging activities. They were introduced safely in dermatological products, as long as they present low cytotoxicity against human cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities and the wound healing potential of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant on excision wounds induced in experimental rats. The scavenging effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical at 1mg/mL was 70.4% (IC 50 =0.55mg/mL). The biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1 also showed good reducing power and significant effects in terms of the β-carotene test (IC 50 =2.26mg/mL) when compared to BHA as a reference standard. Moreover, an interesting ferrous ion chelating activity (80.32%) was found for SPB1 biosurfactant at 1mg/mL. Furthermore, the topical application of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant based gel on the wound site in a rat model every two days, increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 13days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA™-treated groups. Wound healing effect of SPB1 biosurfactant based gel was confirmed by histological study. Biopsies treated with SPB1 lipopeptides showed wholly re-epithelialized wound with a perfect epidermal regeneration. The present study provides justification for the use of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant based gel for the treatment of normal and complicated wounds as well as skin diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiofilm activity of α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis S8-18 against biofilm forming human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Balu Jancy; Aarthy, Subramonian; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2012-07-01

    The extracellular α-amylase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis S8-18 of marine origin was proved as an antibiofilm agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a clinical strain isolated from pharyngitis patient, Vibrio cholerae also a clinical isolate from cholera patient and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. The spectrophotometric and microscopic investigations revealed the potential of α-amylase to inhibit biofilm formation in these pathogens. At its BIC level, the crude enzyme caused 51.81-73.07% of biofilm inhibition. Beyond the inhibition, the enzyme was also effective in degradation of preformed mature biofilm by disrupting the exopolysaccharide (EPS), an essential component in biofilm architecture. Furthermore, the enzyme purified to its homogeneity by chromatographic techniques was also effective in biofilm inhibition (43.83-61.68%) as well as in degradation of EPS. A commercial α-amylase enzyme from B. subtilis was also used for comparative purpose. Besides, the effect of various enzymes and temperature on the antibiofilm activity of amylase enzymes was also investigated. This study, for the first time, proved that α-amylase enzyme alone can be used to inhibit/disrupt the biofilms of V. cholerae and MRSA strains and beholds much promise in clinical applications.

  8. Bacillaene and Sporulation Protect Bacillus subtilis from Predation by Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Susanne; Strack, Sarah N.; Hoefler, B. Christopher; Straight, Paul D.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis are common soil-dwelling bacteria that produce a wide range of secondary metabolites and sporulate under nutrient-limiting conditions. Both organisms affect the composition and dynamics of microbial communities in the soil. However, M. xanthus is known to be a predator, while B. subtilis is not. A screen of various prey led to the finding that M. xanthus is capable of consuming laboratory strains of B. subtilis, while the ancestral strain, NCIB3610, was resistant to predation. Based in part on recent characterization of several strains of B. subtilis, we were able to determine that the pks gene cluster, which is required for production of bacillaene, is the major factor allowing B. subtilis NCIB3610 cells to resist predation by M. xanthus. Furthermore, purified bacillaene was added exogenously to domesticated strains, resulting in resistance to predation. Lastly, we found that M. xanthus is incapable of consuming B. subtilis spores even from laboratory strains, indicating the evolutionary fitness of sporulation as a survival strategy. Together, the results suggest that bacillaene inhibits M. xanthus predation, allowing sufficient time for development of B. subtilis spores. PMID:25002419

  9. Inhibition of quorum sensing-mediated virulence in Serratia marcescens by Bacillus subtilis R-18.

    PubMed

    Devi, Kannan Rama; Srinivasan, Subramaniyan; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2018-04-13

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic human pathogen causing various nosocomial infections, most importantly urinary tract infections (UTIs). It exhibits increased resistance towards the conventional antibiotics. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-virulence effect of a rhizosphere soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain R-18 against the uropathogen S. marcescens. First, the bacterial cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of B. subtilis strain R-18 was evaluated for its quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential against biomarker strain Chromobacterium violaceum and the test pathogen S. marcescens. The B. subtilis R-18 CFCS effectively inhibited the quorum sensing (QS)-mediated violacein pigment production in C. violaceum and prodigiosin pigment production in S. marcescens. Furthermore, B. subtilis R-18 CFCS was successively extracted with different solvent systems. Of these solvents, B. subtilis R-18 petroleum ether (PE) extract showed inhibition in biofilm formation, protease, lipase, and hemolysin productions in S. marcescens. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed the alterations in the cellular components of bacterial cell pellets obtained from B. subtilis R-18 PE extract treated and untreated S. marcescens. The differential gene expression study further validated the downregulation of virulence-associated genes. Characterization of the active principle in B. subtilis R-18 PE extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed the presence of multiple compounds with therapeutic values, which could possibly reduce the QS-dependent phenotypes in S. marcescens. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. PMID:27899502

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Zhou, K. F.; Hu, H. M.; Zhao, H. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  12. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Zhou, K F; Hu, H M; Zhao, H B; Zhang, Y; Ying, W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects.

  13. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Song, D J; Kang, H Y; Wang, J Q; Peng, H; Bu, D P

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×10(11) cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×10(11) cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  14. Effect of Feeding Bacillus subtilis natto on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Song, D. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Q.; Peng, H.; Bu, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance. PMID:25049979

  15. Chromosomal integration of sfp gene in Bacillus subtilis to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ki; Kim, Seong-Bin; Park, Chan-Sun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2005-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis C9 effectively degrades aliphatic hydrocarbons up to a chain length of C19 and produces a lipopeptide-type biosurfactant, surfactin, yet it has no genetic competency. Therefore, to obtain a transformable surfactin producer, the sfp gene cloned from B. subtilis C9 was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis 168, a non-surfactin producer, by homologous recombination. The transformants reduced the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.0 mN/m to 28.0 mN/m, plus the surface-active compound produced by the transformants exhibited the same Rf value as that from B. subtilis C9 and authentic surfactin in a thin-layer chromatographic analysis. The integration of the sfp gene into the chromosome of B. subtilis 168 was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Like B. subtilis C9, the transformants readily degraded n-hexadecane, although the original strain did not. It was also statistically confirmed that the hydrocarbon degradation of the transformants was highly correlated to their surfactin production by the determination of the correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.997, P < 0.01). Therefore, these results indicate that the surfactin produced from B. subtilis enhances the bioavailability of hydrophobic liquids.

  16. Effects of Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water on Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus Spores in Suspension and on Carriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunling; Li, Baoming; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Hung, Yen-Con

    2016-01-01

    Spores of some Bacillus species are responsible for food spoilage and foodborne disease. These spores are highly resistant to various interventions and cooking processes. In this study, the sporicidal efficacy of acidic electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (AEW) and slightly acidic EO water (SAEW) with available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mg/L and treatment time for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 min were tested on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus spores in suspension and on carrier with or without organics. The reduction of spore significantly increased with increasing ACC and treatment time (P < 0.05). Nondetectable level of B. cereus spore in suspension occurred within 2 min after exposure to both EO waters containing 120 mg/L ACC, while only SAEW at 120 mg/L and 2 min treatment achieved >6 log reductions of B. subtilis spore. Both types of EO water with ACC of 60 mg/L and 6 min treatment achieved a reduction of B. subtilis and B. cereus spores to nondetectable level. EO water with ACC of 80 mg/L and treatment time of 3 min on carrier test without organics addition resulted in reductions of B. subtilis spore to nondetectable level. But, addition of 0.3% organics on carrier decreased the inactivation effect of EO water. This study indicated that EO water was highly effective in inactivation of B. subtilis and B. cereus spores in suspension or on carrier, and therefore, rendered it as a promising disinfectant to be applied in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Cell Wall-Defective Variants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Wyrick, Priscilla B.; Rogers, Howard J.

    1973-01-01

    Quantitative mass conversion of intact bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis to L-phase variants has been effected after lysozyme treatment. After subculture of the unstable L-phase variants for several months in the presence of methicillin, stable L-phase variants were obtained which grew in the absence of the antibiotic and were then unable to revert to the classical bacterial phase under conditions which gave rise to mass reversion of the protoplasts and unstable L-variants. These stable L-phase variants, which retained many of the physiological properties of the bacterium from which they were derived, were capable of growing exponentially and multiplying in liquid medium. Their morphology and apparent modes of reproduction were consistent with that described for other L-phase variants. The morphological events, as monitored by the electron microscope, of the reversion to the intact bacterial phase of an unstable L-phase variant of B. licheniformis are described. Images PMID:4126820

  18. Distribution of bacteriophage phi 3T homologous deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in Bacillus subtilis 168, related bacteriophages, and other Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Stroynowski, I T

    1981-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome was found to share extensive homology with the genome of bacteriophage phi 3T. At least three different regions of the bacterial genome hydridized to ribonucleic acid complementary to phi 3T deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The thymidylate synthetase gene, thyA, of B. subtilis and the sequences adjacent to it were shown to be homologous to the region in the phi 3T DNA containing the phage-encoded thymidylate synthetase gene, thyP3. SP beta, a temperate bacteriophage known to be integrated into the B. subtilis 168 chromosome, was demonstrated to be closely related to phi 3T. Other regions of the bacterial genome were also found to hybridize to the phi 3T probe. The nature and location of these sequences in the bacterial and phage chromosomes were not identified. It was shown however, that they were not homologous to either the thyP3 gene or the DNA surrounding the thyP3 gene. The chromosomes of other Bacillus species were also screened for the presence of phi 3T homologous sequences, and the thyP3 gene was localized in the linear genomes of phages phi 3T and rho 11 by heteroduplex mapping. It is suggested that the presence of sequences of phage origin in the B. subtilis 168 chromosome might contribute to the restructuring and evolution of the viral and bacterial DNAs. Images PMID:6793558

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of Bacillus licheniformis beta-lactamase gene in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, O; Chang, S

    1981-01-01

    The chromosomal beta-lactamase (penicillinase, penP) gene from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C has been cloned in Escherichia coli. The locations of the target sites for various restriction enzymes on the 4.2-kilobase EcoRI fragment were determined. By matching the restriction mapping data with the potential nucleotide sequences of the penP gene deduced from known protein sequence, we established the exact position of the penP gene on the fragment. A bifunctional plasmid vector carrying the penP gene, plasmid pOG2165, was constructed which directs the synthesis of the heterologous beta-lactamase in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis hosts. The protein synthesized in E. coli and B. subtilis is similar in size to the processed beta-lactamase made in B. licheniformis. Furthermore, the beta-lactamase made in B. subtilis is efficiently secreted by the host into the culture medium, indicating that B. subtilis is capable of carrying out the post-translational proteolytic cleavage(s) to convert the membrane-bound precursor enzyme into the soluble extracellular form. Images PMID:6257638

  20. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    PubMed

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  1. Teichoic acid hydrolase activity in soil bacteria (Bacillus subtilis-sporulation-phosphodiesterase-polyamines-concanavalin A).

    PubMed

    Wise, E M; Glickman, R S; Teimer, E

    1972-01-01

    Bacterial phosphodiesterases have been found that are capable of cleaving the backbone of teichoic acid. Such enzymes have not been reported previously. An aerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium producing this activity was detected and isolated by autoradiography of soil suspensions growing on minimal medium containing (32)P-labeled Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 cell walls as the sole phosphorus source. Broken-cell preparations are capable of depolymerizing teichoic acids in media of low ionic strength at near-neutral pH values. An active teichoicase is also present in B. subtilis, ATCC 6051 (the Marburg strain), especially in sporulating cultures.

  2. [Cloning of the Bacillus subtilis DNA fragment containing the genes for lysine and riboflavin biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Okunev, O V; Shevchenko, T N; Maliuta, S S

    1984-07-01

    The SalI fragment of chromosomal DNA of Bacillus subtilis carrying the gene for lysine biosynthesis and the regulatory operator region (ribO) from the riboflavin gene was cloned into Escherichia coli cells. This fragment was shown to contain the gene coding for lysine synthesizing enzyme. Localization of this gene in Bac. subtili was determined. New plasmids pLRS33 and pLRB4 were constructed using pBR322; they carry a fragment homologous to pLP102 plasmid containing the operon for riboflavin biosynthesis.

  3. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-07-05

    Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. IMPORTANCE Multicellular systems like bacterial biofilms and swarms rely on cooperative behaviors that could be undermined by exploitative invaders. Discriminating kin from nonkin is one way to help guard against such exploitation but has thus far been examined only intraspecifically, so the phylogenetic range of this important trait is unknown. We tested whether Bacillus subtilis treats other species as nonkin by testing a single strain against a

  4. Autolysis of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis cells in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacena, M. A.; Smith, E. E.; Todd, P.

    1999-01-01

    The role of gravity in the autolysis of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli was studied by growing cells on Earth and in microgravity on Space Station Mir. Autolysis analysis was completed by examining the death phase or exponential decay of cells for approximately 4 months following the stationary phase. Consistent with published findings, the stationary-phase cell population was 170% and 90% higher in flight B. subtilis and E. coli cultures, respectively, than in ground cultures. Although both flight autolysis curves began at higher cell densities than control curves, the rate of autolysis in flight cultures was identical to that of their respective ground control rates.

  5. The purification of a novel amylase from Bacillus subtilis and its inhibition by wheat proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, A R; Ade, P; Di Maggio, D; Fanelli, C; Vittozzi, L

    1983-01-01

    A new alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) from Bacillus subtilis was purified by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme, estimated from sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, was 93000, which is very different from the molecular weights of two well-characterized amylases from B. subtilis. Electrofocusing showed an isoelectric point of 5. Amylase shows a broad maximum of activity between pH 6 and 7; maximal inhibition of enzyme by wheat-protein alpha-amylase inhibitors is displayed at pH 7. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6189482

  6. Safety assessment of Bacillus subtilis CU1 for use as a probiotic in humans.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Marie; Racedo, Silvia M; Denayrolles, Muriel; Ripert, Gabrielle; Desfougères, Thomas; Lobach, Alexandra R; Simon, Ryan; Pélerin, Fanny; Jüsten, Peter; Urdaci, Maria C

    2017-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis CU1 is a recently described probiotic strain with beneficial effects on immune health in elderly subjects. The following work describes a series of studies supporting the safety of the strain for use as an ingredient in food and supplement preparations. Using a combination of 16S rDNA and gyrB nucleotide analyses, the species was identified as a member of the Bacillus subtilis complex (B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii). Further characterization of the organism at the strain level was achieved using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR) and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analyses. B. subtilis CU1 did not demonstrate antibiotic resistance greater than existing regulatory cutoffs against clinically important antibiotics, did not induce hemolysis or produce surfactant factors, and was absent of toxigenic activity in vitro. Use of B. subtilis CU1 as a probiotic has recently been evaluated in a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study, in which 2 × 10 9 spores per day of B. subtilis CU1 were administered for a total 40 days to healthy elderly subjects (4 consumption periods of 10 days separated by 18-day washouts). This work describes safety related endpoints not previously reported. B. subtilis CU1 was safe and well-tolerated in the clinical subjects without undesirable physiological effects on markers of liver and kidney function, complete blood counts, hemodynamic parameters, and vital signs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Biological flow tracers: growth and survival of Bacillus subtilis 65-8 under environmental stress].

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Rebollar, R E; Hernández-Delgadillo, R; Mesta-Howard, A M; Tapia-Mendieta, M P; Ortigoza-Ferado, J

    1995-01-01

    Microbial flow tracers are presently limited to a strain of Bacillus globigii and a few highly specific bacteriophages. Bacillus subtilis 65-8 produces a black pigment as part of the primary metabolism under minimal nutritional conditions, with glucose as the sole carbon and energy source. This work shows that Bacillus subtilis 65-8 spores are thermostable (55 degrees C during 150 días), halotolerant (they germinate and grow in an enriched medium with up to 12% NaCl), persistent in a system of sand-soil and sewage, even in the presence of added commercial oil derivatives (kerosene, leaded gasoline and unleaded diesel), they are capable to move through porous systems even as the liquids, viscous as they may be, move through. Moreover, spores were resistant to the presence of autochtonous microorganisms in sewage, where we did not detect any other organism with differential characteristics like our strain (black pigment production in minimal medium) which could interfere with the identification of our biological flow tracer. The characteristics of Bacillus subtilis 65-8 make it a suitable biological flow tracer.

  8. Regulated Enzymes of Aromatic Amino Acid Synthesis: Control, Isozymic Nature, and Aggregation in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Delill; Henderson, Gary; Nester, Eugene W.

    1969-01-01

    Several regulated enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid synthesis were studied in Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis with reference to organization and control mechanisms. B. subtilis has been previously shown (23) to have a single 3-deoxy-d-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthetase but to have two isozymic forms of both chorismate mutase and shikimate kinase. Extracts of B. licheniformis chromatographed on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose indicated a single DAHP synthetase and two isozymic forms of chorismate mutase, but only a single shikimate kinase activity. The evidence for isozymes has been supported by the inability to find strains mutant in these activities, although strains mutant for the other activities were readily obtained. DAHP synthetase, one of the isozymes of chorismate mutase, and one of the isozymes of shikimate kinase were found in a single complex in B. subtilis. No such complex could be detected in B. licheniformis. DAHP synthetase and shikimate kinase from B. subtilis were feedback-inhibited by chorismate and prephenate. DAHP synthetase from B. licheniformis was also feedback-inhibited by these two intermediates, but shikimate kinase was inhibited only by chorismate. When the cells were grown in limiting tyrosine, the DAHP synthetase, chorismate mutase, and shikimate kinase activities of B. subtilis were derepressed in parallel, but only DAHP synthetase and chorismate mutase were derepressible in B. licheniformis. Implications of the differences as well as the similarities between the control and the pattern of enzyme aggregation in the two related species of bacilli were discussed. PMID:4977689

  9. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P < 0.01), MCP production (P < 0.01), and tended to elevate total VFA (P = 0.07), but decreased the ratio of acetate and propionate (P < 0.01). Autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  10. Genomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis OH 131.1 and coculturing with Cryptococcus flavescens for control of fusarium head blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus subtilis OH131.1 is a bacterial antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes Fusarium head blight in wheat. The genome of B. subtilis OH131.1 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed to understand its potential to produce bioactive metabolites. The analysis identified 6 sy...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  12. Bacillus subtilis and yeast cell wall improve the intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, W; Lv, Z; Liu, D; Guo, Y

    2017-12-01

    1. The objective was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, yeast cell wall (YCW) and their combination on intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens over a 21-d period. 2. Using a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 800 1-d-old male Cobb 500 broilers were used to study the effects of feed additives (without additive or with zinc bacitracin, B. subtilis, YCW, and the combination of B. subtilis and YCW), pathogen challenge (without or with Clostridium perfringens challenge), and their interactive effects. 3. C. perfringens infection increased intestinal lesions scores, damaged intestinal histomorphology, increased serum endotoxin concentration, cytokine mRNA expression and intestinal population of C. perfringens and Escherichia coli and decreased ileal bifidobacteria numbers. The 4 additives decreased serum endotoxin. Zinc bacitracin tended to decrease cytokine mRNA expression and the intestinal number of C. perfringens and E. coli. B. subtilis, YCW and their combination increased cytokine mRNA expression. B. subtilis and YCW decreased the number of C. perfringens and E. coli in the ileum, and their combination decreased pathogens numbers in the ileum and caecum. 4. In conclusion, B. subtilis, YCW and their combination improved the intestinal health of NE-infected broilers, and could be potential alternatives to antibiotics.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Qin; Mao, Yulong; Cui, Zhiwen; Li, Yali; Huang, Yi; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured alone or with B subtilis (natto) B4 spores at 37°C for 12 hrs, then both cells and culture supernatants were collected for analyses. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores had no significant effects on macrophage viability and amounts of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it remarkably increased the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cells and the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores are harmless to murine macrophages and can stimulate their activation through up-regulation of ACP and LDH activities and enhance their immune function by increasing iNOS activity and stimulating NO and cytokine production. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores have immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. The Bacillus BioBrick Box: generation and evaluation of essential genetic building blocks for standardized work with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Radeck, Jara; Kraft, Korinna; Bartels, Julia; Cikovic, Tamara; Dürr, Franziska; Emenegger, Jennifer; Kelterborn, Simon; Sauer, Christopher; Fritz, Georg; Gebhard, Susanne; Mascher, Thorsten

    2013-12-02

    Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks are a prerequisite for the convenient and reproducible assembly of novel genetic modules and devices. While numerous standardized parts exist for Escherichia coli, such tools are still missing for the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly evaluate such a genetic toolbox. We developed five BioBrick-compatible integrative B. subtilis vectors by deleting unnecessary parts and removing forbidden restriction sites to allow cloning in BioBrick (RFC10) standard. Three empty backbone vectors with compatible resistance markers and integration sites were generated, allowing the stable chromosomal integration and combination of up to three different devices in one strain. In addition, two integrative reporter vectors, based on the lacZ and luxABCDE cassettes, were BioBrick-adjusted, to enable β-galactosidase and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. Four constitutive and two inducible promoters were thoroughly characterized by quantitative, time-resolved measurements. Together, these promoters cover a range of more than three orders of magnitude in promoter strength, thereby allowing a fine-tuned adjustment of cellular protein amounts. Finally, the Bacillus BioBrick Box also provides five widely used epitope tags (FLAG, His10, cMyc, HA, StrepII), which can be translationally fused N- or C-terminally to any protein of choice. Our genetic toolbox contains three compatible empty integration vectors, two reporter vectors and a set of six promoters, two of them inducible. Furthermore, five different epitope tags offer convenient protein handling and detection. All parts adhere to the BioBrick standard and hence enable standardized work with B. subtilis. We believe that our well-documented and carefully evaluated Bacillus BioBrick Box represents a very useful genetic tool kit, not only for the iGEM competition but any other BioBrick-based project in B

  15. [Intergenus natural genetic transformation between Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis at different growth phase].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Mei-Ju; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2007-12-01

    The culture fluids of Escheriachia coli with shuttle plasmid and Bacillus subtilis strains were mixed and coincubated for 40 minutes after culturing respectively in LB and minimal media. The steadily plasmid transfer by natural genetic transformation between these two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated by the methods of selective medium screening, DNase I sensitivity test and plasmid detection. In contrast to MM culture B. subtilis LB culture can be competent and has equivalent transformation frequency. Furthermore, the maximal transformation frequency was obtained when cells in exponential phase served as donors or recipients. It is suggested that B. subtilis solid transformation is different from liquid plasmid transformation including the whole process of DNA plasmid competence producing. Understanding the mechanisms of gene transfer between bacteria may aid in assessing the potential risk associated with the release of recombinant organisms into the environment.

  16. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis mutants with carbon source-independent glutamate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Commichau, Fabian M; Wacker, Ingrid; Schleider, Jan; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Reif, Irene; Tripal, Philipp; Stülke, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis synthesizes glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate and glutamine using the glutamate synthase, encoded by the gltAB operon. Glutamate degradation involves the catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) RocG. Expression of both gltAB and rocG is controlled by the carbon and nitrogen sources. In the absence of glucose or other well-metabolizable carbon sources, B. subtilis is unable to grow unless provided with external glutamate. In this work, we isolated mutations that suppressed this growth defect of B. subtilis on minimal media (sgd mutants). All mutations enabled the cells to express the gltAB operon even in the absence of glucose. The mutations were all identified in the rocG gene suggesting that the catabolic GDH is essential for controlling gltAB expression in response to the availability of sugars. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Characterization, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of marine pectinase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manasi; Nerurkar, Madhura; Adivarekar, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of purified pectinase from Bacillus subtilis, isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from Chinchani beach at Tarapore, India, were studied. Marine pectinase produced under submerged growth conditions was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography using DEAE cellulose. Partial characterization of the marine pectinase was carried out in terms of effect of pH, temperature, substrate concentration, and metal ions. It was found that pectinase from marine B. subtilis showed maximal activity in alkaline buffer at pH 9.0 and at 40°C. It was also found that metal ions, namely, Mn(2+) and Fe(2+), stimulate pectinase activity. Marine pectinase followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the purified marine pectinase from B. subtilis were studied as the characterization of the enzyme is vital for its use in industrial processes.

  18. In Vitro Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase YwqE

    PubMed Central

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Musumeci, Lucia; Tautz, Lutz; Petranovic, Dina; Edwards, Robert A.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Mustelin, Tomas; Deutscher, Josef; Bottini, Nunzio

    2005-01-01

    Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria possess protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) with a catalytic Cys residue. In addition, many gram-positive bacteria have acquired a new family of PTPs, whose first characterized member was CpsB from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacillus subtilis contains one such CpsB-like PTP, YwqE, in addition to two class II Cys-based PTPs, YwlE and YfkJ. The substrates for both YwlE and YfkJ are presently unknown, while YwqE was shown to dephosphorylate two phosphotyrosine-containing proteins implicated in UDP-glucuronate biosynthesis, YwqD and YwqF. In this study, we characterize YwqE, compare the activities of the three B. subtilis PTPs (YwqE, YwlE, and YfkJ), and demonstrate that the two B. subtilis class II PTPs do not dephosphorylate the physiological substrates of YwqE. PMID:15866923

  19. Surface adhesion and confinement variation of Bacillus subtilis on SAM surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiger, Lauren; Pasquale, Rose; Calabrese, Joseph; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    2012-02-01

    Controlled surface adhesion of non - pathogenic gram positive strain, Bacillus subtilis is interesting as a model system due to possible development of respective biosensors for prevention and detection of the pathogenic variants B. anthracis and B. cereus. Further as a study for bio-machine interfacing systems. Self Assembled Monolayers (SAM) with engineered surfaces of linear thiols on Au(111) were used as the substrate. Sub cultured B. subtilis were used for the analysis. The SAM layered surfaces were dipped in 2 -- 5 Log/ml B. subtilis solution. Subsequent surface adhesion at different bacterial dilutions on surfaces will be discussed, and correlated with quantitative and qualitative adhesion properties of bacteria on the engineered SAM surfaces. The bacteria adhered SAM surfaces were investigated using intermittent contact, noncontact, lateral force and contact modes of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).

  20. Decolorization of indigo carmine by laccase displayed on Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Ah; Seo, Jiyoung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2011-06-10

    Blue multicopper oxidases, laccases displayed on the surface of Bacillus spores were used to decolorize a widely used textile dyestuff, indigo carmine. The laccase-encoding gene of Bacillus subtilis, cotA, was cloned and expressed in B. subtilis DB104, and the expressed enzyme was spontaneously localized on Bacillus spores. B. subtilis spores expressing laccase exhibited maximal activity for the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) at pH 4.0 and 80°C, and for the decolorization of indigo carmine at pH 8.0 and 60°C. The displayed enzyme retained 80% of its original activity after pre-treatment with organic solvents such as 50% acetonitrile and n-hexane for 2h at 37°C. The apparent K(m) of the enzyme displayed on spores was 443±124 μM for ABTS with a V(max) of 150 ± 16 U/mg spores. Notably, 1mg of spores displaying B. subtilis laccase (3.4 × 10(2)U for ABTS as a substrate) decolorized 44.6 μg indigo carmine in 2h. The spore reactor (0.5 g of spores corresponding to 1.7×10(5)U in 50 mL) in a consecutive batch recycling mode decolorized 223 mg indigo carmine/L to completion within 42 h at pH 8.0 and 60°C. These results suggest that laccase displayed on B. subtilis spores can serve as a powerful environmental tool for the treatment of textile dye effluent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. UNSTABLE GENETIC TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND THE MODE OF INHERITANCE IN UNSTABLE CLONES.

    PubMed

    IYER, V N

    1965-08-01

    Iyer, V. N. (Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ont., Canada). Unstable genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis and the mode of inheritance in unstable clones. J. Bacteriol. 90:495-503. 1965.-An ultraviolet-induced mutant has been isolated from the double auxotroph of Bacillus subtilis (bearing the linked mutations try(2) and his(2)). This mutant has the property of yielding unstable transformants which, in the case of transformation to prototrophy, can be recognized by reduced colony size on minimal agar. Unstable transformant clones usually become stabilized early during the development of the clone (within 12 generations). Analyses of genotypes emerging from such clones on stabilization indicate that in some of these clones the exogenote is transmitted linearly; its integrity is sufficiently preserved that it can participate in two independent recombination events in two different cells. Genetic markers on the exogenote are expressed in situations where genetic integration has not occurred.

  2. Fibrinolytic and anti-thrombotic effect of NKCP, the protein layer from Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Omura, Kazonobu; Hitosugi, Masahito; Kaketani, Kazutoshi; Zhu, Xia; Maeda, Hiroaki; Tokudome, Shogo

    2004-01-01

    NKCP is the completely refined protein layer from cultured Bacillus subtilis (natto) and is supplied in tablet form. It lacks the distinctive fermented odor and bacteria associated with fresh natto. Almost all vitamin K is removed during the manufacturing process. The main component of NKCP is the active fragment of Bacillopeptidase F, which is a serine protease secreted by Bacillus subtilis. In in vivo studies, NKCP shows fibrinolytic and amidolytic activity on plasmin specific synthetic substrate. Daily oral administration of NKCP in 28 volunteers for two weeks and then in 23 volunteers for several months, was examined. The fibrinolytic effect was demonstrated by a shortened euglobulin lysis time in both trials. Furthermore, we observed an improvement in shoulder stiffness. These results suggest that the oral administration of NKCP can be expected to have a fibrinolytic effect and cause positive changes in local blood flow. Further investigations may demonstrate NKCP to be useful in the prevention of thrombosis.

  3. Production, optimization and characterization of fibrinolytic enzyme by Bacillus subtilis RJAS19.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D J Mukesh; Rakshitha, R; Vidhya, M Annu; Jennifer, P Sharon; Prasad, Sandip; Kumar, M Ravi; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed at the production, purification and characterization of fibrinolytic nattokinase enzyme from the bacteria isolated from natto food. For the purpose, a fibrinolytic bacterium was isolated and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strain was employed for the production and optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme. The strain showed better enzyme production during 72nd h of incubation time with 50 degrees C at the pH 9. The lactose and peptone were found to be increasing the enzyme production rate. The enzyme produced was purified and also characterized with the help of SDS-PAGE analysis. The activity and stability profile of the purified enzyme was tested against different temperature and pH. The observations suggesting that the potential of fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus subtilis RJAS 19 for its applications in preventive medicines.

  4. Effects of space environment on T-7 bacteriophage and spores of Bacillus subtilis 168

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spizizen, J.; Isherwood, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two strains of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to components of the ultraviolet spectrum in space. Both strains possess multiple genetic markers, and one of the strains is defective in the ability to repair ultraviolet damage. The T-7 bacteriophage of Escherichia coli was also exposed to selected wavelengths and energy levels of ultraviolet light in space. Preliminary findings do not reveal anomalies in survival rates. Data are not yet available on detailed genetic analyses.

  5. Realistic representation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms architecture using combined microscopy (CLSM, ESEM and FESEM).

    PubMed

    Bridier, A; Meylheuc, T; Briandet, R

    2013-05-01

    In this contribution, we used a set of microscopic techniques including confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to analyze the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of cells and their surrounding matrix in Bacillus subtilis biofilm. The combination of the different techniques enabled a deeper and realistic deciphering of biofilm architecture by providing the opportunity to overcome the limits of each single technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of RizA, an l-amino-acid ligase from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Wataru; Arai, Toshinobu; Ishikura, Shun; Kino, Kuniki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    RizA is an l-amino-acid ligase from Bacillus subtilis that participates in the biosynthesis of rhizocticin, an oligopeptide antibiotic. The substrate-free form of RizA has been crystallized and the structure was solved at 2.8 Å resolution. The amino-acid-binding site appears to be capable of accommodating multiple amino acids, consistent with previous biochemical studies. PMID:26323296

  7. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis BSD-2, a microbial germicide isolated from cultivated cotton.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Shuli; An, Likang; Zhang, Genwei; Cheng, Huicai; Xi, Yanhua; Cui, Guanhui; Zhang, Feiyan; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-20

    Bacillus subtilis BSD-2, isolated from cotton (Gossypium spp.), had strong antagonistic activity to Verticillium dahlia Kleb and Botrytis cinerea. We sequenced and annotated the BSD-2 complete genome to help us the better use of this strain, which has surfactin, bacilysin, bacillibactin, subtilosin A, Tas A and a potential class IV lanthipeptide biosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulation of the σF Regulatory System in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Carniol, Karen; Kim, Tae-Jong; Price, Chester W.; Losick, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The transcription factors σF and σB are related RNA polymerase sigma factors that govern dissimilar networks of adaptation to stress conditions in Bacillus subtilis. The two factors are controlled by closely related regulatory pathways, involving protein kinases and phosphatases. We report that insulation of the σF pathway from the σB pathway involves the integrated action of both the cognate kinase and the cognate phosphatase. PMID:15205443

  9. Analysis of damage due to moist heat treatment of spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, W H; Setlow, P

    2009-05-01

    To determine conditions for generation and recovery of Bacillus subtilis spore populations heavily damaged by moist heat treatment. Bacillus subtilis spores were treated with moist heat and spore viability was assessed on different media. A rich medium and several minimal media gave similar spore recoveries after moist heat treatment, but lack of glucose in minimal media greatly decreased spore recovery. High NaCl levels also greatly decreased the recovery of moist heat-treated spores on minimal media, and addition of good osmoprotectants reversed this effect. Moist heat treatment did not decrease spore recovery on minimal media with high salt through DNA damage or by eliminating spore germination, but by affecting spore outgrowth. Conditions for generating B. subtilis spore populations with high levels of conditional moist heat damage have been determined. The major conditional damage appears to be in spore outgrowth, perhaps because of damage to one or more important metabolic enzymes. This work has provided new insight into the mechanism of B. subtilis spore killing by moist heat.

  10. Functional characterization of a Penicillium chrysogenum mutanase gene induced upon co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microbial gene expression is strongly influenced by environmental growth conditions. Comparison of gene expression under different conditions is frequently used for functional analysis and to unravel regulatory networks, however, gene expression responses to co-cultivation with other microorganisms, a common occurrence in nature, is rarely studied under laboratory conditions. To explore cellular responses of the antibiotic-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum to prokaryotes, the present study investigates its transcriptional responses during co-cultivation with Bacillus subtilis. Results Steady-state glucose-limited chemostats of P. chrysogenum grown under penillicin-non-producing conditions were inoculated with B. subtilis. Physiological and transcriptional responses of P. chrysogenum in the resulting mixed culture were monitored over 72 h. Under these conditions, B. subtilis outcompeted P. chrysogenum, as reflected by a three-fold increase of the B. subtilis population size and a two-fold reduction of the P. chrysogenum biomass concentration. Genes involved in the penicillin pathway and in synthesis of the penicillin precursors and side-chain were unresponsive to the presence of B. subtilis. Moreover, Penicillium polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthase genes were either not expressed or down-regulated. Among the highly responsive genes, two putative α-1,3 endoglucanase (mutanase) genes viz Pc12g07500 and Pc12g13330 were upregulated by more than 15-fold and 8-fold, respectively. Measurement of enzyme activity in the supernatant of mixed culture confirmed that the co-cultivation with B. subtilis induced mutanase production. Mutanase activity was neither observed in pure cultures of P. chrysogenum or B. subtilis, nor during exposure of P. chrysogenum to B. subtilis culture supernatants or heat-inactivated B. subtilis cells. However, mutanase production was observed in cultures of P. chrysogenum exposed to filter-sterilized supernatants

  11. Not so simple, not so subtle: the interspecies competition between Bacillus simplex and Bacillus subtilis and its impact on the evolution of biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Gili; Steinberg, Nitai; Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Yaara; Olender, Tsvia; Doron, Shany; Ben-Ari, Julius; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Bloom-Ackermann, Zohar; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biofilms have a fundamental role in shaping the soil ecosystem. During this process, they unavoidably interact with neighbour bacterial species. We studied the interspecies interactions between biofilms of the soil-residing bacteria B. subtilis and related Bacillus species. We found that proximity between the biofilms triggered recruitment of motile B. subtilis cells, which engulfed the competing Bacillus simplex colony. Upon interaction, B. subtilis secreted surfactin and cannibalism toxins, at concentrations that were inert to B. subtilis itself, which eliminated the B. simplex colony, as well as colonies of Bacillus toyonensis. Surfactin toxicity was correlated with the presence of short carbon-tail length isomers, and synergistic with the cannibalism toxins. Importantly, during biofilm development and interspecies interactions a subpopulation in B. subtilis biofilm lost its native plasmid, leading to increased virulence against the competing Bacillus species. Overall, these findings indicate that genetic programs and traits that have little effect on biofilm development when each species is grown in isolation have a dramatic impact when different bacterial species interact. PMID:28721238

  12. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Zhongrui; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Weipeng; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Moore, Bradley S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning ``plug-and-play'' approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  13. Integrated biological and chemical control of rice sheath blight by Bacillus subtilis NJ-18 and jinggangmycin.

    PubMed

    Peng, Di; Li, Shandong; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Changjun; Zhou, Mingguo

    2014-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a major disease of rice that greatly reduces yield and grain quality and jinggangmycin is the most widely used fungicide to control this disease in China. Bacillus subtilis NJ-18 has broad antimicrobial activity to many phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi; it is especially effective against Rhizoctonia solani. Laboratory, greenhouse and field tests were conducted to determine the effect of combining the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis NJ-18 with the fungicide jinggangmycin for control of rice sheath blight. Growth of NJ-18 in vitro was not affected by jinggangmycin. In a greenhouse experiment, disease control was greater with a mixture of NJ-18 and jinggangmycin than with either alone; a mixture of NJ-18 at 10(8)  cfu mL(-1) and jinggangmycin at 50 or 100 mg L(-1) reduced lesion length by 35% and 20%, respectively, and the combinations showed a synergistic action. In three field trials, disease control was significantly greater with a mixture of NJ-18 at 10(8)  cfu mL(-1) and jinggangmycin at 75 or 150 g a.i. ha(-1) than with either component alone. The results of the study indicate that, when Bacillus subtilis NJ-18 strain was combined with jinggangmycin, there was an increased suppression of rice sheath blight, and thus could provide an alternative disease control option. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Yang, Yanling; Lin, Ling; Wang, Shihua

    2012-07-02

    Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE) is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus.

  15. Thrombolytic effects of Douchi Fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, thrombosis is one of the most widely occurring diseases in modern life. Drugs with thrombolytic functions are the most effective methods in the treatment of thrombosis. Among them, Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme (DFE) is a promising agent. DFE was isolated from Douchi, a typical and popular soybean-fermented food in China, and it can dissolve fibrin directly and efficiently. A strain, Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 produced DFE with high fibrinolytic activity has been isolated in our lab previously. Results In the study, thrombolytic effect of DFE from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 was studied in vitro and in vivo systematically. The results showed that DFE played a significant role in thrombolysis and anticoagulation in vitro. And the thrombolytic effects correlated with DFE in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, the acute toxicity assay showed that DFE had no obvious acute toxicity to mice. Test of carrageenan-induced thrombosis in mice indicated that the DFE significantly prevented tail thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis model test indicated that Douchi fibrinolytic enzyme DFE had thrombolytic effect on carotid thrombosis of rabbits in vivo. Other results in vivo indicated that DFE could increase bleeding and clotting time obviously. Conclusions The DFE isolated from Bacillus subtilis LD-8547 has obvious thrombolytic effects in vitro and in vivo. This function demonstrates that this enzyme can be a useful tool for preventing and treating clinical thrombus. PMID:22748219

  16. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  17. [Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of inosine- producing strain Bacillus subtilis ATCC 13952].

    PubMed

    Li, Erhan; Yang, Huilin; Wang, Xiaolan; Wan, Lingfei; Pan, Hongmei; Zhu, Du

    2015-12-04

    Bacillus subtilis ATCC 13952 is an inosine-producing strain. In order to study the mechanisms of inosine accumulation and offer help for molecular breeding, it is necessary to uncover the genome sequence of ATCC 13952. Whole-genome sequencing of ATCC 13952 is carried out by Solexa and Sanger sequencing. Genome assembly, gene prediction and functional annotation, GO/COG cluster analysis and synteny analysis are done using relevant software. The complete genomic information of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 13952 is contained on a single circular chromosome of 3876276 bp with an average GC content of 45.8%. The genome sequence is deposited in the GenBank under the accession number CP009748. Comparative genomic analysis shows that ATCC 13952 should have significant genomic synteny with other Bacillus subtilis strains. On the other hand, some point mutation and deletions occurred in purine metabolism-related genes between ATCC 13952 and the standard strain. The results of this study will provide a theoretical basis for subsequent further molecular breeding.

  18. The Bacillus BioBrick Box 2.0: expanding the genetic toolbox for the standardized work with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Popp, Philipp F; Dotzler, Mona; Radeck, Jara; Bartels, Julia; Mascher, Thorsten

    2017-11-08

    Standardized and well-characterized genetic building blocks allow the convenient assembly of novel genetic modules and devices, ensuring reusability of parts and reproducibility of experiments. In the first Bacillus subtilis-specific toolbox using the BioBrick standard, we presented integrative vectors, promoters, reporter genes and epitope tags for this Gram-positive model bacterium. With the Bacillus BioBrick Box 2.0, we significantly expand the range of our toolbox by providing new integrative vectors, introducing novel tools for fine-tuning protein expression, and carefully evaluating codon-adapted fluorescence proteins in B. subtilis, which cover the whole spectrum of visible light. Moreover, we developed new reporter systems to allow evaluating the strength of promoters and ribosome binding sites. This well-evaluated extension of our BioBrick-based toolbox increases the accessibility of B. subtilis and will therefore promote the use of this model bacterium and biotechnological workhorse as a host for fundamental and applied Synthetic Biology projects.

  19. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery. PMID:26925051

  20. Potential application of cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis strains in laundry detergent formulations.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A K

    2007-09-01

    Crude cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) biosurfactants from two Bacillus subtilis strains (DM-03 and DM-04) were studied for their compatibility and stability with some locally available commercial laundry detergents. CLP biosurfactants from both B. subtilis strains were stable over the pH range of 7.0-12.0, and heating them at 80 degrees C for 60 min did not result in any loss of their surface-active property. Crude CLP biosurfactants showed good emulsion formation capability with vegetable oils, and demonstrated excellent compatibility and stability with all the tested laundry detergents. CLP biosurfactants from B. subtilis strains act additively with other components of the detergents to further improve the wash quality of detergents. The thermal resistance and extreme alkaline pH stability of B. subtilis CLP biosurfactants favour their inclusion in laundry detergent formulations. This study has great significance because it is already known that microbial biosurfactants are considered safer alternative to chemical or synthetic surfactants owing to lower toxicity, ease of biodegradability and low ecological impact. The present study provides further evidence that CLP biosurfactants from B. subtilis strains can be employed in laundry detergents.

  1. Purification and characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis penicillin G acylase expressed in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Zhou, Li-Ping; Chen, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Yan-Liang; Li, Ren-Bao; Yang, Sheng; Yuan, Zhong-Yi

    2003-05-01

    The Alcaligenes faecalis PGA gene encoding heterodimeric penicillin G acylase (PGA) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis respectively. In contrast to E.coli hosts where the enzymes were retained in the periplasm, B. subtilis cell secreted the recombinant enzyme into the medium. Contrary to limited expression yield of E. coli (pETAPGA), PGA extracellularly expressed by B. subtilis (pBAPGA) and B. subtilis (pMAPGA) reached the highest yield of 653 u/L. This yield increased 109-fold higher than the native expression of A. faecalis CICC AS1.767. The enzyme was fractionated with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and purified by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B with a yield of 81%. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 1.469 u/mg. Furthermore, some enzyme characteristics, such as the pH and temperature optimum, the stability against organic solvent and the ratio of cepholexin synthesis to hydrolysis were determined. By overexpressing A. faecalis PGA in B. subtilis and purifying secreted enzyme from culture medium one could readily obtain a large amount of an alternative source of PGA.

  2. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis strains from the avocado rhizoplane displaying biocontrol activity.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, F M; Romero, D; Pérez-García, A; Lugtenberg, B J J; Vicente, A de; Bloemberg, G

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate Bacillus subtilis strains with biological activity against soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi from the avocado rhizoplane. A collection of 905 bacterial isolates obtained from the rhizoplane of healthy avocado trees, contains 277 gram-positive isolates. From these gram-positive isolates, four strains, PCL1605, PCL1608, PCL1610 and PCL1612, identified as B. subtilis, were selected on the basis of their antifungal activity against diverse soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the antifungal compounds involved in their antagonistic activity showed that these strains produced hydrolytic enzymes such as glucanases or proteases and the antibiotic lipopeptides surfactin, fengycin, and/or iturin A. In biocontrol trials using the pathosystems tomato/Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and avocado/Rosellinia necatrix, two B. subtilis strains, PCL1608 and PCL1612, both producing iturin A, exhibited the highest biocontrol and colonization capabilities. Diverse antagonistic B. subtilis strains isolated from healthy avocado rhizoplanes have shown promising biocontrol abilities, which are closely linked with the production of antifungal lipopeptides and good colonization aptitudes. This is one of the few reports dealing with isolation and characterization of B. subtilis strains with biocontrol activity against the common soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici and R. necatrix.

  3. Translation Control of Swarming Proficiency in Bacillus subtilis by 5-Amino-pentanolylated Elongation Factor P.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Andrei; Hummels, Katherine R; Witzky, Anne; Erickson, Sarah; Gafken, Philip R; Whitelegge, Julian P; Faull, Kym F; Kearns, Daniel B; Ibba, Michael

    2016-05-20

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) accelerates diprolyl synthesis and requires a posttranslational modification to maintain proteostasis. Two phylogenetically distinct EF-P modification pathways have been described and are encoded in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, but neither is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Prior work suggested that the EF-P-encoding gene (efp) primarily supports Bacillus subtilis swarming differentiation, whereas EF-P in Gram-negative bacteria has a more global housekeeping role, prompting our investigation to determine whether EF-P is modified and how it impacts gene expression in motile cells. We identified a 5-aminopentanol moiety attached to Lys(32) of B. subtilis EF-P that is required for swarming motility. A fluorescent in vivo B. subtilis reporter system identified peptide motifs whose efficient synthesis was most dependent on 5-aminopentanol EF-P. Examination of the B. subtilis genome sequence showed that these EF-P-dependent peptide motifs were represented in flagellar genes. Taken together, these data show that, in B. subtilis, a previously uncharacterized posttranslational modification of EF-P can modulate the synthesis of specific diprolyl motifs present in proteins required for swarming motility. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effects of water chemistry and surface contact on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun; Cheng, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has created concerns about its potential impacts on natural microbial communities. In this study, the physicochemical properties of AgNPs and its toxicity on natural bacteria Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) were investigated in aqueous conditions. The characterization data showed that AgNPs highly aggregated in aqueous conditions, and the hydrodynamic diameter of AgNPs in aqueous conditions was larger than its primary size. The studied AgNPs was less toxic to B. subtilis in estuarine water as compared to that in Milli-Q water and artificial seawater, which might be due to the observed enhanced aggregation of AgNPs in estuarine water. The toxicity of AgNPs to B. subtilis was greatly reduced when their surface contact was blocked by a dialysis membrane. Scanning electron microscope images showed that exposure contact to AgNPs resulted in damage of the microbial cell wall and enhanced formation of fibrillar structures. These results suggest that particle-cell contact is largely responsible for the observed toxicity of AgNPs in B. subtilis. This study can help to understand the potential impacts of AgNPs to natural microbes, especially in the complex aquatic environments.

  5. Translation Control of Swarming Proficiency in Bacillus subtilis by 5-Amino-pentanolylated Elongation Factor P*

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovic, Andrei; Hummels, Katherine R.; Witzky, Anne; Erickson, Sarah; Gafken, Philip R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Kearns, Daniel B.; Ibba, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) accelerates diprolyl synthesis and requires a posttranslational modification to maintain proteostasis. Two phylogenetically distinct EF-P modification pathways have been described and are encoded in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, but neither is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Prior work suggested that the EF-P-encoding gene (efp) primarily supports Bacillus subtilis swarming differentiation, whereas EF-P in Gram-negative bacteria has a more global housekeeping role, prompting our investigation to determine whether EF-P is modified and how it impacts gene expression in motile cells. We identified a 5-aminopentanol moiety attached to Lys32 of B. subtilis EF-P that is required for swarming motility. A fluorescent in vivo B. subtilis reporter system identified peptide motifs whose efficient synthesis was most dependent on 5-aminopentanol EF-P. Examination of the B. subtilis genome sequence showed that these EF-P-dependent peptide motifs were represented in flagellar genes. Taken together, these data show that, in B. subtilis, a previously uncharacterized posttranslational modification of EF-P can modulate the synthesis of specific diprolyl motifs present in proteins required for swarming motility. PMID:27002156

  6. Different toxic and hormetic responses of Bombus impatiens to Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus subtilis and spirotetramat.

    PubMed

    Ramanaidu, Krilen; Cutler, G Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Pollinator exposure to pesticides is a concern in agricultural systems that depend on pollinators for crop production. However, not all pesticides elicit toxic effects, and response to a pesticide will vary depending on dose and exposure route. The effects of biopesticide formulations of Bacillus subtilis and Beauveria bassiana and of the tetramic acid insecticide spirotetramat on the common eastern bumblebee, Bombus impatiens, were evaluated. Microcolonies of bees were exposed to field-rate or lower concentrations, and data were collected over 60 days. When ingested, field rates of spirotetramat caused high mortality after 10 days, and B. subtilis significantly reduced drone production, number of days to oviposition and number of days to drone emergence. Converse to effects observed following ingestion, topical applications of B. subtilis at concentrations less than the recommended field rate resulted in a hormetic response, with significantly increased drone production. Topical application of spirotetramat and oral or topical application of B. bassiana had no effects on bees. Spirotetramat and B. subtilis can induce adverse effects on B. impatiens, but hormetic effects following B. subtilis treatment can also occur, depending on exposure route. Additional experiments are required to determine whether similar toxic or hormetic effects occur under more realistic field conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  8. Predation by Myxococcus xanthus Induces Bacillus subtilis To Form Spore-Filled Megastructures

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Susanne; Strack, Sarah N.; Ryan, Sarah E.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a common mechanism for surviving environmental stress and can be triggered by both intraspecies and interspecies interactions. Prolonged predator-prey interactions between the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis were found to induce the formation of a new type of B. subtilis biofilm, termed megastructures. Megastructures are tree-like brachiations that are as large as 500 μm in diameter, are raised above the surface between 150 and 200 μm, and are filled with viable endospores embedded within a dense matrix. Megastructure formation did not depend on TasA, EpsE, SinI, RemA, or surfactin production and thus is genetically distinguishable from colony biofilm formation on MSgg medium. As B. subtilis endospores are not susceptible to predation by M. xanthus, megastructures appear to provide an alternative mechanism for survival. In addition, M. xanthus fruiting bodies were found immediately adjacent to the megastructures in nearly all instances, suggesting that M. xanthus is unable to acquire sufficient nutrients from cells housed within the megastructures. Lastly, a B. subtilis mutant lacking the ability to defend itself via bacillaene production formed megastructures more rapidly than the parent. Together, the results indicate that production of the megastructure facilitates B. subtilis escape into dormancy via sporulation. PMID:25326308

  9. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5–10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles. PMID:26039692

  10. A report on extensive lateral genetic reciprocation between arsenic resistant Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains analyzed using RAPD-PCR.

    PubMed

    Khowal, Sapna; Siddiqui, Md Zulquarnain; Ali, Shadab; Khan, Mohd Taha; Khan, Mather Ali; Naqvi, Samar Husain; Wajid, Saima

    2017-02-01

    The study involves isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from soil samples. The characterization of bacteria isolates was based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic consanguinity among isolates was studied employing rpoB and gltX gene sequence. RAPD-PCR technique was used to analyze genetic similarity between arsenic resistant isolates. In accordance with the results Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains may exhibit extensive horizontal gene transfer. Arsenic resistant potency in Bacillus sonorensis and high arsenite tolerance in Bacillus pumilus strains was identified. The RAPD-PCR primer OPO-02 amplified a 0.5kb DNA band specific to B. pumilus 3ZZZ strain and 0.75kb DNA band specific to B. subtilis 3PP. These unique DNA bands may have potential use as SCAR (Sequenced Characterized Amplified Region) molecular markers for identification of arsenic resistant B. pumilus and B. subtilis strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential synergistic effects of a mixture of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement and Bacillus subtilis in dental caries treatment.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shunya

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is nonpathogenic in humans and produces a number of useful substances and, therefore, this bacterium is used in probiotic therapy. There have been trials of B. subtilis for patients with periodontitis, but not for patients with caries. Similarly, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement has been widely used for endodontic treatment, but there are few reports of its use for caries. Therefore, examinations were performed regarding the benefits of addition of B. subtilis to MTA cement for treatment of dental caries. Indirect pulp capping with a mixture of MTA cement and B. subtilis spore powder is effective for avoiding pulpectomy or tooth extraction in such cases (personal communication). This study was planned to examine the scientific basis of this clinical finding, with examination of possible synergistic effects of MTA cement and B. subtilis. From these experiments, the following five results were obtained: (1) B. subtilis did not proliferate in liquid-culture media at pH ≥10. (2) B. subtilis proliferated when mixed with MTA cement. (3) There was no significant difference in proliferation of B. subtilis under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. (4) B. subtilis exhibited antibacterial effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus casei. (5) MTA cement exhibited antibacterial effects on S. aureus and Streptococcus mutans, but not on B. subtilis. These results support the hypothesis that a combination of B subtilis and MTA cement is likely to be clinically useful for treatment of dental caries.

  12. Production, Characterization and Valuable Applications of Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacillus subtilis SH1.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sahar W M; Ibrahim, Hassan A H

    2017-12-04

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high molecular weight polymers consisting of different sugar residues they are preferable for replacing synthetic polymers as they are degradable and nontoxic. Many microorganisms possess the ability to synthesize and excrete exopolysaccharides with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures to have potential applications in different fields. The present study attempt to optimize the production of EPS by marine Bacillus subtilis SH1 in addition to characterization and investigation of different valuable applications. Effect of medium type, incubation period and pH were studied using the one factor at a time experiments. It was shown that the highest productivity (24 gl-1) of exopolysaccharides was recorded by using yeast malt glucose medium with pH 9 at the fourth day of incubation. Experimental design using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize various nutrients at different concentrations. The finalized optimized medium contained (gl-1) glucose (5), peptone (2.5), yeast extract (4.5) and malt extract (4.5) increased the production of EPS to 33.8 gl-1 with1.4 fold increase compared to the basal medium. Chemical characterization of the extracted EPS showed that, FTIR spectra exhibited bands at various regions. Moreover, HPLC chromatogram indicated that the EPS was a heteropolysaccharide consisting of maltose and rhamnose. The study was extended to evaluate the potentiality of the extracted polysaccharides in different medical applications. Results concluded that, EPS exhibited antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus faecalis and the highest antibacterial activity (7.8, 9 and 10.4 AU/ml) was against S. faecalis at 50, 100 and 200 mg/ml respectively. The EPS exhibited various degree of antitumor effect toward the tested cell lines (MCF-7, HCT-116 and HepG2). In addition, EPS exhibited antiviral activity at 500 μg/ml. The antioxidant capacity increased

  13. Role of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Bacillus subtilis Stress-Associated Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Cerritos, Karla Viridiana; Yasbin, Ronald E.; Robleto, Eduardo A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2′-deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant of strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952 metB5 leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Moreover, genetic inactivation of ytcG, predicted to encode a repressor (NrdR) of nrdEF in this strain, dramatically increased the expression levels of a transcriptional nrdE-lacZ fusion. The frequencies of mutations conferring amino acid prototrophy in three genes were measured in cultures under conditions that repressed or induced RNR-encoding genes. The results revealed that RNR was necessary for SPM and overexpression of nrdEF promoted growth-dependent mutagenesis and SPM. We also found that nrdEF expression was induced by H2O2 and such induction was dependent on the master regulator PerR. These observations strongly suggest that the metabolic conditions operating in starved B. subtilis cells increase the levels of RNR, which have a direct impact on SPM. IMPORTANCE Results presented in this study support the concept that the adverse metabolic conditions prevailing in nutritionally stressed bacteria activate an oxidative stress response that disturbs ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) levels. Such an alteration of RNR levels promotes mutagenic events that allow Bacillus subtilis to escape from growth-limited conditions. PMID:27920297

  14. Role of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Bacillus subtilis Stress-Associated Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Castro-Cerritos, Karla Viridiana; Yasbin, Ronald E; Robleto, Eduardo A; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2017-02-15

    The Gram-positive microorganism Bacillus subtilis relies on a single class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to generate 2'-deoxyribonucleotides (dNDPs) for DNA replication and repair. In this work, we investigated the influence of RNR levels on B. subtilis stationary-phase-associated mutagenesis (SPM). Since RNR is essential in this bacterium, we engineered a conditional mutant of strain B. subtilis YB955 (hisC952 metB5 leu427) in which expression of the nrdEF operon was modulated by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Moreover, genetic inactivation of ytcG, predicted to encode a repressor (NrdR) of nrdEF in this strain, dramatically increased the expression levels of a transcriptional nrdE-lacZ fusion. The frequencies of mutations conferring amino acid prototrophy in three genes were measured in cultures under conditions that repressed or induced RNR-encoding genes. The results revealed that RNR was necessary for SPM and overexpression of nrdEF promoted growth-dependent mutagenesis and SPM. We also found that nrdEF expression was induced by H 2 O 2 and such induction was dependent on the master regulator PerR. These observations strongly suggest that the metabolic conditions operating in starved B. subtilis cells increase the levels of RNR, which have a direct impact on SPM. Results presented in this study support the concept that the adverse metabolic conditions prevailing in nutritionally stressed bacteria activate an oxidative stress response that disturbs ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) levels. Such an alteration of RNR levels promotes mutagenic events that allow Bacillus subtilis to escape from growth-limited conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Bacillus subtilis on plant pathogens of conservatory in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chun-Mei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Jia-Li; Zhang, Yue-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Researching the effect of three kinds of Bacillus and their mixed strains inhibitory on common fungal diseases of conservatory vegetables. The results showed that B. megaterium culture medium had a significant inhibition effect on Cucumber Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was up to 84.36%; B. mucilaginosus and B. megaterium sterile superna-tant had an obvious inhibitory effect on brown disease of eggplant, and the inhibition rate as high as 85.49%; B. subtilis sterile supernatant had a good inhibitory effect on the spore germination of C. Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was 76.83%. The results revealed that Bacillus had a significant inhibitory effect on five common fungal pathogens. Three kinds of Bacillus can be used for the prevention and control of common fungal diseases in conservatory vegetables.

  16. Dielectrophoretic separation of Bacillus subtilis spores from environmental diesel particles.

    PubMed

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; Hughes, Michael P; Martin, Stacey P; Pashby, Paul; Labeed, Fatima H

    2007-01-01

    Isolation of pathogenic bacteria from non-biological material of similar size is a vital sample preparation step in the identification of such organisms, particularly in the context of detecting bio-terrorist attacks. However, many detection methods are impeded by particulate contamination from the environment such as those from engine exhausts. In this paper we use dielectrophoresis--the induced motion of particles in non-uniform fields--to successfully remove over 99% of diesel particulates acquired from environmental samples, whilst letting bacterial spores of B. subtilis pass through the chamber largely unimpeded. We believe that such a device has tremendous potential as a precursor to a range of detection methods, improving the signal-to-noise ratio and ultimately improving detection rates.

  17. Enhanced extracellular production of L-asparaginase from Bacillus subtilis 168 by B. subtilis WB600 through a combined strategy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue; Liu, Song; Jiao, Yun; Gao, Hui; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-02-01

    L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1, ASN) exhibits great commercial value due to its uses in the food and medicine industry. In this study, we reported the enhanced expression of type II ASN from Bacillus subtilis 168 in B. subtilis WB600 through a combined strategy. First, eight signal peptides (the signal peptide of the ASN, ywbN, yvgO, amyE, oppA, vpr, lipA, and wapA) were used for ASN secretion in B. subtilis by using Hpa II promoter, respectively. The signal peptide wapA achieved the highest extracellular ASN activity (28.91 U/mL). Second, Hpa II promoter was replaced by a strong promoter, P43 promoter, resulting in 38.1 % enhanced ASN activity. By two rounds of error-prone PCR mutation, the P43 promoter variants with remarkably enhanced strength (D7, E2, H6, B2, and F3) were identified. B2 (-28: A → G, -13: A → G) achieved ASN activity up to 51.13 U/mL. Third, after deletion of the N-terminal 25-residues, ASN activity reached 102.41 U/mL, which was 100 % higher than that of the intact ASN. At last, the extracellular ASN of the B. subtilis arrived at 407.6 U/mL (2.5 g/L of ASN protein) in a 3-L bioreactor by using a fed-batch strategy. The purified ASN showed maximal activity at 65 °C and its half-life at 65 °C was 61 min. The K m and k cat of the ASN were 5.29 mM and 54.4 s -1 , respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we obtained the highest yield of ASN in a food-grade host ever reported, which may benefit the industrial production and application of ASN.

  18. Strain Screening from Traditional Fermented Soybean Foods and Induction of Nattokinase Production in Bacillus subtilis MX-6.

    PubMed

    Man, Li-Li; Xiang, Dian-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Lan

    2018-02-06

    The plasminogen-free fibrin plate assay method was used to isolate Bacillus subtilis MX-6, a strain with high production of nattokinase from Chinese douchi. The presence of aprN, a gene-encoding nattokinase, was verified with PCR method. The predicted amino acid sequence was aligned with homologous sequences, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Nattokinase was sublimated with ammonium sulfate, using a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, a CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and a Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis MX-6 was about 28 kDa. Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis MX-6 nattokinase showed that nattokinase production was maximized after 72 h; the diameter of clear zone reached 21.60 mm on the plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Nattokinase production by Bacillus subtilis MX-6 increased significantly after supplementation with supernatant I, supernatant II and soy peptone but decreased substantially after the addition of amino acids. This result indicated that the nattokinase production by B. subtilis MX-6 might be induced by soybean polypeptides. The addition of MgSO 4 and CaCl 2 increased B. subtilis MX-6 nattokinase production.

  19. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2017-04-28

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Bacillus subtilis and surfactin inhibit the transmissible gastroenteritis virus from entering the intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. PMID:28270576

  1. Regulation of Neutral Protease Productivity in Bacillus subtilis: Transformation of High Protease Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Yuko; Yamane, Kunio; Maruo, Bunji

    1974-01-01

    A transformable strain of Bacillus subtilis 6160, a derivative of B. subtilis 168, produces three kinds of casein hydrolytic enzymes (alkaline protease, neutral protease, and esterase) in a culture medium. B. natto IAM 1212 produces 15 to 20 times as much total proteolytic activity as does B. subtilis. Extracellular proteases produced by the two strains were separated into each enzyme fraction by diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. The difference in the total protease activities of extracellular proteases between the two strains was due to the amount of neutral protease. The ratios of neutral protease activity to alkaline protease activity (N/A) were 1.1 in B. subtilis 6160 and 13.0 in B. natto IAM 1212. Enzymological and immunological properties of alkaline protease and neutral protease obtained from the two strains were quite similar or identical, respectively. Specific activities measured by an immunological analysis of the two neutral proteases against casein were also equal. A genetic character of high protease productivity in B. natto IAM 1212 was transferred to B. subtilis 6160 by the deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation. Among 73 transformants that acquired high protease productivity, 69 produced a higher amount of neutral protease and the ratios of N/A were changed to 15 to 60. Three other strains were transformed in the productivity of neutral protease and α-amylase simultaneously, and one showed considerable change in the production of alkaline protease and neutral protease. The specific activities (casein hydrolytic activities/enzyme molecules) of neutral proteases from the representative four transformants were equal to those of the two parental strains. These results suggested the presence of a specific gene(s) that participated in the productivity of neutral protease in B. subtilis. Images PMID:4209970

  2. Replacement of the Bacillus subtilis subtilisin structural gene with an In vitro-derived deletion mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, M L; Ferrari, E

    1984-01-01

    The entire subtilisin structural gene from Bacillus subtilis I168 has been cloned, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. When expressed on a high-copy-number shuttle vector, a fivefold increase in serine protease activity was observed. The DNA sequence of the gene is 80% homologous to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subtilisin structural gene, and the translated mature coding sequence is 85% homologous to the published protein sequence of subtilisin BPN'. The chloramphenicol resistance determinant of a plasmid integrated at the subtilisin locus was mapped by PBS1 transduction and was found to be linked to glyB (83%) and argC (60%), but not with metC or purB . The chromosomal locus containing the wild-type subtilisin allele was replaced with an in vitro-derived allele of the gene (delta apr-684) that contained a 684-base-pair deletion. The technique used for introducing the deletion is a variation of the gene replacement methods used in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. When used in B. subtilis, deletion mutants could be directly screened among the transformants. Physiological characterization of the delta apr-684 mutation revealed no discernable effect on the formation of heat-resistant endospores, but strains carrying the mutation produced only 10% of wild-type serine protease activity. A model is presented that outlines the pathway for plasmid integration and deletion formation in B. subtilis. Images PMID:6427178

  3. Antifungical Activity of Autochthonous Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Prosopis juliflora against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoteleb, Ali; Troncoso-Rojas, Rosalba; Gonzalez-Soto, Tania

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Bacillus subtilis, strain ALICA to produce three mycolytic enzymes (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease), was carried out by the chemical standard methods. Bacillus subtilis ALICA was screened based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay and cell-free culture filtrate (25%) against five different phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Macrophomina sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotium rolfesii. The B. subtilis ALICA detected positive for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease enzymes. Fungal growth inhibition by both strain ALICA and its cell-free culture filtrate ranged from 51.36% to 86.3% and 38.43% to 68.6%, respectively. Moreover, hyphal morphological changes like damage, broken, swelling, distortions abnormal morphology were observed. Genes expression of protease, β-1,3-glucanase, and lipopeptides (subtilosin and subtilisin) were confirmed their presence in the supernatant of strain ALICA. Our findings indicated that strain ALICA provided a broad spectrum of antifungal activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and may be a potential effective alternative to chemical fungicides. PMID:29371807

  4. Purification and Characterization of an Extracellular Cholesterol Oxidase of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Tiger Excreta.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Lata; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2016-01-01

    A mesophilic Bacillus sp. initially isolated from tiger excreta and later identified as a Bacillus subtilis strain was used to produce an extracellular cholesterol oxidase (COX) in cholesterol-enriched broth. This bacterial isolate was studied for the production of COX by manipulation of various physicochemical parameters. The extracellular COX was successfully purified from the cell-free culture broth of B. subtilis by successive salting out with ammonium sulfate, dialysis, and riboflavin-affinity chromatography. The purified COX was characterized for its molecular mass/structure and stability. The enzyme possessed some interesting properties such as high native Mr (105 kDa), multimeric (pentamer of ∼21 kDa protein) nature, organic solvent compatibility, and a half-life of ∼2 h at 37 °C. The bacterial COX exhibited ∼22 % higher activity in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) in the presence of a nonionic detergent Triton X-100 at 0.05 % (v/v). The K m and V max value of COX of B. subtilis COX were found to be 3.25 mM and 2.17 μmol min ml(-1), respectively. The purified COX showed very little cytotoxicity associated with it.

  5. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Display of native proteins on Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jae-Gu; Choi, Soo-Keun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Kim, Eui-Joong

    2014-09-01

    In principle, protein display is enabled by fusing target proteins to naturally secreted, surface-anchored protein motifs. In this work, we developed a method of native protein display on the Bacillus spore surface that obviates the need to construct fusion proteins to display a motif. Spore coat proteins are expressed in the mother cell compartment and are subsequently assembled and deposited on the surface of spores. Therefore, target proteins overexpressed in the mother cell compartment during the late sporulation phase were expected to be targeted and displayed on the spore surface. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated the display of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) in its native form on the spore surface. The target protein, CMCase, was expressed under the control of the cry1Aa promoter, which is controlled by σ(E) and σ(K) and is expressed in the mother cell compartment. The correct display was confirmed using enzyme activity assays, flow cytometry, and immunogold electron microscopy. In addition, we demonstrated the display of a β-galactosidase tetramer and confirmed its correct display using enzyme activity assays and protein characterization. This native protein display system, combined with the robust nature of Bacillus spores, will broaden the range of displayable target proteins. Consequently, the applications of display technology will be expanded, including high-throughput screening, vaccines, biosensors, biocatalysis, bioremediation, and other innovative bioprocesses. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Partial biochemical characterization of crude extract extracellular chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis B 298

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, P.; Prihatiningsih, N.; Djatmiko, H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Extraction and characterization of extracellular chitinase from Bacillus subtilis B 298 have been done. Growth curve determination of B. subtilis B 298, production curve determination of crude extract chitinase from B. subtilis B 298, and partial biochemical characterization of crude extract chitinase have been achieved in this study. Optimum growth of B. subtilis B 298 was achieved at logarithmic phase within 9 hours incubation time, so it was used as inoculum for enzyme production. According to production curve of the enzyme, it was known that incubation time which gave the highest chitinase activity of 15 hours with activity of 6.937 U/mL respectively. Effect of various temperatures on chitinase activity showed that optimum activity was achieved at 40°C with an activity of 5.764 U/mL respectively. Meanwhile, the optimum pH for chitinase activity was achieved at pH of 5.0 with an activity of 6.813 U/mL respectively. This enzyme was then classified as metalloenzyme due to the decline of the activity by EDTA addition. All divalent cations tested acted as inhibitors.

  8. The regulation of the fumarase (citG) gene of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Feavers, I M; Price, V; Moir, A

    1988-03-01

    The level of fumarase activity in Bacillus subtilis depends on the nutritional environment; in rich medium low vegetative levels increase towards the end of the exponential phase, whereas in minimal glucose medium levels are relatively high throughout growth. Analysis of the enzyme levels in spoO mutants has revealed that a functional spoOH gene is required for the efficient expression of fumarase in both media. This highlights a regulatory role for the spoOH gene product not only in control of postexponentially expressed genes, but also during vegetative growth in defined medium. S1 transcript mapping reveals three transcriptional startpoints for the fumarase structural gene (citG) in B. subtilis. The upstream promoter region P1, which appears to contain two transcriptional startpoints, is functional in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. Promoter P2, which is located closer to the structural gene, is only functional in B. subtilis. Transcription from this promoter is strictly dependent on a functional spoOH gene; this gene has recently been shown to encode a minor sigma factor.

  9. Catabolite repression and induction of the Mg(2+)-citrate transporter CitM of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Warner, J B; Krom, B P; Magni, C; Konings, W N; Lolkema, J S

    2000-11-01

    In Bacillus subtilis the citM gene encodes the Mg(2+)-citrate transporter. A target site for carbon catabolite repression (cre site) is located upstream of citM. Fusions of the citM promoter region, including the cre sequence, to the beta-galactosidase reporter gene were constructed and integrated into the amyE site of B. subtilis to study catabolic effects on citM expression. In parallel with beta-galactosidase activity, the uptake of Ni(2+)-citrate in whole cells was measured to correlate citM promoter activity with the enzymatic activity of the CitM protein. In minimal media, CitM was only expressed when citrate was present. The presence of glucose in the medium completely repressed citM expression; repression was also observed in media containing glycerol, inositol, or succinate-glutamate. Studies with B. subtilis mutants defective in the catabolite repression components HPr, Crh, and CcpA showed that the repression exerted by all these medium components was mediated via the carbon catabolite repression system. During growth on inositol and succinate, the presence of glutamate strongly potentiated the repression of citM expression by glucose. A reasonable correlation between citM promoter activity and CitM transport activity was observed in this study, indicating that the Mg(2+)-citrate uptake activity of B. subtilis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level.

  10. Production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes by a biocontrol strain of Bacillus subtilis AF 1.

    PubMed

    Manjula, K; Podile, A R

    2005-10-01

    Fungal cell wall degrading chitinases and glucanases attained significance in agriculture, medicine, and environment management. The present study was conducted to describe the optimum conditions required for the production of beta-1,4-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and beta-1,3-glucanase by a biocontrol strain of Bacillus subtilis AF 1. B. subtilis AF 1 was grown in minimal medium with colloidal chitin (3.0%) and yeast extract (0.3% YE ) and incubated at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C on constant shaker at 180 rpm for 6 days produced highest amounts of NAGase. Presence of 0.5 mM of phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and 0.04% of Tween 20 further improved the enzyme production. B. subtilis AF 1 grown in minimal medium with laminarin (1%) and yeast extract (0.3%) for 3 days produced maximum amount of beta-1,3-glucanase. These conditions can be further scaled-up for large-scale production of NAGase and beta-1,3-glucanase by B. subtilis AF 1.

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus plasmids introduced by transformation into Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Gryczan, T J; Contente, S; Dubnau, D

    1978-01-01

    Covalently closed circular DNA from five Staphylococcus aureus plasmids has been introduced into Bacillus subtilis. Four of these plasmids (pUB110, pCM194, pSA2100, and pSA0501) have been selected for further study. These plasmids replicate as multicopy autonomous replicons in both Rec+ and Rec- B. subtilis strains. They may be transduced between B. subtilis strains or transformed at a frequency of 10(4) to 10(5) transformants per microgram of DNA. The molecular weights of these plasmids were estimated, and restriction endonuclease cleavage site maps are presented. Evidence is given that pSA2100, an in vivo recombinant of pSA0501 and pCM194 (S. Iordănescu, J. Bacteriol. 124:597-601, 1975), arose by a fusion of the latter plasmids, possibly by insertion of one element into another as a translocatable element. Genetic information from three other S. aureus plasmids (pK545, pSH2, and pUB101) has also been introduced into B. subtilis, although no covalently closed circular plasmid DNA was recovered. Images PMID:418061

  12. Identification and characterization of the vanillin dehydrogenase YfmT in Bacillus subtilis 3NA.

    PubMed

    Graf, Nadja; Wenzel, Marian; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-04-01

    With vanillin as one of the most important flavoring agents, many efforts have been made to optimize its biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. However, its toxicity against the hosts results in rather low yields and product concentrations. Bacillus subtilis as a soil-dwelling bacterium is a possible lignin-derived compound-degrading microorganism. Therefore, its vanillin and ferulic acid metabolism was investigated. With a rather high tolerance for vanillin up to 20 mM, it is a promising candidate to produce natural vanillin. In this study, the well-studied phenolic acid decarboxylases PadC and BsdBCD could be ascribed to function as the only enzymes in B. subtilis 3NA converting ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol and vanillic acid to guaiacol, respectively. As vanillin also becomes converted to guaiacol, a previous conversion to vanillic acid was assumed. Usage of bioinformatic tools revealed YfmT, which could be shown to function as the only vanillin dehydrogenase in B. subtilis 3NA. Thus, YfmT was further characterized regarding its temperature and pH optima as well as its substrate range. Vanillin and ferulic acid metabolic routes in the tested B. subtilis strain were revealed, a direct conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin, however, could not be found.

  13. Metabolic pathway analysis and kinetic studies for production of nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Nguyen, Nhung H A

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a reaction network model of Bacillus subtilis. The model was analyzed using a pathway analysis tool called elementary mode analysis (EMA). The analysis tool was used to study the network capabilities and the possible effects of altered culturing conditions on the production of a fibrinolytic enzyme, nattokinase (NK) by B. subtilis. Based on all existing metabolic pathways, the maximum theoretical yield for NK synthesis in B. subtilis under different substrates and oxygen availability was predicted and the optimal culturing condition for NK production was identified. To confirm model predictions, experiments were conducted by testing these culture conditions for their influence on NK activity. The optimal culturing conditions were then applied to batch fermentation, resulting in high NK activity. The EMA approach was also applied for engineering B. subtilis metabolism towards the most efficient pathway for NK synthesis by identifying target genes for deletion and overexpression that enable the cell to produce NK at the maximum theoretical yield. The consistency between experiments and model predictions proves the feasibility of EMA being used to rationally design culture conditions and genetic manipulations for the efficient production of desired products.

  14. Stress resistance of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is modulated by auxins.

    PubMed

    Repar, J; Šućurović, S; Zahradka, K; Zahradka, D; Ćurković-Perica, M

    2013-11-01

    Two bacterial species, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, were exposed to different auxins to examine possible effects of these substances on bacterial stress tolerance. Bacterial resistance to UV irradiation, heat shock, and streptomycin was assessed with and without previous exposure to the following auxins: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Escherichia coli and B. subtilis cultures pretreated with any of the 3 auxins survived UV irradiation better than the untreated cultures. Also, B. subtilis cultures pretreated with IBA or NAA survived prolonged heat exposure better than the untreated cultures, while IAA pretreatment had no effect on heat shock survival. In contrast, auxin pretreatment rendered E. coli more sensitive to heat shock. Escherichia coli cultures pretreated with auxins were also more sensitive to streptomycin, while auxin pretreatment had no effect on sensitivity of B. subtilis to streptomycin. These results show that auxins may either enhance or reduce bacterial tolerance to different stressors, depending on the bacterial species and the type and level of the stress. Auxins usually had similar effects on the same bacterial species in cases when the same type and level of stress were applied.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Bacillus subtilis fueled by systems biology: Recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    By combining advanced omics technology and computational modeling, systems biologists have identified and inferred thousands of regulatory events and system-wide interactions of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which is commonly used both in the laboratory and in industry. This dissection of the multiple layers of regulatory networks and their interactions has provided invaluable information for unraveling regulatory mechanisms and guiding metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the systems biology and metabolic engineering of B. subtilis and highlight current gaps in our understanding of global metabolism and global pathway engineering in this organism. We also propose future perspectives in the systems biology of B. subtilis and suggest ways that this approach can be used to guide metabolic engineering. Specifically, although hundreds of regulatory events have been identified or inferred via systems biology approaches, systematic investigation of the functionality of these events in vivo has lagged, thereby preventing the elucidation of regulatory mechanisms and further rational pathway engineering. In metabolic engineering, ignoring the engineering of multilayer regulation hinders metabolic flux redistribution. Post-translational engineering, allosteric engineering, and dynamic pathway analyses and control will also contribute to the modulation and control of the metabolism of engineered B. subtilis, ultimately producing the desired cellular traits. We hope this review will aid metabolic engineers in making full use of available systems biology datasets and approaches for the design and perfection of microbial cell factories through global metabolism optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10-50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation.

  17. The Antimicrobial Properties of Silver Nanoparticles in Bacillus subtilis Are Mediated by Released Ag+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Chiang, Chao-Lung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Liu, Shih-Tung

    2015-01-01

    The superior antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are well-documented, but the exact mechanisms underlying Ag-NP microbial toxicity remain the subject of intense debate. Here, we show that Ag-NP concentrations as low as 10 ppm exert significant toxicity against Bacillus subtilis, a beneficial bacterium ubiquitous in the soil. Growth arrest and chromosomal DNA degradation were observed, and flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide (PI) staining also revealed that Ag-NP concentrations of 25 ppm and above increased membrane permeability. RedoxSensor content analysis and Phag-GFP expression analysis further indicated that reductase activity and cytosolic protein expression decreased in B. subtilis cells treated with 10–50 ppm of Ag NPs. We conducted X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses to directly clarify the valence and fine structure of Ag atoms in B. subtilis cells placed in contact with Ag NPs. The results confirmed the Ag species in Ag NP-treated B. subtilis cells as Ag2O, indicating that Ag-NP toxicity is likely mediated by released Ag+ ions from Ag NPs, which penetrate bacterial cells and are subsequently oxidized intracellularly to Ag2O. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the role of Ag+ ions in Ag-NP microbial toxicity, and suggest that the impact of inappropriately disposed Ag NPs to soil and water ecosystems may warrant further investigation. PMID:26669836

  18. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting properties of the cacao endophyte Bacillus subtilis ALB629.

    PubMed

    Falcäo, L L; Silva-Werneck, J O; Vilarinho, B R; da Silva, J P; Pomella, A W V; Marcellino, L H

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of the endophyte Bacillus subtilisALB629 on the growth of cacao seedlings at early developmental stage and to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. Germinating cacao seeds were inoculated with ALB629, and seedlings growth was evaluated 30 days later. Significant increase (P < 0·05) was observed in the root system (up to 30%), leaf area (14%) and stem height (7·6%). ALB629 colonized the entire plant, prevailing over indigenous micro-organisms. In addition, it was tested in vitro, by pairing assays, and showed antagonistic effect against the phytopathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa, Colletotrichum sp. and C. gossypii. When tested in cacao-grafting procedure in the field, ALB629 increased the grafting success rate (24%), indicating its protective effect. In addition, this Bacillus secretes an antagonist compound, as shown by the antifungal activity of the cell-free culture. Bacillus subtilisALB629 promotes cacao root growth, besides promoting growth of the aerial part of cacao seedlings. It has antimicrobial properties and produces an antifungal compound. ALB629 presented beneficial characteristics for cacao cultivation, being a good biological control agent candidate. Furthermore, it is a potential source of antifungal compound with potential for commercial exploitation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.

  1. Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase gene, amyL, is subject to promoter-independent catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Laoide, B M; Chambliss, G H; McConnell, D J

    1989-01-01

    Expression of the Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase gene, amyL, was temporally activated and subject to catabolite repression both in its natural host and when cloned on a 3.55-kilobase fragment in Bacillus subtilis. A subclone from which the promoter region of amyL and sequences upstream from the promoter were deleted had a low level of amylase activity. Expression of the promoterless gene was still subject to repression by glucose when the gene was present either on a multicopy plasmid or integrated into the B. subtilis chromosome. Catabolite repression occurred independently of the amylase promoter and irrespective of the distance of the promoterless amyL gene from the promoter which transcribed it. The transcriptional start sites of amyL activated by its own promoter and by a vector sequence promoter were determined by S1 mapping. alpha-Amylase-specific mRNA levels were measured in repressing and nonrepressing media, and catabolite repression was found to act at the level of transcription. Images PMID:2540150

  2. Bacillus subtilis mutant with temperature-sensitive net synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, V; Holmgren, E; Rutberg, L

    1977-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants with temperature-sensitive growth on complex media were screened for defects in phospholipid metabolism. One mutant was isolated that showed temperature-sensitive net synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine. The mutant did not accumulate phosphatidylserine at the nonpermissive temperature. In the presence of hydroxylamine, wild-type B. subtilis accumulated phosphatidylserine at both 32 and 45 degrees C, whereas the mutant did only at 32 degrees C. In vitro phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis with bacterial membranes is no more temperature sensitive with mutant membranes than with wild-type membranes. The mutation probably affects the synthesis indirectly, possibly by altering a membrane protein. The mutant bacteria grew at the nonpermissive temperature, 45 degrees C, in a phosphate buffer-based minimal medium, although net synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine was also temperature sensitive in this medium. One mutation caused both temperature-sensitive growth on complex media and temperature-sensitive net synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine. The mutation is linked to aroD by transformation.

  3. Mechanism of erythromycin-induced ermC mRNA stability in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Bechhofer, D H; Zen, K H

    1989-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the ermC gene encodes an mRNA that is unusually stable (40-min half-life) in the presence of erythromycin, an inducer of ermC gene expression. A requirement for this induced mRNA stability is a ribosome stalled in the ermC leader region. This property of ermC mRNA was used to study the decay of mRNA in B. subtilis. Using constructs in which the ribosome stall site was internal rather than at the 5' end of the message, we show that ribosome stalling provides stability to sequences downstream but not upstream of the ribosome stall site. Our results indicate that ermC mRNA is degraded by a ribonucleolytic activity that begins at the 5' end and degrades the message in a 5'-to-3' direction. Images PMID:2478520

  4. A new maltose-inducible high-performance heterologous expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jie; Fu, Gang; Zhang, Dawei; Wen, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    To improve heterologous proteins production, we constructed a maltose-inducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis. An expression system based on the promoter for maltose utilization constructed in B. subtilis. Successively, to improve the performance of the P malA -derived system, mutagenesis was employed by gradually shortening the length of P malA promoter and altering the spacing between the predicted MalR binding site and the -35 region. Furthermore, deletion of the maltose utilization genes (malL and yvdK) improved the P malA promoter activity. Finally, using this efficient maltose-inducible expression system, we enhanced the production of luciferase and D-aminoacylase, compared with the P hpaII system. A maltose-inducible expression system was constructed and evaluated. It could be used for high level expression of heterologous proteins production.

  5. Sites of metal deposition in the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Murray, R G

    1980-01-01

    Amine and carboxyl groups of the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis were chemically modified individually to neutralize their electrochemical charge for determination of their contribution to the metal uptake process. Mild alkali treatment removed ca. 94% of the constituent teichoic acid (expressed as inorganic phosphorus) and allowed estimation of metal interaction with phosphodiester bonds. Chemical modifications of amine functions did not reduce the metal uptake values as compared to native walls, whereas extraction of teichoic acid caused a stoichiometric reduction in levels. In contrast, alteration of carboxyl groups severely limited metal deposition of most of the metals tested. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy suggested, in this case, that the form and structure of the metal deposit could be different from that found in native walls. The observations suggest that carboxyl groups provide the major site of metal deposition in the B. subtilis wall. Images PMID:6767692

  6. [An Efficient Method for Genetic Certification of Bacillus subtilis strains, Prospective Producers of Biopreparations].

    PubMed

    Terletskiy, V P; Tyshenko, V I; Novikova, I I; Boikova, I V; Tyulebaev, S D; Shakhtamirov, I Ya

    2016-01-01

    Genetic certification of commercial strains of bacteria antagonistic to phytopathogenic microorganisms guarantees their unequivocal identification and confirmation of safety. In Russia, unlike EU countries, genetic certification of Bacillus subtilis strains is not used. Based on the previously proposed double digestion selective label (DDSL) fingerprinting, a method for genetic identification and certification of B. subtilis strains was proposed. The method was tested on several strains differing in their physiological and biochemical properties and in the composition of secondary metabolites responsible for the spectrum of antibiotic activity. High resolving power of this approach was shown. Optimal restriction endonucleases (SgsI and Eco32I) were determined and validated. A detailed protocol for genetic certification of this bacterial species was developed. DDSL is a universal method, which may be adapted for genetic identification and certification of other bacterial species.

  7. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus halodurans Aspartyl-tRNA Synthetases Retain Recognition of tRNA(Asn).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nilendra; Raff, Hannah; Islam, Mohammed Tarek; Feen, Melanie; Garofalo, Denise M; Sheppard, Kelly

    2016-02-13

    Synthesis of asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn-tRNA(Asn)) in bacteria can be formed either by directly ligating Asn to tRNA(Asn) using an asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) or by synthesizing Asn on the tRNA. In the latter two-step indirect pathway, a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) attaches Asp to tRNA(Asn) and the amidotransferase GatCAB transamidates the Asp to Asn on the tRNA. GatCAB can be similarly used for Gln-tRNA(Gln) formation. Most bacteria are predicted to use only one route for Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation. Given that Bacillus halodurans and Bacillus subtilis encode AsnRS for Asn-tRNA(Asn) formation and Asn synthetases to synthesize Asn and GatCAB for Gln-tRNA(Gln) synthesis, their AspRS enzymes were thought to be specific for tRNA(Asp). However, we demonstrate that the AspRSs are non-discriminating and can be used with GatCAB to synthesize Asn. The results explain why B. subtilis with its Asn synthetase genes knocked out is still an Asn prototroph. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that this may be common among Firmicutes and 30% of all bacteria. In addition, the phylogeny revealed that discrimination toward tRNA(Asp) by AspRS has evolved independently multiple times. The retention of the indirect pathway in B. subtilis and B. halodurans likely reflects the ancient link between Asn biosynthesis and its use in translation that enabled Asn to be added to the genetic code. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a CRISPR-Cas9 Tool Kit for Comprehensive Engineering of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Adam W.; Moo-Young, Murray

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The establishment of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system for strain construction in Bacillus subtilis is essential for its progression toward industrial utility. Here we outline the development of a CRISPR-Cas9 tool kit for comprehensive genetic engineering in B. subtilis. In addition to site-specific mutation and gene insertion, our approach enables continuous genome editing and multiplexing and is extended to CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) for transcriptional modulation. Our tool kit employs chromosomal expression of Cas9 and chromosomal transcription of guide RNAs (gRNAs) using a gRNA transcription cassette and counterselectable gRNA delivery vectors. Our design obviates the need for multicopy plasmids, which can be unstable and impede cell viability. Efficiencies of up to 100% and 85% were obtained for single and double gene mutations, respectively. Also, a 2.9-kb hyaluronic acid (HA) biosynthetic operon was chromosomally inserted with an efficiency of 69%. Furthermore, repression of a heterologous reporter gene was achieved, demonstrating the versatility of the tool kit. The performance of our tool kit is comparable with those of systems developed for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which rely on replicating vectors to implement CRISPR-Cas9 machinery. IMPORTANCE In this paper, as the first approach, we report implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in Bacillus subtilis, which is recognized as a valuable host system for biomanufacturing. The study enables comprehensive engineering of B. subtilis strains with virtually any desired genotypes/phenotypes and biochemical properties for extensive industrial application. PMID:27260361

  9. Recombination between compatible plasmids containing homologous segments requires the Bacillus subtilis recE gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Keggins, K M; Duvall, E J; Lovett, P S

    1978-01-01

    Plasmid pSL103 was previously constructed by cloning a Trp fragment (approximately 2.3 X 10(6) daltons) from restriction endonuclease EcoRI-digested chromosome DNA of Bacillus pumilus using the neomycin-resistance plasmid pUB110 (approximately 2.8 X 10(6) daltons) as vector and B. subtilis as transformation recipient. In the present study the EcoRI Trp fragment from pSL103 was transferred in vitro to EcoRI fragments of the Bacillus plasmid pPL576 to determine the ability of the plasmid fragments to replicate in B. subtilis. Endonuclease EcoRI digestion of pPL576 (approximately 28 X 10(6) daltons) generated three fragments having molecular weights of about 13 X 13(6) (the A fragment), 9.5 X 10(6) (B fragment, and 6.5 X 10(6) (C fragment). Trp derivatives of pPL576 fragments capable of autonomous replication in B. subtilis contained the B fragment (e.g., pSL107) or both the B and C fragments (e.g., pSL108). Accordingly, the B fragment of pPL576 contains information essential for autonomous replication. pSL107 and pSL108 are compatible with pUB110. Constructed derivatives of the compatible plasmids pPL576 and pUB110, harboring genetically distinguishable EcoRI-generated Trp fragments cloned from the DNA of a B. pumilus strain, exhibited relatively high frequency recombination for a trpC marker when the plasmid pairs were present in a recombination-proficient strain of B. subtilis. No recombination was detected when the host carried the chromosome mutation recE4. Therefore, the recE4 mutation suppresses recombination between compatible plasmids that contain homologous segments. PMID:96091

  10. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Ploss, Tina N; Reilman, Ewoud; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Denham, Emma L; Piersma, Sjouke; Lingner, Anja; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Lorenz, Patrick; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus subtilis is an important cell factory for the biotechnological industry due to its ability to secrete commercially relevant proteins in large amounts directly into the growth medium. However, hyper-secretion of proteins, such as α-amylases, leads to induction of the secretion stress-responsive CssR-CssS regulatory system, resulting in up-regulation of the HtrA and HtrB proteases. These proteases degrade misfolded proteins secreted via the Sec pathway, resulting in a loss of product. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion stress response in B. subtilis 168 cells overproducing the industrially relevant α-amylase AmyM from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which was expressed from the strong promoter P(amyQ)-M. Here we show that activity of the htrB promoter as induced by overproduction of AmyM was "noisy", which is indicative for heterogeneous activation of the secretion stress pathway. Plasmids were constructed to allow real-time analysis of P(amyQ)-M promoter activity and AmyM production by, respectively, transcriptional and out-of-frame translationally coupled fusions with gfpmut3. Our results show the emergence of distinct sub-populations of high- and low-level AmyM-producing cells, reflecting heterogeneity in the activity of P(amyQ)-M. This most likely explains the heterogeneous secretion stress response. Importantly, more homogenous cell populations with regard to P(amyQ)-M activity were observed for the B. subtilis mutant strain 168degUhy32, and the wild-type strain 168 under optimized growth conditions. Expression heterogeneity of secretory proteins in B. subtilis can be suppressed by degU mutation and optimized growth conditions. Further, the out-of-frame translational fusion of a gene for a secreted target protein and gfp represents a versatile tool for real-time monitoring of protein production and opens novel avenues for Bacillus production strain improvement.

  11. Biodegradation of crude oil by a defined co-culture of indigenous bacterial consortium and exogenous Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kaiyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xueping; Hu, Xiaoxin; Cao, Liya; Yuan, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study biodegradation of crude oil by defined co-cultures of indigenous bacterial consortium and exogenous Bacillus subtilis. Through residual oil analysis, it is apparent that the defined co-culture displayed a degradation ratio (85.01%) superior to indigenous bacterial consortium (71.32%) after 7days of incubation when ratio of inoculation size of indigenous bacterial consortium and Bacillus subtilis was 2:1. Long-chain n-alkanes could be degraded markedly by Bacillus subtilis. Result analysis of the bacterial community showed that a decrease in bacterial diversity in the defined co-culture and the enrichment of Burkholderiales order (98.1%) degrading hydrocarbons. The research results revealed that the promising potential of the defined co-culture for application to degradation of crude oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siyuan; Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-05-26

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. Copyright © 2016 Tan et al.

  13. Mixed culture models for predicting intestinal microbial interactions between Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus in the presence of probiotic Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, J J; Niu, C C; Guo, X H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus has been proposed as a probiotic due to its in vivo effectiveness in the gastrointestinal tract through antimicrobial activities. The present study investigates the effects of Lactobacillus alone or in the presence of Bacillus subtilis MA139 on the inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia coli K88. Mixed cultures were used to predict the possible interactions among these bacteria within the intestinal tract of animals. B. subtilis MA139 was first assayed for its inhibition against E. coli K88 both under shaking and static culture conditions. A co-culture assay was employed under static conditions to test the inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on E. coli K88, with or without addition of B. subtilis MA139. The results showed that B. subtilis MA139 had marked inhibition against E. coli K88 under shaking conditions and weak inhibition under static conditions. Lactobacillus alone as well as in combination with B. subtilis MA139 spores exerted strong inhibition against E. coli K88 under static conditions. However, the inhibition by Lactobacillus in combination with B. subilis spores was much higher than that by Lactobacillus alone (P<0.01). B. subtilis MA139 significantly decreased the pH and oxidation-reduction potential values of the co-culture broth compared to that of Lactobacillus alone (P<0.05). The viability of Lactobacillus increased when co-cultured with B. subtilis MA139 because of significantly higher Lactobacillus counts and lower pH values in the broth (P<0.05). The role of Bacillus in the mixed culture models suggests that Bacillus may produce beneficial effects by increasing the viability of lactobacilli and subsequently inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, the combination of Bacillus and Lactobacillus species as a probiotic is recommended.

  14. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Reveals Evolutional Traits for Adaptation to Plant-Associated Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Dongqing; Kendall, Joshua R. A.; Borriss, Rainer; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its sister species B. amyloliquefaciens comprise an evolutionary compact but physiologically versatile group of bacteria that includes strains isolated from diverse habitats. Many of these strains are used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture and a plant-specialized subspecies of B. amyloliquefaciens—B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, has recently been recognized, here we used 31 whole genomes [including two newly sequenced PGPR strains: B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from Musa sp. (banana) and B. subtilis HJ5 from Gossypium sp. (cotton)] to perform comparative analysis and investigate the genomic characteristics and evolution traits of both species in different niches. Phylogenomic analysis indicated that strains isolated from plant-associated (PA) habitats could be distinguished from those from non-plant-associated (nPA) niches in both species. The core genomes of PA strains are more abundant in genes relevant to intermediary metabolism and secondary metabolites biosynthesis as compared with those of nPA strains, and they also possess additional specific genes involved in utilization of plant-derived substrates and synthesis of antibiotics. A further gene gain/loss analysis indicated that only a few of these specific genes (18/192 for B. amyloliquefaciens and 53/688 for B. subtilis) were acquired by PA strains at the initial divergence event, but most were obtained successively by different subgroups of PA stains during the evolutional process. This study demonstrated the genomic differences between PA and nPA B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis from different niches and the involved evolutional traits, and has implications for screening of PGPR strains in agricultural production. PMID:28066362

  15. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  16. High-level expression and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. BSP1 YwaD aminopeptidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Li, Zhezhe; Li, Chunhua; Yu, Xianhong; Wang, Fei; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yaping; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Aminopeptidases are widely used for creating protein hydrolysates and peptide sequencing. The ywaD gene from a new Bacillus isolate, named Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. BSP1, was cloned into the yeast expression vector pHBM905A and expressed and secreted by Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aminopeptidase encoded by the ywaD gene shared up to 98% identity with aminopeptidases from B. subtilis strains 168 and zj016. The yield (3.81 g/l) and specific activity (788 U/mg) of recombinant YwaD in high-density fermentation were extremely high. And 829.83 mg of the purified enzyme (4089.72 U/mg) were harvested. YwaD was glycosylated, and its activity decreased after deglycosylation, which was similar to that of the aminopeptidase from B. subtilis strain zj016. YwaD was most active toward l-arginine-4-nitroanilide. Moreover, it exhibited high resistance to carbamide, which was not true for aminopeptidases from B. subtilis strains 168 and zj016, which could simplify the purification of YwaD. Moreover, the expression and parts of characterization of the aminopeptidase from B. subtilis strain 168 in Pichia pastoris were added as supplementary material. The sequence and other characteristics of YwaD were compared with those of aminopeptidases from B. subtilis strains 168 and zj016, and they will provide a solid foundation for further research on the influence of amino acid mutations on the function of aminopeptidases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis gene expression modulated by amino acid availability.

    PubMed

    Mäder, Ulrike; Homuth, Georg; Scharf, Christian; Büttner, Knut; Bode, Rüdiger; Hecker, Michael

    2002-08-01

    A comprehensive study of Bacillus subtilis gene expression patterns in response to amino acid availability was performed by means of proteomics and transcriptomics. The methods of two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis and DNA macroarray technology were combined to analyze cells exponentially grown in minimal medium with and without 0.2% Casamino Acids (CAA). This approach revealed about 120 genes predominantly involved in amino acid biosynthesis, sporulation, and competence, which were downregulated in CAA-containing medium. Determination of sporulation frequencies confirmed the physiological relevance of the expression data.

  18. Role of sugar uptake and metabolic intermediates on catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, J M; Thoms, B

    1977-01-01

    Many phosphorylated intermediates exert catabolite repression on the enzyme acetoin dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis. This was shown with strains that are blocked at different positions in central metabolism when they receive sugars that cannot be metabolized past enzymatic block(s). In the case of sorbitol, transport events were not involved in catabolite repression, for this sugar cannot repress acetoin dehydrogenase in a strain lacking sorbitol dehydrogenase but otherwise able to take up sorbitol. The presence of glucose did not markedly influence the uptake of acetoin. PMID:401492

  19. Specificity of Metal Sensing: Iron and Manganese Homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis*

    PubMed Central

    Helmann, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Metalloregulatory proteins allow cells to sense metal ions and appropriately adjust the expression of metal uptake, storage, and efflux pathways. Bacillus subtilis provides a model for the coordinate regulation of iron and manganese homeostasis that involves three key regulators: Fur senses iron sufficiency, MntR senses manganese sufficiency, and PerR senses the intracellular Fe/Mn ratio. Here, I review the structural and physiological bases of selective metal perception, the effects of non-cognate metals, and mechanisms that may serve to coordinate iron and manganese homeostasis. PMID:25160631

  20. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis under microgravity (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennigmann, Horst-Dieter

    1992-01-01

    The experiment was aimed at measuring the growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis under microgravity. The hardware for the experiment consists of a culture chamber (15 ml) made from titanium and closed by a membrane permeable for gases but not for water. Two variants of this basic structure were built which fit into the standard Biorack container types 1 and 2 respectively. Growth of the bacteria will be monitored by continuously measuring the optical density with a built-in miniaturized photometer. Other parameters (viability, sporulation, fine structure, size distribution of cells and spores, growth kinetics, etc.) will be measured on the fixed samples and on those where metabolism was temporarily halted, respectively.

  1. Development of natto with germination-defective mutants of Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Nobuo; Murasawa, Hisashi; Sekiguchi, Junichi

    2009-03-01

    The effects of cortex-lysis related genes with the pdaA, sleB, and cwlD mutations of Bacillus subtilis (natto) NAFM5 on sporulation and germination were investigated. Single or double mutations did not prevent normal sporulation, but did affect germination. Germination was severely inhibited by the double mutation of sleB and cwlD. The quality of natto made with the sleB cwlD double mutant was tested, and the amounts of glutamic acid and ammonia were very similar to those in the wild type. The possibility of industrial development of natto containing a reduced number of viable spores is presented.

  2. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis Spores in a Sealed Package Using a Non-thermal Plasma System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, Kevin M.; Jensen, J. L.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Connolly, J.; Mosnier, J. P.; Cullen, P. J.

    The safety of packaged food and medical devices is a major concern to consumers and government officials. Recent inventions (PK-1 and PK-2) based on the principles of non-thermal, atmospheric plasma has shown significant reduction in bacterial contamination inside a sealed package. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK-1 and PK-2 systems in the reduction of Bacillus subtilis spores using packages containing air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). The experimental design consisted of the following parameters: (1) two voltage conditions: 13.5 kV with 1.0 cm electrode gap (PK-1) and 80 kV with 4.5 cm electrode gap (PK-2), (2) two treatment conditions: inside and outside the field of ionization, (3) PK-1 and PK-2 optimized treatment times: 300 and 120 s, respectively, and (4) two package gas types: air and modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). Measurements included: (1) bacterial reductions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. atrophaeus), (2) ozone, nitrous oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide concentrations, and (3) relative humidity. Bacillus subtilis (1.7 × 106/strip) were loaded into sterile uncovered petri dishes and treated with ionization generated in packages using air or MA gas blend. Samples were treated for 300 s (PK-1) or 120 s (PK-2) and stored at room ­temperature for 24 h. Results documented relative humidity (RH) ranged from 20% to 30%. After 300 s of PK-1 treatment (13.5 kV/44 W/1.0 cm gap), ozone concentrations were 6,000 ppm (air) and 7,500 ppm (MA). After 120 s of PK-2 treatment (80 kV/150 W/4.5 cm), ozone concentrations were 7,500 ppm (air) and 12,000 ppm (MA). Ozone and NOx concentrations were non-detect (ND) after 24 h. PK-1 carbon monoxide levels were <20 ppm (air) and <100 ppm (MA) after 24 h. The PK-2 carbon monoxide levels were <20 ppm (air) and <400 ppm (MA) after 24 h. Treatments showed reductions in spores of greater than 6 log10 after 24 h. Reductions were maintained without additional re

  3. Dry-heat Resistance of Bacillus Subtilis Var. Niger Spores on Mated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simko, G. J.; Devlin, J. D.; Wardle, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials including stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum. These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min. Survivor data were subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times.

  4. Proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis extracellular proteins: a two-dimensional protein electrophoretic study.

    PubMed

    Hirose, I; Sano, K; Shioda, I; Kumano, M; Nakamura, K; Yamane, K

    2000-01-01

    To analyse the proteome of Bacillus subtilis extracellular proteins, extracellular protein samples were prepared from culture media (minimal medium containing 0.4% glucose) of parental B. subtilis 168, a secA-temperature sensitive mutant and an ffh conditional mutant, and examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Approximately 100 to 110 spots were visualized in a gel of B. subtilis 168 extracellular proteins. Over 90% and 80% of these disappeared in the absence of SecA and Ffh, respectively. Thirty-eight obvious spots on the gel of the B. subtilis 168 preparation were selected and compared with spots obtained under SecA- or Ffh-deficient conditions. The appearance of 36 of these 38 spots depended on SecA and Ffh. Nineteen additional extracellular proteins were detected in cultures maintained in cellobiose, maltose and soluble starch. Among 23 proteins of which the N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined, 17 were extracellular proteins having signal peptides in their precursor form. Two membrane proteins, Yfnl and YflE, were cleaved behind 226Ala-Tyr-Ala228 and 213Ala-Leu-Ala215, respectively, and of which products seemed to be liberated into the culture medium. The production of Yfnl and YflE were also dependent on SecA and Ffh. These results indicate that most extracellular proteins target to and translocate across the cytoplasmic membrane by co-operation between the signal-recognition particle and Sec protein-secretion pathways. In contrast, a spot for Hag appeared independent from SecA and Ffh. Intracellular proteins Gap, SodA and KatA were identified in the extracellular protein samples. On the basis of these results and computer searches, it was predicted that B. subtilis produces 150 to 180 proteins extracellularly.

  5. Repression of phenolic acid-synthesizing enzymes and its relation to iron uptake in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Downer, D N; Davis, W B; Byers, B R

    1970-01-01

    Excretion of the metal-chelating phenolic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, by a tryptophan-requiring strain (M-13) of Bacillus subtilis was inversely proportional to the iron added to the medium. Addition of iron as the ferric chelates of two secondary hydroxamates (ferri-schizokinen and Desferal) markedly reduced excretion. Synthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate from chorismate by extracts of B. subtilis M-13, grown in low-iron medium, was unaltered by additions of FeSO(4), FeCl(3), ferrischizokinen, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-iron complex, or by extracts of cells grown in high-iron medium (which contained no demonstrable 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-synthesizing activity) to the extracts of "low-iron cells." Iron control seemed to involve repression of synthesis of the enzymes in the 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate pathway. Both ferri-schizokinen and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate plus iron enhanced considerably the otherwise minimal repressive effects of iron at low concentrations. Ferri-schizokinen delayed derepression of the pathway in B. subtilis M-13, and reduced its rate of synthesis after derepression. Addition of FeSO(4) to derepressed cells of B. subtilis M-13 halted synthesis of the enzymes after a lag period. The effect of the ferric hydroxamates was related to the capacity of B. subtilis M-13 to incorporate (59)Fe(3+) from Desferal-(59)Fe(3+). Cellular accumulation of (59)Fe(3+) from Desferal-(59)Fe(3+) after 20 min was nearly double that incorporated from (59)FeCl(3).

  6. Efficient biosynthesis of polysaccharides chondroitin and heparosan by metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhang, Linpei; Yuan, Panhong; Kang, Zhen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-20

    Chondroitin and heparosan, important polysaccharides and key precursors of chondroitin sulfate and heparin/heparan sulfate, have drawn much attention due to their wide applications in many aspects. In this study, we designed two independent synthetic pathways of chondroitin and heparosan in food-grade Bacillus subtilis, integrating critical synthases genes derived from Escherichia coli into B. subtilis genome. By RT-PCR analysis, we confirmed that synthases genes transcripted an integral mRNA chain, suggesting co-expression. In shaken flask, chondroitin and heparosan were produced at a level of 1.83gL(-1) and 1.71gL(-1), respectively. Since B. subtilis endogenous tuaD gene encodes the limiting factor of biosynthesis, overexpressing tuaD resulted in enhanced chondroitin and heparosan titers, namely 2.54gL(-1) and 2.65gL(-1). Moreover, production reached the highest peaks of 5.22gL(-1) and 5.82gL(-1) in 3-L fed-batch fermentation, respectively, allowed to double the production that in shaken flask. The weight-average molecular weight of chondroitin and heparosan from B. subtilis E168C/pP43-D and E168H/pP43-D were 114.07 and 67.70kDa, respectively. This work provided alternative safer synthetic pathways for metabolic engineering of chondroitin and heparosan in B. subtilis and a useful approach for enhancing production, which can be optimized for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nucleosides as a carbon source in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the drm-pupG operon.

    PubMed

    Schuch, R; Garibian, A; Saxild, H H; Piggot, P J; Nygaard, P

    1999-10-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, nucleosides are readily taken up from the growth medium and metabolized. The key enzymes in nucleoside catabolism are nucleoside phosphorylases, phosphopentomutase, and deoxyriboaldolase. The characterization of two closely linked loci, drm and pupG, which encode phosphopentomutase (Drm) and guanosine (inosine) phosphorylase (PupG), respectively, is reported here. When expressed in Escherichia coli mutant backgrounds, drm and pupG confer phosphopentomutase and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity. Northern blot and enzyme analyses showed that drm and pupG form a dicistronic operon. Both enzymes are induced when nucleosides are present in the growth medium. Using mutants deficient in nucleoside catabolism, it was demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass effectors of this induction most likely were deoxyribose 5-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate. Both Drm and PupG activity levels were higher when succinate rather than glucose served as the carbon source, indicating that the expression of the operon is subject to catabolite repression. Primer extension analysis identified two transcription initiation signals upstream of drm; both were utilized in induced and non-induced cells. The nucleoside-catabolizing system in B. subtilis serves to utilize the base for nucleotide synthesis while the pentose moiety serves as the carbon source. When added alone, inosine barely supports growth of B. subtilis. This slow nucleoside catabolism contrasts with that of E. coli, which grows rapidly on a nucleoside as a carbon source. When inosine was added with succinate or deoxyribose, however, a significant increase in growth was observed in B. subtilis. The findings of this study therefore indicate that the B. subtilis system for nucleoside catabolism differs greatly from the well-studied system in E. coli.

  8. Deleting multiple lytic genes enhances biomass yield and production of recombinant proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Zhenmin; Zhao, Ruili; Jin, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiangdong

    2014-08-31

    Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture and industrial biotechnology; however, cell autolysis significantly decreases its yield in liquid cultures. Numerous factors mediate the lysis of B. subtilis, such as cannibalism factors, prophages, and peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. The aim of this work was to use molecular genetic techniques to develop a new strategy to prevent cell lysis and enhance biomass as well as the production of recombinant proteins. Five genes or genetic elements representing three different functional categories were studied as follows: lytC encoding PG hydrolases, the prophage genes xpf and yqxG-yqxH-cwlA (yGlA), and skfA and sdpC that encode cannibalism factors. Cell lysis was reduced and biomass was enhanced by deleting individually skfA, sdpC, xpf, and lytC. We constructed the multiple deletion mutant LM2531 (skfA sdpC lytC xpf) and found that after 4 h of culture, its biomass yield was significantly increased compared with that of prototypical B. subtilis 168 (wild-type) strain and that 15% and 92% of the cells were lysed in cultures of LM2531 and wild-type, respectively. Moreover, two expression vectors were constructed for producing recombinant proteins (β-galactosidase and nattokinase) under the control of the P43 promoter. Cultures of LM2531 and wild-type transformants produced 13741 U/ml and 7991 U/ml of intracellular β-galactosidase, respectively (1.72-fold increase). Further, the level of secreted nattokinase produced by strain LM2531 increased by 2.6-fold compared with wild-type (5226 IU/ml vs. 2028 IU/ml, respectively). Our novel, systematic multigene deletion approach designed to inhibit cell lysis significantly increased the biomass yield and the production of recombinant proteins by B. subtilis. These findings show promise for guiding efforts to manipulate the genomes of other B. subtilis strains that are used for industrial purposes.

  9. Medium optimization for the production of recombinant nattokinase by Bacillus subtilis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2007-01-01

    Nattokinase is a potent fibrinolytic enzyme with the potential for fighting cardiovascular diseases. Most recently, a new Bacillus subtilis/Escherichia coli (B. subtilis/E. coli) shuttle vector has been developed to achieve stable production of recombinant nattokinase in B. subtilis (Chen; et al. 2007, 23, 808-813). With this developed B. subtilis strain, the design of an optimum but cost-effective medium for high-level production of recombinant nattokinase was attempted by using response surface methodology. On the basis of the Plackett-Burman design, three critical medium components were selected. Subsequently, the optimum combination of selected factors was investigated by the Box-Behnken design. As a result, it gave the predicted maximum production of recombinant nattokinase with 71 500 CU/mL for shake-flask cultures when the concentrations of soybean hydrolysate, potassium phosphate, and calcium chloride in medium were at 6.100, 0.415, and 0.015%, respectively. This was further verified by a duplicated experiment. Moreover, the production scheme based on the optimum medium was scaled up in a fermenter. The batch fermentation of 3 L was carried out by controlling the condition at 37 degrees C and dissolved oxygen reaching 20% of air saturation level while the fermentation pH was initially set at 8.5. Without the need for controlling the broth pH, recombinant nattokinase production with a yield of 77 400 CU/mL (corresponding to 560 mg/L) could be obtained in the culture broth within 24 h. In particular, the recombinant B. subtilis strain was found fully stable at the end of fermentation when grown on the optimum medium. Overall, it indicates the success of this experimental design approach in formulating a simple and cost-effective medium, which provides the developed strain with sufficient nutrient supplements for stable and high-level production of recombinant nattokinase in a fermenter.

  10. Strategy to approach stable production of recombinant nattokinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is widely accepted as an excellent host cell for the secretory production of recombinant proteins. In this study, a shuttle vector was constructed by fusion of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) plasmid pUB110 with Escherichia coli (E. coli) plasmid pUC18 and used for the expression of nattokinase in B. subtilis. The pUB110/pUC-based plasmid was found to exhibit high structural instability with the identification of a DNA deletion between two repeated regions. An initial attempt was made to eliminate the homologous site in the plasmid, whereas the stability of the resulting plasmid was not improved. In an alternative way, the pUC18-derived region in this hybrid vector was replaced by the suicidal R6K plasmid origin of E. coli. As a consequence, the pUB110/R6K-based plasmid displayed full structural stability, leading to a high-level production of recombinant nattokinase in the culture broth. This was mirrored by the detection of a very low level of high molecular weight DNAs generated by the plasmid. Moreover, 2-fold higher nattokinase production was obtained by B. subtilis strain carrying the pUB110/R6K-based plasmid as compared to the cell with the pAMbeta1-derived vector, a plasmid known to have high structural stability. Overall, it indicates the feasibility of the approach by fusing two compatible plasmid origins for stable and efficient production of recombinant nattokinase in B. subtilis.

  11. Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Development - A Computerized Study of Morphology and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gingichashvili, Sarah; Duanis-Assaf, Danielle; Shemesh, Moshe; Featherstone, John D B; Feuerstein, Osnat; Steinberg, Doron

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm is commonly defined as accumulation of microbes, embedded in a self-secreted extra-cellular matrix, on solid surfaces or liquid interfaces. In this study, we analyze several aspects of Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation using tools from the field of image processing. Specifically, we characterize the growth kinetics and morphological features of B. subtilis colony type biofilm formation and compare these in colonies grown on two different types of solid media. Additionally, we propose a model for assessing B. subtilis biofilm complexity across different growth conditions. GFP-labeled B. subtilis cells were cultured on agar surfaces over a 4-day period during which microscopic images of developing colonies were taken at equal time intervals. The images were used to perform a computerized analysis of few aspects of biofilm development, based on features that characterize the different phenotypes of B. subtilis colonies. Specifically, the analysis focused on the segmented structure of the colonies, consisting of two different regions of sub-populations that comprise the biofilm - a central "core" region and an "expanding" region surrounding it. Our results demonstrate that complex biofilm of B. subtillis grown on biofilm-promoting medium [standard lysogeny broth (LB) supplemented with manganese and glycerol] is characterized by rapidly developing three-dimensional complex structure observed at its core compared to biofilm grown on standard LB. As the biofilm develops, the core size remains largely unchanged during development and colony expansion is mostly attributed to the expansion in area of outer cell sub-populations. Moreover, when comparing the bacterial growth on biofilm-promoting agar to that of colonies grown on LB, we found a significant decrease in the GFP production of colonies that formed a more complex biofilm. This suggests that complex biofilm formation has a diminishing effect on cell populations at the biofilm core, likely due to a

  12. Bio-remediation of acephate-Pb(II) compound contaminants by Bacillus subtilis FZUL-33.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenting; Huang, Zhen; Li, Xuezhen; Liu, Minghua; Cheng, Yangjian

    2016-07-01

    Removal of Pb(2+) and biodegradation of organophosphorus have been both widely investigated respectively. However, bio-remediation of both Pb(2+) and organophosphorus still remains largely unexplored. Bacillus subtilis FZUL-33, which was isolated from the sediment of a lake, possesses the capability for both biomineralization of Pb(2+) and biodegradation of acephate. In the present study, both Pb(2+) and acephate were simultaneously removed via biodegradation and biomineralization in aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to study the influence of pH, interaction time and Pb(2+) concentration on the process of removal of Pb(2+). At the temperature of 25°C, the maximum removal of Pb(2+) by B.subtilis FZUL-33 was 381.31±11.46mg/g under the conditions of pH5.5, initial Pb(2+) concentration of 1300mg/L, and contact time of 10min. Batch experiments were conducted to study the influence of acephate on removal of Pb(2+) and the influence of Pb(2+) on biodegradation of acephate by B.subtilis FZUL-33. In the mixed system of acephate-Pb(2+), the results show that biodegradation of acephate by B.subtilis FZUL-33 released PO4(3+), which promotes mineralization of Pb(2+). The process of biodegradation of acephate was affected slightly when the concentration of Pb(2+) was below 100mg/L. Based on the results, it can be inferred that the B.subtilis FZUL-33 plays a significant role in bio-remediation of organophosphorus-heavy metal compound contamination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Application of Bacillus subtilis 168 as a multifunctional agent for improvement of the durability of cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jin; Park, Jong-Myong; Kim, Wha-Jung; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-11-01

    Microbiological calcium carbonate precipitation (MCCP) has been investigated for its ability to improve the durability of cement mortar. However, very few strains have been applied to crack remediation and strengthening of cementitious materials. In this study, we report the biodeposition of Bacillus subtilis 168 and its ability to enhance the durability of cement material. B. subtilis 168 was applied to the surface of cement specimens. The results showed a new layer of deposited organic-inorganic composites on the surface of the cement paste. In addition, the water permeability of the cement paste treated with B. subtilis 168 was lower than that of non-treated specimens. Furthermore, artificial cracks in the cement paste were completely remediated by the biodeposition of B. subtilis 168. The compressive strength of cement mortar treated with B. subtilis 168 increased by about 19.5% when compared with samples completed with only B4 medium. Taken together, these findings suggest that the biodeposition of B. subtilis 168 could be used as a sealing and coating agent to improve the strength and water resistance of concrete. This is the first paper to report the application of Bacillus subtilis 168 for its ability to improve the durability of cement mortar through calcium carbonate precipitation.

  14. Metabolic flux responses to genetic modification for shikimic acid production by Bacillus subtilis strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shikimic acid (SA) is a key chiral starting molecule for the synthesis of the neuramidase inhibitor GS4104 against viral influenza. Microbial production of SA has been extensively investigated in Escherichia coli, and to a less extent in Bacillus subtilis. However, metabolic flux of the high SA-producing strains has not been explored. In this study, we constructed with genetic manipulation and further determined metabolic flux with 13C-labeling test of high SA-producing B. subtilis strains. Results B. subtilis 1A474 had a mutation in SA kinase gene (aroI) and accumulated 1.5 g/L of SA. Overexpression of plasmid-encoded aroA, aroB, aroC or aroD in B. subtilis revealed that aroD had the most significantly positive effects on SA production. Simultaneous overexpression of genes for 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (aroA) and SA dehydrogenase (aroD) in B. subtilis BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD resulted in SA production of 3.2 g/L. 13C-Metabolic flux assay (MFA) on the two strains BSSA/pHCMC04/pDG148-stu and BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD indicated the carbon flux from glucose to SA increased to 4.6% in BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD from 1.9% in strain BSSA/pHCMC04/pDG148-stu. The carbon flux through tricarboxylic acid cycle significantly reduced, while responses of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycolysis to high SA production were rather weak, in the strain BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD. Based on the results from MFA, two potential targets for further optimization of SA production were identified. Experiments on genetic deletion of phosphoenoylpyruvate kinase gene confirmed its positive influence on SA production, while the overexpression of the transketolase gene did not lead to increase in SA production. Conclusion Of the genes involved in shikimate pathway in B. subtilis, aroD exerted most significant influence on SA accumulation. Overexpression of plasmid-encoded aroA and aroD doubled SA production than its parent strain. MFA revealed metabolic flux

  15. Metabolic flux responses to genetic modification for shikimic acid production by Bacillus subtilis strains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Feng; Ai, Guo-Min; Zheng, Qing-Xiang; Liu, Chang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Li-Xia; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yi-Ming; Yang, Chen; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2014-03-14

    Shikimic acid (SA) is a key chiral starting molecule for the synthesis of the neuramidase inhibitor GS4104 against viral influenza. Microbial production of SA has been extensively investigated in Escherichia coli, and to a less extent in Bacillus subtilis. However, metabolic flux of the high SA-producing strains has not been explored. In this study, we constructed with genetic manipulation and further determined metabolic flux with 13C-labeling test of high SA-producing B. subtilis strains. B. subtilis 1A474 had a mutation in SA kinase gene (aroI) and accumulated 1.5 g/L of SA. Overexpression of plasmid-encoded aroA, aroB, aroC or aroD in B. subtilis revealed that aroD had the most significantly positive effects on SA production. Simultaneous overexpression of genes for 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (aroA) and SA dehydrogenase (aroD) in B. subtilis BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD resulted in SA production of 3.2 g/L. 13C-Metabolic flux assay (MFA) on the two strains BSSA/pHCMC04/pDG148-stu and BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD indicated the carbon flux from glucose to SA increased to 4.6% in BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD from 1.9% in strain BSSA/pHCMC04/pDG148-stu. The carbon flux through tricarboxylic acid cycle significantly reduced, while responses of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glycolysis to high SA production were rather weak, in the strain BSSA/pSAAroA/pDGSAAroD. Based on the results from MFA, two potential targets for further optimization of SA production were identified. Experiments on genetic deletion of phosphoenoylpyruvate kinase gene confirmed its positive influence on SA production, while the overexpression of the transketolase gene did not lead to increase in SA production. Of the genes involved in shikimate pathway in B. subtilis, aroD exerted most significant influence on SA accumulation. Overexpression of plasmid-encoded aroA and aroD doubled SA production than its parent strain. MFA revealed metabolic flux redistribution among phosphate

  16. Heterologous expression, biochemical characterization, and overproduction of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus alcalophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkaline α-amylases have potential applications for hydrolyzing starch under high pH conditions in the starch and textile industries and as ingredients in detergents for automatic dishwashers and laundries. While the alkaline α-amylase gains increased industrial interest, the yield of alkaline α-amylases from wild-type microbes is low, and the combination of genetic engineering and process optimization is necessary to achieve the overproduction of alkaline α-amylase. Results The alkaline α-amylase gene from Bacillus alcalophilus JN21 (CCTCC NO. M 2011229) was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis strain WB600 with vector pMA5. The recombinant alkaline α-amylase was stable at pH from 7.0 to 11.0 and temperature below 40°C. The optimum pH and temperature of alkaline α-amylase was 9.0 and 50°C, respectively. Using soluble starch as the substrate, the Km and Vmax of alkaline α-amylase were 9.64 g/L and 0.80 g/(L·min), respectively. The effects of medium compositions (starch, peptone, and soybean meal) and temperature on the recombinant production of alkaline α-amylase in B. subtilis were investigated. Under the optimal conditions (starch concentration 0.6% (w/v), peptone concentration 1.45% (w/v), soybean meal concentration 1.3% (w/v), and temperature 37°C), the highest yield of alkaline α-amylase reached 415 U/mL. The yield of alkaline α-amylase in a 3-L fermentor reached 441 U/mL, which was 79 times that of native alkaline α-amylase from B. alcalophilus JN21. Conclusions This is the first report concerning the heterologous expression of alkaline α-amylase in B. subtilis, and the obtained results make it feasible to achieve the industrial production of alkaline α-amylase with the recombinant B. subtilis. PMID:21978209

  17. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation products in bread-making to prevent Bacillus subtilis ropy spoilage.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; De Bellis, Palmira; Lonigro, Stella L; Visconti, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2008-03-20

    Four fermentation products (FPs) of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum ITM21B were screened for their anti-Bacillus activity in vitro and in bread-making trials. Results of the storage tests performed with loaves prepared with an FP or calcium propionate demonstrated that after 3 days at 30 degrees C, gross spoilage was evident in only the control loaves, which contained Bacillus subtilis at numbers of about 10(9) cfu/g. The highest inhibitory activity was shown by DM-FP obtained by growing L. plantarum in a defined medium (DM). Significantly, this medium contained an amino acceptor of the aminoacid transamination, namely alpha-ketoglutaric acid, and an aminoacid pool. With loaves prepared using the DM-acid mixture which simulated the DM-FP composition, the same reduction of ropy spoilage as with DM-FP was obtained after 3 days, while the efficacy of the mixture decreased after 7 days. This result suggests the potential involvement of some unknown metabolites in the inhibitory activity of DM-FP. In baked products made with flour based media (M1-FP, M2-FP, M3-FP), no ropy symptoms were noticeable after 3 days storage although a considerable Bacillus count was detected. DM-FP was as effective as calcium propionate (0.3% w/w, based on flour mass) in prolonging the Bacillus free-shelf life of yeast-leavened bread for 7 days.

  18. Effects of phosphorelay perturbations on architecture, sporulation, and spore resistance in biofilms of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Veening, Jan-Willem; Kuipers, Oscar P; Brul, Stanley; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Kort, Remco

    2006-04-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to form highly organized multicellular communities called biofilms. This coordinated bacterial behavior is often lost in domesticated or laboratory strains as a result of planktonic growth in rich media for many generations. However, we show here that the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168 is still capable of forming spatially organized multicellular communities on minimal medium agar plates, exemplified by colonies with vein-like structures formed by elevated bundles of cells. In line with the current model for biofilm formation, we demonstrate that overproduction of the phosphorelay components KinA and Spo0A stimulates bundle formation, while overproduction of the transition state regulators AbrB and SinR leads to repression of formation of elevated bundles. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy studies of B. subtilis green fluorescent protein reporter strains show that bundles are preferential sites for spore formation and that flat structures surrounding the bundles contain vegetative cells. The elevated bundle structures are formed prior to sporulation, in agreement with a genetic developmental program in which these processes are sequentially activated. Perturbations of the phosphorelay by disruption and overexpression of genes that lead to an increased tendency to sporulate result in the segregation of sporulation mutations and decreased heat resistance of spores in biofilms. These results stress the importance of a balanced control of the phosphorelay for biofilm and spore development.

  19. Protective role of bacillithiol in superoxide stress and Fe-S metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong; Dos Santos, Patricia C

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as the prime thiol in most organisms as its depletion increases antibiotic and metal toxicity, impairs oxidative stress responses, and affects Fe and Fe-S cluster metabolism. Many gram-positive bacteria lack GSH, but instead produce other structurally unrelated yet functionally equivalent thiols. Among those, bacillithiol (BSH) has been recently identified in several low G+C gram-positive bacteria. In this work, we have explored the link between BSH and Fe-S metabolism in Bacillus subtilis. We have identified that B. subtilis lacking BSH is more sensitive to oxidative stress (paraquat), and metal toxicity (Cu(I) and Cd(II)), but not H2 O2 . Furthermore, a slow growth phenotype of BSH null strain in minimal medium was observed, which could be recovered upon the addition of selected amino acids (Leu/Ile and Glu/Gln), supplementation of iron, or chemical complementation with BSH disulfide (BSSB) to the growth medium. Interestingly, Fe-S cluster containing isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) showed decreased activities in BSH null strain. Deficiency of BSH also resulted in decreased levels of intracellular Fe accompanied by increased levels of manganese and altered expression levels of Fe-S cluster biosynthetic SUF components. Together, this study is the first to establish a link between BSH and Fe-S metabolism in B. subtilis. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Crh-specific function in carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jessica B; Lolkema, Juke S

    2003-03-28

    Carbon catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by phosphorylation of the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system intermediate HPr at a serine residue catalyzed by HPr kinase. The orthologous protein Crh functions in a similar way, but, unlike HPr, it is not functional in carbohydrate uptake. A specific function for Crh is not known. The role of HPr and Crh in repressing the citM gene encoding the Mg(2+)-citrate transporter was investigated during growth of B. subtilis on different carbon sources. In glucose minimal medium, full repression was supported by both HPr and Crh. Strains deficient in Crh or the regulatory function of HPr revealed the same repression as the wild-type strain. In contrast, in a medium containing succinate and glutamate, repression was specifically mediated via Crh. Repression was relieved in the Crh-deficient strain, but still present in the HPr mutant strain. The data are the first demonstration of a Crh-specific function in B. subtilis and suggest a role for Crh in regulation of expression during growth on substrates other than carbohydrates.

  1. Effect of carbon and nitrogen on the cannibalistic behavior of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Venkatesh, K V

    2008-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis is known to exhibit cannibalism under nutrient limitation to delay sporulation. Cells of B. subtilis in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) demonstrate an oscillatory behavior in cell number due to cannibalism. Since PBS did not contain any nutrients, the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the cannibalistic behavior is unclear. In this study, the effect of external carbon and nitrogen on the cannibalistic behavior of B. subtilis is presented. The studies demonstrated that when glucose as a carbon source was introduced into PBS in the absence of any other nutrients, the cannibalistic tendency was delayed. This delay increased with the increase in the amount of glucose present in the PBS. Thus, the cannibalism was observed to be very sensitive to the amount of carbon present in the medium. However, when the medium contained only ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source and was devoid of any carbon, the effect on cannibalism was minimal. The study, therefore, demonstrated that cannibalism was more sensitive to carbon than nitrogen indicating that the phenomenon of cannibalism may be more dependent on the status of energy in the medium than on nitrogen assimilation.

  2. Characterization of growth and acid formation in a Bacillus subtilis pyruvate kinase mutant.

    PubMed

    Fry, B; Zhu, T; Domach, M M; Koepsel, R R; Phalakornkule, C; Ataai, M M

    2000-09-01

    Based on measurements and theoretical analyses, we identified deletion of pyruvate kinase (PYK) activity as a possible route for elimination of acid formation in Bacillus subtilis cultures grown on glucose minimal media. Evidence consistent with the attenuation of PYK flux has come from metabolic flux calculations, metabolic pool and enzymatic activity measurements, and a series of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, all suggesting a nearly complete inhibition of PYK activity for glucose-citrate fed cultures in which the amount of acid formation was nearly zero. In this paper, we report the construction and characterization of a pyk mutant of B. subtilis. Our results demonstrate an almost complete elimination of acid production in cultures of the pyk mutant in glucose minimal medium. The substantial reduction in acid production is accompanied by increased CO(2) production and a reduced rate of growth. Metabolic analysis indicated a dramatic increase in intracellular pools of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and glucose-6-P in the pyk mutant. The high concentrations of PEP and glucose-6-P could explain the decreased growth rate of the mutant. The substantial accumulation of PEP does not occur in Escherichia coli pyk mutants. The very high concentration of PEP which accumulates in the B. subtilis pyk mutant could be exploited for production of various aromatics.

  3. Protective role of bacillithiol in superoxide stress and Fe–S metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong; Dos Santos, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as the prime thiol in most organisms as its depletion increases antibiotic and metal toxicity, impairs oxidative stress responses, and affects Fe and Fe–S cluster metabolism. Many gram-positive bacteria lack GSH, but instead produce other structurally unrelated yet functionally equivalent thiols. Among those, bacillithiol (BSH) has been recently identified in several low G+C gram-positive bacteria. In this work, we have explored the link between BSH and Fe–S metabolism in Bacillus subtilis. We have identified that B. subtilis lacking BSH is more sensitive to oxidative stress (paraquat), and metal toxicity (Cu(I) and Cd(II)), but not H2O2. Furthermore, a slow growth phenotype of BSH null strain in minimal medium was observed, which could be recovered upon the addition of selected amino acids (Leu/Ile and Glu/Gln), supplementation of iron, or chemical complementation with BSH disulfide (BSSB) to the growth medium. Interestingly, Fe–S cluster containing isopropylmalate isomerase (LeuCD) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) showed decreased activities in BSH null strain. Deficiency of BSH also resulted in decreased levels of intracellular Fe accompanied by increased levels of manganese and altered expression levels of Fe–S cluster biosynthetic SUF components. Together, this study is the first to establish a link between BSH and Fe–S metabolism in B. subtilis. PMID:25988368

  4. Extracellular DNA Release by Undomesticated Bacillus subtilis Is Regulated by Early Competence

    PubMed Central

    de Figueras, Carolina González; González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) release is a widespread capacity described in many microorganisms. We identified and characterized lysis-independent eDNA production in an undomesticated strain of Bacillus subtilis. DNA fragments are released during a short time in late-exponential phase. The released eDNA corresponds to whole genome DNA, and does not harbour mutations suggesting that is not the result of error prone DNA synthesis. The absence of eDNA was linked to a spread colony morphology, which allowed a visual screening of a transposon library to search for genes involved in its production. Transposon insertions in genes related to quorum sensing and competence (oppA, oppF and comXP) and to DNA metabolism (mfd and topA) were impaired in eDNA release. Mutants in early competence genes such as comA and srfAA were also defective in eDNA while in contrast mutations in late competence genes as those for the DNA uptake machinery had no effect. A subpopulation of cells containing more DNA is present in the eDNA producing strains but absent from the eDNA defective strain. Finally, competent B. subtilis cells can be transformed by eDNA suggesting it could be used in horizontal gene transfer and providing a rationale for the molecular link between eDNA release and early-competence in B. subtilis that we report. PMID:23133654

  5. Environmental dependence of stationary-phase metabolism in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chubukov, Victor; Sauer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    When microbes lack the nutrients necessary for growth, they enter stationary phase. In cases when energy sources are still present in the environment, they must decide whether to continue to use their metabolic program to harvest the available energy. Here we characterized the metabolic response to a variety of types of nutrient starvation in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We found that E. coli exhibits a range of phenotypes, with the lowest metabolic rates under nitrogen starvation and highest rates under magnesium starvation. In contrast, the phenotype of B. subtilis was dominated by its decision to form metabolically inactive endospores. While its metabolic rates under most conditions were thus lower than those of E. coli, when sporulation was suppressed by a genetic perturbation or an unnatural starvation condition, the situation was reversed. To further probe stationary-phase metabolism, we used quantitative metabolomics to investigate possible small-molecule signals that may regulate the metabolic rate of E. coli and initiate sporulation in B. subtilis. We hypothesize a role for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in regulating E. coli glucose uptake and for the redox cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H) in initiation of sporulation. Our work is directly relevant to synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, where active metabolism during stationary phase, which uncouples production from growth, remains an elusive goal.

  6. Small Regulatory RNA-Induced Growth Rate Heterogeneity of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Ruben A. T.; Nicolas, Pierre; Ciccolini, Mariano; Reilman, Ewoud; Reder, Alexander; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Denham, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Isogenic bacterial populations can consist of cells displaying heterogeneous physiological traits. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) could affect this heterogeneity since they act by fine-tuning mRNA or protein levels to coordinate the appropriate cellular behavior. Here we show that the sRNA RnaC/S1022 from the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis can suppress exponential growth by modulation of the transcriptional regulator AbrB. Specifically, the post-transcriptional abrB-RnaC/S1022 interaction allows B. subtilis to increase the cell-to-cell variation in AbrB protein levels, despite strong negative autoregulation of the abrB promoter. This behavior is consistent with existing mathematical models of sRNA action, thus suggesting that induction of protein expression noise could be a new general aspect of sRNA regulation. Importantly, we show that the sRNA-induced diversity in AbrB levels generates heterogeneity in growth rates during the exponential growth phase. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the resulting subpopulations of fast- and slow-growing B. subtilis cells reflect a bet-hedging strategy for enhanced survival of unfavorable conditions. PMID:25790031

  7. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maketon, Monchan; Apisitsantikul, Jirasak; Siriraweekul, Chatchai

    2008-01-01

    Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar™) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan™) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment. PMID:24031219

  8. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis: a 10-year retrospective

    PubMed Central

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Deutscher, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in Bacillus subtilis in the year 2003 was followed by a decade of intensive research activity. Here we provide an overview of the lessons learned in that period. While the number of characterized kinases and phosphatases involved in reversible protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in B. subtilis has remained essentially unchanged, the number of proteins known to be targeted by this post-translational modification has increased dramatically. This is mainly due to phosphoproteomics and interactomics studies, which were instrumental in identifying new tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Despite their structural similarity, the two B. subtilis protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), PtkA and PtkB (EpsB), seem to accomplish different functions in the cell. The PtkB is encoded by a large operon involved in exopolysaccharide production, and its main role appears to be the control of this process. The PtkA seems to have a more complex role; it phosphorylates and regulates a large number of proteins involved in the DNA, fatty acid and carbon metabolism and engages in physical interaction with other types of kinases (Ser/Thr kinases), leading to mutual phosphorylation. PtkA also seems to respond to several activator proteins, which direct its activity toward different substrates. In that respect PtkA seems to function as a highly connected signal integration device. PMID:25667587

  9. Overexpression and characterization in Bacillus subtilis of a positionally nonspecific lipase from Proteus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaping; Lin, Qian; Wang, Jin; Wu, Yufan; Bao, Wuyundalai; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2010-09-01

    A Proteus vulgaris strain named T6 which produced lipase (PVL) with nonpositional specificity had been isolated in our laboratory. To produce the lipase in large quantities, we cloned its gene, which had an opening reading frame of 864 base pairs and encoded a deduced 287-amino-acid protein. The PVL gene was inserted into the Escherichia coli expression vector pET-DsbA, and active lipase was expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. The secretive expression of PVL gene in Bacillus subtilis was examined. Three vectors, i.e., pMM1525 (xylose-inducible), pMMP43 (constitutive vector, derivative of pMM1525), and pHPQ (sucrose-inducible, constructed based on pHB201), were used to produce lipase in B. subtilis. Recombinant B. subtilis WB800 cells harboring the pHPQ-PVL plasmid could synthesize and secrete the PVL protein in high yield. The lipase activity reached 356.8 U/mL after induction with sucrose for 72 h in shake-flask culture, representing a 12-fold increase over the native lipase activity in P. vulgaris. The characteristics of the heterologously expressed lipase were identical to those of the native one.

  10. Metabolic engineering of carbon overflow metabolism of Bacillus subtilis for improved N-acetyl-glucosamine production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenlong; Liu, Yanfeng; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long

    2018-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis is widely used as cell factories for the production of important industrial biochemicals. Although many studies have demonstrated the effects of organic acidic byproducts, such as acetate, on microbial fermentation, little is known about the effects of blocking the neutral byproduct overflow, such as acetoin, on bioproduction. In this study, we focused on the influences of modulating overflow metabolism on the production of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in engineered B. subtilis. We found that acetoin overflow competes with GlcNAc production, and blocking acetoin overflow increased GlcNAc titer and yield by 1.38- and 1.39-fold, reaching 48.9 g/L and 0.32 g GlcNAc/g glucose, respectively. Further blocking acetate overflow inhibited cell growth and GlcNAc production may be induced by inhibiting glucose uptake. Taken together, our results show that blocking acetoin overflow is a promising strategy for enhancing GlcNAc production. The strategies developed in this work may be useful for engineering strains of B. subtilis for producing other important biochemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Enhanced dipicolinic acid production during the stationary phase in Bacillus subtilis by blocking acetoin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Toya, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Shu; Chumsakul, Onuma; Morimoto, Takuya; Liu, Shenghao; Masuda, Kenta; Kageyama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ogasawara, Naotake; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial bio-production during the stationary phase is expected to lead to a high target yield because the cells do not consume the substrate for growth. Bacillus subtilis is widely used for bio-production, but little is known about the metabolism during the stationary phase. In this study, we focused on the dipicolinic acid (DPA) production by B. subtilis and investigated the metabolism. We found that DPA production competes with acetoin synthesis and that acetoin synthesis genes (alsSD) deletion increases DPA productivity by 1.4-fold. The mutant showed interesting features where the glucose uptake was inhibited, whereas the cell density increased by approximately 50%, resulting in similar volumetric glucose consumption to that of the parental strain. The metabolic profiles revealed accumulation of pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, and the TCA cycle intermediates in the alsSD mutant. Our results indicate that alsSD-deleted B. subtilis has potential as an effective host for stationary-phase production of compounds synthesized from these intermediates.

  12. Effect of medium components and culture conditions in Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0575 spore production.

    PubMed

    Posada-Uribe, Luisa F; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Villegas-Escobar, Valeska

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores have important biotechnological applications; however, achieving both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies in fermentation, is poorly reported. In this study, medium components and culture conditions were optimized with different statistical methods to increase spore production of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria B. subtilis EA-CB0575. Key medium components were determined with Plackett-Burman (PB) design, and the optimum concentration levels of two components (glucose, MgSO4·7H2O) were optimized with a full factorial and central composite design, achieving 1.37 × 10(9) CFU/mL of spore cell density and 93.5 % of sporulation efficiency in shake flask. The optimized medium was used to determine the effect of culture conditions on spore production at bioreactor level, finding that maintaining pH control did not affect significantly spore production, while the interaction of agitation and aeration rates had a significant effect on spore cell density. The overall optimization generated a 17.2-fold increase in spore cell density (8.78 × 10(9) CFU/mL) and 1.9-fold increase in sporulation efficiency (94.2 %) compared to that of PB design. These results indicate the potential of B. subtilis EA-CB0575 to produce both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies, with very low nutrient requirements and short incubation period which can represent savings of process production.

  13. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p < 0.001) within the B. subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of Initiation of DNA Replication in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Katie H.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of DNA Replication is tightly regulated in all cells since imbalances in chromosomal copy number are deleterious and often lethal. In bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, at the point of cytokinesis, there must be two complete copies of the chromosome to partition into the daughter cells following division at mid-cell during vegetative growth. Under conditions of rapid growth, when the time taken to replicate the chromosome exceeds the doubling time of the cells, there will be multiple initiations per cell cycle and daughter cells will inherit chromosomes that are already undergoing replication. In contrast, cells entering the sporulation pathway in B. subtilis can do so only during a short interval in the cell cycle when there are two, and only two, chromosomes per cell, one destined for the spore and one for the mother cell. Here, we briefly describe the overall process of DNA replication in bacteria before reviewing initiation of DNA replication in detail. The review covers DnaA-directed assembly of the replisome at oriC and the multitude of mechanisms of regulation of initiation, with a focus on the similarities and differences between E. coli and B. subtilis. PMID:28075389

  15. Inducing secondary metabolite production by the endophytic fungus Fusarium tricinctum through coculture with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ola, Antonius R B; Thomy, Dhana; Lai, Daowan; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Proksch, Peter

    2013-11-22

    Coculturing the fungal endophyte Fusarium tricinctum with the bacterium Bacillus subtilis 168 trpC2 on solid rice medium resulted in an up to 78-fold increase in the accumulation in constitutively present secondary metabolites that included lateropyrone (5), cyclic depsipeptides of the enniatin type (6-8), and the lipopeptide fusaristatin A (9). In addition, four compounds (1-4) including (-)-citreoisocoumarin (2) as well as three new natural products (1, 3, and 4) were not present in discrete fungal and bacterial controls and only detected in the cocultures. The new compounds were identified as macrocarpon C (1), 2-(carboxymethylamino)benzoic acid (3), and (-)-citreoisocoumarinol (4) by analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Enniatins B1 (7) and A1 (8), whose production was particularly enhanced, inhibited the growth of the cocultivated B. subtilis strain with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 16 and 8 μg/mL, respectively, and were also active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values in the range 2-8 μg/mL. In addition, lateropyrone (5), which was constitutively present in F. tricinctum, displayed good antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis, with MIC values ranging from 2 to 8 μg/mL. All active compounds were equally effective against a multiresistant clinical isolate of S. aureus and a susceptible reference strain of the same species.

  16. Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, T I

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease(aprA) gene was previously cloned on a pUBHO-derivative plasmid. High levels of expression and gene stability were demonstrated when B. subtilis cells were grown on the laboratory medium 2XSG. B. subtilis cells harboring the multicopy aprA gene were grown on basal medium, supplemented with 1 % chicken feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were monitored throughout the cultivation time. A high level of keratinolytic activity was obtained, and this indicates that alkaline protease is acting as a keratinase. Furthermore, considerable amounts of soluble proteins and free amino acids were obtained as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of feather. Biodegradation of feather waste using these cells represents an alternative way to improve the nutritional value of feather, since feather waste is currently utilized on a limited basis as a dietary protein supplement for animal feedstuffs. Moreover, the release of free amino acids from feather and the secreted keratinase enzyme would promote industries based on feather waste.

  17. Disruption of Autolysis in Bacillus subtilis using TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    McGivney, Eric; Han, Linchen; Avellan, Astrid; VanBriesen, Jeanne; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to many nanotoxicity studies where nanoparticles (NPs) are observed to be toxic or reduce viable cells in a population of bacteria, we observed that increasing concentration of TiO2 NPs increased the cell survival of Bacillus subtilis in autolysis-inducing buffer by 0.5 to 5 orders of magnitude over an 8 hour exposure. Molecular investigations revealed that TiO2 NPs prevent or delay cell autolysis, an important survival and growth-regulating process in bacterial populations. Overall, the results suggest two potential mechanisms for the disruption of autolysis by TiO2 NPs in a concentration dependent manner: (i) directly, through TiO2 NP deposition on the cell wall, delaying the collapse of the protonmotive-force and preventing the onset of autolysis; and (ii) indirectly, through adsorption of autolysins on TiO2 NP, limiting the activity of released autolysins and preventing further lytic activity. Enhanced darkfield microscopy coupled to hyperspectral analysis was used to map TiO2 deposition on B. subtilis cell walls and released enzymes, supporting both mechanisms of autolysis interference. The disruption of autolysis in B. subtilis cultures by TiO2 NPs suggests the mechanisms and kinetics of cell death may be influenced by nano-scale metal oxide materials, which are abundant in natural systems. PMID:28303908

  18. Disruption of Autolysis in Bacillus subtilis using TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McGivney, Eric; Han, Linchen; Avellan, Astrid; VanBriesen, Jeanne; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2017-03-17

    In contrast to many nanotoxicity studies where nanoparticles (NPs) are observed to be toxic or reduce viable cells in a population of bacteria, we observed that increasing concentration of TiO 2 NPs increased the cell survival of Bacillus subtilis in autolysis-inducing buffer by 0.5 to 5 orders of magnitude over an 8 hour exposure. Molecular investigations revealed that TiO 2 NPs prevent or delay cell autolysis, an important survival and growth-regulating process in bacterial populations. Overall, the results suggest two potential mechanisms for the disruption of autolysis by TiO 2 NPs in a concentration dependent manner: (i) directly, through TiO 2 NP deposition on the cell wall, delaying the collapse of the protonmotive-force and preventing the onset of autolysis; and (ii) indirectly, through adsorption of autolysins on TiO 2 NP, limiting the activity of released autolysins and preventing further lytic activity. Enhanced darkfield microscopy coupled to hyperspectral analysis was used to map TiO 2 deposition on B. subtilis cell walls and released enzymes, supporting both mechanisms of autolysis interference. The disruption of autolysis in B. subtilis cultures by TiO 2 NPs suggests the mechanisms and kinetics of cell death may be influenced by nano-scale metal oxide materials, which are abundant in natural systems.

  19. Gut Adhesive Bacillus subtilis Spores as a Platform for Mucosal Delivery of Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Tavares Batista, Milene; Souza, Renata D.; Paccez, Juliano D.; Luiz, Wilson B.; Ferreira, Ewerton L.; Cavalcante, Rafael C. M.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores have been used as safe and heat-resistant antigen delivery vectors. Nonetheless, the oral administration of spores typically induces weak immune responses to the passenger antigens, which may be attributed to the fast transit through the gastrointestinal tract. To overcome this limitation, we have developed B. subtilis spores capable of binding to the gut epithelium by means of expressing bacterial adhesins on the spore surface. The resulting spores bound to in vitro intestinal cells, showed a longer transit through the mouse intestinal tract, and interacted with Peyer's patch cells. The adhesive spores increased the systemic and secreted antibody responses to the Streptococcus mutans P1 protein, used as a model antigen, following oral, intranasal, and sublingual administration. Additionally, P1-specific antibodies efficiently inhibited the adhesion of the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to abiotic surfaces. These results support the use of gut-colonizing B. subtilis spores as a new platform for the mucosal delivery of vaccine antigens. PMID:24421038

  20. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification and characterization of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto B-12.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Du, Ming; Zheng, Dongmei; Kong, Fandong; Zu, Guoren; Feng, Yibing

    2009-10-28

    Bacillus subtilis natto B-12 was isolated from natto, a traditional fermented soybean food in Japan. A fibrinolytic enzyme (B-12 nattokinase) was purified from the supernatant of B. subtilis natto B-12 culture broth and showed strong fibrinolytic activity. The enzyme was homogenously purified to 56.1-fold, with a recovery of 43.2% of the initial activity. B-12 nattokinase was demonstrated to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and was identified as a monomer of 29000 +/- 300 Da in its native state by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion methods. The optimal pH value and temperature were 8.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. Purified nattokinase showed high thermostability at temperatures from 30 to 50 degrees C and alkaline stability within the range of pH 6.0-9.0. The enzyme activity was activated by Zn(2+) and obviously inhibited by Fe(3+) and Al(3+). This study provides some important information for the effect factors of fibrinolytic activity, the purification methods, and characterization of nattokinase from B. subtilis natto B-12, which enriches the theoretical information of nattokinase for the research and development of nattokinase as a functional additive of food.

  2. A process for high-efficiency isoflavone deglycosylation using Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lun-Cheng; Wu, Ren-Yu; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2012-06-01

    In order to produce isoflavone aglycosides effectively, a process of isoflavone hydrolysis by Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18 (BCRC 80390) was established. This process integrates the three stages for the production of isoflavone aglycosides in one single fermenter, including the growth of B. subtilis natto, production of β-glucosidase, deglycosylation of fed isoflavone glycosides. After 8 h of batch culture of B. subtilis natto NTU-18 in 2 L of soy medium, a total of 3 L of soy isoflavone glucoside solution containing 3.0 mg/mL of daidzin and 1.0 mg/mL of genistin was fed continuously over 34 h. The percentage deglycosylation of daidzin and genistin was 97.7% and 94.6%, respectively. The concentration of daidzein and genistein in the broth reached 1,066.8 μg/mL (4.2 mM) and 351 μg/mL (1.3 mM), respectively, and no residual daidzin or genistin was detected. The productivity of the bioconversion of daidzein and genistein over the 42 h of culture was 25.6 mg/L/h and 8.5 mg/L/h, respectively. This showed that this is an efficient bioconversion process for selective estrogen receptor modulator production.

  3. Levan from Bacillus subtilis Natto: its effects in normal and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Fernando Cesar Bazani Cabral; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Viera; Celligoi, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone

    2012-10-01

    Levan is an exopolysaccharide of fructose primarily linked by β-(2→6) glycosidic bonds with some β-(2→1) branched chains. Due to its chemical properties, levan has possible applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Bacillus subtilis is a promising industrial levan producer, as it ferments sucrose and has a high levan-formation capacity. A new strain of B. subtilis was recently isolated from Japanese food natto, and it has produced levan in large quantities. For future pharmaceutical applications, this study aimed to investigate the effects of levan produced by B. subtilis Natto, mainly as potential hypoglycemic agent, (previously optimized with a molecular weight equal to 72.37 and 4,146 kDa) in Wistar male rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and non-diabetic rats and to monitor their plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. After 15 days of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and their blood samples were analyzed. The results, compared using analysis of variance, demonstrated that for this type of levan, a hypoglycemic effect was not observed, as there was no improvement of diabetes symptoms during the experiment. However, levan did not affect any studied parameters in normal rats, indicating that the exopolysaccharide can be used for other purposes.

  4. Levan from Bacillus subtilis Natto: its effects in normal and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Fernando Cesar Bazani Cabral; Zaia, Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Viera; Celligoi, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone

    2012-01-01

    Levan is an exopolysaccharide of fructose primarily linked by β-(2→6) glycosidic bonds with some β-(2→1) branched chains. Due to its chemical properties, levan has possible applications in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. Bacillus subtilis is a promising industrial levan producer, as it ferments sucrose and has a high levan-formation capacity. A new strain of B. subtilis was recently isolated from Japanese food natto, and it has produced levan in large quantities. For future pharmaceutical applications, this study aimed to investigate the effects of levan produced by B. subtilis Natto, mainly as potential hypoglycemic agent, (previously optimized with a molecular weight equal to 72.37 and 4,146 kDa) in Wistar male rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and non-diabetic rats and to monitor their plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. After 15 days of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and their blood samples were analyzed. The results, compared using analysis of variance, demonstrated that for this type of levan, a hypoglycemic effect was not observed, as there was no improvement of diabetes symptoms during the experiment. However, levan did not affect any studied parameters in normal rats, indicating that the exopolysaccharide can be used for other purposes. PMID:24031993

  5. selective production and characterization of levan by Bacillus subtilis (Natto) Takahashi.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ing-Lung; Yu, Yun-Ti; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Hsieh, Chien-Yan

    2005-10-19

    To meet the industrial need of an efficient microbial method for increased levan production, Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi, a commercial natto starter for preparing fermented soybeans (natto), was used to produce levan. After cultivation for 21 h, 40-50 mg of levan mL(-1) was produced in medium containing 20% (w/w) sucrose, which was approximately 50% yield on available fructose. The product consisted of two fractions with different molecular masses (1794 and 11 kDa), which were easily separated by fractionation using an ethanol gradient. The products were well characterized by GPC, 13C NMR, and 1H NMR. The various sugars and concentrations, initial pH, fermentation temperature, and agitation speed affected the levan production by B. subtilis (natto) Takahashi. Takahashi strain is the most efficient levan-producing strain among all of the B. subtilis strains tested and, as previously reported, it produced the highest yield of levan in the least time (21 h) under the common cultivation condition.

  6. Identification of dinR, a DNA damage-inducible regulator gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond-Denise, A; Guillen, N

    1991-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis strain deficient in homologous recombination was isolated from a library of Tn917lac insertion mutants. The interrupted locus consists of an open reading frame encoding a 22,823-dalton polypeptide. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed 34% identity and 47.3% similarity with the LexA protein from Escherichia coli. The gene was designated dinR. It is located between the recA and thyA genetic markers, at 162 degrees on the B. subtilis chromosome. The dinR gene was shown to be expressed during the entire B. subtilis cellular cycle with at least a threefold increase when cells develop competence. In addition, the use of a merodiploid strain, in which a copy of the wild-type dinR gene coexists with a dinR-lacZ transcriptional fusion, demonstrated that dinR is an SOS gene and that the SOS-induced expression of dinR occurred only when a wild-type copy of dinR was present. In addition, DinR seems to regulate the expression of dinC, another SOS gene. PMID:1657879

  7. The stringent response plays a key role in Bacillus subtilis survival of fatty acid starvation.

    PubMed

    Pulschen, André A; Sastre, Diego E; Machinandiarena, Federico; Crotta Asis, Agostina; Albanesi, Daniela; de Mendoza, Diego; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J

    2017-02-01

    The stringent response is a universal adaptive mechanism to protect bacteria from nutritional and environmental stresses. The role of the stringent response during lipid starvation has been studied only in Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report that the stringent response also plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the model Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis to fatty acid starvation. B. subtilis lacking all three (p)ppGpp-synthetases (Rel Bs , RelP and RelQ) or bearing a Rel Bs variant that no longer synthesizes (p)ppGpp suffer extreme loss of viability on lipid starvation. Loss of viability is paralleled by perturbation of membrane integrity and function, with collapse of membrane potential as the likely cause of death. Although no increment of (p)ppGpp could be detected in lipid starved B. subtilis, we observed a substantial increase in the GTP/ATP ratio of strains incapable of synthesizing (p)ppGpp. Artificially lowering GTP with decoyinine rescued viability of such strains, confirming observations that low intracellular GTP is important for survival of nutritional stresses. Altogether, our results show that activation of the stringent response by lipid starvation is a broadly conserved response of bacteria and that a key role of (p)ppGpp is to couple biosynthetic processes that become detrimental if uncoordinated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bacillus subtilis iolU encodes an additional NADP+-dependent scyllo-inositol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Min; Tanaka, Kosei; Takenaka, Shinji; Ishikawa, Shu; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis genes iolG, iolW, iolX, ntdC, yfiI, yrbE, yteT, and yulF belong to the Gfo/Idh/MocA family. The functions of iolG, iolW, iolX, and ntdC are known; however, the functions of the others are unknown. We previously reported the B. subtilis cell factory simultaneously overexpressing iolG and iolW to achieve bioconversion of myo-inositol (MI) into scyllo-inositol (SI). YulF shares a significant similarity with IolW, the NADP + -dependent SI dehydrogenase. Transcriptional abundance of yulF did not correlate to that of iol genes involved in inositol metabolism. However, when yulF was overexpressed instead of iolW in the B. subtilis cell factory, SI was produced from MI, suggesting a similar function to iolW. In addition, we demonstrated that recombinant His 6 -tagged YulF converted scyllo-inosose into SI in an NADPH-dependent manner. We have thus identified yulF encoding an additional NADP + -dependent SI dehydrogenase, which we propose to rename iolU.

  9. Gene Cloning, Transcriptional Analysis, Purification, and Characterization of Phenolic Acid Decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Cavin, Jean-François; Dartois, Véronique; Diviès, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis displays a substrate-inducible decarboxylating activity with the following three phenolic acids: ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids. Based on DNA sequence homologies between the Bacillus pumilus ferulate decarboxylase gene (fdc) (A. Zago, G. Degrassi, and C. V. Bruschi, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:4484–4486, 1995) and the Lactobacillus plantarum p-coumarate decarboxylase gene (pdc) (J.-F. Cavin, L. Barthelmebs, and C. Diviès, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1939–1944, 1997), a DNA probe of about 300 nucleotides for the L. plantarum pdc gene was used to screen a B. subtilis genomic library in order to clone the corresponding gene in this bacterium. One clone was detected with this heterologous probe, and this clone exhibited phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) activity. The corresponding 5-kb insertion was partially sequenced and was found to contain a 528-bp open reading frame coding for a 161-amino-acid protein exhibiting 71 and 84% identity with the pdc- and fdc-encoded enzymes, respectively. The PAD gene (pad) is transcriptionally regulated by p-coumaric, ferulic, or caffeic acid; these three acids are the three substrates of PAD. The pad gene was overexpressed constitutively in Escherichia coli, and the stable purified enzyme was characterized. The difference in substrate specificity between this PAD and other PADs seems to be related to a few differences in the amino acid sequence. Therefore, this novel enzyme should facilitate identification of regions involved in catalysis and substrate specificity. PMID:9546183

  10. Multi level statistical optimization of l-asparaginase from Bacillus subtilis VUVD001.

    PubMed

    Erva, Rajeswara Reddy; Venkateswarulu, T C; Pagala, Bangaraiah

    2018-01-01

    Physical and chemical factors influencing the anti-leukemic l-asparaginase enzyme production by Bacillus subtilis VUVD001 were optimized using multi-stage optimization on the basis of preliminary experimental outcomes obtained by conventional one-factor-at-a-time approach using shake flasks. Process variables namely carbon, nitrogen sources, pH and temperature were taken into consideration during response surface methodology (RSM) optimization. The finest enzyme activity of 0.51 IUml -1 obtained by OFAT method was enhanced by 3.2 folds using RSM optimization. Artificial neural network (ANN) modelling and genetic algorithm (GA) based optimizations were further carried out to improve the enzyme drug yield. Results were also validated by conducting experiments at optimum conditions determined by RSM and GA optimization methods. The novel bacterium yielded in 2.88 IUml -1 of enzyme activity at optimum process variables determined by GA optimization, i.e., 0.5% glucose, 8.0% beef extract, 8.3 pH and 49.9 °C temperature. The study explored the optimized culture conditions for better yielding of anti-leukemic enzyme drug from a new bacterial source namely Bacillus subtilis VUVD001 .

  11. Heterologous expression and characterization of a new heme-catalase in Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Tuyishime; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Zhou, Junping; Huang, Genshu; Irene, Komera; Samuel, Niyomukiza

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inherent consequence to all aerobically living organisms that might lead to the cells being lethal and susceptible to oxidative stress. Bacillus pumilus is characterized by high-resistance oxidative stress that stimulated our interest to investigate the heterologous expression and characterization of heme-catalase as potential biocatalyst. Results indicated that recombinant enzyme significantly exhibited the high catalytic activity of 55,784 U/mg expressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and 98.097 µmol/min/mg peroxidatic activity, the apparent K m of catalytic activity was 59.6 ± 13 mM with higher turnover rate (K cat = 322.651 × 10(3) s(-1)). The pH dependence of catalatic and peroxidatic activity was pH 7.0 and pH 4.5 respectively with temperature dependence of 40 °C and the recombinant heme-catalase exhibited a strong Fe(2+) preference. It was further revealed that catalase KatX2 improved the resistance oxidative stress of B. subtilis. These findings suggest that this B. pumilus heme-catalase can be considered among the industrially relevant biocatalysts due to its exceptional catalytic rate and high stability and it can be a potential candidate for the improvement of oxidative resistance of industrially produced strains.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Atrazine Mineralizing Bacillus subtilis Strain HB-6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide with great environmental concern due to its high potential to contaminate soil and waters. An atrazine-degrading bacterial strain HB-6 was isolated from industrial wastewater and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified HB-6 as a Bacillus subtilis. PCR assays indicated that HB-6 contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN, atzB and atzC. The strain HB-6 was capable of utilizing atrazine and cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source for growth and even cleaved the s-triazine ring and mineralized atrazine. The strain demonstrated a very high efficiency of atrazine biodegradation with a broad optimum pH and temperature ranges and could be enhanced by cooperating with other bacteria, suggesting its huge potential for remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. To our knowledge, there are few Bacillus subtilis strains reported that can mineralize atrazine, therefore, the present work might provide some new insights on atrazine remediation. PMID:25238246

  13. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant‐beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed

    PubMed Central

    Malfanova, Natalia; Kamilova, Faina; Validov, Shamil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Chebotar, Vladimir; Tikhonovich, Igor; Lugtenberg, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Summary Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint‐Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant‐beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant‐beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant‐beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed. PMID:21366893

  14. Involvement of fengycin-type lipopeptides in the multifaceted biocontrol potential of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ongena, Marc; Jacques, Philippe; Touré, Yacine; Destain, Jacqueline; Jabrane, Abdelhamid; Thonart, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    In this work, the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain M4 at protecting plants against fungal diseases was demonstrated in different pathosystems. We provide evidence for the role of secreted lipopeptides, and more particularly of fengycins, in the protective effect afforded by the strain against damping-off of bean seedlings caused by Pythium ultimum and against gray mold of apple in post-harvest disease. This role was demonstrated by the strong biocontrol activity of lipopeptide-enriched extracts and through the detection of inhibitory quantities of fengycins in infected tissues. Beside such a direct antagonism of the pathogen, we show that root pre-inoculation with M4 enabled the host plant to react more efficiently to subsequent pathogen infection on leaves. Fengycins could also be involved in this systemic resistance-eliciting effect of strain M4, as these molecules may induce the synthesis of plant phenolics involved in or derived from the defense-related phenylpropanoid metabolism. Much remains to be discovered about the mechanisms by which Bacillus spp suppress disease. Through this study on strain M4, we reinforce the interest in B. subtilis as a pathogen antagonist and plant defense-inducing agent. The secretion of cyclic fengycin-type lipopeptides may be tightly related to the expression of these two biocontrol traits.

  15. Simulation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate by diffusion-reaction based continuum model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaoling; Nie, Kai; Li, Mingpeng; Sun, Qingping

    2016-08-01

    Various species of bacteria form highly organized spatially-structured aggregates known as biofilms. To understand how microenvironments impact biofilm growth dynamics, we propose a diffusion-reaction continuum model to simulate the formation of Bacillus subtilis biofilm on an agar plate. The extended finite element method combined with level set method are employed to perform the simulation, numerical results show the quantitative relationship between colony morphologies and nutrient depletion over time. Considering that the production of polysaccharide in wild-type cells may enhance biofilm spreading on the agar plate, we inoculate mutant colony incapable of producing polysaccharide to verify our results. Predictions of the glutamate source biofilm’s shape parameters agree with the experimental mutant colony better than that of glycerol source biofilm, suggesting that glutamate is rate limiting nutrient for Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth on agar plate, and the diffusion-limited is a better description to the experiment. In addition, we find that the diffusion time scale is of the same magnitude as growth process, and the common-employed quasi-steady approximation is not applicable here.

  16. Identification of Functions Affecting Predator-Prey Interactions between Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Susanne; Strack, Sarah N.; Ryan, Sarah E.; Shawgo, Mary; Walling, Abigail; Harris, Susanna; Chambers, Chris; Boddicker, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil bacteria engage each other in competitive and cooperative ways to determine their microenvironments. In this study, we report the identification of a large number of genes required for Myxococcus xanthus to engage Bacillus subtilis in a predator-prey relationship. We generated and tested over 6,000 individual transposon insertion mutants of M. xanthus and found many new factors required to promote efficient predation, including the specialized metabolite myxoprincomide, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter permease, and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus encoding bacterial immunity. We also identified genes known to be involved in predation, including those required for the production of exopolysaccharides and type IV pilus (T4P)-dependent motility, as well as chemosensory and two-component systems. Furthermore, deletion of these genes confirmed their role during predation. Overall, M. xanthus predation appears to be a multifactorial process, with multiple determinants enhancing predation capacity. IMPORTANCE Soil bacteria engage each other in complex environments and utilize multiple traits to ensure survival. Here, we report the identification of multiple traits that enable a common soil organism, Myxococcus xanthus, to prey upon and utilize nutrients from another common soil organism, Bacillus subtilis. We mutagenized the predator and carried out a screen to identify genes that were required to either enhance or diminish capacity to consume prey. We identified dozens of genes encoding factors that contribute to the overall repertoire for the predator to successfully engage its prey in the natural environment. PMID:27698086

  17. CodY activates transcription of a small RNA in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Preis, Heike; Eckart, Rita A; Gudipati, Rajani K; Heidrich, Nadja; Brantl, Sabine

    2009-09-01

    Regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacterial genomes have become a focus of research over the past 8 years. Whereas more than 100 such sRNAs have been found in Escherichia coli, relatively little is known about sRNAs in gram-positive bacteria. Using a computational approach, we identified two sRNAs in intergenic regions of the Bacillus subtilis genome, SR1 and SR2 (renamed BsrF). Recently, we demonstrated that SR1 inhibits the translation initiation of the transcriptional activator AhrC. Here, we describe detection of BsrF, its expression profile, and its regulation by CodY. Furthermore, we mapped the secondary structure of BsrF. BsrF is expressed in complex and minimal media in all growth phases in B. subtilis and, with a similar expression profile, also in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Neither overexpression nor deletion of bsrF affected the growth of B. subtilis. BsrF was found to be long-lived in complex and minimal media. Analysis of 13 putative transcription factor binding sites upstream of bsrF revealed only an effect for CodY. Here, we showed by using Northern blotting, lacZ reporter gene fusions, in vitro transcription, and DNase I footprinting that the transcription of bsrF is activated by CodY in the presence of branched-chain amino acids and GTP. Furthermore, BsrF transcription was increased 1.5- to 2-fold by glucose in the presence of branched-chain amino acids, and this increase was independent of the known glucose-dependent regulators. BsrF is the second target for which transcriptional activation by CodY has been discovered.

  18. Functional analysis of the sortase YhcS in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Westers, Helga; Bolhuis, Albert; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Quax, Wim J; Mirlohi, Agha F; van Dijl, Jan Maareten; Ahmadian, Gholamreza

    2011-10-01

    Sortases of Gram-positive bacteria catalyze the covalent C-terminal anchoring of proteins to the cell wall. Bacillus subtilis, a well-known host organism for protein production, contains two putative sortases named YhcS and YwpE. The present studies were aimed at investigating the possible sortase function of these proteins in B. subtilis. Proteomics analyses revealed that sortase-mutant cells released elevated levels of the putative sortase substrate YfkN into the culture medium upon phosphate starvation. The results indicate that YfkN required sortase activity of YhcS for retention in the cell wall. To analyze sortase function in more detail, we focused attention on the potential sortase substrate YhcR, which is co-expressed with the sortase YhcS. Our results showed that the sortase recognition and cell-wall-anchoring motif of YhcR is functional when fused to the Bacillus pumilus chitinase ChiS, a readily detectable reporter protein that is normally secreted. The ChiS fusion protein is displayed at the cell wall surface when YhcS is co-expressed. In the absence of YhcS, or when no cell-wall-anchoring motif is fused to ChiS, the ChiS accumulates predominately in the culture medium. Taken together, these novel findings show that B. subtilis has a functional sortase for anchoring proteins to the cell wall. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bioactive peptides identified in thornback ray skin's gelatin hydrolysates by proteases from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Lassoued, Imen; Mora, Leticia; Barkia, Ahmed; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Nasri, Moncef; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-10-14

    Thornback ray skin gelatin has been hydrolyzed with two different proteases in order to obtain peptides with ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activity. Hydrolysates with protease from Bacillus subtilis A26 (TRGH-A26) displayed ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.94 μg/μL whereas Neutrase® hydrolysate from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (TRGH-Neutrase) showed an IC50 value of 2.07 μg/μL. Regarding antioxidant activity, IC50 values of 1.98 and 21.2 μg/μL in TRGH-A26 and TRGH-Neutrase, respectively, were obtained using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The most active fractions identified by size-exclusion chromatography were further purified by RP-HPLC and analysed using nanoESI-LC-MS/MS to identify the sequence of the peptides. APGAP was the most active peptide inTRGH-A26 for ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 170 μM, whereas GIPGAP showed the best ACE inhibitory activity in TRGH-Neutrase sample with an IC50 value of 27.9 μM. The highest antioxidant activity was identified in peptide AVGAT, showing a 33% of activity at 3mg/mL using the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The obtained results proved the potential of thornback ray skin gelatin hydrolysates as a source of bioactive peptides. This study describes a peptidomic approach for the identification of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides generated from thornback ray gelatin (Raja clavata) hydrolysates from Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Neutrase® enzymes and expose the potential of thornback ray gelatin hydrolysate as a source of bioactive peptides. In this sense, the decrease of systolic blood pressure is one of the main measurements considered in public health for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and even end-stage renal disease. Traditionally, synthetic drugs such as captopril and enalapril have been used as ACE inhibitors despite their secondary effects, but the finding of new sources for the generation of natural bioactive peptides such as

  20. Osmoprotection of Bacillus subtilis through Import and Proteolysis of Proline-Containing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zaprasis, Adrienne; Brill, Jeanette; Thüring, Marietta; Wünsche, Guido; Heun, Magnus; Barzantny, Helena; Hoffmann, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis can attain cellular protection against the detrimental effects of high osmolarity through osmotically induced de novo synthesis and uptake of the compatible solute l-proline. We have now found that B. subtilis can also exploit exogenously provided proline-containing peptides of various lengths and compositions as osmoprotectants. Osmoprotection by these types of peptides is generally dependent on their import via the peptide transport systems (Dpp, Opp, App, and DtpT) operating in B. subtilis and relies on their hydrolysis to liberate proline. The effectiveness with which proline-containing peptides confer osmoprotection varies considerably, and this can be correlated with the amount of the liberated and subsequently accumulated free proline by the osmotically stressed cell. Through gene disruption experiments, growth studies, and the quantification of the intracellular proline pool, we have identified the PapA (YqhT) and PapB (YkvY) peptidases as responsible for the hydrolysis of various types of Xaa-Pro dipeptides and Xaa-Pro-Xaa tripeptides. The PapA and PapB peptidases possess overlapping substrate specificities. In contrast, osmoprotection by peptides of various lengths and compositions with a proline residue positioned at their N terminus was not affected by defects in the PapA and PapB peptidases. Taken together, our data provide new insight into the physiology of the osmotic stress response of B. subtilis. They illustrate the flexibility of this ubiquitously distributed microorganism to effectively exploit environmental resources in its acclimatization to sustained high-osmolarity surroundings through the accumulation of compatible solutes. PMID:23144141

  1. ComX-Induced Exoproteases Degrade ComX in Bacillus subtilis PS-216

    PubMed Central

    Spacapan, Mihael; Danevčič, Tjaša; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2018-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria use peptides as auto-inducing (AI) signals to regulate the production of extracellular enzymes (e.g., proteases). ComX is an AI peptide, mostly known for its role in the regulation of bacterial competence and surfactant production in Bacillus subtilis. These two traits are regulated accordingly to the bacterial population size, thus classifying ComX as a quorum sensing signal. ComX also indirectly regulates exoprotease production through the intermediate transcriptional regulator DegQ. We here use this peptide-based AI system (the ComQXPA system) as a model to address exoprotease regulation by ComX in biofilms. We also investigate the potential of ComX regulated proteases to degrade the ComX AI peptide. Results indicate that ComX indeed induces the expression of aprE, the gene for the major serine protease subtilisin, and stimulates overall exoprotease production in biofilms of B. subtilis PS-216 and several other B. subtilis soil isolates. We also provide evidence that these exoproteases can degrade ComX. The ComX biological activity decay is reduced in the spent media of floating biofilms with low proteolytic activity found in the comP and degQ mutants. ComX biological activity decay can be restored by the addition of subtilisin to such media. In contrast, inhibition of metalloproteases by EDTA reduces ComX biological activity decay. This suggests that both serine and metalloproteases, which are induced by ComX, are ultimately capable of degrading this signaling peptide. This work brings novel information on regulation of exoproteases in B. subtilis floating biofilms and reveals that these proteolytic enzymes degrade the AI signaling peptide ComX, which is also a major determinant of their expression in biofilms. PMID:29449835

  2. Direct Comparison of Physical Properties of Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 and B-1 Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kesel, Sara; Grumbein, Stefan; Gümperlein, Ina; Tallawi, Marwa; Marel, Anna-Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Many bacteria form surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Due to the extreme resistance of these bacterial biofilms to antibiotics and mechanical stresses, biofilms are of growing interest not only in microbiology but also in medicine and industry. Previous studies have determined the extracellular polymeric substances present in the matrix of biofilms formed by Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610. However, studies on the physical properties of biofilms formed by this strain are just emerging. In particular, quantitative data on the contributions of biofilm matrix biopolymers to these physical properties are lacking. Here, we quantitatively investigated three physical properties of B. subtilis NCIB 3610 biofilms: the surface roughness and stiffness and the bulk viscoelasticity of these biofilms. We show how specific biomolecules constituting the biofilm matrix formed by this strain contribute to those biofilm properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface roughness and surface elasticity of 1-day-old NCIB 3610 biofilms are strongly affected by the surface layer protein BslA. For a second strain, B. subtilis B-1, which forms biofilms containing mainly γ-polyglutamate, we found significantly different physical biofilm properties that are also differently affected by the commonly used antibacterial agent ethanol. We show that B-1 biofilms are protected from ethanol-induced changes in the biofilm's stiffness and that this protective effect can be transferred to NCIB 3610 biofilms by the sole addition of γ-polyglutamate to growing NCIB 3610 biofilms. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of specific biofilm matrix components for the distinct physical properties of B. subtilis biofilms. PMID:26873313

  3. Spermidine promotes Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation by activating expression of the matrix regulator slrR.

    PubMed

    Hobley, Laura; Li, Bin; Wood, Jennifer L; Kim, Sok Ho; Naidoo, Jacinth; Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alexey; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Michael, Anthony J

    2017-07-21

    Ubiquitous polyamine spermidine is not required for normal planktonic growth of Bacillus subtilis but is essential for robust biofilm formation. However, the structural features of spermidine required for B. subtilis biofilm formation are unknown and so are the molecular mechanisms of spermidine-stimulated biofilm development. We report here that in a spermidine-deficient B. subtilis mutant, the structural analogue norspermidine, but not homospermidine, restored biofilm formation. Intracellular biosynthesis of another spermidine analogue, aminopropylcadaverine, from exogenously supplied homoagmatine also restored biofilm formation. The differential ability of C-methylated spermidine analogues to functionally replace spermidine in biofilm formation indicated that the aminopropyl moiety of spermidine is more sensitive to C -methylation, which it is essential for biofilm formation, but that the length and symmetry of the molecule is not critical. Transcriptomic analysis of a spermidine-depleted B. subtilis speD mutant uncovered a nitrogen-, methionine-, and S -adenosylmethionine-sufficiency response, resulting in repression of gene expression related to purine catabolism, methionine and S -adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and methionine salvage, and signs of altered membrane status. Consistent with the spermidine requirement in biofilm formation, single-cell analysis of this mutant indicated reduced expression of the operons for production of the exopolysaccharide and TasA protein biofilm matrix components and SinR antagonist slrR Deletion of sinR or ectopic expression of slrR in the spermidine-deficient Δ speD background restored biofilm formation, indicating that spermidine is required for expression of the biofilm regulator slrR Our results indicate that spermidine functions in biofilm development by activating transcription of the biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide and TasA operons through the regulator slrR . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  4. Bacillus subtilis alters the proportion of major membrane phospholipids in response to surfactin exposure.

    PubMed

    Uttlová, Petra; Pinkas, Dominik; Bechyňková, Olga; Fišer, Radovan; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Seydlová, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate. Analysis of the membrane lipid composition revealed modifications both in the polar head group and the fatty acid region. The presence of either surfactin concentration resulted in a reduction in the content of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and increase in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which was accompanied by elevated levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) in SF350 cultures. The fatty acid analysis of SF350 cells showed a marked increase in non-branched high-melting fatty acids, which lowered the fluidity of the membrane interior measured as the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of DPH. The liposome leakage of carboxyfluorescein-loaded vesicles resembling the phospholipid composition of surfactin-adapted cells showed that the susceptibility to surfactin-induced leakage is strongly reduced when the PG/PE ratio decreases and/or PA is included in the target bilayer. We concluded that the modifications of the phospholipid content of B. subtilis cells might provide a self-tolerance of the membrane active surfactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial Competition Reveals Differential Regulation of the pks Genes by Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Rahlwes, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is adaptable to many environments in part due to its ability to produce a broad range of bioactive compounds. One such compound, bacillaene, is a linear polyketide/nonribosomal peptide. The pks genes encode the enzymatic megacomplex that synthesizes bacillaene. The majority of pks genes appear to be organized as a giant operon (>74 kb from pksC-pksR). In previous work (P. D. Straight, M. A. Fischbach, C. T. Walsh, D. Z. Rudner, and R. Kolter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:305–310, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609073103), a deletion of the pks operon in B. subtilis was found to induce prodiginine production by Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, colonies of wild-type B. subtilis formed a spreading population that induced prodiginine production from Streptomyces lividans, suggesting differential regulation of pks genes and, as a result, bacillaene. While the parent colony showed widespread induction of pks expression among cells in the population, we found the spreading cells uniformly and transiently repressed the expression of the pks genes. To identify regulators that control pks genes, we first determined the pattern of pks gene expression in liquid culture. We next identified mutations in regulatory genes that disrupted the wild-type pattern of pks gene expression. We found that expression of the pks genes requires the master regulator of development, Spo0A, through its repression of AbrB and the stationary-phase regulator, CodY. Deletions of degU, comA, and scoC had moderate effects, disrupting the timing and level of pks gene expression. The observed patterns of expression suggest that complex regulation of bacillaene and other antibiotics optimizes competitive fitness for B. subtilis. PMID:24187085

  6. Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Baby; Dhas, Berlina; Hena, Vimalin; Raj, Justin

    2013-12-01

    To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Expression of Enterobacterial O-Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Enzymes in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Christina; Wugeditsch, Thomas; Messner, Paul; Whitfield, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The expression of heterologous bacterial glycosyltransferases is of interest for potential application in the emerging field of carbohydrate engineering in gram-positive organisms. To assess the feasibility of using enzymes from gram-negative bacteria, the functional expression of the genes wbaP (formerly rfbP), wecA (formerly rfe), and wbbO (formerly rfbF) from enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide O-polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways was examined in Bacillus subtilis. WbaP and WecA are initiation enzymes for O-polysaccharide formation, catalyzing the transfer of galactosyl 1-phosphate from UDP-galactose and N-acetylglucosaminyl 1-phosphate from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, respectively, to undecaprenylphosphate. The WecA product (undecaprenylpyrophosphoryl GlcNAc) is used as an acceptor to which the bifunctional wbbO gene product sequentially adds a galactopyranose and a galactofuranose residue from the corresponding UDP sugars to form a lipid-linked trisaccharide. Genes were cloned into the shuttle vectors pRB374 and pAW10. In B. subtilis hosts, the genes were effectively transcribed under the vegII promoter control of pRB374, but the plasmids were susceptible to rearrangements and deletion. In contrast, pAW10-based constructs, in which genes were cloned downstream of the tet resistance cassette, were stable but yielded lower levels of enzyme activity. In vitro glycosyltransferase assays were performed in Escherichia coli and B. subtilis, using membrane preparations as sources of enzymes and endogenous undecaprenylphosphate as an acceptor. Incorporation of radioactivity from UDP-α-d-14C-sugar into reaction products verified the functionality of WbaP, WecA, and WbbO in either host. Enzyme activities in B. subtilis varied between 20 and 75% of those measured in E. coli. PMID:12324313

  8. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of totarol induced alterations in Bacillus subtilis by multipronged quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Panga Jaipal; Ray, Sandipan; Sathe, Gajanan J; Gajbhiye, Akshada; Prasad, T S Keshava; Rapole, Srikanth; Panda, Dulal; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-01-30

    The rapid emergence of microbial drug resistance indicates the urgent need for development of new antimicrobial agents. Bacterial cell division machinery is considered as a promising antimicrobial target. Totarol is a naturally existing diterpenoid, which has the ability to restrain bacterial growth by perturbing the cell division. The present study was conducted to investigate the proteomic alterations in Bacillus subtilis as a consequence of totarol treatment to decipher its mechanism of action and possible molecular targets. Cellular proteome of the totarol treated B. subtilis AH75 strain was analyzed by using multiple complementary proteomic approaches. After the drug treatment, 12, 38 and 139 differentially expressed (1.5 fold change) proteins were identified using 2-DE, DIGE and iTRAQ analyses, respectively. In silico functional analysis of the identified differentially expressed proteins indicated a possible effect of totarol on the central metabolism for energy production, heme biosynthesis and chemotaxis. Interestingly, the primary dehydrogenases, which play a vital role in generating the reducing equivalent, were found to be repressed after totarol treatment indicating an apparent metabolic shutdown. Consequently, multiple cellular assays including resazurin assay and FACS analysis of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining confirmed the effect of totarol on respiratory activity and cellular metabolism. The exact mechanism of action of totarol is still unclear and further investigations are essential to identify the molecular/cellular targets of this potential antimicrobial agent. The present study demonstrates the application of differential proteome to decipher the mechanism of action and molecular targets of totarol in B. subtilis. Our quantitative proteome analysis revealed that totarol induced alterations in the expression levels of 139 proteins (1.5 fold change and ≥2 peptides) in B. subtilis. Findings obtained from this study

  9. Iron starvation triggers the stringent response and induces amino acid biosynthesis for bacillibactin production in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Miethke, Marcus; Westers, Helga; Blom, Evert-Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2006-12-01

    Iron deprivation in bacteria causes the derepression of genes controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur). The present microarray analysis of iron-starved Bacillus subtilis cells grown in minimal medium unveils additional physiological effects on a large number of genes linked to stringent-response regulation and to genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis associated with pathways essential for bacillibactin production.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1209 Section 180.1209... strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 and strain QST 713 variant soil when used in or on all food commodities...

  12. Protective Role of Spore Structural Components in Determining Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance to Simulated Mars Surface Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Spores of wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis strains lacking various structural components were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants. PMID:23064347

  13. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result... in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will... desiccation in the environment (Ref. 1). Bacillus subtilis is not considered toxic or pathogenic to humans...

  14. Extraction of high-quality RNA from Bacillus subtilis with a lysozyme pre-treatment followed by the Trizol method.

    PubMed

    Villa-Rodríguez, Eber; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc; de Los Santos-Villalobos, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    A suitable technique (lysozyme combined with Trizol reagent) was developed to improve the RNA yield, purity and integrity from Bacillus subtilis, under different bacterial growth stages. The obtained RNA was intact, having the required characteristics for downstream applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA-binding properties of the Bacillus subtilis and Aeribacillus pallidus AC6 σ(D) proteins.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Elif; Gaballa, Ahmed; Beldüz, A Osman; Helmann, John D

    2011-01-01

    σ(D) proteins from Aeribacillus pallidus AC6 and Bacillus subtilis bound specifically, albeit weakly, to promoter DNA even in the absence of core RNA polymerase. Binding required a conserved CG motif within the -10 element, and this motif is known to be recognized by σ region 2.4 and critical for promoter activity.

  16. DNA-Binding Properties of the Bacillus subtilis and Aeribacillus pallidus AC6 σD Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, Elif; Gaballa, Ahmed; Beldüz, A. Osman; Helmann, John D.

    2011-01-01

    σD proteins from Aeribacillus pallidus AC6 and Bacillus subtilis bound specifically, albeit weakly, to promoter DNA even in the absence of core RNA polymerase. Binding required a conserved CG motif within the −10 element, and this motif is known to be recognized by σ region 2.4 and critical for promoter activity. PMID:21097624

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Type Strain B7-S, Which Converts Ferulic Acid to Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suyue; Yan, Lei; Wang, Ningbo; Yan, Xiaojuan

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis type strain B7-S was obtained through induction with ferulic acid. Here, we present the draft genome of strain B7-S, which contains 5,313,924 bp, with a G+C content of 35.8%, 5,135 protein-coding genes, and 40 tRNA-encoding genes. PMID:24526629

  18. Extracellular Expression of a Functional Recombinant Ganoderma lucidium Immunomodulatory Protein by Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chuan M.; Yeh, Chun K.; Hsu, Xun Y.; Luo, Qiu M.; Lin, Ming Y.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis are ideal hosts for the production of extracellular heterologous proteins of major commercial importance. A recombinant gene for the novel Ganoderma lucidium immunomodulatory protein LZ-8, recombinant LZ-8, was designed encoding the same amino acid sequence but using the preferred codons for both strains and was synthesized by overlapping extension PCR. Using the signal peptide (SP) from subtilisin YaB (SPYaB), recombinant LZ-8 was expressed extracellularly in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. In the absence of SPYaB, recombinant LZ-8 was expressed extracellularly in B. subtilis, but not in L. lactis. The three expressed recombinant LZ-8s showed different capacities for modulating the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and of tumor necrosis factor alpha by a macrophage cell line. PMID:18156317

  19. Combining Genes from Multiple Phages for Improved Cell Lysis and DNA Transfer from Escherichia coli to Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mario; Wong, Christine; Ajioka, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to efficiently and reliably transfer genetic circuits between the key synthetic biology chassis, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, constitutes one of the major hurdles of the rational genome engineering. Using lambda Red recombineering we integrated the thermosensitive lambda repressor and the lysis genes of several bacteriophages into the E. coli chromosome. The lysis of the engineered autolytic cells is inducible by a simple temperature shift. We improved the lysis efficiency by introducing different combinations of lysis genes from bacteriophages lambda, ΦX174 and MS2 under the control of the thermosensitive lambda repressor into the E. coli chromosome. We tested the engineered autolytic cells by transferring plasmid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-borne genetic circuits from E. coli to B. subtilis. Our engineered system combines benefits of the two main synthetic biology chassis, E. coli and B. subtilis, and allows reliable and efficient transfer of DNA edited in E. coli into B. subtilis. PMID:27798678

  20. Cloning and enhancing production of a detergent- and organic-solvent-resistant nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01 by using an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao Thi; Quyen, Thi Dinh; Le, Hoang Thanh

    2013-09-10

    Nattokinases/Subtilisins (EC 3.4.21.62) belong to the second large family of serine proteases, which gain significant attention and play important role in many biotechnology processes. Thus, a number of nattokinases/subtilisins from various Bacillus species, especially from B. subtilis strains, extensively have been investigated to understand their biochemical and physical properties as well as to improve the production for industrial application. The purpose of this study was to clone a nattokinase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01, enhance its production in B. subtilis WB800, which is deficient in eight extracellular proteases and characterize its physicochemical properties for potential application in organic synthesis and detergent production. A gene coding for the nattokinase (Nk) from B. subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01 consisted of an ORF of 1146 nucleotides, encoding a pre-pro-protein enzyme (30-aa pre-signal peptide, 76-aa pro-peptide and 275-aa mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27.7 kDa and pI 6.6). The nattokinase showed 98-99% identity with other nattokinases/subtilisins from B. subtilis strains in GenBank. Nk was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the control of acoA promoter at a high level of 600 mg protein per liter culture medium which is highest yield of proteins expressed in any extracellular-protease-deficient B. subtilis system till date. Nk was purified to homogeneity with 3.25 fold purification, a specific activity of 12.7 U/mg, and a recovery of 54.17%. The purified Nk was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through three peptides, which showed 100% identity to corresponding peptides of the B. subtilis nattokinase (CAC41625). An optimal activity for Nk was observed at 65 °C and pH 9. The nattokinase was stable at temperature up to 50 °C and in pH range of 5-11 and retained more than 85% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h. Mg2+ activated Nk up to 162% of its activity. The addition of

  1. Characterisation of Potential Antimicrobial Targets in Bacillus spp. I. Aminotransferases and Methionine Regeneration in Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    m6thionine A partir de kdtomdthiobutyrate, en utilisant les aminoacides aromatiques et de chaine ramifi6e. Le produit g6nmtique ybgE 6tait le plus actif de...Ia ph6nylalanine et Ia tyrosine comme donneurs amines. Par consequent, deux transaminases aminoacides putatives de chaine ramifi~e ont 6t6 identifi...canaline against B. subtilis in nutrient broth is possibly due to antagonism by exogenous Met or binding of canaline to exogenous protein. Experiments are

  2. Extracellular Proteolytic Activity Plays a Central Role in Swarming Motility in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Bindel Connelly, Mariah; Young, Glenn M.; Sloma, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Natural isolates of Bacillus subtilis exhibit a robust multicellular behavior known as swarming. A form of motility, swarming is characterized by a rapid, coordinated progression of a bacterial population across a surface. As a collective bacterial process, swarming is often associated with biofilm formation and has been linked to virulence factor expression in pathogenic bacteria. While the swarming phenotype has been well documented for Bacillus species, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible remains largely isolated to gram-negative bacteria. To better understand how swarming is controlled in members of the genus Bacillus, we investigated the effect of a series of gene deletions on swarm motility. Our analysis revealed that a strain deficient for the production of surfactin and extracellular proteolytic activity did not swarm or form biofilm. While it is known that surfactin, a lipoprotein surfactant, functions in swarming motility by reducing surface tension, this is the first report demonstrating that general extracellular protease activity also has an important function. These results not only help to define the factors involved in eliciting swarm migration but support the idea that swarming and biofilm formation may have overlapping control mechanisms. PMID:15205417

  3. Proteomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains engineered for improved production of heterologous proteins.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Susanne; Bhavsar, Gaurav; Hulme, Joanne; Bloor, Alexandra E; Misirli, Goksel; Leckenby, Matthew W; Radford, David S; Smith, Wendy; Wipat, Anil; Williamson, E Diane; Harwood, Colin R; Cranenburgh, Rocky M

    2013-11-01

    The use of bacterial systems for recombinant protein production has advantages of simplicity, time and cost over competing systems. However, widely used bacterial expression systems (e.g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens) are not able to secrete soluble proteins directly into the culture medium. This limits yields and increases downstream processing time and costs. In contrast, Bacillus spp. secrete native enzymes directly into the culture medium at grams-per-litre quantities, although the yields of some recombinant proteins are severely limited. We have engineered the Bacillus subtilis genome to generate novel strains with precise deletions in the genes encoding ten extracytoplasmic proteases that affect recombinant protein secretion, which lack chromosomal antibiotic resistance genes. The deletion sites and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms were confirmed by sequencing. The strains are stable and were used in industrial-scale fermenters for the production of the Bacillus anthracis vaccine protein, protective antigen, the productivity of which is extremely low in the unmodified strain. We also show that the deletion of so-called quality control proteases appears to influence cell-wall synthesis, resulting in the induction of the cell-wall stress regulon that encodes another quality control protease. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The immunological characteristics and probiotic function of recombinant Bacillus subtilis spore expressing Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Chen, Tingjin; Ren, Pengli; Sun, Hengchang; Qu, Hongling; Lin, Zhipeng; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Jinyun; Jiang, Hongye; Zhou, Xinyi; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-12-19

    Clonorchiasis, a food-borne zoonosis, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis. The intestinal tract and bile ducts are crucial places for C. sinensis metacercariae to develop into adult worms. The endospore of Bacillus subtilis is an ideal oral immunization vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to intestine. Cysteine protease of C. sinensis (CsCP) is an endogenous key component in the excystment of metacercariae and other physiological or pathological processes. We constructed a fusion gene of CotC (a coat protein)-CsCP and obtained B. subtilis spores with recombinant plasmid of pEB03-CotC-CsCP (B.s-CotC-CsCP). CotC-CsCP expressed on spores' surface was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Immunological characteristics of recombinant spore coat protein were evaluated in a mouse model. The levels of CsCP-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA. Effects of recombinant spores on mouse intestine were evaluated by histological staining. The activities of biochemical enzymes in serum were assayed by microplate. Liver sections of infected mice were evaluated by Ishak score after Masson's trichrome. The B.s-CotC-CsCP spores displayed CsCP on their coat. Specific IgG and isotypes were significantly induced by coat proteins of B.s-CotC-CsCP spores after subcutaneous immunization. IgA levels in intestinal mucus and bile of B.s-CotC-CsCP orally treated mice significantly increased. Additionally, more IgA-secreting cells were observed in enteraden and lamina propria regions of the mouse jejunum, and an increased amount of acidic mucins in intestines were also observed. There were no significant differences in enzyme levels of serum among groups. No inflammatory injury was observed in the intestinal tissues of each group. The degree of liver fibrosis was significantly reduced after oral immunization with B.s-CotC-CsCP spores. Bacillus subtilis spores maintained the original excellent immunogenicity of CsCP expressed on their surface. Both local and systemic

  5. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect.

  6. Mapping a cloned gene under sporulation control by inserttion of a drug resistance marker into the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Haldenwang, W G; Banner, C D; Ollington, J F; Losick, R; Hoch, J A; O'Connor, M B; Sonenshein, A L

    1980-01-01

    A segment of Bacillus subtilis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) previously cloned in Escherichia coli contains a gene (the 0.4-kilobase [kb] gene) whose transcription is activated at an early stage of spore development. To map the genetic location of the 0.4-kb gene, we constructed a hybrid plasmid that inserts a chloramphenicol resistance determinant into the B. subtilis chromosome by recombination at a site of homology between cloned B. subtilis DNA and the chromosome. This hybrid plasmid (p1949-2) was constructed from the E. coli plasmid pMB9, the B. sultilis chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pCM194 (whose replication function was inactivated), and B. subtilis DNA from the vicinity of the 0.4-kb gene. Transformation of B. subtilis cells to drug resistance by p1949-2 was dependent upon the B. subtilis RecE+ phenotype and resulted in specific and predictable changes in the pattern of endonuclease restriction sites in the 0.4-kb gene region of the chromosome. Chloramphenicol resistance in cells transformed by p1949-2 was mapped to the purA-cysA region of the B. subtilis chromosome, a region. In addition, DNA adjacent to the 0.4-kb gene was shown to contain the wild-type allele of genetic marker (tms-26) from that region. Images PMID:6768719

  7. HtrC is involved in proteolysis of YpeB during germination of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Bernhards, Casey B; Chen, Yan; Toutkoushian, Hannah; Popham, David L

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endospores can remain dormant for decades yet can respond to nutrients, germinate, and resume growth within minutes. An essential step in the germination process is degradation of the spore cortex peptidoglycan wall, and the SleB protein in Bacillus species plays a key role in this process. Stable incorporation of SleB into the spore requires the YpeB protein, and some evidence suggests that the two proteins interact within the dormant spore. Early during germination, YpeB is proteolytically processed to a stable fragment. In this work, the primary sites of YpeB cleavage were identified in Bacillus anthracis, and it was shown that the stable products are comprised of the C-terminal domain of YpeB. Modification of the predominant YpeB cleavage sites reduced proteolysis, but cleavage at other sites still resulted in loss of full-length YpeB. A B. anthracis strain lacking the HtrC protease did not generate the same stable YpeB products. In B. anthracis and Bacillus subtilis htrC mutants, YpeB was partially stabilized during germination but was still degraded at a reduced rate by other, unidentified proteases. Purified HtrC cleaved YpeB to a fragment similar to that observed in vivo, and this cleavage was stimulated by Mn(2+) or Ca(2+) ions. A lack of HtrC did not stabilize YpeB or SleB during spore formation in the absence of the partner protein, indicating other proteases are involved in their degradation during sporulation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Modular pathway engineering of Bacillus subtilis for improved N-acetylglucosamine production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhu, Yanqiu; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-05-01

    In previous work, we constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain for microbial production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which has applications in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this work, we improve GlcNAc production through modular engineering of B. subtilis. Specifically, the GlcNAc synthesis-related metabolic network in B. subtilis was divided into three modules-GlcNAc synthesis, glycolysis, and peptidoglycan synthesis. First, two-promoter systems with different promoter types and strengths were used for combinatorial assembly of expression cassettes of glmS (encoding GlcN-6-phosphate synthase) and GNA1 (encoding GlcNAc-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase) at transcriptional levels in the GlcNAc synthesis module, resulting in a 32.4% increase in GlcNAc titer (from 1.85g/L to 2.45g/L) in shake flasks. In addition, lactate and acetate synthesis were blocked by knockout of ldh (encoding lactate dehydrogenase) and pta (encoding phosphotransacetylase), leading to a 44.9% increase in GlcNAc production (from 2.45g/L to 3.55g/L) in shake flasks. Then, various strengths of the glycolysis and peptidoglycan synthesis modules were constructed by repressing the expression of pfk (encoding 6-phosphofructokinase) and glmM (encoding phosphoglucosamine mutase) via the expression of various combinations of synthetic small regulatory RNAs and Hfq protein. Next, GlcNAc, glycolysis, and peptidoglycan synthesis modules with various strengths were assembled and optimized via a module engineering approach, and the GlcNAc titer was improved to 8.30g/L from 3.55g/L in shake flasks. Finally, the GlcNAc titer was further increased to 31.65g/L, which was 3.8-fold that in the shake flask, in a 3-L fed-batch bioreactor. This work significantly enhanced GlcNAc production through modular pathway engineering of B. subtilis, and the engineering strategies used herein may be useful for the construction of versatile B. subtilis cell factories for the production of other industrially

  9. Time Series Analysis of theBacillus subtilisSporulation Network Reveals Low Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lecca, Paola; Mura, Ivan; Re, Angela; Barker, Gary C; Ihekwaba, Adaoha E C

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic behavior refers to a behavior which, albeit irregular, is generated by an underlying deterministic process. Therefore, a chaotic behavior is potentially controllable. This possibility becomes practically amenable especially when chaos is shown to be low-dimensional, i.e., to be attributable to a small fraction of the total systems components. In this case, indeed, including the major drivers of chaos in a system into the modeling approach allows us to improve predictability of the systems dynamics. Here, we analyzed the numerical simulations of an accurate ordinary differential equation model of the gene network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis to explore whether the non-linearity underlying time series data is due to low-dimensional chaos. Low-dimensional chaos is expectedly common in systems with few degrees of freedom, but rare in systems with many degrees of freedom such as the B. subtilis sporulation network. The estimation of a number of indices, which reflect the chaotic nature of a system, indicates that the dynamics of this network is affected by deterministic chaos. The neat separation between the indices obtained from the time series simulated from the model and those obtained from time series generated by Gaussian white and colored noise confirmed that the B. subtilis sporulation network dynamics is affected by low dimensional chaos rather than by noise. Furthermore, our analysis identifies the principal driver of the networks chaotic dynamics to be sporulation initiation phosphotransferase B (Spo0B). We then analyzed the parameters and the phase space of the system to characterize the instability points of the network dynamics, and, in turn, to identify the ranges of values of Spo0B and of the other drivers of the chaotic dynamics, for which the whole system is highly sensitive to minimal perturbation. In summary, we described an unappreciated source of complexity in the B. subtilis sporulation network by gathering

  10. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine

    PubMed Central

    Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis. We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA. Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of

  11. A new-generation of Bacillus subtilis cell factory for further elevated scyllo-inositol production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kosei; Natsume, Ayane; Ishikawa, Shu; Takenaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-21

    A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol (SI), has been regarded as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease. However, this compound is relatively rare, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol (MI) is abundant in nature. Bacillus subtilis 168 has the ability to metabolize inositol stereoisomers, including MI and SI. Previously, we reported a B. subtilis cell factory with modified inositol metabolism that converts MI into SI in the culture medium. The strain was constructed by deleting all genes related to inositol metabolism and overexpressing key enzymes, IolG and IolW. By using this strain, 10 g/l of MI initially included in the medium was completely converted into SI within 48 h of cultivation in a rich medium containing 2% (w/v) Bacto soytone. When the initial concentration of MI was increased to 50 g/l, conversion was limited to 15.1 g/l of SI. Therefore, overexpression systems of IolT and PntAB, the main transporter of MI in B. subtilis and the membrane-integral nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase in Escherichia coli respectively, were additionally introduced into the B. subtilis cell factory, but the conversion efficiency hardly improved. We systematically determined the amount of Bacto soytone necessary for ultimate conversion, which was 4% (w/v). As a result, the conversion of SI reached to 27.6 g/l within 48 h of cultivation. The B. subtilis cell factory was improved to yield a SI production rate of 27.6 g/l/48 h by simultaneous overexpression of IolT and PntAB, and by addition of 4% (w/v) Bacto soytone in the conversion medium. The concentration of SI was increased even in the stationary phase perhaps due to nutrients in the Bacto soytone that contribute to the conversion process. Thus, MI conversion to SI may be further optimized via identification and control of these unknown nutrients.

  12. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Stallforth, Pierre; Kovács, Ákos T

    2017-11-15

    In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of biofilms as they

  13. Time Series Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Sporulation Network Reveals Low Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lecca, Paola; Mura, Ivan; Re, Angela; Barker, Gary C.; Ihekwaba, Adaoha E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic behavior refers to a behavior which, albeit irregular, is generated by an underlying deterministic process. Therefore, a chaotic behavior is potentially controllable. This possibility becomes practically amenable especially when chaos is shown to be low-dimensional, i.e., to be attributable to a small fraction of the total systems components. In this case, indeed, including the major drivers of chaos in a system into the modeling approach allows us to improve predictability of the systems dynamics. Here, we analyzed the numerical simulations of an accurate ordinary differential equation model of the gene network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis to explore whether the non-linearity underlying time series data is due to low-dimensional chaos. Low-dimensional chaos is expectedly common in systems with few degrees of freedom, but rare in systems with many degrees of freedom such as the B. subtilis sporulation network. The estimation of a number of indices, which reflect the chaotic nature of a system, indicates that the dynamics of this network is affected by deterministic chaos. The neat separation between the indices obtained from the time series simulated from the model and those obtained from time series generated by Gaussian white and colored noise confirmed that the B. subtilis sporulation network dynamics is affected by low dimensional chaos rather than by noise. Furthermore, our analysis identifies the principal driver of the networks chaotic dynamics to be sporulation initiation phosphotransferase B (Spo0B). We then analyzed the parameters and the phase space of the system to characterize the instability points of the network dynamics, and, in turn, to identify the ranges of values of Spo0B and of the other drivers of the chaotic dynamics, for which the whole system is highly sensitive to minimal perturbation. In summary, we described an unappreciated source of complexity in the B. subtilis sporulation network by gathering

  14. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P < 0.01) milk production (25.2 and 26.4 kg/day v. 23.0 kg/day), 4% fat-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.1 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.2 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), as well as milk fat (1.01 and 1.03 kg/day v. 0.88 kg/day), protein (0.77 and 0.82 kg/day v. 0.69 kg/day) and lactose yield (1.16 and 1.22 kg/day v. 1.06 kg/day) but decreased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) by 3.4% to 5.5% (P < 0.01) in BSNLOW and BSNHIGH treatments compared with Control. In Experiment 2, four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P < 0.01), whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.01) and valerate (P < 0.05) increased. Molar proportion of acetate

  15. CdSe quantum dot internalization by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloepfer, Jeremiah A.; Mielke, Randall E.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2004-06-01

    Biological labeling has been demonstrated with CdSe quantum dots in a variety of animal cells, but bacteria are harder to label because of their cell walls. We discuss the challenges of using minimally coated, bare CdSe quantum dots as luminescent internal labels for bacteria. These quantum dots were solubilized with mercaptoacetic acid and conjugated to adenine. Significant evidence for the internal staining of Bacillus subtilis (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative) using these structures is presented via steady-state emission, epifluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, the E. coli adenine auxotroph, and not the wild type, took up adenine coated quantum dots, and this only occurred in adenine deficient growth media. Labeling strength was enhanced by performing the incubation under room light. This process was examined with steady-state emission spectra and time-resolved luminescence profiles obtained from time-correlated-single-photon counting.

  16. Crystallographic Snapshots of the Complete Catalytic Cycle of the Unregulated Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    K Harris; G Cockrell; D Puleo

    2011-12-31

    Here, we report high-resolution X-ray structures of Bacillus subtilis aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase), an enzyme that catalyzes one of the first reactions in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Structures of the enzyme have been determined in the absence of ligands, in the presence of the substrate carbamoyl phosphate, and in the presence of the bisubstrate/transition state analog N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate. Combining the structural data with in silico docking and electrostatic calculations, we have been able to visualize each step in the catalytic cycle of ATCase, from the ordered binding of the substrates, to the formation and decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate, to the ordered releasemore » of the products from the active site. Analysis of the conformational changes associated with these steps provides a rationale for the lack of cooperativity in trimeric ATCases that do not possess regulatory subunits.« less

  17. DNA transport into Bacillus subtilis requires proton motive force to generate large molecular forces

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Berenike; Chen, Ines; Dubnau, David; Sheetz, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can acquire genetic diversity, including antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, by horizontal gene transfer. In particular, many bacteria are naturally competent for uptake of naked DNA from the environment in a process called transformation. Here, we used optical tweezers to demonstrate that the DNA transport machinery in Bacillus subtilis is a force-generating motor. Single DNA molecules were processively transported in a linear fashion without observable pausing events. Uncouplers inhibited DNA uptake immediately, suggesting that the transmembrane proton motive force is needed for DNA translocation. We found an uptake rate of 80 ± 10 bp s−1 that was force-independent at external forces <40 pN, indicating that a powerful molecular machine supports DNA transport. PMID:15184891

  18. Bacillus subtilis 168 RecR protein-DNA complexes visualized as looped structures.

    PubMed

    Ayora, S; Stiege, A C; Lurz, R; Alonso, J C

    1997-03-18

    The Bacillus subtilis 168 RecR protein bound to duplex DNA in the presence of ATP and divalent cations (Mg2+ and Zn2+) was visualized by electron microscopy as a nearly spherical particle. A RecR homomultimer is frequently located at the intersection of two duplex DNA strands in an interwound DNA molecule, generating DNA loops of variable length. Two individual DNA molecules bound to the same protein are seen at a very low frequency, if at all. The association of RecR with the intersection of two duplex DNA strands is more often seen in supercoiled than with relaxed or linear DNA. The RecR protein displays a slight but significant preference for negatively supercoiled over linear DNA. The minimum substrate size for RecR protein is about 150 bp in length. A possible mechanism for RecR function in DNA repair is discussed.

  19. Optimizing Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio for Biosurfactant Production by a Bacillus subtilis Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. R.; Silva, A. J. R.; de Franca, F. P.; Cardoso, V. L.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.

    A Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from contaminated soil from a refinery has been screened for biosurfactant production in crystal sugar (sucrose) with different nitrogen sources (NaNO3' (NH4)2SO4' urea, and residual brewery yeast). The highest reduction in surface tension was achieved with a 48-h fermentation of crystal sugar and ammonium nitrate. Optimization of carbon/nitrogen ratio (3,9, and 15) and agitation rate (50, 150, and 250 rpm) for biosurfactant production was carried out using complete factorial design and response surface analysis. The condition of C/N 3 and 250 rpm allowed the maximum increase in surface activity of biosurfactant. A suitable model has been developed, having presented great accordance experimental data. Preliminary characterization of the bioproduct suggested it to be a lipopeptide with some isomers differing from those of a commercial surfactin.

  20. Optimizing carbon/nitrogen ratio for biosurfactant production by a Bacillus subtilis strain.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R R; Silva, A J R; De França, F P; Cardoso, V L; Sérvulo, E F C

    2007-04-01

    A Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from contaminated soil from a refinery has been screened for biosurfactant production in crystal sugar (sucrose) with different nitrogen sources (NaNO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), urea, and residual brewery yeast). The highest reduction in surface tension was achieved with a 48-h fermentation of crystal sugar and ammonium nitrate. Optimization of carbon/nitrogen ratio (3, 9, and 15) and agitation rate (50, 150, and 250 rpm) for biosurfactant production was carried out using complete factorial design and response surface analysis. The condition of C/N 3 and 250 rpm allowed the maximum increase in surface activity of biosurfactant. A suitable model has been developed, having presented great accordance experimental data. Preliminary characterization of the bioproduct suggested it to be a lipopeptide with some isomers differing from those of a commercial surfactin.

  1. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in Cu(II) adsorption on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linchuan; Wei, Xing; Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Hao; Liang, Wei; Rong, Xinming

    2011-01-01

    The effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida on Cu(II) adsorption was investigated using a combination of batch adsorption, potentiometric titrations, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both the potentiometric titrations and the Cu(II) adsorption experiments indicated that the presence of EPS in a biomass sample significantly enhance Cu(II) adsorption capacity. Surface complexation modeling showed that the pKa values for the three functional groups (carboxyl, phosphate and hydroxyl) were very similar for untreated and EPS-free cells, indicating no qualitative difference in composition. However, site concentrations on the untreated cell surface were found to be significantly higher than those on the EPS-free cell surface. Infrared analysis provided supporting evidence and demonstrated that carboxyl and phosphate groups are responsible for Cu(II) adsorption on the native and EPS-free cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis thiC operon involved in thiamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Taylor, S V; Chiu, H J; Begley, T P

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of a three-gene operon (the thiC operon) at 331 min, which is involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis, is described. The first gene in the operon is homologous to transcription activators in the lysR family. The second and third genes (thiK and thiC) have been subcloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. ThiK (30 kDa) catalyzes the phosphorylation of 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole. ThiC (27 kDa) catalyzes the substitution of the pyrophosphate of 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine pyrophosphate by 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole phosphate to yield thiamine phosphate. Transcription of the thiC operon is not regulated by thiamine or 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxymethylpyrimidine and is only slightly repressed by 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole. PMID:9139923

  3. Exo-polygalacturonase production by Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Manas R.; Kar, Shaktimay; Ray, Ramesh C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis CM5 in solid state fermentation using cassava bagasse for production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG). Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of four main variables, i.e. incubation period, initial medium pH, moisture holding capacity (MHC) and incubation temperature on enzyme production. A full factorial Central Composite Design was applied to study these main factors that affected exo-PG production. The experimental results showed that the optimum incubation period, pH, MHC and temperature were 6 days, 7.0, 70% and 50°C, respectively for optimum exo-PG production. PMID:24031409

  4. [Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased.

  5. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin.

  6. Identification of proteins phosphorylated by ATP during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, C; Morris, P W; Vary, J C

    1992-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis was assayed in vitro by using extracts prepared from cells at various times during growth and sporulation. At least six proteins were labeled in vitro by using [gamma-32P]ATP and extracts of vegetative cells. In extracts prepared at the end of exponential growth and during stationary phase, 12 to 13 proteins were labeled. Seven of the phosphoproteins were purified by fast-performance liquid chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted to Immobilon membranes, and subjected to partial protein sequencing. One of the sequences had sequence homology (greater than 45%) to elongation factor G from several bacterial species, and four sequences matched the predicted amino-terminal sequences of the outB, orfY-tsr, orfU, and ptsH genes. Images PMID:1556067

  7. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiations on Bacillus subtilis spores and T-7 bacteriophage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spizizen, J.; Isherwood, J. E.; Taylor, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis HA 101 and the DNA polymerase I-defective mutant HA 101 (59)F were exposed to selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet light and space vacuum during the return of Apollo 16. In addition, coliphage T-7 suspensions were exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation as part of the Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment. Optical filters were employed to provide different energy levels at wavelengths 254 nm and 280 nm. Dose-response curves for lethal and mutagenic effects were compared with ground-based data. A close parallel was observed between the results of solar radiation and ground tests with spores of the two strains. However, significantly greater inactivation of T-7 bacteriophage was observed after exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation.

  8. Bacillus subtilis comes of age as a vaccine production host and delivery vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a vaccine production host and delivery vector with several advantages such as a low production cost, straightforward administration as it is safe for human consumption and the production of spores exerting adjuvant effects. This review summarizes the expression approaches and provides an updated outlook of how a myriad of pathogens have been targeted under this technology. Furthermore, by reviewing the literature, several promising candidates in terms of immunogenic and immunoprotective potential have been identified. The immune profiles achieved comprise either humoral or cellular responses, which reflect versatility for application in the fight of distinct pathologies that demand specific polarization on the immune responses. Some perspectives for this field are also envisioned.

  9. Bacillus subtilis UBTn7, a potential producer of L - Methioninase isolated from mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihanto, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    L-methioninase is an enzyme that degrades sulfur-containing amino acids to α-keto acids, ammonia, and thiols. L-methioninase could be found in plants, bacteria, and fungi. The aims of this study was to obtain L-methioninase-producing endophytic bacteria isolated from mangrove Rhizophora mucronata. The mangrove was collected from Jenu Beach, Tuban, East Java, Indonesia. The samples were roots, stems, and leaves of Rhizophora mucronata. Endophytic bacteria were pure isolated using LB agar medium. Each bacteria were screened its capability to produce L-methioninase using selective media namely modified Czapek Dox agar. The best producer of enzyme was further identified with morphological and biochemical analysis. The result showed that three bacteria produced L-methioninase. Based on the result of morphological and biochemical analysis, the best producer was Bacillus subtilis UBTn7.

  10. Optimization of media composition for Nattokinase production by Bacillus subtilis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Deepak, V; Kalishwaralal, K; Ramkumarpandian, S; Babu, S Venkatesh; Senthilkumar, S R; Sangiliyandi, G

    2008-11-01

    Response surface methodology and central composite rotary design (CCRD) was employed to optimize a fermentation medium for the production of Nattokinase by Bacillus subtilis at pH 7.5. The four variables involved in this study were Glucose, Peptone, CaCl2, and MgSO4. The statistical analysis of the results showed that, in the range studied; only peptone had a significant effect on Nattokinase production. The optimized medium containing (%) Glucose: 1, Peptone: 5.5, MgSO4: 0.2 and CaCl2: 0.5 resulted in 2-fold increased level of Nattokinase (3194.25U/ml) production compared to initial level (1599.09U/ml) after 10h of fermentation. Nattokinase production was checked with fibrinolytic activity.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Yasuhide; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Chiba-Kamoshida, Kaori; Naito, Sawa; Ohsugi, Tadanori; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-12-01

    Nattokinase is a single polypeptide chain composed of 275 amino acids (molecular weight 27,724) which displays strong fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, it can activate other fibrinolytic enzymes such as pro-urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. In the present study, native nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified using gel-filtration chromatography and crystallized to give needle-like crystals which could be used for X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=74.3, b=49.9, c=56.3 Å, β=95.2°. Diffraction images were processed to a resolution of 1.74 Å with an Rmerge of 5.2% (15.3% in the highest resolution shell) and a completeness of 69.8% (30.0% in the highest resolution shell). This study reports the first X-ray diffraction analysis of nattokinase.

  12. Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Beom Soo

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis was cultivated to high cell density for nattokinase production by pH-stat fed-batch culture. A concentrated mixture solution of glucose and peptone was automatically added by acid-supplying pump when culture pH rose above high limit. Effect of the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution was investigated on cell growth and nattokinase production by changing the ratio from 0.2 to 5 g glucose/g peptone. The highest cell concentration was 77 g/L when the ratio was 0.2 g glucose/g peptone. Cell concentration decreased with increasing the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution, while the optimum condition existed for nattokinase production. The highest nattokinase activity was 14,500 unit/mL at a ratio of 0.33 g glucose/g peptone, which was 4.3 times higher than that in batch culture.

  13. Chemical structure and biological activity of a quorum sensing pheromone from Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Hayashi, Shunsuke; Ozaki, Koki; Usami, Syohei

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto secrets a peptide pheromone, named ComXnatto pheromone, as an inducer for biofilm formation containing poly-γ-glutamic acid. Recently, the ComXnatto pheromone was identified to be a hexapeptide with an amino acid sequence of Lys-Trp-Pro-Pro-Ile-Glu, and the tryptophan residue was post-translationally modified with a farnesyl group. In order to determine the precise modification of the tryptophan residue, ComXnatto pheromone was synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis. Biological activity of the ComXnatto pheromone was then investigated. It was demonstrated that poly-γ-glutamic acid production were accelerated by ComXnatto pheromone at more than 1 nM in natto. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A dual control mechanism synchronizes riboflavin and sulphur metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Kühm, Christian; Sévin, Daniel C.; Vockenhuber, Michael P.; Sauer, Uwe; Suess, Beatrix; Mack, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for biosynthesis and/or transport of riboflavin (rib genes). Cytoplasmic riboflavin is rapidly and almost completely converted to FMN by flavokinases. When cytoplasmic levels of FMN are sufficient (“high levels”), FMN binding to FMN riboswitches leads to a reduction of rib gene expression. We report here that the protein RibR counteracts the FMN-induced “turn-off” activities of both FMN riboswitches in Bacillus subtilis, allowing rib gene expression even in the presence of high levels of FMN. The reason for this secondary metabolic control by RibR is to couple sulfur metabolism with riboflavin metabolism. PMID:26494285

  15. Hide depilation and feather disintegration studies with keratinolytic serine protease from a novel Bacillus subtilis isolate.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Priya; Archana, G

    2008-03-01

    Keratinases play an important role in biotechnological applications such as improvement of feather meal, enzymatic dehairing and production of amino acids or peptides from high molecular weight substrates. Bacillus subtilis P13, isolated from Vajreshwari hot spring (45-50 degrees C) near Mumbai, India, produces a neutral serine protease and has an optimum temperature of 65 degrees C. This enzyme preparation was keratinolytic in nature and could disintegrate whole chicken feathers, except for the remnants of shafts. The enzyme preparation also exhibited depilation of goat hides with the recovery of intact animal hair. The enzyme preparation could release peptides from ground feathers and bring about their weight reduction; however, similar action on hair was relatively weak. A single major PMSF-sensitive protease band could be detected upon zymogram analysis, indicating that a single enzyme may be responsible for feather degradation and hide depilation. The importance of these findings in the biotechnological application for feather and leather industries is discussed.

  16. Noise Expands the Response Range of the Bacillus subtilis Competence Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Luke; Liu, Jintao; Wiggins, Chris H.; Süel, Gürol M.; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulatory circuits must contend with intrinsic noise that arises due to finite numbers of proteins. While some circuits act to reduce this noise, others appear to exploit it. A striking example is the competence circuit in Bacillus subtilis, which exhibits much larger noise in the duration of its competence events than a synthetically constructed analog that performs the same function. Here, using stochastic modeling and fluorescence microscopy, we show that this larger noise allows cells to exit terminal phenotypic states, which expands the range of stress levels to which cells are responsive and leads to phenotypic heterogeneity at the population level. This is an important example of how noise confers a functional benefit in a genetic decision-making circuit. PMID:27003682

  17. Methyl esterification of glutamic acid residues of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, J A; Ordal, G W

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid residue modified in the reversible methylation of Bacillus subtilis methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins was identified as glutamic acid; methylation results in the formation of glutamate 5-methyl ester. Identification was made by comparing the behaviour of a 3H-labelled compound isolated from proteolytically hydrolysed methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins labelled in vivo with that of authentic methylated amino acids by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. Also, the isolated compound on mild alkaline hydrolysis shows behaviour identical with that of authentic glutamate 5-methyl ester. [3H]Methanol released by mild alkaline hydrolysis was made to react with 3,5-dinitrobenzyl chloride to form [3H]methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, which was identified by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:6137212

  18. Bacillus subtilis Swarmer Cells Lead the Swarm, Multiply, and Generate a Trail of Quiescent Descendants

    PubMed Central

    Hamouche, Lina; Laalami, Soumaya; Daerr, Adrian; Song, Solène; Holland, I. Barry; Séror, Simone J.; Hamze, Kassem

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria adopt social behavior to expand into new territory, led by specialized swarmers, before forming a biofilm. Such mass migration of Bacillus subtilis on a synthetic medium produces hyperbranching dendrites that transiently (equivalent to 4 to 5 generations of growth) maintain a cellular monolayer over long distances, greatly facilitating single-cell gene expression analysis. Paradoxically, while cells in the dendrites (nonswarmers) might be expected to grow exponentially, the rate of swarm expansion is constant, suggesting that some cells are not multiplying. Little attention has been paid to which cells in a swarm are actually multiplying and contributing to the overall biomass. Here, we show in situ that DNA replication, protein translation and peptidoglycan synthesis are primarily restricted to the swarmer cells at dendrite tips. Thus, these specialized cells not only lead the population forward but are apparently the source of all cells in the stems of early dendrites. We developed a simple mathematical model that supports this conclusion. PMID:28174308

  19. Use of organic acids for prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Cag, Seyda

    2016-10-01

    The efficacies of organic acid (citric, malic, and gallic acids) treatments at 1% and 2% concentrations on prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms were investigated in this study. The analyses were conducted on microtitration plates and stainless steel coupons. The biofilm removal activities of these organic acids were compared with chlorine on both surfaces. The results showed that citric acid treatments were as powerful as chlorine treatments for prevention and removal of biofilms. The antibiofilm effects of malic acid treatments were higher than gallic acid and less than citric acid treatment. When the antibiofilm effects of these acids and chlorine on the two surfaces were compared, the prevention and removal of biofilms were measured higher on microtitration plates than those on stainless steel coupons. Higher reductions were obtained by increasing concentrations of sanitizers on 24-hour biofilm with 20-minute sanitizer treatments for removal of biofilms. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis transporter for petrobactin, an anthrax stealth siderophore

    SciTech Connect

    Zawadzka, A. M.; Kim, Y.; Maltseva, N

    2009-12-22

    Iron deprivation activates the expression of components of the siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems in Bacillus subtilis, including not only the synthesis and uptake of its siderophore bacillibactin but also expression of multiple ABC transporters for iron scavenging using xenosiderophores. The yclNOPQ operon is shown to encode the complete transporter for petrobactin (PB), a photoreactive 3,4-catecholate siderophore produced by many members of the B. cereus group, including B. anthracis. Isogenic disruption mutants in the yclNOPQ transporter, including permease YclN, ATPase YclP, and a substrate-binding protein YclQ, are unable to use either PB or the photoproduct of FePB (FePB{sup {nu}}) for ironmore » delivery and growth, in contrast to the wild-type B. subtilis. Complementation of the mutations with the copies of the respective genes restores this capability. The YclQ receptor binds selectively iron-free and ferric PB, the PB precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), and FePB{sup {nu}} with high affinity; the ferric complexes are seen in ESI-MS, implying strong electrostatic interaction between the protein-binding pocket and siderophore. The first structure of a Gram-positive siderophore receptor is presented. The 1.75-{angstrom} crystal structure of YclQ reveals a bilobal periplasmic binding protein (PBP) fold consisting of two {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich domains connected by a long {alpha}-helix with the binding pocket containing conserved positively charged and aromatic residues and large enough to accommodate FePB. Orthologs of the B. subtilis PB-transporter YclNOPQ in PB-producing Bacilli are likely contributors to the pathogenicity of these species and provide a potential target for antibacterial strategies.« less

  1. Synthesis, Release, and Recapture of Compatible Solute Proline by Osmotically Stressed Bacillus subtilis Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; von Blohn, Carsten; Stanek, Agnieszka; Moses, Susanne; Barzantny, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis synthesizes large amounts of the compatible solute proline as a cellular defense against high osmolarity to ensure a physiologically appropriate level of hydration of the cytoplasm and turgor. It also imports proline for this purpose via the osmotically inducible OpuE transport system. Unexpectedly, an opuE mutant was at a strong growth disadvantage in high-salinity minimal media lacking proline. Appreciable amounts of proline were detected in the culture supernatant of the opuE mutant strain, and they rose concomitantly with increases in the external salinity. We found that the intracellular proline pool of severely salinity-stressed cells of the opuE mutant was considerably lower than that of its opuE+ parent strain. This loss of proline into the medium and the resulting decrease in the intracellular proline content provide a rational explanation for the observed salt-sensitive growth phenotype of cells lacking OpuE. None of the known MscL- and MscS-type mechanosensitive channels of B. subtilis participated in the release of proline under permanently imposed high-salinity growth conditions. The data reported here show that the OpuE transporter not only possesses the previously reported role for the scavenging of exogenously provided proline as an osmoprotectant but also functions as a physiologically highly important recapturing device for proline that is synthesized de novo and subsequently released by salt-stressed B. subtilis cells. The wider implications of our findings for the retention of compatible solutes by osmotically challenged microorganisms and the roles of uptake systems for compatible solutes are considered. PMID:22685134

  2. Synthesis, release, and recapture of compatible solute proline by osmotically stressed Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tamara; von Blohn, Carsten; Stanek, Agnieszka; Moses, Susanne; Barzantny, Helena; Bremer, Erhard

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis synthesizes large amounts of the compatible solute proline as a cellular defense against high osmolarity to ensure a physiologically appropriate level of hydration of the cytoplasm and turgor. It also imports proline for this purpose via the osmotically inducible OpuE transport system. Unexpectedly, an opuE mutant was at a strong growth disadvantage in high-salinity minimal media lacking proline. Appreciable amounts of proline were detected in the culture supernatant of the opuE mutant strain, and they rose concomitantly with increases in the external salinity. We found that the intracellular proline pool of severely salinity-stressed cells of the opuE mutant was considerably lower than that of its opuE(+) parent strain. This loss of proline into the medium and the resulting decrease in the intracellular proline content provide a rational explanation for the observed salt-sensitive growth phenotype of cells lacking OpuE. None of the known MscL- and MscS-type mechanosensitive channels of B. subtilis participated in the release of proline under permanently imposed high-salinity growth conditions. The data reported here show that the OpuE transporter not only possesses the previously reported role for the scavenging of exogenously provided proline as an osmoprotectant but also functions as a physiologically highly important recapturing device for proline that is synthesized de novo and subsequently released by salt-stressed B. subtilis cells. The wider implications of our findings for the retention of compatible solutes by osmotically challenged microorganisms and the roles of uptake systems for compatible solutes are considered.

  3. A Bacillus subtilis Gene Induced by Cold Shock Encodes a Membrane Phospholipid Desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Pablo S.; Cronan, John E.; de Mendoza, Diego

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis grown at 37°C synthesizes saturated fatty acids with only traces of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). However, when cultures growing at 37°C are transferred to 20°C, UFA synthesis is induced. We report the identification and characterization of the gene encoding the fatty acid desaturase of B. subtilis. This gene, called des, was isolated by complementation of Escherichia coli strains with mutations in either of two different genes of UFA synthesis. The des gene encodes a polypeptide of 352 amino acid residues containing the three conserved histidine cluster motifs and two putative membrane-spanning domains characteristic of the membrane-bound desaturases of plants and cyanobacteria. Expression of the des gene in E. coli resulted in desaturation of palmitic acid moieties of the membrane phospholipids to give the novel mono-UFA cis-5-hexadecenoic acid, indicating that the B. subtilis des gene product is a Δ5 acyl-lipid desaturase. The des gene was disrupted, and the resulting null mutant strains were unable to synthesize UFAs upon a shift to low growth temperatures. The des null mutant strain grew as well as its congenic parent at 20 or 37°C but showed severely reduced survival during stationary phase. Analysis of operon fusions in which the des promoter directed the synthesis of a lacZ reporter gene showed that des expression is repressed at 37°C, but a shift of cultures from 37 to 20°C resulted in a 10- to 15-fold increase in transcription. This is the first report of a membrane phospholipid desaturase in a nonphotosynthetic organism and the first direct evidence for cold induction of a desaturase. PMID:9555904

  4. Two Roles for Aconitase in the Regulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Branch Gene Expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Pechter, Kieran B.; Meyer, Frederik M.; Serio, Alisa W.; Stülke, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that an aconitase (citB) null mutation results in a vast overaccumulation of citrate in the culture fluid of growing Bacillus subtilis cells, a phenotype that causes secondary effects, including the hyperexpression of the citB promoter. B. subtilis aconitase is a bifunctional protein; to determine if either or both activities of aconitase were responsible for this phenotype, two strains producing different mutant forms of aconitase were constructed, one designed to be enzymatically inactive (C450S [citB2]) and the other designed to be defective in RNA binding (R741E [citB7]). The citB2 mutant was a glutamate auxotroph and accumulated citrate, while the citB7 mutant was a glutamate prototroph. Unexpectedly, the citB7 strain also accumulated citrate. Both mutant strains exhibited overexpression of the citB promoter and accumulated high levels of aconitase protein. These strains and the citB null mutant also exhibited increased levels of citrate synthase protein and enzyme activity in cell extracts, and the major citrate synthase (citZ) transcript was present at higher-than-normal levels in the citB null mutant, due at least in part to a >3-fold increase in the stability of the citZ transcript compared to the wild type. Purified B. subtilis aconitase bound to the citZ 5′ leader RNA in vitro, but the mutant proteins did not. Together, these data suggest that wild-type aconitase binds to and destabilizes the citZ transcript in order to maintain proper cell homeostasis by preventing the overaccumulation of citrate. PMID:23354745

  5. Metabolic Perturbations in a Bacillus subtilis clpP Mutant during Glucose Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Daniel; Schlüter, Rabea; Gerth, Ulf; Lalk, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Proteolysis is essential for all living organisms to maintain the protein homeostasis and to adapt to changing environmental conditions. ClpP is the main protease in Bacillus subtilis, and forms complexes with different Clp ATPases. These complexes play crucial roles during heat stress, but also in sporulation or cell morphology. Especially enzymes of cell wall-, amino acid-, and nucleic acid biosynthesis are known substrates of the protease ClpP during glucose starvation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a clpP mutation on the metabolism in different growth phases and to search for putative new ClpP substrates. Therefore, B. subtilis 168 cells and an isogenic ∆clpP mutant were cultivated in a chemical defined medium, and the metabolome was analyzed by a combination of 1H-NMR, HPLC-MS, and GC-MS. Additionally, the cell morphology was investigated by electron microscopy. The clpP mutant showed higher levels of most glycolytic metabolites, the intermediates of the citric acid cycle, amino acids, and peptidoglycan precursors when compared to the wild-type. A strong secretion of overflow metabolites could be detected in the exo-metabolome of the clpP mutant. Furthermore, a massive increase was observed for the teichoic acid metabolite CDP-glycerol in combination with a swelling of the cell wall. Our results show a recognizable correlation between the metabolome and the corresponding proteome data of B. subtilis clpP mutant. Moreover, our results suggest an influence of ClpP on Tag proteins that are responsible for teichoic acids biosynthesis. PMID:29186773

  6. Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a putative pyridoxal kinase from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Joseph A.; Das, Sanjan K.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.

    2006-10-01

    A putative pyridoxal kinase from B. subtilis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized and data have been collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Pyridoxal kinases (PdxK) are able to catalyse the phosphorylation of three vitamin B{sub 6} precursors, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, to their 5′-phosphates and play an important role in the vitamin B{sub 6} salvage pathway. Recently, the thiD gene of Bacillus subtilis was found to encode an enzyme which has the activity expected of a pyridoxal kinase despite its previous assignment as an HMPP kinase owing to higher sequence similarity. As such, this enzyme would appear to representmore » a new class of ‘HMPP kinase-like’ pyridoxal kinases. B. subtilis thiD has been cloned and the protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized in a binary complex with ADP and Mg{sup 2+}. X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals to 2.8 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals belong to a primitive tetragonal system, point group 422, and analysis of the systematic absences suggest that they belong to one of the enantiomorphic pair of space groups P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2. Consideration of the space-group symmetry and unit-cell parameters (a = b = 102.9, c = 252.6 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) suggest that the crystals contain between three and six molecules in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way to provide insights into aspects of the enzyme mechanism and substrate specificity.« less

  7. A Conserved Metal Binding Motif in the Bacillus subtilis Competence Protein ComFA Enhances Transformation.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Scott S; Falbel, Tanya G; Hromada, Susan; Burton, Briana M

    2017-08-01

    Genetic competence is a process in which cells are able to take up DNA from their environment, resulting in horizontal gene transfer, a major mechanism for generating diversity in bacteria. Many bacteria carry homologs of the central DNA uptake machinery that has been well characterized in Bacillus subtilis It has been postulated that the B. subtilis competence helicase ComFA belongs to the DEAD box family of helicases/translocases. Here, we made a series of mutants to analyze conserved amino acid motifs in several regions of B. subtilis ComFA. First, we confirmed that ComFA activity requires amino acid residues conserved among the DEAD box helicases, and second, we show that a zinc finger-like motif consisting of four cysteines is required for efficient transformation. Each cysteine in the motif is important, and mutation of at least two of the cysteines dramatically reduces transformation efficiency. Further, combining multiple cysteine mutations with the helicase mutations shows an additive phenotype. Our results suggest that the helicase and metal binding functions are two distinct activities important for ComFA function during transformation. IMPORTANCE ComFA is a highly conserved protein that has a role in DNA uptake during natural competence, a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer observed in many bacteria. Investigation of the details of the DNA uptake mechanism is important for understanding the ways in which bacteria gain new traits from their environment, such as drug resistance. To dissect the role of ComFA in the DNA uptake machinery, we introduced point mutations into several motifs in the protein sequence. We demonstrate that several amino acid motifs conserved among ComFA proteins are important for efficient transformation. This report is the first to demonstrate the functional requirement of an amino-terminal cysteine motif in ComFA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Termination factor Rho: From the control of pervasive transcription to cell fate determination in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Pierre; Repoila, Francis; Bardowski, Jacek; Aymerich, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Rho inactivation strongly affected gene expression in B. subtilis, as assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of a rho–null mutant during exponential growth in rich medium. Subsequent physiological analyses demonstrated that a considerable part of Rho-controlled transcription is connected to balanced regulation of three mutually exclusive differentiation programs: cell motility, biofilm formation, and sporulation. In the absence of Rho, several up-regulated sense and antisense transcripts affect key structural and regulatory elements of these differentiation programs, thereby suppressing motility and biofilm formation and stimulating sporulation. We dissected how Rho is involved in the activity of the cell fate decision-making network, centered on the master regulator Spo0A. We also revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Spo0A activation through Rho-dependent intragenic transcription termination of the protein kinase kinB gene. Altogether, our findings indicate that distinct Rho-controlled transcripts are functional and constitute a previously unknown built-in module for the control of cell differentiation in B. subtilis. In a broader context, our results highlight the recruitment of the termination factor Rho, for which the conserved biological role is probably to repress pervasive transcription, in highly integrated, bacterium-specific, regulatory networks. PMID:28723971

  9. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  10. One-Step Chromatographic Purification of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-Activating Protein Expressed in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Kuo-Shun; Lin, Chih-Chang; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Yang, Yu-Chi; Wang, Chung-An; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Fu, Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP), a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), is capable of activating human neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secrete inammatory mediators. HP-NAP is a vaccine candidate, a possible drug target, and a potential in vitro diagnostic marker for H. pylori infection. HP-NAP has also been shown to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma and bladder cancer. Hence, an efficient way to obtain pure HP-NAP needs to be developed. In this study, one-step anion-exchange chromatography in negative mode was applied to purify the recombinant HP-NAP expressed in Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). This purification technique was based on the binding of host cell proteins and/or impurities other than HP-NAP to DEAE Sephadex resins. At pH 8.0, almost no other proteins except HP-NAP passed through the DEAE Sephadex column. More than 60% of the total HP-NAP with purity higher than 91% was recovered in the flow-through fraction from this single-step DEAE Sephadex chromatography. The purified recombinant HP-NAP was further demonstrated to be a multimeric protein with a secondary structure of α-helix and capable of activating human neutrophils to stimulate ROS production. Thus, this one-step negative chromatography using DEAE Sephadex resin can efficiently yield functional HP-NAP from B. subtilis in its native form with high purity. HP-NAP purified by this method could be further utilized for the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for H. pylori infection. PMID:23577158

  11. Bacillus subtilis vegetative isolate surviving chlorine dioxide exposure: an elusive mechanism of resistance.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J H; Wesgate, R L; Denyer, S P; McDonnell, G; Maillard, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Oxidizing agents such as chlorine dioxide are widely used microbicides, including for disinfection of medical equipment. We isolated a Bacillus subtilis isolate from a washer-disinfector whose vegetative form demonstrated unique resistance to chlorine dioxide (0·03%) and hydrogen peroxide (7·5%). The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms of resistance expressed by this isolate. A range of resistance mechanisms were investigated in the B. subtilis isolate and a reference B. subtilis strain (ATCC 6051) to include bacterial cell aggregation, the presence of profuse exopolysaccharide (EPS), and the expression of detoxification enzymes. The basis of resistance of the isolate to high concentrations of oxidizing agents was not linked to the presence of endospores. Although, the presence of EPS, aggregation and expression of detoxification enzymes may play a role in bacterial survival to low concentrations of chlorine dioxide, it is unlikely that the mechanisms helped tested to survive the bactericidal effect of higher oxidizer concentrations. Overall, the mechanisms conferring resistance to chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide remains elusive. Based on recent advances in the mode of action of oxidizing agents and notably hydrogen peroxide, we postulate that additional efficient intracellular mechanisms may be involved to explain significant resistance to in-use concentrations of commonly used high-level disinfectants. The isolation of a highly resistant vegetative Gram-positive bacterium to a highly reactive oxidizing agent is worrying. Understanding the mechanisms conferring such resistance is essential to effectively control such bacterial isolates. Here, we postulate that there are still mechanisms of bacterial resistance that have not been fully characterized. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A PAS domain binds asparagine in the chemotaxis receptor McpB in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Glekas, George D; Foster, Richard M; Cates, Joseph R; Estrella, Jeffrey A; Wawrzyniak, Michael J; Rao, Christopher V; Ordal, George W

    2010-01-15

    During chemotaxis toward asparagine by Bacillus subtilis, the ligand is thought to bind to the chemoreceptor McpB on the exterior of the cell and induce a conformational change. This change affects the degree of phosphorylation of the CheA kinase bound to the cytoplasmic region of the receptor. Until recently, the sensing domains of the B. subtilis receptors were thought to be structurally similar to the well studied Escherichia coli four-helical bundle. However, sequence analysis has shown the sensing domains of receptors from these two organisms to be vastly different. Homology modeling of the sensing domain of the B. subtilis asparagine receptor McpB revealed two tandem PAS domains. McpB mutants having alanine substitutions in key arginine and tyrosine residues of the upper PAS domain but not in any residues of the lower PAS domain exhibited a chemotactic defect in both swarm plates and capillary assays. Thus, binding does not appear to occur across any dimeric surface but within a monomer. A modified capillary assay designed to determine the concentration of attractant where chemotaxis is most sensitive showed that when Arg-111, Tyr-121, or Tyr-133 is mutated to an alanine, much more asparagine is required to obtain an active chemoreceptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments on the purified sensing domain showed a K(D) to asparagine of 14 mum, with the three mutations leading to less efficient binding. Taken together, these results reveal not only a novel chemoreceptor sensing domain architecture but also, possibly, a different mechanism for chemoreceptor activation.

  13. Cloning of a fibrinolytic enzyme (subtilisin) gene from Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Younes; Dabbagh, Fatemeh; Ghasemian, Abdollah

    2012-09-01

    Several investigations are being pursued to enhance the efficacy and specificity of fibrinolytic therapy. In this regard, microbial fibrinolytic enzymes attracted much more medical interests during these decades. Subtilisin, a member of subtilases (the superfamily of subtilisin-like serine proteases) and also a fibrinolytic enzyme is quite common in Gram-positive bacteria, and Bacillus species stand out in particular, as many extracellular and even intracellular variants have been identified. In the present work, the subtilisin gene from Bacillus subtilis PTCC 1023 was cloned into the vector pET-15b and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Total genomic DNA were isolated and used for PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene by means of the specific primers. SDS-PAGE and enzyme assay were done for characterizing the expressed protein. A ~1,100 bp of the structural subtilisin gene was amplified. The DNA and amino acid sequence alignments resulting from the BLAST search of subtilisin showed high sequence identity with the other strains of B. subtilis, whereas significantly lower identity was observed with other bacterial subtilisins. The recombinant enzyme had the same molecular weight as other reported subtilisins and the E. coli transformants showed high subtilisin activity. This study provides evidence that subtilisin can be actively expressed in E. coli. The commercial availability of subtilisin is of great importance for industrial applications and also pharmaceutical purposes as thrombolytic agent. Thus, the characterization of new recombinant subtilisin and the development of rapid, simple, and effective production methods are not only of academic interest, but also of practical importance.

  14. Optimization of Microbial Flocculant-Producing Medium forBacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changqing; Yang, Qinhuan; Zhang, Hao

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to improve microbial flocculant production by optimizing the components of a Bacillus subtilis CZ1003 culture medium. Using the flocculation rate as the dependent variable, single-factor experiments were performed and beef extract at a concentration of 9 g/L was found to be the optimal nitrogen source, while glucose at a concentration of 20 g/L was the optimal carbon source. KCl, MgCl 2 , NaCl, and CaCl 2 at concentrations of 0.75, 2.5, 0.5, and 5.0 g/L, respectively, were the optimum inorganic salts, in order of flocculant production activity. Orthogonal experimental demonstrated that KCl played a dominant role for Bacillus subtilis production of bioflocculants, followed by NaCl and CaCl 2 . Optimization experiments demonstrated that the optimal combination of the two salts was 0.75 g/L KCl and 0.5 g/L NaCl, resulting in a flocculation rate of 36.2% when included together at these concentrations. The final optimized medium consisted of 20 g/L glucose, 9 g/L beef extract, 0.75 g/L KCl, and 0.5 g/L NaCl. Compared with the initial medium, the optimized medium enhanced the flocculation activity from 12.1 to 36.2%, which equates to an increase of 199.17%. Meanwhile, the flocculant yield was increased from 0.058 g/L to 0.134/L, an increase of 131.03%. The optimized medium could be used to improve microbial flocculant production and provides a basis for further exploration.

  15. Role of branched-chain amino acid transport in Bacillus subtilis CodY activity.

    PubMed

    Belitsky, Boris R

    2015-04-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid-responsive transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several dozen transcription units in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of isoleucine, valine, and leucine in the growth medium is essential for achieving high activity of CodY and for efficient regulation of the target genes. We identified three permeases-BcaP, BraB, and BrnQ-that are responsible for the bulk of isoleucine and valine uptake and are also involved in leucine uptake. At least one more permease is capable of efficient leucine uptake, as well as low-affinity transport of isoleucine and valine. The lack of the first three permeases strongly reduced activity of CodY in an amino acid-containing growth medium. BcaP appears to be the most efficient isoleucine and valine permease responsible for their utilization as nitrogen sources. The previously described strong CodY-mediated repression of BcaP provides a mechanism for fine-tuning CodY activity by reducing the availability of amino acids and for delaying the utilization of isoleucine and valine as nitrogen and carbon sources under conditions of nutrient excess. Bacillus subtilis CodY is a global transcriptional regulator that is activated by branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Since the level of BCAA achieved by intracellular synthesis is insufficient to fully activate CodY, transport of BCAA from the environment is critical for CodY activation, but the permeases needed for such activation have not been previously identified. This study identifies three such permeases, reports their amino acid transport specificity, and reveals their impact on CodY activation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Water and Small-Molecule Permeation of Dormant Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Scott M; Cermak, Nathan; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Manalis, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    We use a suspended microchannel resonator to characterize the water and small-molecule permeability of Bacillus subtilis spores based on spores' buoyant mass in different solutions. Consistent with previous results, we found that the spore coat is not a significant barrier to small molecules, and the extent to which small molecules may enter the spore is size dependent. We have developed a method to directly observe the exchange kinetics of intraspore water with deuterium oxide, and we applied this method to wild-type spores and a panel of congenic mutants with deficiencies in the assembly or structure of the coat. Compared to wild-type spores, which exchange in approximately 1 s, several coat mutant spores were found to have relatively high water permeability with exchange times below the ∼200-ms temporal resolution of our assay. In addition, we found that the water permeability of the spore correlates with the ability of spores to germinate with dodecylamine and with the ability of TbCl3 to inhibit germination with l-valine. These results suggest that the structure of the coat may be necessary for maintaining low water permeability. Spores of Bacillus species cause food spoilage and disease and are extremely resistant to standard decontamination methods. This hardiness is partly due to spores' extremely low permeability to chemicals, including water. We present a method to directly monitor the uptake of molecules into B. subtilis spores by weighing spores in fluid. The results demonstrate the exchange of core water with subsecond resolution and show a correlation between water permeability and the rate at which small molecules can initiate or inhibit germination in coat-damaged spores. The ability to directly measure the uptake of molecules in the context of spores with known structural or genetic deficiencies is expected to provide insight into the determinants of spores' extreme resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  17. Bacteriocin (BAC-IB17): screening, isolation and production from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Asma; Aman, Afsheen; Siddiqui, Nadir Naveed; Iqbal, Samina; Ali ul Qader, Shah

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are peptides produced by a variety of different microbes and have antimicrobial activity against closely related species. These antimicrobial agents are gaining more and more attention as an alternative therapeutics not only in pharmaceutical but also as a preservative in food industries. In this study several bacterial strains were isolated from soil and screened for bacteriocin production. Among them, one strain identified as Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17 on the basis of taxonomic studies and confirmed by 16S rDNA analysis. This newly isolated strain showed antibacterial activity against several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Different concentrations of tryptone, yeast extract and NaCl and physiochemical factors such as temperature, pH and incubation period were selected as variables for maximum production of bacteriocin by using agar well diffusion method and significant effects of variables were observed on the production of Bac-IB17. A newly designed modified TY medium showed maximum bacteriocin production containing 1.0% tryptone, 0.5% yeast extract and 0.5% NaCl. Maximum Bac-IB17 production was observed at 37° after 24 hours with initial medium pH 7.0. Bacillus subtilis KIBGE IB-17 is capable of producing a bacteriocin at a wide range of pH and temperature that makes it an ideal strain that can be used for the production of bacteriocin on industrial scale level. The identification and production of such bacteriocin like compound against a wide spectrum of microbial species is very important for food and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Biosynthesis of aliphatic polyketides by type III polyketide synthase and methyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chiaki; Ozawa, Hiroki; Akanuma, Genki; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-08-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a variety of aromatic polyketides in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The bacterial genome projects predicted that probable type III PKS genes are distributed in a wide variety of gram-positive and -negative bacteria. The gram-positive model microorganism Bacillus subtilis contained the bcsA-ypbQ operon, which appeared to encode a type III PKS and a methyltransferase, respectively. Here, we report the characterization of bcsA (renamed bpsA, for Bacillus pyrone synthase, on the basis of its function) and ypbQ, which are involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic polyketides. In vivo analysis demonstrated that BpsA was a type III PKS catalyzing the synthesis of triketide pyrones from long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters as starter substrates and malonyl-CoA as an extender substrate, and YpbQ was a methyltransferase acting on the triketide pyrones to yield alkylpyrone methyl ethers. YpbQ thus was named BpsB because of its functional relatedness to BpsA. In vitro analysis with histidine-tagged BpsA revealed that it used broad starter substrates and produced not only triketide pyrones but also tetraketide pyrones and alkylresorcinols. Although the aliphatic polyketides were expected to localize in the membrane and play some role in modulating the rigidity and properties of the membrane, no detectable phenotypic changes were observed for a B. subtilis mutant containing a whole deletion of the bpsA-bpsB operon.

  19. Phosphatidylethanolamine Domains and Localization of Phospholipid Synthases in Bacillus subtilis Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nishibori, Ayako; Kusaka, Jin; Hara, Hiroshi; Umeda, Masato; Matsumoto, Kouji

    2005-01-01

    Application of the cardiolipin (CL)-specific fluorescent dye 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange has recently revealed CL-rich domains in the septal regions and at the poles of the Bacillus subtilis membrane (F. Kawai, M. Shoda, R. Harashima, Y. Sadaie, H. Hara, and K. Matsumoto, J. Bacteriol. 186:1475-1483, 2004). This finding prompted us to examine the localization of another phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), with the cyclic peptide probe, Ro09-0198 (Ro), that binds specifically to PE. Treatment with biotinylated Ro followed by tetramethyl rhodamine-conjugated streptavidin revealed that PE is localized in the septal membranes of vegetative cells and in the membranes of the polar septum and the engulfment membranes of sporulating cells. When the mutant cells of the strains SDB01 (psd1::neo) and SDB02 (pssA10::spc), which both lack PE, were examined under the same conditions, no fluorescence was observed. The localization of the fluorescence thus evidently reflected the localization of PE-rich domains in the septal membranes. Similar PE-rich domains were observed in the septal regions of the cells of many Bacillus species. In Escherichia coli cells, however, no PE-rich domains were found. Green fluorescent protein fusions to the enzymes that catalyze the committed steps in PE synthesis, phosphatidylserine synthase, and in CL synthesis, CL synthase and phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase, were localized mainly in the septal membranes in B. subtilis cells. The majority of the lipid synthases were also localized in the septal membranes; this includes 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, diacylglycerol kinase, glucolipid synthase, and lysylphosphatidylglycerol synthase. These results suggest that phospholipids are produced mostly in the septal membranes and that CL and PE are kept from diffusing out to lateral ones. PMID:15743965

  20. Identification of Functions Affecting Predator-Prey Interactions between Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susanne; Strack, Sarah N; Ryan, Sarah E; Shawgo, Mary; Walling, Abigail; Harris, Susanna; Chambers, Chris; Boddicker, Jennifer; Kirby, John R

    2016-12-15

    Soil bacteria engage each other in competitive and cooperative ways to determine their microenvironments. In this study, we report the identification of a large number of genes required for Myxococcus xanthus to engage Bacillus subtilis in a predator-prey relationship. We generated and tested over 6,000 individual transposon insertion mutants of M. xanthus and found many new factors required to promote efficient predation, including the specialized metabolite myxoprincomide, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter permease, and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus encoding bacterial immunity. We also identified genes known to be involved in predation, including those required for the production of exopolysaccharides and type IV pilus (T4P)-dependent motility, as well as chemosensory and two-component systems. Furthermore, deletion of these genes confirmed their role during predation. Overall, M. xanthus predation appears to be a multifactorial process, with multiple determinants enhancing predation capacity. Soil bacteria engage each other in complex environments and utilize multiple traits to ensure survival. Here, we report the identification of multiple traits that enable a common soil organism, Myxococcus xanthus, to prey upon and utilize nutrients from another common soil organism, Bacillus subtilis We mutagenized the predator and carried out a screen to identify genes that were required to either enhance or diminish capacity to consume prey. We identified dozens of genes encoding factors that contribute to the overall repertoire for the predator to successfully engage its prey in the natural environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Optimizing iron supplement strategies for enhanced surfactin production with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Wang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2004-01-01

    Supplement of Fe(2+) into fermentation medium was utilized as a tool to optimize the iron-mediated enhancement of surfactin production from Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. Up to 3000 mg L(-)(1) of surfactin was produced using an iron-enriched minimal salt (MS) medium amended with an optimal Fe(2+) dosage of 4.0 mM, leading to 8-fold and 10-fold increase in cell concentration and surfactin yield, respectively, as compared to those without Fe(2+) supplement. In addition to resulting in an optimal production yield of surfactin, a supplement of 4.0 mM of Fe(2+) also propelled maximum overall surfactin production rate to a highest value of 24 mg L(-)(1) h(-)(1). Our results also show that production of surfactin followed a growth-associated kinetic model. The best yield coefficient estimated from the model was ca. 162 mg surfactin (g dry cell)(-)(1). The supernatant of the iron-enriched culture of B. subtilis ATCC 21332 exhibited the ability to emulsify kerosene and achieved a maximum emulsion index (E(24)) of 80% for culture supplemented with 4.0 mM of Fe(2+). Comparison of emulsion index and the corresponding surfactin production indicates that the emulsification activity was essentially contributed by surfactin.

  2. Regulation of histidine and proline degradation enzymes by amino acid availability in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, M R; Wray, L V; Fisher, S H

    1990-09-01

    The first enzymes of the histidine (hut) and proline degradative pathways, histidase and proline oxidase, could not be induced in Bacillus subtilis cells growing in glucose minimal medium containing a mixture of 16 amino acids. Addition of the 16-amino-acid mixture to induced wild-type cells growing in citrate minimal medium repressed histidase synthesis 25- to 250-fold and proline oxidase synthesis 16-fold. A strain containing a transcriptional fusion of the hut promoter to the beta-galactosidase gene was isolated from a library of Tn917-lacZ transpositions. Examination of histidase and beta-galactosidase expression in extracts of a hut-lacZ fusion strain grown in various media showed that induction, catabolite repression, and amino acid repression of the hut operon were mediated at the level of transcription. This result was confirmed by measurement of the steady-state level of hut RNA in cells grown in various media. Since amino acid repression was not defective in B. subtilis mutants deficient in nitrogen regulation of glutamine synthetase and catabolite repression, amino acid repression appears to be mediated by a system that functions independently of these regulatory systems.

  3. Stable and high energy generation by a strain of Bacillus subtilis in a microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Pan, Kuan-Yeu; Liu, Hung-Tsan; Chen, Jia-Lia

    In this study, the Gram-positive aerobic bacterium Bacillus subtilis has for the first time been employed in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). A glucose-fed MFC with M9 minimal medium in the anode chamber was operated for 3 months, establishing a highly active MFC using filtered M9 medium as the catholyte, carbon cloth as the anode and a 20% platinum electrode as the cathode. The bioelectrical responses of the MFC were characterized by the circuit potential, measured at an average value of 370 mV. A potential of 115 mV appeared to characterize the maximum power produced from a polarization test was 1.05 mW cm -2 at a resistance of 0.56 kΩ. In situ cyclic voltammograms with and without biofilm anodes were performed in the growth phase and showed that redox metabolites were produced, which varied with physiological status. Voltammograms obtained from a comparative study of broth, supernatant and resuspended bacterial cells revealed that the electrochemical activity in the anode chamber arose from the redox compounds in the supernatant. The results show that the microorganism B. subtilis is electrochemically active and that the electron transfer mechanism is mainly due to the excreted redox compounds (mediator) in the broth solution and not to the membrane-bound proteins.

  4. Synthesis of oxaloacetate in Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S H; Magasanik, B

    1984-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex required aspartate for growth at wild-type rates on carbon sources for which synthesis of the degradative enzymes is sensitive to catabolite repression (e.g., poor carbon sources), but did not require aspartate for growth on carbon sources which exert catabolite repression (e.g., good carbon sources). Measurement of metabolite pools in a mutant lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase active complex showed that the aspartate requirement for growth on poor carbon sources resulted from a deficiency in intracellular oxaloacetate pools even through pyruvate carboxylase was present at levels corresponding to those in wild-type cells. The oxaloacetate deficiency most likely resulted from the inability of the mutant to regenerate oxaloacetate from citrate due to the enzymatic block in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mutants in the enzymes of the dicarboxylic acid half of the citric acid cycle similarly required aspartate for wild-type growth in minimal medium. These results suggested that the complete turning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is involved in the maintainance of oxaloacetate levels in B. subtilis. The ability of the mutants lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex to grow at wild-type rates on media containing good carbon sources in the absence of exogenous aspartate is not understood.

  5. Delivery of Chicken Egg Ovalbumin to Dendritic Cells by Listeriolysin O-Secreting Vegetative Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Roeske, Katarzyna; Stachowiak, Radoslaw; Jagielski, Tomasz; Kamiński, Michal; Bielecki, Jacek

    2018-01-28

    Listeriolysin O (LLO), one of the most immunogenic proteins of Listeria monocytogenes and its main virulence factor, mediates bacterial escape from the phagosome of the infected cell. Thus, its expression in a nonpathogenic bacterial host may enable effective delivery of heterologous antigens to the host cell cytosol and lead to their processing predominantly through the cytosolic MHC class I presentation pathway. The aim of this project was to characterize the delivery of a model antigen, chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), to the cytosol of dendritic cells by recombinant Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells expressing LLO. Our work indicated that LLO produced by non-sporulating vegetative bacteria was able to support OVA epitope presentation by MHC I molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells and consequently influence OVA-specific cytotoxic T cell activation. Additionally, it was proven that the genetic context of the epitope sequence is of great importance, as only the native full-sequence OVA fused to the N-terminal fragment of LLO was sufficient for effective epitope delivery and activation of CD8⁺ lymphocytes. These results demonstrate the necessity for further verification of the fusion antigen potency of enhancing the MHC I presentation, and they prove that LLO-producing B. subtilis may represent a novel and attractive candidate for a vaccine vector.

  6. Plant Growth Promotion by Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hafiz A. S.; Gu, Qin; Wu, Huijun; Raza, Waseem; Hanif, Alwina; Wu, Liming; Colman, Massawe V.; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted. VOCs emitted by SYST2 were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Of 11 VOCs tested in glass jars containing plants in test tubes, only two, albuterol and 1,3-propanediole, were found to promote plant growth. Furthermore, tomato plants showed differential expression of genes involved in auxin (SlIAA1. SlIAA3), gibberellin (GA20ox-1), cytokinin (SlCKX1), expansin (Exp2, Exp9. Exp 18), and ethylene (ACO1) biosynthesis or metabolism in roots and leaves in response to B. subtilis SYST2 VOCs. Our findings suggest that SYST2-derived VOCs promote plant growth by triggering growth hormone activity, and provide new insights into the mechanism of plant growth promotion by bacterial VOCs. PMID:28223976

  7. Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing ZnO on growth of Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Esmailzadeh, Hakimeh; Sangpour, Parvaneh; Shahraz, Farzaneh; Hejazi, Jalal; Khaksar, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened new windows in active food packaging. Nano-sized ZnO is an inexpensive material with potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) containing ZnO nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by facil molten salt method and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite films containing 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. The growth of both microorganisms has decreased in the presence of ZnO containing nanocomposites compared with controls. Nanocomposites with 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles had stronger antibacterial effect against both bacteria in comparison with the 2 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites. B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposite films compared with E. aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. There were no significant differences between the migration of Zn ions from 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites and the released Zn ions were not significantly increased in both groups after 14 days compared with the first. Regarding the considerable antibacterial effects of ZnO nanoparticles, their application in active food packaging can be a suitable solution for extending the shelf life of food. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Gláucia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m(-1), indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL(-1)). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm(-2). However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05).

  9. Biological Activities of a Mixture of Biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and Alkaline Lipase from Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Quadros, Cedenir; Cristina Teixeira Duarte, Marta; Maria Pastore, Gláucia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial effects of a mixture of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis and an alkaline lipase from Fusarium oxysporum (AL/BS mix) on several types of microorganisms, as well as their abilities to remove Listeria innocua ATCC 33093 biofilm from stainless steel coupons. The AL/BS mix had a surface tension of around 30 mN.m-1, indicating that the presence of alkaline lipase did not interfere in the surface activity properties of the tensoactive component. The antimicrobial activity of the AL/BS mix was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) micro-assays. Among all the tested organisms, the presence of the mixture only affected the growth of B. subtilis CCT 2576, B. cereus ATCC 10876 and L. innocua. The most sensitive microorganism was B. cereus (MIC 0.013 mg.mL-1). In addition, the effect of the sanitizer against L. innocua attached to stainless steel coupons was determined by plate count after vortexing. The results showed that the presence of the AL/BS mix improved the removal of adhered cells relative to treatment done without the sanitizer, reducing the count of viable cells by 1.72 log CFU.cm-2. However, there was no significant difference between the sanitizers tested and an SDS detergent standard (p<0.05). PMID:24031642

  10. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis using corn steep liquor as culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Fernandes, Elisabete C.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Teixeira, José A.; Rodrigues, Lígia R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis #573 was evaluated using corn steep liquor (CSL) as culture medium. The best results were obtained in a culture medium consisting of 10% (v/v) of CSL, with a biosurfactant production of about 1.3 g/l. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing biosurfactant production by B. subtilis using CSL as culture medium. Subsequently, the effect of different metals (iron, manganese, and magnesium) on biosurfactant production was evaluated using the medium CSL 10%. It was found that for all the metals tested, the biosurfactant production was increased (up to 4.1, 4.4, and 3.5 g/l for iron, manganese, and magnesium, respectively). When the culture medium was supplemented with the optimum concentration of the three metals simultaneously, the biosurfactant production was increased up to 4.8 g/l. Furthermore, the biosurfactant exhibited a good performance in oil recovery assays when compared with chemical surfactants, which suggests its possible application in microbial enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25705209

  11. SubtiList: the reference database for the Bacillus subtilis genome.

    PubMed

    Moszer, Ivan; Jones, Louis M; Moreira, Sandrine; Fabry, Cécilia; Danchin, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    SubtiList is the reference database dedicated to the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168, the paradigm of Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria. Developed in the framework of the B.subtilis genome project, SubtiList provides a curated dataset of DNA and protein sequences, combined with the relevant annotations and functional assignments. Information about gene functions and products is continuously updated by linking relevant bibliographic references. Recently, sequence corrections arising from both systematic verifications and submissions by individual scientists were included in the reference genome sequence. SubtiList is based on a generic relational data schema and a World Wide Web interface developed for the handling of bacterial genomes, called GenoList. The World Wide Web interface was designed to allow users to easily browse through genome data and retrieve information according to common biological queries. SubtiList also provides more elaborate tools, such as pattern searching, which are tightly connected to the overall browsing system. SubtiList is accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/SubtiList/. Similar bacterial databases are accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/.

  12. Synthesis of oxaloacetate in Bacillus subtilis mutants lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, S H; Magasanik, B

    1984-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex required aspartate for growth at wild-type rates on carbon sources for which synthesis of the degradative enzymes is sensitive to catabolite repression (e.g., poor carbon sources), but did not require aspartate for growth on carbon sources which exert catabolite repression (e.g., good carbon sources). Measurement of metabolite pools in a mutant lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase active complex showed that the aspartate requirement for growth on poor carbon sources resulted from a deficiency in intracellular oxaloacetate pools even through pyruvate carboxylase was present at levels corresponding to those in wild-type cells. The oxaloacetate deficiency most likely resulted from the inability of the mutant to regenerate oxaloacetate from citrate due to the enzymatic block in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mutants in the enzymes of the dicarboxylic acid half of the citric acid cycle similarly required aspartate for wild-type growth in minimal medium. These results suggested that the complete turning of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is involved in the maintainance of oxaloacetate levels in B. subtilis. The ability of the mutants lacking the 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex to grow at wild-type rates on media containing good carbon sources in the absence of exogenous aspartate is not understood. PMID:6425269

  13. Structure of the Bacillus subtilis 70S ribosome reveals the basis for species-specific stalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohmen, Daniel; Chiba, Shinobu; Shimokawa-Chiba, Naomi; Innis, C. Axel; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Ito, Koreaki; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal stalling is used to regulate gene expression and can occur in a species-specific manner. Stalling during translation of the MifM leader peptide regulates expression of the downstream membrane protein biogenesis factor YidC2 (YqjG) in Bacillus subtilis, but not in Escherichia coli. In the absence of structures of Gram-positive bacterial ribosomes, a molecular basis for species-specific stalling has remained unclear. Here we present the structure of a Gram-positive B. subtilis MifM-stalled 70S ribosome at 3.5-3.9 Å, revealing a network of interactions between MifM and the ribosomal tunnel, which stabilize a non-productive conformation of the PTC that prevents aminoacyl-tRNA accommodation and thereby induces translational arrest. Complementary genetic analyses identify a single amino acid within ribosomal protein L22 that dictates the species specificity of the stalling event. Such insights expand our understanding of how the synergism between the ribosome and the nascent chain is utilized to modulate the translatome in a species-specific manner.

  14. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis V26 as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani on potato.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Dammak, Mouna; Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Hayfa; Daami-Remadi, Mejda; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the strain Bacillus subtilis V26, a local isolate from the Tunisian soil, to control potato black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The in vitro antifungal activity of V26 significantly inhibited R. solani growth compared to the untreated control. Microscopic observations revealed that V26 caused considerable morphological deformations of the fungal hyphae such as vacuolation, protoplast leakage and mycelia crack. The most effective control was achieved when strain V26 was applied 24h prior to inoculation (protective activity) in potato slices. The antagonistic bacterium V26 induced significant suppression of root canker and black scurf tuber colonization compared to untreated controls with a decrease in incidence disease of 63% and 81%, respectively, and promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions on potato plants. Therefore, B. subtilis V26 has a great potential to be commercialized as a biocontrol agent against R. solani on potato crops. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. An asymmetric structure of the Bacillus subtilis replication terminator protein in complex with DNA.

    PubMed

    Vivian, J P; Porter, C J; Wilce, J A; Wilce, M C J

    2007-07-13

    In Bacillus subtilis, the termination of DNA replication via polar fork arrest is effected by a specific protein:DNA complex formed between the replication terminator protein (RTP) and DNA terminator sites. We report the crystal structure of a replication terminator protein homologue (RTP.C110S) of B. subtilis in complex with the high affinity component of one of its cognate DNA termination sites, known as the TerI B-site, refined at 2.5 A resolution. The 21 bp RTP:DNA complex displays marked structural asymmetry in both the homodimeric protein and the DNA. This is in contrast to the previously reported complex formed with a symmetrical TerI B-site homologue. The induced asymmetry is consistent with the complex's solution properties as determined using NMR spectroscopy. Concomitant with this asymmetry is variation in the protein:DNA binding pattern for each of the subunits of the RTP homodimer. It is proposed that the asymmetric "wing" positions, as well as other asymmetrical features of the RTP:DNA complex, are critical for the cooperative binding that underlies the mechanism of polar fork arrest at the complete terminator site.

  16. Cellular responses of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to the Gram stain.

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, T J; Davies, J A

    1983-01-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were Gram stained with potassium trichloro(eta 2-ethylene)platinum(II) (TPt) in place of the usual KI-I2 mordant. This electron-dense probe allowed the staining mechanism to be followed and compared with cellular perturbations throughout the staining process. A crystal violet (CV)-TPt chemical complex was formed within the cell substance and at the cell surface of B. subtilis when the dye and Pt mordant were added. The ethanol decolorization step dissolved the precipitate from the cell surface, but the internal complex was retained by the cell wall and remained within the cell. This was not the case for E. coli; the ethanol decolorization step removed both surface-bound and cellular CV-TPt. During its removal, the outer membrane was sloughed off the cells until only the murein sacculus and plasma membrane remained. We suspect that the plasma membrane was also perturbed, but that it was retained within the cell by the murein sacculus. Occasionally, small holes within the murein and plasma membrane could be distinguished through which leaked CV-TPt and some cellular debris. Biochemical identification of distinct envelope markers confirmed the accuracy of these images. Images PMID:6195148

  17. Cellular responses of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to the Gram stain.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T J; Davies, J A

    1983-11-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were Gram stained with potassium trichloro(eta 2-ethylene)platinum(II) (TPt) in place of the usual KI-I2 mordant. This electron-dense probe allowed the staining mechanism to be followed and compared with cellular perturbations throughout the staining process. A crystal violet (CV)-TPt chemical complex was formed within the cell substance and at the cell surface of B. subtilis when the dye and Pt mordant were added. The ethanol decolorization step dissolved the precipitate from the cell surface, but the internal complex was retained by the cell wall and remained within the cell. This was not the case for E. coli; the ethanol decolorization step removed both surface-bound and cellular CV-TPt. During its removal, the outer membrane was sloughed off the cells until only the murein sacculus and plasma membrane remained. We suspect that the plasma membrane was also perturbed, but that it was retained within the cell by the murein sacculus. Occasionally, small holes within the murein and plasma membrane could be distinguished through which leaked CV-TPt and some cellular debris. Biochemical identification of distinct envelope markers confirmed the accuracy of these images.

  18. Biocontrol of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Samara; Siah, Ali; Coutte, François; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Randoux, Béatrice; Tisserant, Benoit; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Reignault, Philippe; Halama, Patrice

    2017-06-21

    Innovation toward ecofriendly plant protection products compatible with sustainable agriculture and healthy food is today strongly encouraged. Here, we assessed the biocontrol activity of three cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis (mycosubtilin, M; surfactin, S; fengycin, F) and two mixtures (M + S and M + S + F) on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici, the main pathogen on this crop. Foliar application of these biomolecules at a 100-mg L -1 concentration on the wheat cultivars Dinosor and Alixan, 2 days before fungal inoculation, provided significant reductions of disease severity. The best protection levels were recorded with the M-containing formulations (up to 82% disease reduction with M + S on Dinosor), while S and F treatments resulted in lower but significant disease reductions. In vitro and in planta investigations revealed that M-based formulations inhibit fungal growth, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 1.4 mg L -1 for both M and M + S and 4.5 mg L -1 for M + S + F, thus revealing that the observed efficacy of these products may rely mainly on antifungal property. By contrast, S and F had no direct activity on the pathogen, hence suggesting that these lipopeptides act on wheat against Z. tritici as resistance inducers rather than as biofungicides. This study highlighted the efficacy of several lipopeptides from B. subtilis to biocontrol Z. tritici through likely distinct and biomolecule-dependent modes of action.

  19. Intracellular serine protease of Bacillus subtilis: sequence homology with extracellular subtilisins.

    PubMed Central

    Strongin, A Y; Izotova, L S; Abramov, Z T; Gorodetsky, D I; Ermakova, L M; Baratova, L A; Belyanova, L P; Stepanov, V M

    1978-01-01

    Intracellular serine protease was isolated from stationary-grown Bacillus subtilis A-50 cells and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 31,000 +/- 1,000, with an isoelectric point of 4.3. Its amino acid composition is characteristically enriched in glutamic acid content, differing from that of extra-cellular subtilisins. The enzyme is completely inhibited with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Intracellular protease possesses negligible activity towards bovine serum albumin and hemoglobin, but has 5- to 20-fold higher specific activity against p-nitroanilides of benzyloxycarbonyl tripeptides than subtilisin BPN'. Esterolytic activity of the enzyme is also higher than that of subtilisin BPN'. The enzyme is sequence homologous with secretory subtilisins throughout 50 determined NH2-terminal residues, indicating the presence of duplicated structural genes for serine proteases in the B. subtilis genome. The occurrence of two homologous genes in the cell might accelerate the evolution of serine protease not only by the loosening of selective constrainst, but also by creation of sequence variants by means of intragenic recombination. Three molecular forms of intracellular protease were found, two of them with NH2-terminal glutamic acid and one minor form, three residues longer, with asparagine as NH2 terminus. These data indicate the possible presence of an enzyme precursor proteolytically modified during cell growth. Images PMID:25266

  20. Properties of a Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis EMD4 Isolated from Ganjang (Soy Sauce).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lee, Jae Yong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A Bacillus species, EMD4, with strong antibacterial activity was isolated from ganjang (soy sauce) and identified as B. subtilis. B. subtilis EMD4 strongly inhibited the growth of B. cereus ATCC14579 and B. thuringiensis ATCC33679. The antibacterial activity was stable at pH 3-9 but inactive at pH 10 and above. The activity was fully retained after 15 min at 80°C but reduced by 50% after 15 min at 90°C. The activity was completely destroyed by proteinase K and protease treatment, indicating its proteinaceous nature. The bacteriocin (BacEMD4) was partially purified from culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and QSepharose and Sephadex G-50 column chromatographies. The specific activity was increased from 769.2 AU/mg protein to 8,347.8 AU/mg protein and the final yield was 12.6%. The size of BacEMD4 was determined to be 3.5 kDa by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was similar with that of Subtilosin A. Nucleotide sequencing of the cloned gene confirmed that BacEMD4 was Subtilosin A. BacEMD4 showed bactericidal activity against B. cereus ATCC14579.

  1. Post-translational modification of ribosomally synthesized peptides by a radical SAM epimerase in Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Guillot, Alain; Ruffié, Pauline; Leprince, Jérôme; Berteau, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Ribosomally synthesized peptides are built out of L-amino acids, whereas D-amino acids are generally the hallmark of non-ribosomal synthetic processes. Here we show that the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to produce a novel type of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide that contains D-amino acids, and which we propose to call epipeptides. We demonstrate that a two [4Fe-4S]-cluster radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme converts L-amino acids into their D-counterparts by catalysing Cα-hydrogen-atom abstraction and using a critical cysteine residue as the hydrogen-atom donor. Unexpectedly, these D-amino acid residues proved to be essential for the activity of a peptide that induces the expression of LiaRS, a major component of the bacterial cell envelope stress-response system. Present in B. subtilis and in several members of the human microbiome, these epipeptides and radical SAM epimerases broaden the landscape of peptidyl structures accessible to living organisms.

  2. Study of the tensile properties of individual multicellular fibres generated by Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xuan; Zhao, Liang; Liang, Jiecun; Li, Xide; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Multicellular fibres formed by Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) are attracting interest because of their potential application as degradable biomaterials. However, mechanical properties of individual fibres remain unknown because of their small dimensions. Herein, a new approach is developed to investigate the tensile properties of individual fibres with an average diameter of 0.7 μm and a length range of 25.7-254.3 μm. Variations in the tensile strengths of fibres are found to be the result of variable interactions among pairs of microbial cells known as septa. Using Weibull weakest-link model to study this mechanical variability, we predict the length effect of the sample. Moreover, the mechanical properties of fibres are found to depend highly on relative humidity (RH), with a brittle-ductile transition occurring around RH = 45%. The elastic modulus is 5.8 GPa in the brittle state, while decreases to 62.2 MPa in the ductile state. The properties of fibres are investigated by using a spring model (RH < 45%) for its elastic behaviour, and the Kelvin-Voigt model (RH > 45%) for the time-dependent response. Loading-unloading experiments and numerical calculations demonstrate that necking instability comes from structural changes (septa) and viscoelasticity dominates the deformation of fibres at high RH.

  3. Nuclear Fraction of Bacillus subtilis as a Template for Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, S.; Whiteley, H. R.

    1968-01-01

    A “nuclear fraction” prepared from Bacillus subtilis was a more efficient template than purified deoxyribonucleic acid for the synthesis of ribonucleic acid by exogenously added ribonucleic acid polymerase isolated from B. subtilis. The initial rate of synthesis with the nuclear fraction was higher and synthesis continued for several hours, yielding an amount of ribonucleic acid greater than the amount of deoxyribonucleic acid used as the template. The product was heterogenous in size, with a large portion exceeding 23S. When purified deoxyribonucleic acid was the template, a more limited synthesis was observed with a predominantly 7S product. However, the ribonucleic acids produced in vitro from these templates were very similar to each other and to in vivo synthesized ribonucleic acid as determined by the competition of ribonucleic acid from whole cells in the annealing of in vitro synthesized ribonucleic acids to deoxyribonucleic acid. Treatment of the nuclear fraction with heat (60 C for 15 min) or trypsin reduced the capacity of the nuclear fraction to synthesize ribonucleic acid to the level observed with purified deoxyribonucleic acid. PMID:4296512

  4. Enhancement of a high efficient autoinducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis by promoter engineering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jintao; Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhongmei; Li, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhemin

    2016-11-01

    Quorum-sensing related promoter srfA (PsrfA) was used to construct autoinducible expression system for production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. PsrfA was prominent in the unique property of inducer-free activity that is closely correlated with cell density. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter protein, PsrfA was optimized by shortening its sequences and changing the nucleotides at the conserved regions of -35 -15 and -10 regions, obtaining a library of PsrfA derivatives varied in the strength of GFP production. Among all the promoter mutants, the strongest promoter P10 was selected and the strength in GFP expression was 150% higher than that of PsrfA. Heterologous protein of aminopeptidase and nattokinase could be overexpressed by P10, the activities of which were 360% and 50% higher than that of PsrfA, respectively. These results suggested that the enhanced promoter P10 could be used to develop autoinducible expression system for overexpression of heterologous proteins in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Levels of germination proteins in Bacillus subtilis dormant, superdormant, and germinating spores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Melville, Stephen B; Popham, David L

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endospores exhibit extreme resistance to most conditions that rapidly kill other life forms, remaining viable in this dormant state for centuries or longer. While the majority of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores germinate rapidly in response to nutrient germinants, a small subpopulation termed superdormant spores are resistant to germination, potentially evading antibiotic and/or decontamination strategies. In an effort to better understand the underlying mechanisms of superdormancy, membrane-associated proteins were isolated from populations of B. subtilis dormant, superdormant, and germinated spores, and the relative abundance of 11 germination-related proteins was determined using multiple-reaction-monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays. GerAC, GerKC, and GerD were significantly less abundant in the membrane fractions obtained from superdormant spores than those derived from dormant spores. The amounts of YpeB, GerD, PrkC, GerAC, and GerKC recovered in membrane fractions decreased significantly during germination. Lipoproteins, as a protein class, decreased during spore germination, while YpeB appeared to be specifically degraded. Some protein abundance differences between membrane fractions of dormant and superdormant spores resemble protein changes that take place during germination, suggesting that the superdormant spore isolation procedure may have resulted in early, non-committal germination-associated changes. In addition to low levels of germinant receptor proteins, a deficiency in the GerD lipoprotein may contribute to heterogeneity of spore germination rates. Understanding the reasons for superdormancy may allow for better spore decontamination procedures.

  6. Construction and Analysis of Two Genome-Scale Deletion Libraries for Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byoung-Mo; Kritikos, George; Farelli, Jeremiah D; Todor, Horia; Tong, Kenneth; Kimsey, Harvey; Wapinski, Ilan; Galardini, Marco; Cabal, Angelo; Peters, Jason M; Hachmann, Anna-Barbara; Rudner, David Z; Allen, Karen N; Typas, Athanasios; Gross, Carol A

    2017-03-22

    A systems-level understanding of Gram-positive bacteria is important from both an environmental and health perspective and is most easily obtained when high-quality, validated genomic resources are available. To this end, we constructed two ordered, barcoded, erythromycin-resistance- and kanamycin-resistance-marked single-gene deletion libraries of the Gram-positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. The libraries comprise 3,968 and 3,970 genes, respectively, and overlap in all but four genes. Using these libraries, we update the set of essential genes known for this organism, provide a comprehensive compendium of B. subtilis auxotrophic genes, and identify genes required for utilizing specific carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as those required for growth at low temperature. We report the identification of enzymes catalyzing several missing steps in amino acid biosynthesis. Finally, we describe a suite of high-throughput phenotyping methodologies and apply them to provide a genome-wide analysis of competence and sporulation. Altogether, we provide versatile resources for studying gene function and pathway and network architecture in Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Episodic Selection and the Maintenance of Competence and Natural Transformation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, P. J.; Dubnau, D.; Levin, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new hypothesis for the selective pressures responsible for maintaining natural competence and transformation. Our hypothesis is based in part on the observation that in Bacillus subtilis, where transformation is widespread, competence is associated with periods of nongrowth in otherwise growing populations. As postulated for the phenomenon of persistence, the short-term fitness cost associated with the production of transiently nongrowing bacteria can be compensated for and the capacity to produce these competent cells can be favored due to episodes where the population encounters conditions that kill dividing bacteria. With the aid of a mathematical model, we demonstrate that under realistic conditions this “episodic selection” for transiently nongrowing (persisting) bacteria can maintain competence for the uptake and expression of exogenous DNA transformation. We also show that these conditions for maintaining competence are dramatically augmented even by rare episodes where selection favors transformants. Using experimental populations of B. subtilis and antibiotic-mediated episodic selection, we test and provide support for the validity of the assumptions behind this model and the predictions generated from our analysis of its properties. We discuss the potential generality of episodic selection for the maintenance of competence in other naturally transforming species of bacteria and critically evaluate other hypotheses for the maintenance (and evolution) of competence and their relationship to this hypothesis. PMID:19189946

  8. Consolidated conversion of protein waste into biofuels and ammonia using Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwon-Young; Wernick, David G; Tat, Christine A; Liao, James C

    2014-05-01

    The non-recyclable use of nitrogen fertilizers in microbial production of fuels and chemicals remains environmentally detrimental. Conversion of protein wastes into biofuels and ammonia by engineering nitrogen flux in Escherichia coli has been demonstrated as a method to reclaim reduced-nitrogen and curb its environmental deposition. However, protein biomass requires a proteolysis process before it can be taken up and converted by any microbe. Here, we metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis to hydrolyze polypeptides through its secreted proteases and to convert amino acids into advanced biofuels and ammonia fertilizer. Redirection of B. subtilis metabolism for amino-acid conversion required inactivation of the branched-chain amino-acid (BCAA) global regulator CodY. Additionally, the lipoamide acyltransferase (bkdB) was deleted to prevent conversion of branched-chain 2-keto acids into their acyl-CoA derivatives. With these deletions and heterologous expression of a keto-acid decarboxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase, the final strain produced biofuels and ammonia from an amino-acid media with 18.9% and 46.6% of the maximum theoretical yield. The process was also demonstrated on several waste proteins. The results demonstrate the feasibility of direct microbial conversion of polypeptides into sustainable products. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Condensin promotes the juxtaposition of DNA flanking its loading site in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xindan; Le, Tung B.K.; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Dekker, Job; Laub, Michael T.; Rudner, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    SMC condensin complexes play a central role in compacting and resolving replicated chromosomes in virtually all organisms, yet how they accomplish this remains elusive. In Bacillus subtilis, condensin is loaded at centromeric parS sites, where it encircles DNA and individualizes newly replicated origins. Using chromosome conformation capture and cytological assays, we show that condensin recruitment to origin-proximal parS sites is required for the juxtaposition of the two chromosome arms. Recruitment to ectopic parS sites promotes alignment of large tracks of DNA flanking these sites. Importantly, insertion of parS sites on opposing arms indicates that these “zip-up” interactions only occur between adjacent DNA segments. Collectively, our data suggest that condensin resolves replicated origins by promoting the juxtaposition of DNA flanking parS sites, drawing sister origins in on themselves and away from each other. These results are consistent with a model in which condensin encircles the DNA flanking its loading site and then slides down, tethering the two arms together. Lengthwise condensation via loop extrusion could provide a generalizable mechanism by which condensin complexes act dynamically to individualize origins in B. subtilis and, when loaded along eukaryotic chromosomes, resolve them during mitosis. PMID:26253537

  10. Optimization of the production and characterization of milk clotting enzymes by Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Chen-Wei; Shih, Ing-Lung

    2013-12-01

    Suitable medium for production of milk clotting enzyme (MCE) by Bacillus subtilis (natto) Takahashi in submerged liquid-state fermentation was screened, the nutrient factors affecting MCE production was optimized by response surface methodology. The MCE production by B. subtilis (natto) Takahashi was increased significantly by 428% in the optimal medium developed. The MCE was filtered and concentrated by ultrafiltration. The retentate after tandem filtration carried out with the combined membranes of MWCO 50kDa and 5 kDa showed two major bands between 25kDa and 30kDa on SDS-PAGE, and the MCA and MCA/PA improved significantly in comparison with those in the initial broth. The crude enzyme thus obtained showed MCA and MCA/PA ratio of 48,000 SU/g and 6,400, which are commensurate with those (MCA 26,667 SU/g and MCA/PA 6,667) of the commercial rennet. It had optimal pH and temperature at pH 6 and 60°C, and showed excellent pH and thermal stability.

  11. Magnetic immobilization of Bacillus subtilis natto cells for menaquinone-7 fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Varma, Vikas; Yang, Shuyi; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Production of menaquinone-7 (MK-7) by Bacillus subtilis natto is associated with major drawbacks. To address the current challenges in MK-7 fermentation, studying the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can open up a new domain for intensified bioprocesses. This article introduces the new concept of application of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) as a pioneer tool for MK-7 process intensification. In this order, IONs with the average size of 11 nm were successfully fabricated and characterized for possible in situ removal of target substances from the fermentation media. The prepared particles were used for decoration and immobilization of B. subtilis natto cells. Presence of iron oxide nanoparticles significantly enhanced the MK-7 specific yield (15 %) as compared to the control samples. In addition, fabricated IONs showed a promising ability for in situ recovery of bacterial cells from the fermentation media with more than 95 % capture efficiency. Based on the results, IONs can be implemented successfully as a novel tool for MK-7 production. This study provides a considerable interest for industrial application of magnetic nanoparticles and their future role in designing an intensified biological process.

  12. A newly derived protein from Bacillus subtilis natto with both antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Omura, Kazunobu; Hitosugi, Masahito; Zhu, Xia; Ikeda, Masashi; Maeda, Hiroaki; Tokudome, Shogo

    2005-11-01

    Natto, steamed soybeans fermented by Bacillus subtilis natto, is a traditional Japanese food. We derived a purified protein layer, called NKCP as a trade mark, from B. subtilis natto fermentation. In the present study, we examined the fibrinolytic and antithrombotic effects of NKCP and identified its active component to clarify the fibrinolytic effect of NKCP observed in preliminary clinical trials previously. The active component of NKCP was identified as a 34-kilodalton protein designated bacillopeptidase F. NKCP showed direct degradation of artificial blood clot in saline. The protease activity, accounting for the fibrinolytic effect of NKCP, was examined with a chromogenic substrate for plasmin. Dose-dependent prolongations of both prothrombin time and active partial thromboplastin time were observed in rats with intra-duodenum administration of NKCP. Our in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that NKCP has both a fibrinolytic effect and an antithrombotic effect similar to heparin. Because NKCP is derived from food and has safety data demonstrated by previous animal experiments and preliminary clinical trials, NKCP is considered as safe for clinical use.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Physical Maps of Four Bacillus subtilis (natto) Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Dongru; Fujita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Yuko; Tanaka, Teruo; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hideyuki; Tomita, Masaru; Itaya, Mitsuhiro

    2004-01-01

    The complete SfiI and I-CeuI physical maps of four Bacillus subtilis (natto) strains, which were previously isolated as natto (fermented soybean) starters, were constructed to elucidate the genome structure. Not only the similarity in genome size and organization but also the microheterogeneity of the gene context was revealed. No large-scale genome rearrangements among the four strains were indicated by mapping of the genes, including 10 rRNA operons (rrn) and relevant genes required for natto production, to the loci corresponding to those of the B. subtilis strain Marburg 168. However, restriction fragment length polymorphism and the presence or absence of strain-specific DNA sequences, such as the prophages SPβ, skin element, and PBSX, as well as the insertion element IS4Bsu1, could be used to identify one of these strains as a Marburg type and the other three strains as natto types. The genome structure and gene heterogeneity were also consistent with the type of indigenous plasmids harbored by the strains. PMID:15466572

  14. Comparative analysis of physical maps of four Bacillus subtilis (natto) genomes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dongru; Fujita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Yuko; Tanaka, Teruo; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hideyuki; Tomita, Masaru; Itaya, Mitsuhiro

    2004-10-01

    The complete SfiI and I-CeuI physical maps of four Bacillus subtilis (natto) strains, which were previously isolated as natto (fermented soybean) starters, were constructed to elucidate the genome structure. Not only the similarity in genome size and organization but also the microheterogeneity of the gene context was revealed. No large-scale genome rearrangements among the four strains were indicated by mapping of the genes, including 10 rRNA operons (rrn) and relevant genes required for natto production, to the loci corresponding to those of the B. subtilis strain Marburg 168. However, restriction fragment length polymorphism and the presence or absence of strain-specific DNA sequences, such as the prophages SP beta, skin element, and PBSX, as well as the insertion element IS4Bsu1, could be used to identify one of these strains as a Marburg type and the other three strains as natto types. The genome structure and gene heterogeneity were also consistent with the type of indigenous plasmids harbored by the strains.

  15. Identification of two novel fibrinolytic enzymes from Bacillus subtilis QK02.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ju Ho; Yan, Jun Peng; Zhu, Lei; Qi, Yi Peng

    2004-01-01

    Two fibrinolytic enzymes (QK-1 and QK-2) purified from the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis QK02 culture broth had molecular masses of 42,000 Da and 28,000 Da, respectively. The first 20 amino acids of the N-terminal sequence are AQSVPYGISQ IKAPALHSQG. The deduced protein sequence and its restriction enzyme map of the enzyme QK-2 are different from those of other proteases. The enzyme QK-2 digested not only fibrin but also a subtilisin substrate, and PMSF inhibited its fibrinolytic and amidolytic activities completely; while QK-1 hydrolyzed fibrin and a plasmin substrate, and PMSF as well as aprotinin inhibited its fibrinolytic activity. These results indicated QK-1 was a plasmin-like serine protease and QK-2 a subtilisin family serine protease. Therefore, these enzymes were designated subtilisin QK. The sequence of a DNA fragment encoding subtilisin QK contained an open reading frame of 1149 base pairs encoding 106 amino acids for signal peptide and 257 amino acids for subtilisin QK, which is highly similar with that of a fibrinolytic enzyme, subtilisin NAT (identities 96.8%). Asp32, His64 and Ser221 in the amino acid sequence deduced from the QK gene are identical to the active site of nattokinase (NK) produced by B. subtilis natto.

  16. Heterologous expression of the Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Huo, Guicheng; Chen, Junliang; Liu, Fei; Yin, Jingyuan; Yang, Lijie; Ma, Xiaolong

    2010-05-30

    The major objective of the present study is to change the alanine production of Lactic acid bacteria by expression of Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), the gene that is not present in Lactic acid. B. subtilis AlaDH gene (ald) was cloned into a pGEX6p-1 and expressed in E. coli JM109. Its enzyme activity was 48.3U/mg at 30 degrees C and 45.2U/mg at 42 degrees C. This ald gene was then cloned into a vector pNZ8148 to generate a vector pNZ8148/ald. The same ald gene was placed downstream of the ldh promoter from Streptococcus thermophilus to generate pNZ273/ldhp/ald. The pNZ8148/ald and pNZ273/ldhp/ald were introduced separately in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. As a result of over-expressed ald, the production of alanine detected by HPLC in L. lactis NZ9000 carrying pNZ273/ldhp/ald reached 52mug/ml, an approximately 26-fold increase compared to the parent strain L. lactis NZ9000, but not in L. lactis NZ9000 carrying pNZ8148/ald. This study would help strain improvement to be used in dairy fermentation for developing healthy yogurts with sweet taste or other fermented dairy foods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. [Optimization of nutrient medium for cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].

    PubMed

    Tsarenko, I Iu; Roĭ, A A; Kudrish, I K

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient medium for cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 was optimized by the method of the orthogonal Latin rectangles. Optimum concentrations were investigated in the medium of carbon source (15.0 g/l of molasses), nitrogen (2.0 g/l of corn extract) and content of phosphorus-containing inorganic salts (0.4 g/l). When growing this strain in periodic conditions at 28 degrees C, the value of oxygen mass transport in the liquid (0.4-0.6 g O2/l per 1 h) and the initial number of cells of each bacterial species was 1 x 10(6) cells/ml. The numbers of bacteria reached the maximum after 24 hours of cultivation and corresponded to 1.3 x 10(10) cells/ml. Nutrient medium that was optimized can be recommended for cultivation of B.subtilis IMV V-7023 in production conditions. The paper is presented in Russian.

  18. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria. PMID:26343634

  19. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-08-26

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacte