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Sample records for aeruginosa lung infections

  1. Autophagy enhances bacterial clearance during P. aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Robert D; Shen, Ann; Rosen, Kirill; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among cystic fibrosis patients. Although P. aeruginosa is primarily considered an extacellular pathogen, recent reports have demonstrated that throughout the course of infection the bacterium acquires the ability to enter and reside within host cells. Normally intracellular pathogens are cleared through a process called autophagy which sequesters and degrades portions of the cytosol, including invading bacteria. However the role of autophagy in host defense against P. aeruginosa in vivo remains unknown. Understanding the role of autophagy during P. aeruginosa infection is of particular importance as mutations leading to cystic fibrosis have recently been shown to cause a blockade in the autophagy pathway, which could increase susceptibility to infection. Here we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa induces autophagy in mast cells, which have been recognized as sentinels in the host defense against bacterial infection. We further demonstrate that inhibition of autophagy through pharmacological means or protein knockdown inhibits clearance of intracellular P. aeruginosa in vitro, while pharmacologic induction of autophagy significantly increased bacterial clearance. Finally we find that pharmacological manipulation of autophagy in vivo effectively regulates bacterial clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lung. Together our results demonstrate that autophagy is required for an effective immune response against P. aeruginosa infection in vivo, and suggest that pharmacological interventions targeting the autophagy pathway could have considerable therapeutic potential in the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infection.

  2. Sphingoid long chain bases prevent lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Tavakoli Tabazavareh, Shaghayegh; Grassmé, Heike; Becker, Katrin Anne; Japtok, Lukasz; Steinmann, Jörg; Joseph, Tammar; Lang, Stephan; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Schuchman, Edward H; Lentsch, Alex B; Kleuser, Burkhard; Edwards, Michael J; Futerman, Anthony H; Gulbins, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, trauma, burn wound, or patients requiring ventilation are susceptible to severe pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Physiological innate defense mechanisms against this pathogen, and their alterations in lung diseases, are for the most part unknown. We now demonstrate a role for the sphingoid long chain base, sphingosine, in determining susceptibility to lung infection by P. aeruginosa. Tracheal and bronchial sphingosine levels were significantly reduced in tissues from cystic fibrosis patients and from cystic fibrosis mouse models due to reduced activity of acid ceramidase, which generates sphingosine from ceramide. Inhalation of mice with sphingosine, with a sphingosine analog, FTY720, or with acid ceramidase rescued susceptible mice from infection. Our data suggest that luminal sphingosine in tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells prevents pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in normal individuals, paving the way for novel therapeutic paradigms based on inhalation of acid ceramidase or of sphingoid long chain bases in lung infection. PMID:25085879

  3. Antiadhesive properties of glycoclusters against Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Boukerb, Amine M; Rousset, Audric; Galanos, Nicolas; Méar, Jean-Baptiste; Thépaut, Marion; Grandjean, Teddy; Gillon, Emilie; Cecioni, Samy; Abderrahmen, Claire; Faure, Karine; Redelberger, David; Kipnis, Eric; Dessein, Rodrigue; Havet, Stéphane; Darblade, Benoit; Matthews, Susan E; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Guéry, Benoit; Cournoyer, Benoit; Imberty, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien

    2014-12-26

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are a major cause of death in cystic fibrosis and hospitalized patients. Treating these infections is becoming difficult due to the emergence of conventional antimicrobial multiresistance. While monosaccharides have proved beneficial against such bacterial lung infection, the design of several multivalent glycosylated macromolecules has been shown to be also beneficial on biofilm dispersion. In this study, calix[4]arene-based glycoclusters functionalized with galactosides or fucosides have been synthesized. The characterization of their inhibitory properties on Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregation, biofilm formation, adhesion on epithelial cells, and destruction of alveolar tissues were performed. The antiadhesive properties of the designed glycoclusters were demonstrated through several in vitro bioassays. An in vivo mouse model of lung infection provided an almost complete protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the designed glycoclusters.

  4. Bioengineered lysozyme in combination therapies for Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, Karl E; Bement, Jenna L; Teneback, Charlotte C; Scanlon, Thomas C; Wargo, Matthew J; Leclair, Laurie W

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing urgency in the battle against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, and this public health crisis has created a desperate need for novel antimicrobial agents. Recombinant human lysozyme represents one interesting candidate for treating pulmonary infections, but the wild type enzyme is subject to electrostatic mediated inhibition by anionic biopolymers that accumulate in the infected lung. We have redesigned lysozyme’s electrostatic potential field, creating a genetically engineered variant that is less susceptible to polyanion inhibition, yet retains potent bactericidal activity. A recent publication demonstrated that the engineered enzyme outperforms wild type lysozyme in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Here, we expand upon our initial studies and consider dual therapies that combine lysozymes with an antimicrobial peptide. Consistent with our earlier results, the charge modified lysozyme combination outperformed its wild type counterpart, yielding more than an order-of-magnitude reduction in bacterial burden following treatment with a single dose. PMID:24637705

  5. Role of Interleukin-17 in defense against pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in lungs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xilin; Shao, Bing; Wang, Ran; Zhou, Sijing; Tang, Zhongzhi; Lu, Weihua; Xiong, Shengdao

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause severe or even fatal infection in hosts with immunodeficiency. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a newly discovered pro-inflammatory cytokine, which promotes the recruitment and activation of neutrophils in the respiratory tract by inducing release of chemokine C-X-C. This study was conducted to explore the role of IL-17 in host defense against acute pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in lungs. The expression of IL-17 and its downstream effectors (IL-1β, MIP-2 and G-CSF) were detected in mouse lungs with acute pseudomonas aeruginosa infection; 48 h after intratracheal administration of justice plasmid, mice were infected with pseudomonas aeruginosa again, and the bacterial clearance rate and the expression of downstream effectors of IL-17, as well as the mice death rate, were determined 6 h later. The expression of IL-17 and its downstream effectors (IL-1β, MIP-2 and G-CSF) significantly increased in mouse lungs with acute pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. After intratracheal administration of justice plasmid expressing IL-17, the expression of IL-17 and its downstream effectors significantly increased, accompanied by increase in neutrophil count. The justice plasmid expressing IL-17 was intratracheally administered before acute pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, which significantly increased the expression of IL-17 and its downstream effectors (IL-1β, MIP-2 and G-CSF) in the respiratory tract, leading to increasing clearance rate of bacteria and survival rate. IL-17 may recruit neutrophil to the infected areas in the early phase of pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

  6. Lung Microbiota Changes Associated with Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection and the Impact of Intravenous Colistimethate Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Collie, David; Glendinning, Laura; Govan, John; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth; Tennant, Peter; Doherty, Catherine; McLachlan, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Background Exacerbations associated with chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major contributor to morbidity, mortality and premature death in cystic fibrosis. Such exacerbations are treated with antibiotics, which generally lead to an improvement in lung function and reduced sputum P. aeruginosa density. This potentially suggests a role for the latter in the pathogenesis of exacerbations. However, other data suggesting that changes in P. aeruginosa sputum culture status may not reliably predict an improvement in clinical status, and data indicating no significant changes in either total bacterial counts or in P. aeruginosa numbers in sputum samples collected prior to pulmonary exacerbation sheds doubt on this assumption. We used our recently developed lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep to investigate the lung microbiota changes associated with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection and the impact of systemic therapy with colistimethate sodium (CMS). Methodology/Principal Findings We collected protected specimen brush (PSB) samples from sheep (n = 8) both prior to and 14 days after establishment of chronic local lung infection with P aeruginosa. Samples were taken from both directly infected lung segments (direct) and segments spatially remote to such sites (remote). Four sheep were treated with daily intravenous injections of CMS between days 7 and 14, and four were treated with a placebo. Necropsy examination at d14 confirmed the presence of chronic local lung infection and lung pathology in every direct lung segment. The predominant orders in lung microbiota communities before infection were Bacillales, Actinomycetales and Clostridiales. While lung microbiota samples were more likely to share similarities with other samples derived from the same lung, considerable within- and between-animal heterogeneity could be appreciated. Pseudomonadales joined the aforementioned list of predominant orders in lung microbiota

  7. Role of small colony variants in persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis lungs

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that predominates during the later stages of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections. Over many years of chronic lung colonization, P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive adaptation to the lung environment, evolving both toward a persistent, low virulence state and simultaneously diversifying to produce a number of phenotypically distinct morphs. These lung-adapted P. aeruginosa strains include the small colony variants (SCVs), small, autoaggregative isolates that show enhanced biofilm formation, strong attachment to surfaces, and increased production of exopolysaccharides. Their appearance in the sputum of CF patients correlates with increased resistance to antibiotics, poor lung function, and prolonged persistence of infection, increasing their relevance as a subject for clinical investigation. The evolution of SCVs in the CF lung is associated with overproduction of the ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP, with increased cyclic-di-GMP levels shown to be responsible for the SCV phenotype in a number of different CF lung isolates. Here, we review the current state of research in clinical P. aeruginosa SCVs. We will discuss the phenotypic characteristics underpinning the SCV morphotype, the clinical implications of lung colonization with SCVs, and the molecular basis and clinical evolution of the SCV phenotype in the CF lung environment. PMID:26251621

  8. Interleukin-17 Is Required for Control of Chronic Lung Infection Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bayes, Hannah K.; Ritchie, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic lung diseases. Cytokines of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) family have been proposed as important in the host response to P. aeruginosa infection through their role in augmenting antibacterial immune responses, although their proinflammatory effect may contribute to lung damage that occurs as a result of chronic infection. We set out to explore the role of IL-17 in the host response to chronic P. aeruginosa infection. We used a murine model of chronic pulmonary infection with CF-related strains of P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that IL-17 cytokine signaling is essential for mouse survival and prevention of chronic infection at 2 weeks postinoculation using two different P. aeruginosa strains. Following infection, there was a marked expansion of cells within mediastinal lymph nodes, comprised mainly of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs); ∼90% of IL-17-producing (IL-17+) cells had markers consistent with group 3 ILCs. A smaller percentage of IL-17+ cells had markers consistent with a B1 phenotype. In lung homogenates harvested 14 days following infection, there was a significant expansion of IL-17+ cells; about 50% of these were CD3+, split equally between CD4+ Th17 cells and γδ T cells, while the CD3− IL-17+ cells were almost exclusively group 3 ILCs. Further experiments with B cell-deficient mice showed that B cell production of IL-17 or natural antibodies did not provide any defense against chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Thus, IL-17 rather than antibody is a key element in host defense against chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa. PMID:27698020

  9. Loss of social behaviours in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin; Diggle, Stephen P; Scanlan, Pauline D; Ghoul, Melanie; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Santorelli, Lorenzo A; Popat, Roman; West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as the result of adaptation to the lung environment. Typically, chronic strains carry mutations in global regulation factors that could effect reduced expression of social traits, raising the possibility that competitive dynamics between cooperative and selfish, cheating strains could also drive changes in P. aeruginosa infections. We compared the expression of cooperative traits - biofilm formation, secretion of exo-products and quorum sensing (QS) - in P. aeruginosa isolates that were estimated to have spent different lengths of time in the lung based on clinical information. All three exo-products involved in nutrient acquisition were produced in significantly smaller quantities with increased duration of infection, and patterns across four QS signal molecules were consistent with accumulation over time of mutations in lasR, which are known to disrupt the ability of cells to respond to QS signal. Pyocyanin production, and the proportion of cells in biofilm relative to motile, free-living cells in liquid culture, did not change. Overall, our results confirm that the loss of social behaviour is a consistent trend with time spent in the lung and suggest that social dynamics are potentially relevant to understanding the behaviour of P. aeruginosa in lung infections.

  10. Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin; Diggle, Stephen P.; Scanlan, Pauline D.; Ghoul, Melanie; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Santorelli, Lorenzo A.; Popat, Roman; West, Stuart A.; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as the result of adaptation to the lung environment. Typically, chronic strains carry mutations in global regulation factors that could effect reduced expression of social traits, raising the possibility that competitive dynamics between cooperative and selfish, cheating strains could also drive changes in P. aeruginosa infections. We compared the expression of cooperative traits - biofilm formation, secretion of exo-products and quorum sensing (QS) - in P. aeruginosa isolates that were estimated to have spent different lengths of time in the lung based on clinical information. All three exo-products involved in nutrient acquisition were produced in significantly smaller quantities with increased duration of infection, and patterns across four QS signal molecules were consistent with accumulation over time of mutations in lasR, which are known to disrupt the ability of cells to respond to QS signal. Pyocyanin production, and the proportion of cells in biofilm relative to motile, free-living cells in liquid culture, did not change. Overall, our results confirm that the loss of social behaviour is a consistent trend with time spent in the lung and suggest that social dynamics are potentially relevant to understanding the behaviour of P. aeruginosa in lung infections. PMID:24454693

  11. IL-17A attracts inflammatory cells in murine lung infection with P. aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wonnenberg, Bodo; Jungnickel, Christopher; Honecker, Anja; Wolf, Lisa; Voss, Meike; Bischoff, Markus; Tschernig, Thomas; Herr, Christian; Bals, Robert; Beisswenger, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    IL-17A-dependent immunity is of importance in the protection against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However, IL-17A is also suggested to mediate the pathogenesis of lung diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we studied the role of IL-17A in a mouse model of acute pneumonia. IL-17A mediated the expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and the recruitment of inflammatory cells in mice infected with a sub-lethal dose of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IL-17A deficiency protected mice from lethal P. aeruginosa lung infection. A sub-lethal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae resulted in increased bacterial burden associated with increased pulmonary inflammation. Thus, the type of infectious bacteria seemed to influence the way in which IL-17A functions during pulmonary infection. Reducing pulmonary inflammation by targeting IL-17A may be a therapeutic option in acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia.

  12. Novel Mouse Model of Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection Mimicking Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Jensen, PeterØstrup; Stub, Charlotte; Hentzer, Morten; Molin, Søren; Ciofu, Oana; Givskov, Michael; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a chronic infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by establishing an alginate-containing biofilm. The infection has been studied in several animal models; however, most of the models required artificial embedding of the bacteria. We present here a new pulmonary mouse model without artificial embedding. The model is based on a stable mucoid CF sputum isolate (NH57388A) with hyperproduction of alginate due to a deletion in mucA and functional N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum-sensing systems. Chronic lung infection could be established in both CF mice (CftrtmlUnc−/−) and BALB/c mice, as reflected by the detection of a high number of P. aeruginosa organisms in the lung homogenates at 7 days postinfection and alginate biofilms, surrounded by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the alveoli. In comparison, both an AHL-producing nonmucoid revertant (NH57388C) from the mucoid isolate (NH57388A) and a nonmucoid isolate (NH57388B) deficient in AHL were almost cleared from the lungs of the mice. This model, in which P. aeruginosa is protected against the defense system of the lung by alginate, is similar to the clinical situation. Therefore, the mouse model provides an improved method for evaluating the interaction between mucoid P. aeruginosa, the host, and antibacterial therapy. PMID:15784597

  13. High frequency of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung infection.

    PubMed

    Oliver, A; Cantón, R; Campo, P; Baquero, F; Blázquez, J

    2000-05-19

    The lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are chronically infected for years by one or a few lineages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These bacterial populations adapt to the highly compartmentalized and anatomically deteriorating lung environment of CF patients, as well as to the challenges of the immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. These selective conditions are precisely those that recent theoretical studies predict for the evolution of mechanisms that augment the rate of variation. Determination of spontaneous mutation rates in 128 P. aeruginosa isolates from 30 CF patients revealed that 36% of the patients were colonized by a hypermutable (mutator) strain that persisted for years in most patients. Mutator strains were not found in 75 non-CF patients acutely infected with P. aeruginosa. This investigation also reveals a link between high mutation rates in vivo and the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  14. In situ growth rates and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations in chronic lung infections.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Haagensen, Janus A J; Jelsbak, Lars; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Sternberg, Claus; Høiby, Niels; Molin, Søren

    2008-04-01

    The growth dynamics of bacterial pathogens within infected hosts are a fundamental but poorly understood feature of most infections. We have focused on the in situ distribution and growth characteristics of two prevailing and transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones that have caused chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for more than 20 years. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) directly on sputum specimens to examine the spatial distribution of the infecting P. aeruginosa cells. Mucoid variants were present in sputum as cell clusters surrounded by an extracellular matrix, whereas nonmucoid variants were present mainly as dispersed cells. To obtain estimates of the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs, we used quantitative FISH to indirectly measure growth rates of bacteria in sputum samples (reflecting the in vivo lung conditions). The concentration of rRNA in bacteria isolated from sputa was measured and correlated with the rRNA contents of the same bacteria growing in vitro at defined rates. The results showed that most cells were actively growing with doubling times of between 100 and 200 min, with some growing even faster. Only a small stationary-phase subpopulation seemed to be present in sputa. This was found for both mucoid and nonmucoid variants despite their different organizations in sputum. The results suggest that the bacterial population may be confronted with selection forces that favor optimized growth activities. This scenario constitutes a new perspective on the adaptation and evolution of P. aeruginosa during chronic infections in CF patients in particular and on long-term infections in general.

  15. Intrinsic and environmental mutagenesis drive diversification and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic lung infections.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Oliver, Antonio; Blázquez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen causing a wide variety of hospital-acquired acute infections in immunocompromised patients as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or other chronic respiratory diseases. Several traits contribute to its ability to colonize and persist in the lungs of chronically infected patients, including development of high resistance to antimicrobials and hypermutability, biofilm growth, and alginate hyperproduction, or a customized pathogenicity, which may include the loss of classical virulence factors and metabolic changes. Here we argue that a combination of both intrinsic and environmental mutagenesis leads to a high number of mutant variants in the population. The conducive environment then triggers a positive feedback loop leading to adaptation and persistence of P. aeruginosa, rendering these chronic infections almost impossible to eradicate.

  16. Quorum Sensing and Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Lung Infection of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Phipps, Richard; Nielsen, Anne Kirstine; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant microorganism in chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients. The chronic lung infection is preceded by intermittent colonization. When the chronic infection becomes established, it is well accepted that the isolated strains differ phenotypically from the intermittent strains. Dominating changes are the switch to mucoidity (alginate overproduction) and loss of epigenetic regulation of virulence such as the Quorum Sensing (QS). To elucidate the dynamics of P. aeruginosa QS systems during long term infection of the CF lung, we have investigated 238 isolates obtained from 152 CF patients at different stages of infection ranging from intermittent to late chronic. Isolates were characterized with regard to QS signal molecules, alginate, rhamnolipid and elastase production and mutant frequency. The genetic basis for change in QS regulation were investigated and identified by sequence analysis of lasR, rhlR, lasI and rhlI. The first QS system to be lost was the one encoded by las system 12 years (median value) after the onset of the lung infection with subsequent loss of the rhl encoded system after 17 years (median value) shown as deficiencies in production of the 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL QS signal molecules respectively. The concomitant development of QS malfunction significantly correlated with the reduced production of rhamnolipids and elastase and with the occurrence of mutations in the regulatory genes lasR and rhlR. Accumulation of mutations in both lasR and rhlR correlated with development of hypermutability. Interestingly, a higher number of mucoid isolates were found to produce C4-HSL signal molecules and rhamnolipids compared to the non-mucoid isolates. As seen from the present data, we can conclude that P. aeruginosa and particularly the mucoid strains do not lose the QS regulation or the ability to produce rhamnolipids until the late stage of the chronic infection. PMID:20404933

  17. A murine model of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung disease with transition to chronic infection

    PubMed Central

    Bayes, H. K.; Ritchie, N.; Irvine, S.; Evans, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) remains an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease as well as non-CF bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive airways disease. Initial infections are cleared but chronic infection with mucoid strains ensues in the majority of CF patients and specific interventions to prevent this critical infection transition are lacking. The PA bead model has been widely used to study pulmonary P.aeruginosa infection but has limitations in animal husbandry and in accurately mimicking human disease. We have developed an adapted agar bead murine model using a clinical mucoid strain that demonstrates the key features of transition from transitory to chronic airways infection. Infected animals show very limited acute morbidity and mortality, but undergo infection-related weight loss and neutrophilic inflammation, development of anti-pseudomonal antibodies, variable bacterial clearance, endobronchial infection and microbial adaptation with PA small colony variants. We anticipate this model will allow research into the host and microbial factors governing this critical period in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary pathogenesis when transition to chronicity is occurring. PMID:27804985

  18. Molybdate transporter ModABC is important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection.

    PubMed

    Périnet, Simone; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Ouellet, Myriam M; Charette, Steve J; Levesque, Roger C

    2016-01-12

    Mechanisms underlying the success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are poorly defined. The modA gene was previously linked to in vivo competitiveness of P. aeruginosa by a genetic screening in the rat lung. This gene encodes a subunit of transporter ModABC, which is responsible for extracellular uptake of molybdate. This compound is essential for molybdoenzymes, including nitrate reductases. Since anaerobic growth conditions are known to occur during CF chronic lung infection, inactivation of a molybdate transporter could inhibit proliferation through the inactivation of denitrification enzymes. Hence, we performed phenotypic characterization of a modA mutant strain obtained by signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM_modA) and assessed its virulence in vivo with two host models. The STM_modA mutant was in fact defective for anaerobic growth and unable to use nitrates in the growth medium for anaerobic respiration. Bacterial growth and nitrate usage were restored when the medium was supplemented with molybdate. Most significantly, the mutant strain showed reduced virulence compared to wild-type strain PAO1 according to a competitive index in the rat model of chronic lung infection and a predation assay with Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae. As the latter took place in aerobic conditions, the in vivo impact of the mutation in modA appears to extend beyond its effect on anaerobic growth. These results support the modABC-encoded transporter as important for the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, and suggest that enzymatic machinery implicated in anaerobic growth during chronic lung infection in CF merits further investigation as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Aerosol treatment with MNEI suppresses bacterial proliferation in a model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Woods, Donald E; Cantin, André; Cooley, Jessica; Kenney, Dianne M; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2005-02-01

    Neutrophil elastase is present at high levels in airway fluid of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and is responsible for considerable inflammatory damage. Human monocyte/neutrophil elastase inhibitor (MNEI), a 42-kDa serpin protein, is an effective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3, related proteases released from inflammatory neutrophils. We hypothesized that recombinant MNEI would reduce inflammatory damage and enhance bacterial clearance from the lung in an animal model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. In vitro studies showed that MNEI causes dose-dependent inhibition of the activity of rat neutrophil elastase. Recombinant MNEI was administered daily by aerosolization to rats previously inoculated with agar beads containing P. aeruginosa to initiate chronic infection. Administered MNEI was partially recovered in lavage fluid of treated rats as a 66-kDa complex with protease indicative of in vivo inhibition of elastase or a related protease. Aerosol treatment with MNEI significantly decreased the extent of inflammatory injury, quantified as the histopathology score. MNEI, which had no bactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa in vitro, significantly enhanced clearance of bacteria from infected rat lungs. The reduction of histopathology scores and enhancement of bacterial killing were evident 6 hr after a single aerosol treatment with MNEI. These findings indicate an important function of MNEI in protecting innate antimicrobial defense. Similar results were previously obtained for aerosolized prolastin (alpha1-antitrypsin), indicating that enhanced bacterial clearance by MNEI is due to inhibition of neutrophil protease. These findings demonstrate the value of this nonantibiotic protease inhibitor as an adjunct for the treatment and prevention of the infection component of CF lung disease.

  20. Flagellin induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells: implications for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Rieber, Nikolaus; Brand, Alina; Hector, Andreas; Graepler-Mainka, Ute; Ost, Michael; Schäfer, Iris; Wecker, Irene; Neri, Davide; Wirth, Andreas; Mays, Lauren; Zundel, Sabine; Fuchs, Jörg; Handgretinger, Rupert; Stern, Martin; Hogardt, Michael; Döring, Gerd; Riethmüller, Joachim; Kormann, Michael; Hartl, Dominik

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa persists in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and drives CF lung disease progression. P. aeruginosa potently activates the innate immune system, mainly mediated through pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as flagellin. However, the host is unable to eradicate this flagellated bacterium efficiently. The underlying immunological mechanisms are incompletely understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells generated in cancer and proinflammatory microenvironments and are capable of suppressing T cell responses. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa induces MDSCs to escape T cell immunity. In this article, we demonstrate that granulocytic MDSCs accumulate in CF patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa and correlate with CF lung disease activity. Flagellated P. aeruginosa culture supernatants induced the generation of MDSCs, an effect that was 1) dose-dependently mimicked by purified flagellin protein, 2) significantly reduced using flagellin-deficient P. aeruginosa bacteria, and 3) corresponded to TLR5 expression on MDSCs in vitro and in vivo. Both purified flagellin and flagellated P. aeruginosa induced an MDSC phenotype distinct from that of the previously described MDSC-inducing cytokine GM-CSF, characterized by an upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on the surface of MDSCs. Functionally, P. aeruginosa-infected CF patient ex vivo-isolated as well as flagellin or P. aeruginosa in vitro-generated MDSCs efficiently suppressed polyclonal T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and modulated Th17 responses. These studies demonstrate that flagellin induces the generation of MDSCs and suggest that P. aeruginosa uses this mechanism to undermine T cell-mediated host defense in CF and other P. aeruginosa-associated chronic lung diseases.

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PrrF Small RNAs Regulate Iron Homeostasis during Acute Murine Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Alexandria A; Nguyen, Angela T; Brewer, Luke K; Bevere, Justin; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Damron, F Heath; Barbier, Mariette; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2017-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that requires iron for virulence. Iron homeostasis is maintained in part by the PrrF1 and PrrF2 small RNAs (sRNAs), which block the expression of iron-containing proteins under iron-depleted conditions. The PrrF sRNAs also promote the production of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a quorum sensing molecule that activates the expression of several virulence genes. The tandem arrangement of the prrF genes allows for expression of a third sRNA, PrrH, which is predicted to regulate gene expression through its unique sequence derived from the prrF1-prrF2 intergenic (IG) sequence (the PrrHIG sequence). Previous studies showed that the prrF locus is required for acute lung infection. However, the individual functions of the PrrF and PrrH sRNAs were not determined. Here, we describe a system for differentiating PrrF and PrrH functions by deleting the PrrHIG sequence [prrF(ΔHIG)]. Our analyses of this construct indicate that the PrrF sRNAs, but not PrrH, are required for acute lung infection by P. aeruginosa Moreover, we show that the virulence defect of the ΔprrF1-prrF2 mutant is due to decreased bacterial burden during acute lung infection. In vivo analysis of gene expression in lung homogenates shows that PrrF-mediated regulation of genes for iron-containing proteins is disrupted in the ΔprrF1-prrF2 mutant during infection, while the expression of genes that mediate PrrF-regulated PQS production are not affected by prrF deletion in vivo Combined, these studies demonstrate that regulation of iron utilization plays a critical role in P. aeruginosa's ability to survive during infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. An ex vivo lung model to study bronchioles infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Diggle, Stephen P

    2016-10-01

    A key aim in microbiology is to determine the genetic and phenotypic bases of bacterial virulence, persistence and antimicrobial resistance in chronic biofilm infections. This requires tractable, high-throughput models that reflect the physical and chemical environment encountered in specific infection contexts. Such models will increase the predictive power of microbiological experiments and provide platforms for enhanced testing of novel antibacterial or antivirulence therapies. We present an optimized ex vivo model of cystic fibrosis lung infection: ex vivo culture of pig bronchiolar tissue in artificial cystic fibrosis mucus. We focus on the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show highly repeatable and specific formation of biofilms that resemble clinical biofilms by a commonly studied laboratory strain and ten cystic fibrosis isolates of this key opportunistic pathogen.

  3. The neutrophil serine protease inhibitor serpinb1 preserves lung defense functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Benarafa, Charaf; Priebe, Gregory P; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2007-08-06

    Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs; elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3) directly kill invading microbes. However, excess NSPs in the lungs play a central role in the pathology of inflammatory pulmonary disease. We show that serpinb1, an efficient inhibitor of the three NSPs, preserves cell and molecular components responsible for host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. On infection, wild-type (WT) and serpinb1-deficient mice mount similar early responses, including robust production of cytokines and chemokines, recruitment of neutrophils, and initial containment of bacteria. However, serpinb1(-/-) mice have considerably increased mortality relative to WT mice in association with late-onset failed bacterial clearance. We found that serpinb1-deficient neutrophils recruited to the lungs have an intrinsic defect in survival accompanied by release of neutrophil protease activity, sustained inflammatory cytokine production, and proteolysis of the collectin surfactant protein-D (SP-D). Coadministration of recombinant SERPINB1 with the P. aeruginosa inoculum normalized bacterial clearance in serpinb1(-/-) mice. Thus, regulation of pulmonary innate immunity by serpinb1 is nonredundant and is required to protect two key components, the neutrophil and SP-D, from NSP damage during the host response to infection.

  4. The neutrophil serine protease inhibitor serpinb1 preserves lung defense functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Benarafa, Charaf; Priebe, Gregory P.; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs; elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3) directly kill invading microbes. However, excess NSPs in the lungs play a central role in the pathology of inflammatory pulmonary disease. We show that serpinb1, an efficient inhibitor of the three NSPs, preserves cell and molecular components responsible for host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. On infection, wild-type (WT) and serpinb1-deficient mice mount similar early responses, including robust production of cytokines and chemokines, recruitment of neutrophils, and initial containment of bacteria. However, serpinb1−/− mice have considerably increased mortality relative to WT mice in association with late-onset failed bacterial clearance. We found that serpinb1-deficient neutrophils recruited to the lungs have an intrinsic defect in survival accompanied by release of neutrophil protease activity, sustained inflammatory cytokine production, and proteolysis of the collectin surfactant protein–D (SP-D). Coadministration of recombinant SERPINB1 with the P. aeruginosa inoculum normalized bacterial clearance in serpinb1−/− mice. Thus, regulation of pulmonary innate immunity by serpinb1 is nonredundant and is required to protect two key components, the neutrophil and SP-D, from NSP damage during the host response to infection. PMID:17664292

  5. Aerosolized bovine lactoferrin reduces neutrophils and pro-inflammatory cytokines in mouse models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Piera; Frioni, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; De Fino, Ida; Cutone, Antimo; Rosa, Luigi; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Berlutti, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-chelating glycoprotein of innate immunity, produced by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites, is one of the most abundant defence molecules in airway secretions. Lf, a pleiotropic molecule, exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory functions. These properties may play a relevant role in airway infections characterized by exaggerated inflammatory response, as in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. To verify the Lf role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, we evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized bovine Lf (bLf) in mouse models of P. aeruginosa acute and chronic lung infections. C57BL/6NCrl mice were challenged with 10(6) CFUs of P. aeruginosa PAO1 (acute infection) or MDR-RP73 strain (chronic infection) by intra-tracheal administration. In both acute and chronic infections, aerosolized bLf resulted in nonsignificant reduction of bacterial load but significant decrease of the neutrophil recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Moreover, in chronic infection the bLf-treated mice recovered body weight faster and to a higher extent than the control mice. These findings add new insights into the benefits of bLf as a mediator of general health and its potential therapeutic applications.

  6. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host–pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    MOSER, CLAUS; VAN GENNIP, MARIA; BJARNSHOLT, THOMAS; JENSEN, PETER ØSTRUP; LEE, BAOLERI; HOUGEN, HANS PETTER; CALUM, HENRIK; CIOFU, OANA; GIVSKOV, MICHAEL; MOLIN, SØREN; HØIBY, NIELS

    2009-01-01

    The dominant cause of premature death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes significant genetic changes, resulting in diversifying geno- and phenotypes. Such an adaptation may generate different host responses. To experimentally reflect the year-long chronic lung infection in CF, groups of BALB/c mice were infected with clonal isolates from different periods (1980, 1988, 1997, 1999 and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). In contrast, the mucoid clones were more virulent and virulence increased with time, resulting in impaired pulmonary clearing of the latest clone, severe inflammation and increased pulmonary MIP-2 and G-CSF production. In conclusion, adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF is reflected by changed ability to establish lung infection and results in distinct host responses to mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes. PMID:19239431

  7. Effect of aquo-alchoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Mice Lung Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Srivastava, Pranay; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of lung infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that are classified as multi-drug resistant has increased considerably and is mainly attributed to relative insufficiency of potent chemotherapeutic modalities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against the P. aeruginosa causing lung infection in Swiss albino mice. The study involves evaluation of lethal dose of P. aeruginosa in Swiss albino mice and analysis of disease manifestation that includes bacteremia, hypothermia, reduction in body weight and other parameters for 48h of infection. Physical manifestations of infected mice showed a significant decline in body temperature that is 29±0.57°C (at 48th h) from 38.81±0.33°C (0h) and 30% weight loss was observed at the end of the study. Further the efficacy of G. glabra extract against lung infection induced with the calculated lethal dose was evaluated by employing bacteremia, histopathology and radiological analysis. Bacterial burden showed that 2.30±0.02 Log10CFU/mL at day 7, a significant decline in the bacterial load as compared to day 1 when the bacterial burden was found to be 3.32±0.1 Log10CFU/mL. Histopathological results showed more diffuse and patchy accumulation of inflammatory cells within the alveolar space also the infiltrates were noted in all the lung section of infected mice. In treated animal group improved lung histology was seen with the exudates were less seen in D1 dose (20mg/kg) and disappeared in D2 dose (80mg/kg). The study clearly declares that the G. glabra extract is effective against lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa at dose of 80mg/kg. The LCMS results revealed that the extract contains Glycyrrhizin, Stigmasterol and Ergosterol, Licochalcone and Glabridin. The current study expected to further exploit the biomedical properties of this extract in the preparation of a potent regimen against such threatening pathogen

  8. Inhaled diesel engine emissions reduce bacterial clearance and exacerbate lung disease to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Kevin S; Jaramillo, Richard J; Berger, Jennifer A; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Seilkop, Steven K; Reed, Matthew D

    2005-01-01

    Despite experimental evidence supporting an adverse role for air pollution in models of human disease, little has been done in the way of assessing the health effects of inhalation of whole mixtures from defined sources at exposure levels relevant to ambient environmental exposures. The current study assessed the impact of inhaled diesel engine emissions (DEE) in modulating clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) and the adverse effects of infection to the pulmonary epithelium. At DEE concentrations representing from high ambient to high occupational exposures, mice were exposed to DEE continuously for one week or six months (6 h/day), and subsequently infected with P.a. by intratracheal instillation. At 18 h following P.a. infection, prior exposure to DEE impaired bacterial clearance and exacerbated lung histopathology during infection. To assess the airway epithelial cell changes indicative of lung pathogenesis, markers of specific lung epithelial cell populations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Both ciliated and non-ciliated airway epithelial cell numbers were decreased during P.a. infection by DEE exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the lung transcription regulator, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), was also decreased during P.a. infection by prior exposure to DEE concordant with changes in airway populations. These findings are consistent with the notion that environmental levels of DEE can decrease the clearance of P.a. and increase lung pathogenesis during pulmonary bacterial infection.

  9. Innate immune responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Elise G.; Wangdi, Tamding; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune responses play a critical role in controlling acute infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both mice and in humans. In this review we focus on innate immune recognition and clearance mechanisms that are important for controlling P. aeruginosa in the mammalian lung, with particular attention to those that influence the outcome of in vivo infection in murine models. PMID:21839853

  10. Secretory IgA response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the upper airways and the link with chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Renan M; Rossi, Claudio L; Aiello, Talita B; Ribeiro, José D; Ribeiro, Antônio F; Høiby, Niels; Levy, Carlos E

    2017-08-31

    We assessed the diagnostic ability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for measurement of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva to identify cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection and intermittent lung colonization. A total of 102 Brazilian CF patients and 53 healthy controls were included. Specific serum IgG response was used as a surrogate to distinguish CF patients according to their P. aeruginosa colonization/infection status. The rate of sIgA positivity was 87.1% in CF chronically infected patients (median value = 181.5 U/mL), 48.7% in intermittently colonized patients (median value = 45.8 U/mL) and 21.8% in free of infection patients (median value = 22.1 U/mL). sIgA levels in saliva were significantly associated with serum P. aeruginosa IgG and microbiological culture results. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for differentiation between presence and absence of chronic lung infection were 87%, 63%, 51% and 92%, respectively. Measurement of sIgA in saliva may be used for screening patients in risk of developing P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection in CF and possibly also for paranasal sinusitis, and, most importantly, to efficiently rule out chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm is cured by L-Methionine in combination with antibiotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Elango, Monalisha; Datey, Akshay; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with 80–90% of infections. Within the biofilm, bacteria are refractile to antibiotics, requiring concentrations >1,000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration. Proteins, carbohydrates and DNA are the major components of biofilm matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilms, which are majorly associated with chronic lung infection, contain extracellular DNA (eDNA) as a major component. Herein, we report for the first time that L-Methionine (L-Met) at 0.5 μM inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm formation and disassembles established PA biofilm by inducing DNase expression. Four DNase genes (sbcB, endA, eddB and recJ) were highly up-regulated upon L-Met treatment along with increased DNase activity in the culture supernatant. Since eDNA plays a major role in establishing and maintaining the PA biofilm, DNase activity is effective in disrupting the biofilm. Upon treatment with L-Met, the otherwise recalcitrant PA biofilm now shows susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. This was reflected in vivo, in the murine chronic PA lung infection model. Mice treated with L-Met responded better to antibiotic treatment, leading to enhanced survival as compared to mice treated with ciprofloxacin alone. These results clearly demonstrate that L-Met can be used along with antibiotic as an effective therapeutic against chronic PA biofilm infection. PMID:26521707

  12. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Pulmonary Delivery of Colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Mouse Lung Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Zhou, Qi Tony; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Zhao, Jinxin; Chen, Ke; Wang, Jiping; Chan, Hak-Kim; Li, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Colistin is often administered by inhalation and/or the parenteral route for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data are available to guide the optimization of dosage regimens of inhaled colistin. In the present study, PK of colistin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma was determined following intratracheal delivery of a single dose of colistin solution in neutropenic lung-infected mice. The antimicrobial efficacy of intratracheal delivery of colistin against three P. aeruginosa strains (ATCC 27853, PAO1, and FADDI-PA022; MIC of 1 mg/liter for all strains) was examined in a neutropenic mouse lung infection model. Dose fractionation studies were conducted over 2.64 to 23.8 mg/kg of body weight/day. The inhibitory sigmoid model was employed to determine the PK/PD index that best described the antimicrobial efficacy of pulmonary delivery of colistin. In both ELF and plasma, the ratio of the area under the unbound concentration-time profile to MIC (fAUC/MIC) was the PK/PD index that best described the antimicrobial effect in mouse lung infection (R(2) = 0.60 to 0.84 for ELF and 0.64 to 0.83 for plasma). The fAUC/MIC targets required to achieve stasis against the three strains were 684 to 1,050 in ELF and 2.15 to 3.29 in plasma. The histopathological data showed that pulmonary delivery of colistin reduced infection-caused pulmonary inflammation and preserved the integrity of the lung epithelium, although colistin introduced mild pulmonary inflammation in healthy mice. This study showed pulmonary delivery of colistin provides antimicrobial effects against MDR P. aeruginosa lung infections superior to those of parenteral administrations. For the first time, our results provide important preclinical PK/PD information for optimization of inhaled colistin therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. The Pig: A Relevant Model for Evaluating the Neutrophil Serine Protease Activities during Acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bréa, Déborah; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Barc, Céline; Pezant, Jérémy; Melo, Sandrine; Olivier, Michel; Delaunay, Rémy; Boulesteix, Olivier; Berthon, Patricia; Rossignol, Christelle; Burlaud Gaillard, Julien; Becq, Frédéric; Gauthier, Francis; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Meurens, François; Berri, Mustapha; Caballero-Posadas, Ignacio; Attucci, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    The main features of lung infection and inflammation are a massive recruitment of neutrophils and the subsequent release of neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs). Anti-infectious and/or anti-inflammatory treatments must be tested on a suitable animal model. Mice models do not replicate several aspects of human lung disease. This is particularly true for cystic fibrosis (CF), which has led the scientific community to a search for new animal models. We have shown that mice are not appropriate for characterizing drugs targeting neutrophil-dependent inflammation and that pig neutrophils and their NSPs are similar to their human homologues. We induced acute neutrophilic inflammatory responses in pig lungs using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic respiratory pathogen. Blood samples, nasal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected at 0, 3, 6 and 24 h post-insfection (p.i.) and biochemical parameters, serum and BAL cytokines, bacterial cultures and neutrophil activity were evaluated. The release of proinflammatory mediators, biochemical and hematological blood parameters, cell recruitment and bronchial reactivity, peaked at 6h p.i.. We also used synthetic substrates specific for human neutrophil proteases to show that the activity of pig NSPs in BALFs increased. These proteases were also detected at the surface of lung neutrophils using anti-human NSP antibodies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung infection in pigs results in a neutrophilic response similar to that described for cystic fibrosis and ventilator-associated pneumonia in humans. Altogether, this indicates that the pig is an appropriate model for testing anti-infectious and/or anti-inflammatory drugs to combat adverse proteolytic effects of neutrophil in human lung diseases. PMID:27992534

  14. Instantaneous within-patient diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing populations from cystic fibrosis lung infections.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Cara N; Allada, Gopal; Schuster, Martin

    2009-12-01

    In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing (QS) regulates biofilm formation and expression of many extracellular virulence factors. Curiously, QS-deficient variants, often carrying mutations in the central QS regulator LasR, are frequently isolated from infections, particularly from cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections. Very little is known about the proportion and diversity of these QS variants in individual infections. Such information is desirable to better understand the selective forces that drive the evolution of QS phenotypes, including social cheating and innate (nonsocial) benefits. To obtain insight into the instantaneous within-patient diversity of QS, we assayed a panel of 135 concurrent P. aeruginosa isolates from eight different adult CF patients (9 to 20 isolates per patient) for various QS-controlled phenotypes. Most patients contained complex mixtures of QS-proficient and -deficient isolates. Among all patients, deficiency in individual phenotypes ranged from 0 to about 90%. Acyl-HSL, sequencing, and complementation analyses of variants with global loss-of-function phenotypes revealed dependency upon the central QS circuitry genes lasR, lasI, and rhlI. Deficient and proficient isolates were clonally related, implying evolution from a common ancestor in vivo. Our results show that the diversity of QS types is high within and among patients, suggesting diverse selection pressures in the CF lung. A single selective mechanism, be it of a social or nonsocial nature, is unlikely to account for such heterogeneity. The observed diversity also shows that conclusions about the properties of P. aeruginosa QS populations in individual CF infections cannot be drawn from the characterization of one or a few selected isolates.

  15. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonistic Antibody Promotes Host Defense against Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Naoki; Seki, Masafumi; Fukudome, Kenji; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to treat due to enhanced antibiotic resistance and decreased efficacy of drug delivery to destroyed lung tissue. To determine the potential for restorative immunomodulation therapies, we evaluated the effect of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) stimulation on the host immune response to Pseudomonas infection in mice. We implanted sterile plastic tubes precoated with P. aeruginosa in the bronchi of mice, administered the TLR4/MD2 agonistic monoclonal antibody UT12 intraperitoneally every week, and subsequently analyzed the numbers of viable bacteria and inflammatory cells and the levels of cytokines. We also performed flow cytometry-based phagocytosis and opsonophagocytic killing assays in vitro using UT12-treated murine peritoneal neutrophils. UT12-treated mice showed significantly enhanced bacterial clearance, increased numbers of Ly6G+ neutrophils, and increased concentrations of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs (P < 0.05). Depletion of CD4+ T cells eliminated the ability of the UT12 treatment to improve bacterial clearance and promote neutrophil recruitment and MIP-2 production. Additionally, UT12-pretreated peritoneal neutrophils exhibited increased opsonophagocytic killing activity via activation of the serine protease pathway, specifically neutrophil elastase activity, in a TLR4-dependent manner. These data indicated that UT12 administration significantly augmented the innate immune response against chronic bacterial infection, in part by promoting neutrophil recruitment and bactericidal function. PMID:27091927

  16. Robust detection of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus acute lung infections by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprinting: From initial infection to clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Jiménez-Díaz, Jaime; Bean, Heather D.; Dapthary, Nirav A.; Aliyeva, Minara I.; Lundblad, Lennart K. A.; Hill, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Before breath-based diagnostics for lung infections can be implemented in the clinic, it is necessary to understand how the breath volatiles change during the course of infection, and, ideally, to identify a core set of breath markers that can be used to identify the pathogen at any point during the infection. In the study presented here, we use secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) to characterize the breathprint of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus lung infections in a murine model over a period of 120 h, with a total of 86 mice in the study. Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to evaluate the time-course data, we were able to show that SESI-MS breathprinting can be used to robustly classify acute P. aeruginosa and S. aureus mouse lung infections at any time during the 120 h infection/clearance process. The variable importance plot from PLS indicates that multiple peaks from the SESI-MS breathprints are required for discriminating the bacterial infections. Therefore, by utilizing the entire breathprint rather than single biomarkers, infectious agents can be diagnosed by SESI-MS independent of when during the infection breath is tested. PMID:23867706

  17. A novel mouse model of conditional IRAK-M deficiency in myeloid cells: application in lung Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Di; Matsuda, Jennifer; Berman, Reena; Schaefer, Niccolette; Stevenson, Connor; Gross, James; Zhang, Bicheng; Sanchez, Amelia; Li, Liwu; Chu, Hong Wei

    2017-02-01

    Myeloid cells such as macrophages are critical to innate defense against infection. IL-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) is a negative regulator of TLR signaling during bacterial infection, but the role of myeloid cell IRAK-M in bacterial infection is unclear. Our goal was to generate a novel conditional knockout mouse model to define the role of myeloid cell IRAK-M during bacterial infection. Myeloid cell-specific IRAK-M knockout mice were generated by crossing IRAK-M floxed mice with LysM-Cre knock-in mice. The resulting LysM-Cre(+)/IRAK-M(fl/wt) and control (LysM-Cre(-)/IRAK-M(fl/wt)) mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). IRAK-M deletion, inflammation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and PA load were measured in leukocytes, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lungs. PA killing assay with BAL fluid was performed to determine mechanisms of IRAK-M-mediated host defense. IRAK-M mRNA and protein levels in alveolar and lung macrophages were significantly reduced in LysM-Cre(+)/IRAK-M(fl/wt) mice compared with control mice. Following PA infection, LysM-Cre(+)/IRAK-M(fl/wt) mice have enhanced lung neutrophilic inflammation, including MPO activity, but reduced PA load. The increased lung MPO activity in LysM-Cre(+)/IRAK-M(fl/wt) mouse BAL fluid reduced PA load. Generation of IRAK-M conditional knockout mice will enable investigators to determine precisely the function of IRAK-M in myeloid cells and other types of cells during infection and inflammation.

  18. Pectin- Derived Acidic Oligosaccharides Improve the Outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Henry; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Gottrand, Frédéric; Stahl, Bernd; Bartke, Nana; Husson, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    The administration of prebiotics as oligosaccharides (OS), by acting on intestinal microbiota, could modulate the immune and inflammatory response and represent a new strategy to improve the outcome of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) could modulate the outcome of pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection in C57BL/6 mice, which develop a Th1 response to PA lung infection. Mice were randomized for 5 weeks to consume a control or a 5% pAOS diet and chronically infected by PA. Resistance to a second PA infection was also analyzed by reinfecting the surviving mice 2 weeks after the first infection. Compared with control mice, mice fed pAOS had reduced mortality (P<0.05). This improvement correlated with a better control of the inflammatory response with a lower neutrophil count on day 1 (P<0.05), a sustained neutrophil and macrophage recruitment on days 2 and 3 (P<0.01) a greater and sustained IL-10 release in lung (P<0.05) and a reduction of the Th1 response and M1 activation with a lower IFN-γ/IL-4 (P<0.01) and nos2/arg1 (P<0.05) ratios. These results coincided with a modulation of the intestinal microbiota as shown by an increased butyric acid concentration in feces (P<0.05). Moreover, pAOS decreased the bacterial load (P<0.01) in mice reinfected 2 weeks after the first infection, suggesting that pAOS could reduce pulmonary exacerbations. In conclusion, pAOS improved the outcome of PA infection in C57BL/6 mice by modulating the intestinal microbiota and the inflammatory and immune responses. PMID:26599638

  19. Pectin-Derived Acidic Oligosaccharides Improve the Outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Henry; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Gottrand, Frédéric; Stahl, Bernd; Bartke, Nana; Husson, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    The administration of prebiotics as oligosaccharides (OS), by acting on intestinal microbiota, could modulate the immune and inflammatory response and represent a new strategy to improve the outcome of bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) could modulate the outcome of pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA) infection in C57BL/6 mice, which develop a Th1 response to PA lung infection. Mice were randomized for 5 weeks to consume a control or a 5% pAOS diet and chronically infected by PA. Resistance to a second PA infection was also analyzed by reinfecting the surviving mice 2 weeks after the first infection. Compared with control mice, mice fed pAOS had reduced mortality (P<0.05). This improvement correlated with a better control of the inflammatory response with a lower neutrophil count on day 1 (P<0.05), a sustained neutrophil and macrophage recruitment on days 2 and 3 (P<0.01) a greater and sustained IL-10 release in lung (P<0.05) and a reduction of the Th1 response and M1 activation with a lower IFN-γ/IL-4 (P<0.01) and nos2/arg1 (P<0.05) ratios. These results coincided with a modulation of the intestinal microbiota as shown by an increased butyric acid concentration in feces (P<0.05). Moreover, pAOS decreased the bacterial load (P<0.01) in mice reinfected 2 weeks after the first infection, suggesting that pAOS could reduce pulmonary exacerbations. In conclusion, pAOS improved the outcome of PA infection in C57BL/6 mice by modulating the intestinal microbiota and the inflammatory and immune responses.

  20. OligoG CF-5/20 Disruption of Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm in a Murine Lung Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhijun; Ciofu, Oana; Onsøyen, Edvar; Rye, Philip D.; Høiby, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm growth is a universal survival strategy for bacteria, providing an effective and resilient approach for survival in an otherwise hostile environment. In the context of an infection, a biofilm provides resistance and tolerance to host immune defenses and antibiotics, allowing the biofilm population to survive and thrive under conditions that would destroy their planktonic counterparts. Therefore, the disruption of the biofilm is a key step in eradicating persistent bacterial infections, as seen in many types of chronic disease. In these studies, we used both in vitro minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) assays and an in vivo model of chronic biofilm infection to demonstrate the biofilm-disrupting effects of an alginate oligomer, OligoG CF-5/20. Biofilm infections were established in mice by tracheal instillation of a mucoid clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate polymer beads. The disruption of the biofilm by OligoG CF-5/20 was observed in a dose-dependent manner over 24 h, with up to a 2.5-log reduction in CFU in the infected mouse lungs. Furthermore, in vitro assays showed that 5% OligoG CF-5/20 significantly reduced the MBEC for colistin from 512 μg/ml to 4 μg/ml after 8 h. These findings support the potential for OligoG CF-5/20 as a biofilm disruption agent which may have clinical value in reducing the microbial burden in chronic biofilm infections. PMID:26833153

  1. Azithromycin Blocks Quorum Sensing and Alginate Polymer Formation and Increases the Sensitivity to Serum and Stationary-Growth-Phase Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Attenuates Chronic P. aeruginosa Lung Infection in Cftr−/− Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Lee, Baoleri; Hentzer, Morten; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Song, Zhijun; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of O-acetylated alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are tolerance to both antibiotic treatments and effects on the innate and the adaptive defense mechanisms. In clinical trials, azithromycin (AZM) has been shown to improve the lung function of CF patients. The present study was conducted in accordance with previous in vitro studies suggesting that the effect of AZM may be the inhibition of alginate production, blockage of quorum sensing (QS), and increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and the complement system. Moreover, we show that AZM may affect the polymerization of P. aeruginosa alginate by the incomplete precipitation of polymerized alginate and high levels of readily dialyzable uronic acids. In addition, we find that mucoid bacteria in the stationary growth phase became sensitive to AZM, whereas cells in the exponential phase did not. Interestingly, AZM-treated P. aeruginosa lasI mutants appeared to be particularly resistant to serum, whereas bacteria with a functional QS system did not. We show in a CF mouse model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection that AZM treatment results in the suppression of QS-regulated virulence factors, significantly improves the clearance of P. aeruginosa alginate biofilms, and reduces the severity of the lung pathology compared to that in control mice. We conclude that AZM attenuates the virulence of P. aeruginosa, impairs its ability to form fully polymerized alginate biofilms, and increases its sensitivity to complement and stationary-phase killing, which may explain the clinical efficacy of AZM. PMID:17620382

  2. Mast cells protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Robert D; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Wu, Zhengli; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Cowley, Elizabeth; Issekutz, Thomas; Berman, Jason; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised individuals. Maintaining the integrity of the respiratory epithelium is critical for an effective host response to P. aeruginosa. Given the close spatial relationship between mast cells and the respiratory epithelium, and the importance of tightly regulated epithelial permeability during lung infections, we examined whether mast cells influence airway epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa lung infection in a mouse model. We found that mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice displayed greatly increased epithelial permeability, bacterial dissemination, and neutrophil accumulation compared with wild-type animals after P. aeruginosa infection; these defects were corrected on reconstitution with mast cells. An in vitro Transwell co-culture model further demonstrated that a secreted mast cell factor decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production after P. aeruginosa infection. Together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for mast cells in the maintenance of epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa infection, through a mechanism that likely involves prevention of epithelial apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production. Our understanding of mechanisms of the host response to P. aeruginosa will open new avenues for the development of successful preventative and treatment strategies.

  3. Simple Sequence Repeats Together with Mismatch Repair Deficiency Can Bias Mutagenic Pathways in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Chronic Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Alejandro J.; Feliziani, Sofía; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Smania, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and undergoes a process of genetic adaptation based on mutagenesis. We evaluated the role of mononucleotide G:C and A:T simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in this adaptive process. An in silico survey of the genome sequences of 7 P. aeruginosa strains showed that mononucleotide G:C SSRs but not A:T SSRs were greatly under-represented in coding regions, suggesting a strong counterselection process for G:C SSRs with lengths >5 bp but not for A:T SSRs. A meta-analysis of published whole genome sequence data for a P. aeruginosa strain from a CF patient with chronic airway infection showed that G:C SSRs but not A:T SSRs were frequently mutated during the infection process through the insertion or deletion of one or more SSR subunits. The mutation tendency of G:C SSRs was length-dependent and increased exponentially as a function of SSR length. When this strain naturally became a stable Mismatch Repair System (MRS)-deficient mutator, the degree of increase of G:C SSRs mutations (5-fold) was much higher than that of other types of mutation (2.2-fold or less). Sequence analysis of several mutated genes reported for two different collections, both containing mutator and non-mutator strains of P. aeruginosa from CF chronic infections, showed that the proportion of G:C SSR mutations was significantly higher in mutators than in non-mutators, whereas no such difference was observed for A:T SSR mutations. Our findings, taken together, provide genome-scale evidences that under a MRS-deficient background, long G:C SSRs are able to stochastically bias mutagenic pathways by making the genes in which they are harbored more prone to mutation. The combination of MRS deficiency and virulence-related genes that contain long G:C SSRs is therefore a matter of concern in P. aeruginosa CF chronic infection. PMID:24278287

  4. Genotypic and Phenotypic Variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Signatures of Secondary Infection and Mutator Activity in Certain Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Chronic Lung Infections ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ashley E.; Boulianne-Larsen, Carla M.; Chandler, Christine B.; Chiotti, Kami; Kroll, Evgueny; Miller, Scott R.; Taddei, Francois; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ferroni, Agnes; McInnerney, Kathleen; Franklin, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis lung is limited by genetic variation, which depends on rates of horizontal gene transfer and mutation supply. Because each may increase following secondary infection or mutator emergence, we sought to ascertain the incidence of secondary infection and genetic variability in populations containing or lacking mutators. Forty-nine strains collected over 3 years from 16 patients were phenotyped for antibiotic resistance and mutator status and were genotyped by repetitive-sequence PCR (rep-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Though phenotypic and genetic polymorphisms were widespread and clustered more strongly within than between longitudinal series, their distribution revealed instances of secondary infection. Sequence data, however, indicated that interlineage recombination predated initial strain isolation. Mutator series were more likely to be multiply antibiotic resistant, but not necessarily more variable in their nucleotide sequences, than nonmutators. One mutator and one nonmutator series were sequenced at mismatch repair loci and analyzed for gene content using DNA microarrays. Both were wild type with respect to mutL, but mutators carried an 8-bp mutS deletion causing a frameshift mutation. Both series lacked 126 genes encoding pilins, siderophores, and virulence factors whose inactivation has been linked to adaptation during chronic infection. Mutators exhibited loss of severalfold more genes having functions related to mobile elements, motility, and attachment. A 105-kb, 86-gene deletion was observed in one nonmutator that resulted in loss of virulence factors related to pyoverdine synthesis and elements of the multidrug efflux regulon. Diminished DNA repair activity may facilitate but not be absolutely required for rapid evolutionary change. PMID:21930755

  5. BIIL 284 reduces neutrophils numbers but increases P. aeruginosa bacteraemia and inflammation in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Gerd; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Paroni, Moira; Aktürk, Firdevs-Fatma; Cigana, Cristina; Schmidt, Annika; Gilpin, Deirdre; Heyder, Susanne; Born, Torsten; Smaczny, Christina; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Wagner, Thomas O. F.; Loebinger, Michael R.; Bilton, Diana; Tunney, Michael M.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Pier, Gerald B.; Konstan, Michael W.; Ulrich, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Background A clinical study to investigate the leukotriene B4 (LTB4)-receptor antagonist BIIL 284 in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was prematurely terminated due to a significantly increased risk of adverse pulmonary events. We aimed to establish the effect of BIIL284 in models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, thereby contributing to a better understanding of what could have led to adverse pulmonary events in CF patients. Methods P. aeruginosa DNA in the blood of CF patients during and after acute pulmonary exacerbations and in stable patients with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and healthy individuals was assessed by PCR. The effect of BIIL 284 treatment was tested in an agar beads murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Bacterial count and inflammation were evaluated in lung and other organs. Result Most CF patients (98%) and all patients with NCFB and healthy individuals had negative P. aeruginosa DNA in their blood. Similarly, the P. aeruginosa-infected mice showed bacterial counts in the lung but not blood or spleen. BIIL 284 treatment decreased pulmonary neutrophils and increased P. aeruginosa numbers in mouse lungs leading to significantly higher bacteremia rates and lung inflammation compared to placebo treated animals. Conclusions Decreased airway neutrophils induced lung proliferation and severe bacteraemia in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that caution should be taken when administering anti-inflammatory compounds to patients with bacterial infections. PMID:24183915

  6. BIIL 284 reduces neutrophil numbers but increases P. aeruginosa bacteremia and inflammation in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Döring, Gerd; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Paroni, Moira; Aktürk, Firdevs-Fatma; Cigana, Cristina; Schmidt, Annika; Gilpin, Deirdre; Heyder, Susanne; Born, Torsten; Smaczny, Christina; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Wagner, Thomas O F; Loebinger, Michael R; Bilton, Diana; Tunney, Michael M; Elborn, J Stuart; Pier, Gerald B; Konstan, Michael W; Ulrich, Martina

    2014-03-01

    A clinical study to investigate the leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-receptor antagonist BIIL 284 in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was prematurely terminated due to a significantly increased risk of adverse pulmonary events. We aimed to establish the effect of BIIL284 in models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, thereby contributing to a better understanding of what could have led to adverse pulmonary events in CF patients. P. aeruginosa DNA in the blood of CF patients during and after acute pulmonary exacerbations and in stable patients with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and healthy individuals was assessed by PCR. The effect of BIIL 284 treatment was tested in an agar bead murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. Bacterial count and inflammation were evaluated in lung and other organs. Most CF patients (98%) and all patients with NCFB and healthy individuals had negative P. aeruginosa DNA in their blood. Similarly, the P. aeruginosa-infected mice showed bacterial counts in the lung but not in the blood or spleen. BIIL 284 treatment decreased pulmonary neutrophils and increased P. aeruginosa numbers in mouse lungs leading to significantly higher bacteremia rates and lung inflammation compared to placebo treated animals. Decreased airway neutrophils induced lung proliferation and severe bacteremia in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that caution should be taken when administering anti-inflammatory compounds to patients with bacterial infections. © 2013.

  7. Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Restrict Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Ø.; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Trøstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F.; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  8. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Culture Extract from Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus Using a Rat Model of Chronic Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a key regulator of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microorganisms that inhabit soil are of strategic importance in the discovery of compounds with anti-QS properties. The objective of the study was to test the culture extract of a taxonomically novel species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI for its inhibitory effects on the QS-controlled virulence factors and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. The Paenibacillus sp. culture extract was used to test its anti-QS effects on the LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyoverdin production, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa as well as evaluate its therapeutic effects on lung bacteriology, pathology, hematological profile, and serum antibody responses of experimental animals in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Results showed significant decrease in the activities of QS-controlled LasA protease, LasB elastase pyoverdin, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa caused by the culture extract. Moreover, the extract significantly prolonged the survival times of rats and facilitated the clearance of biofilm infections from infected lungs. In conclusion, the antiquorum sensing effects of culture extract from a novel species of Paenibacillus provide new insights to combat biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26904749

  9. Prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is present in breast milk, spreads in tissues, and protects neonate mice from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Sébastien; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Hamon, Yveline; Beauvillain, Céline; Cotici, Viorica; Midiri, Angelina; Bottazzi, Barbara; Nebuloni, Manuela; Garlanda, Cecilia; Frémaux, Isabelle; Gauchat, Jean-François; Descamps, Philippe; Beninati, Concetta; Mantovani, Alberto; Jeannin, Pascale; Delneste, Yves

    2013-08-15

    Newborns and infants present a higher susceptibility to infection than adults, a vulnerability associated with deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Innate immune receptors are sensors involved in the recognition and elimination of microbes that play a pivotal role at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), the prototypic long pentraxin, is a soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in the initiation of protective responses against selected pathogens. Because neonates are generally resistant to these pathogens, we suspected that PTX3 may be provided by a maternal source during the early life times. We observed that human colostrum contains high levels of PTX3, and that mammary epithelial cell and CD11b(+) milk cells constitutively produce PTX3. Interestingly, PTX3 given orally to neonate mice was rapidly distributed in different organs, and PTX3 ingested during lactation was detected in neonates. Finally, we observed that orally administered PTX3 provided protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in neonate mice. Therefore, breastfeeding constitutes, during the early life times, an important source of PTX3, which actively participates in the protection of neonates against infections. In addition, these results suggest that PTX3 might represent a therapeutic tool for treating neonatal infections and support the view that breastfeeding has beneficial effects on the neonates' health.

  10. The effect of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa treatment on lung function in pediatric cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Reshma; Lam, Michelle; Dupuis, Annie; Ratjen, Felix

    2011-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of treatment of early infection of P. aeruginosa on pulmonary function in pediatric CF patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of P. aeruginosa negative CF patients followed at Sick Kids from 1990 to 2007. Early P. aeruginosa infection was defined as the first respiratory culture for P. aeruginosa; patients were included if 5 years of follow-up pulmonary function data were available. Patients were divided into three groups (group 1: never infected, group 2: infected with subsequent clearance, and group 3: chronic infection or still receiving antipseudomonal antibiotics). Hierarchical linear models were used to estimate the effect of P. aeruginosa infection on spirometry. FEV(1) % predicted was the primary outcome. 116 patients were included. Forty-six (40%) patients remained P. aeruginosa negative throughout the observation period, 29 (25%) patients transiently infected with P. aeruginosa, and 41 (35%) patients were either currently infected or still receiving treatment. Baseline lung function was the same for all groups. Annual decline in FEV(1) % predicted during the study period was not different (-0.6%/year for patients that were never infected and -1.3%/year among patients previously infected). Lung function was not different between patients with early P. aeruginosa infection and those that never had P. aeruginosa infection. However given the slow rate of FEV(1) decline in the study population, a longer observation period and/or more sensitive outcomes measures may be required to exclude long-term detrimental effects of transient P. aeruginosa infection on lung function in CF patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Tracking the immunopathological response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa during respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    Cigana, Cristina; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Riva, Camilla; De Fino, Ida; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Sipione, Barbara; Rossi, Giacomo; Nonis, Alessandro; Cabrini, Giulio; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Repeated cycles of infections, caused mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, combined with a robust host immune response and tissue injury, determine the course and outcome of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. As the disease progresses, P. aeruginosa adapts to the host modifying dramatically its phenotype; however, it remains unclear whether and how bacterial adaptive variants and their persistence influence the pathogenesis and disease development. Using in vitro and murine models of infection, we showed that P. aeruginosa CF-adaptive variants shaped the innate immune response favoring their persistence. Next, we refined a murine model of chronic pneumonia extending P. aeruginosa infection up to three months. In this model, including CFTR-deficient mice, we unveil that the P. aeruginosa persistence lead to CF hallmarks of airway remodelling and fibrosis, including epithelial hyperplasia and structure degeneration, goblet cell metaplasia, collagen deposition, elastin degradation and several additional markers of tissue damage. This murine model of P. aeruginosa chronic infection, reproducing CF lung pathology, will be instrumental to identify novel molecular targets and test newly tailored molecules inhibiting chronic inflammation and tissue damage processes in pre-clinical studies. PMID:26883959

  12. Interleukin-23-Mediated Inflammation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martz, Ashley; Eisenstatt, Jessica R.; Fox, Michael D.; Logar, Alison; Kolls, Jay K.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is capable of causing acute and chronic pulmonary infection in the immunocompromised host. In the case of cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic P. aeruginosa infection causes increased mortality by promoting overly exuberant airway inflammation and cumulative lung damage. Identifying the key regulators of this inflammation may lead to the development of new therapies that improve P. aeruginosa-related mortality. We report here that interleukin-23 (IL-23), the cytokine most clearly tied to IL-17-mediated inflammation, also promotes IL-17-independent inflammation during P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. During the early innate immune response, prior to IL-17 induction, IL-23 acts synergistically with IL-1β to promote early neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) recruitment. However, at later time points, IL-23 also promoted IL-17 production by lung γδ T cells, which was greatly augmented in the presence of IL-1β. These studies show that IL-23 controls two independent phases of neutrophil recruitment in response to P. aeruginosa infection: early PMN emigration that is IL-17 independent and later PMN emigration regulated by IL-17. PMID:22025517

  13. Role of Toll Interleukin-1 Receptor (IL-1R) 8, a Negative Regulator of IL-1R/Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, in Resistance to Acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Véliz Rodriguez, Tania; Moalli, Federica; Polentarutti, Nadia; Paroni, Moira; Bonavita, Eduardo; Anselmo, Achille; Nebuloni, Manuela; Mantero, Stefano; Jaillon, Sébastien; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Mantovani, Alberto; Riva, Federica

    2012-01-01

    Toll interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) 8 (TIR8), also known as single Ig IL-1 receptor (IL-R)-related molecule, or SIGIRR, is a member of the IL-1R-like family, primarily expressed by epithelial cells. Current evidence suggests that TIR8 plays a nonredundant role as a negative regulator in vivo under different inflammatory conditions that are dependent on IL-R and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. In the present study, we examined the role of TIR8 in innate resistance to acute lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and cystic fibrosis patients. We show that Tir8 deficiency in mice was associated with increased susceptibility to acute P. aeruginosa infection, in terms of mortality and bacterial load, and to exacerbated local and systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], IL-1β, and IL-6) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL2). It has been reported that host defense against P. aeruginosa acute lung infection can be improved by blocking IL-1 since exaggerated IL-1β production may be harmful for the host in this infection. In agreement with these data, IL-1RI deficiency rescues the phenotype observed in Tir8-deficient mice: in Tir8−/− IL-1RI−/− double knockout mice we observed higher survival rates, enhanced bacterial clearance, and reduced levels of local and systemic cytokine and chemokine levels than in Tir8-deficient mice. These results suggest that TIR8 has a nonredundant effect in modulating the inflammation caused by P. aeruginosa, in particular, by negatively regulating IL-1RI signaling, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of this infectious disease. PMID:22025515

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diversification during Infection Development in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most prevalent pathogen of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Its long persistence in CF airways is associated with sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including biofilm formation, resistance to antibiotics, hypermutability and customized pathogenicity in which virulence factors are expressed according the infection stage. CF adaptation is triggered by high selective pressure of inflamed CF lungs and by antibiotic treatments. Bacteria undergo genetic, phenotypic, and physiological variations that are fastened by the repeating interplay of mutation and selection. During CF infection development, P. aeruginosa gradually shifts from an acute virulent pathogen of early infection to a host-adapted pathogen of chronic infection. This paper reviews the most common changes undergone by P. aeruginosa at each stage of infection development in CF lungs. The comprehensive understanding of the adaptation process of P. aeruginosa may help to design more effective antimicrobial treatments and to identify new targets for future drugs to prevent the progression of infection to chronic stages. PMID:25438018

  15. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Gerald B.; Grout, Martha; Zaidi, Tanweer S.

    1997-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel, but its relationship to the primary clinical manifestation of CF, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection, is unclear. We report that CFTR is a cellular receptor for binding, endocytosing, and clearing P. aeruginosa from the normal lung. Murine cells expressing recombinant human wild-type CFTR ingested 30-100 times as many P. aeruginosa as cells lacking CFTR or expressing mutant Δ F508 CFTR protein. Purified CFTR inhibited ingestion of P. aeruginosa by human airway epithelial cells. The first extracellular domain of CFTR specifically bound to P. aeruginosa and a synthetic peptide of this region inhibited P. aeruginosa internalization in vivo, leading to increased bacterial lung burdens. CFTR clears P. aeruginosa from the lung, indicating a direct connection between mutations in CFTR and the clinical consequences of CF.

  16. Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa Expresses Alginate in the Lungs of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Bragonzi, Alessandra; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Pier, Gerald B.; Timpert, Petra; Ulrich, Martina; Hentzer, Morten; Andersen, Jens Bo; Givskov, Michael; Conese, Massimo; Döring, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Background. In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), lung infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains overexpressing the exopolysaccaride alginate is preceded by colonization with nonmucoid strains. We investigated the kinetics, impact of environmental signals, and genetics of P. aeruginosa alginate expression in a mouse model and in patients with CF. Methods. Using indirect immunofluorescence, microarray technology and real-time reverse-transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction, we assessed alginate gene expression during aerobic and anaerobic growth of the nonmucoid strain PAO1 in vitro, in a mouse lung-infection model and in sputum specimens from patients with CF infected with nonmucoid or mucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Results. Anaerobic conditions increased the transcription of alginate genes in vitro and in murine lungs within 24 h. Alginate production by PAO1 in murine lungs and by nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains in patients with CF was reversible after in vitro culture under aerobic conditions. A subpopulation of P. aeruginosa clones revealing stable alginate production was detected in murine lungs 2 weeks after infection. Conclusions. Anaerobiosis and lung infection rapidly induce alginate production by gene regulation in nonmucoid P. aeruginosa. This trait may contribute to early persistence, leading to chronic P. aeruginosa infection once stable mucoid strains are generated. PMID:15995954

  17. Nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses alginate in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis and in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bragonzi, Alessandra; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Pier, Gerald B; Timpert, Petra; Ulrich, Martina; Hentzer, Morten; Andersen, Jens Bo; Givskov, Michael; Conese, Massimo; Doring, Gerd

    2005-08-01

    In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), lung infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains overexpressing the exopolysaccaride alginate is preceded by colonization with nonmucoid strains. We investigated the kinetics, impact of environmental signals, and genetics of P. aeruginosa alginate expression in a mouse model and in patients with CF. Using indirect immunofluorescence, microarray technology and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we assessed alginate gene expression during aerobic and anaerobic growth of the nonmucoid strain PAO1 in vitro, in a mouse lung-infection model and in sputum specimens from patients with CF infected with nonmucoid or mucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Anaerobic conditions increased the transcription of alginate genes in vitro and in murine lungs within 24 h. Alginate production by PAO1 in murine lungs and by nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains in patients with CF was reversible after in vitro culture under aerobic conditions. A subpopulation of P. aeruginosa clones revealing stable alginate production was detected in murine lungs 2 weeks after infection. Anaerobiosis and lung infection rapidly induce alginate production by gene regulation in nonmucoid P. aeruginosa. This trait may contribute to early persistence, leading to chronic P. aeruginosa infection once stable mucoid strains are generated.

  18. Adaptation of Iron Homeostasis Pathways by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyoverdine Mutant in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; O'Neill, Maura J.; Watts, Annabelle M.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Lamont, Iain L.; Wilks, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections, most notably by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which persists for decades in the lungs and undergoes extensive evolution. P. aeruginosa requires iron for virulence and uses the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine to scavenge and solubilize ferric iron during acute infections. Pyoverdine mutants accumulate in the lungs of some CF patients, however, suggesting that the heme and ferrous iron acquisition pathways of P. aeruginosa are more important in this environment. Here, we sought to determine how evolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung affects iron acquisition and regulatory pathways through the use of longitudinal CF isolates. These analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of siderophore production during the course of CF lung infection in nearly all strains tested. Mass spectrometry analysis of one of these strains showed that the later CF isolate has streamlined the metabolic flux of extracellular heme through the HemO heme oxygenase, resulting in more-efficient heme utilization. Moreover, gene expression analysis shows that iron regulation via the PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs) is enhanced in the later CF isolate. Finally, analysis of P. aeruginosa gene expression in the lungs of various CF patients demonstrates that both PrrF and HemO are consistently expressed in the CF lung environment. Combined, these results suggest that heme is a critical source of iron during prolonged infection of the CF lung and that changes in iron and heme regulatory pathways play a crucial role in adaptation of P. aeruginosa to this ever-changing host environment. PMID:24727222

  19. Host DNA repair proteins in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in lung epitehlial cells and in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host DNA damage and DNA repair response to bacterial infections and its significance are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection by Gram-negative bacterium P. aeruginosa significantly altered the expression and enzymatic activity of base excision DNA repair protein OGG1 in lung epi...

  20. 2-Aminoacetophenone as a potential breath biomarker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis lung

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with progressive life threatening decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis sufferers. Growth of Ps. aeruginosa releases a "grape-like" odour that has been identified as the microbial volatile organic compound 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA). Methods We investigated 2-AA for its specificity to Ps. aeruginosa and its suitability as a potential breath biomarker of colonisation or infection by Solid Phase Micro Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Results Cultures of 20 clinical strains of Ps. aeruginosa but not other respiratory pathogens had high concentrations of 2-AA in the head space of in vitro cultures when analysed by GC/MS. 2-AA was stable for 6 hours in deactivated glass sampling bulbs but was not stable in Tedlar® bags. Optimisation of GC/MS allowed detection levels of 2-AA to low pico mol/mol range in breath. The 2-AA was detected in a significantly higher proportion of subjects colonised with Ps. aeruginosa 15/16 (93.7%) than both the healthy controls 5/17 (29%) (p < 0.0002) and CF patients not colonised with Ps. aeruginosa 4/13(30.7%) (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the 2-AA breath test compared to isolation of Ps. aeruginosa in sputum and/or BALF was 93.8% (95% CI, 67-99) and 69.2% (95% CI, 38-89) respectively. The peak integration values for 2-AA analysis in the breath samples were significantly higher in Ps. aeruginosa colonised subjects (median 242, range 0-1243) than the healthy controls (median 0, range 0-161; p < 0.001) and CF subjects not colonised with Ps. aeruginosa (median 0, range 0-287; p < 0.003) Conclusions Our results report 2-AA as a promising breath biomarker for the detection of Ps. aeruginosa infections in the cystic fibrosis lung. PMID:21054900

  1. Recent advances in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy, and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. New results from one small trial suggest that addition of oral ciprofloxacin to inhaled tobramycin may reduce lung inflammation. Clinical trials with new formulations of old antibiotics for inhalation therapy (aztreonam lysine) against chronic P. aeruginosa infection improved patient-reported outcome, lung function, time to acute exacerbations and sputum density of P. aeruginosa. Other drugs such as quinolones are currently under investigation for inhalation therapy. A trial of the use of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics for long-term prophylaxis showed no effect in patients who were not already infected. Use of azithromycin to treat CF patients without P. aeruginosa infection did not improve lung function. Here I review the recent advances in the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections with a focus on inhalation treatments targeted at prophylaxis and chronic suppressive therapy. PMID:21463524

  2. Role of Iron Uptake Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence and Airway Infection

    PubMed Central

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Visaggio, Daniela; Facchini, Marcella; Pasquali, Paolo; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Iron is essential for bacterial growth, and P. aeruginosa expresses multiple iron uptake systems, whose role in lung infection deserves further investigation. P. aeruginosa Fe3+ uptake systems include the pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores and two systems for heme uptake, all of which are dependent on the TonB energy transducer. P. aeruginosa also has the FeoB transporter for Fe2+ acquisition. To assess the roles of individual iron uptake systems in P. aeruginosa lung infection, single and double deletion mutants were generated in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and characterized in vitro, using iron-poor media and human serum, and in vivo, using a mouse model of lung infection. The iron uptake-null mutant (tonB1 feoB) and the Fe3+ transport mutant (tonB1) did not grow aerobically under low-iron conditions and were avirulent in the mouse model. Conversely, the wild type and the feoB, hasR phuR (heme uptake), and pchD (pyochelin) mutants grew in vitro and caused 60 to 90% mortality in mice. The pyoverdine mutant (pvdA) and the siderophore-null mutant (pvdA pchD) grew aerobically in iron-poor media but not in human serum, and they caused low mortality in mice (10 to 20%). To differentiate the roles of pyoverdine in iron uptake and virulence regulation, a pvdA fpvR double mutant defective in pyoverdine production but expressing wild-type levels of pyoverdine-regulated virulence factors was generated. Deletion of fpvR in the pvdA background partially restored the lethal phenotype, indicating that pyoverdine contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa lung infection by combining iron transport and virulence-inducing capabilities. PMID:27271740

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Airway Infection Recruits and Modulates Neutrophilic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Öz, Hasan H.; Zhou, Benyuan; Voss, Pina; Carevic, Melanie; Schroth, Carolin; Frey, Nina; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hector, Andreas; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections mainly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Despite innate and adaptive immune responses upon infection, P. aeruginosa is capable of efficiently escaping host defenses, but the underlying immune mechanisms remain poorly understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells that are functionally characterized by their potential to suppress T- and natural killer (NK)-cell responses. Here we demonstrate, using an airway in vivo infection model, that P. aeruginosa recruits and activates neutrophilic MDSCs, which functionally suppress T-cell responses. We further show that the CF gene defect (CF transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR) modulates the functionality, but not the recruitment or generation of neutrophilic MDSCs. Collectively, we define a mechanism by which P. aeruginosa airway infection undermines host immunity by modulating neutrophilic MDSCs in vivo. PMID:27965936

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus infection enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth through dysregulation of nutritional immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Matthew R.; Lashua, Lauren P.; Fischer, Douglas K.; Flitter, Becca A.; Eichinger, Katherine M.; Durbin, Joan E.; Sarkar, Saumendra N.; Coyne, Carolyn B.; Empey, Kerry M.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients’ acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P. aeruginosa infections are initiated in the host. Using a coculture model to study the formation of bacterial biofilm formation associated with the airway epithelium, we show that respiratory viral infections and the induction of antiviral interferons promote robust secondary P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. We report that the induction of antiviral IFN signaling in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces bacterial biofilm formation through a mechanism of dysregulated iron homeostasis of the airway epithelium. Moreover, increased apical release of the host iron-binding protein transferrin during RSV infection promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm development in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nutritional immunity pathways that are disrupted during respiratory viral infection create an environment that favors secondary bacterial infection and may provide previously unidentified targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:26729873

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus infection enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth through dysregulation of nutritional immunity.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Matthew R; Lashua, Lauren P; Fischer, Douglas K; Flitter, Becca A; Eichinger, Katherine M; Durbin, Joan E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Coyne, Carolyn B; Empey, Kerry M; Bomberger, Jennifer M

    2016-02-09

    Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients' acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P. aeruginosa infections are initiated in the host. Using a coculture model to study the formation of bacterial biofilm formation associated with the airway epithelium, we show that respiratory viral infections and the induction of antiviral interferons promote robust secondary P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. We report that the induction of antiviral IFN signaling in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection induces bacterial biofilm formation through a mechanism of dysregulated iron homeostasis of the airway epithelium. Moreover, increased apical release of the host iron-binding protein transferrin during RSV infection promotes P. aeruginosa biofilm development in vitro and in vivo. Thus, nutritional immunity pathways that are disrupted during respiratory viral infection create an environment that favors secondary bacterial infection and may provide previously unidentified targets to combat bacterial biofilm formation.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapts its iron uptake strategies in function of the type of infections.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Pierre; Dingemans, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative γ-Proteobacterium which is known for its capacity to colonize various niches, including some invertebrate and vertebrate hosts, making it one of the most frequent bacteria causing opportunistic infections. P. aeruginosa is able to cause acute as well as chronic infections and it uses different colonization and virulence factors to do so. Infections range from septicemia, urinary infections, burn wound colonization, and chronic colonization of the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Like the vast majority of organisms, P. aeruginosa needs iron to sustain growth. P. aeruginosa utilizes different strategies to take up iron, depending on the type of infection it causes. Two siderophores are produced by this bacterium, pyoverdine and pyochelin, characterized by high and low affinities for iron respectively. P. aeruginosa is also able to utilize different siderophores from other microorganisms (siderophore piracy). It can also take up heme from hemoproteins via two different systems. Under microaerobic or anaerobic conditions, P. aeruginosa is also able to take up ferrous iron via its Feo system using redox-cycling phenazines. Depending on the type of infection, P. aeruginosa can therefore adapt by switching from one iron uptake system to another as we will describe in this short review.

  7. Lung transplant infection.

    PubMed

    Burguete, Sergio R; Maselli, Diego J; Fernandez, Juan F; Levine, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic procedure for the treatment of end-stage pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease. Despite improved survival rates over the decades, lung transplant recipients have lower survival rates than other solid organ transplant recipients. The morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is largely due to infection- and rejection-related complications. This article will review the common infections that develop in the lung transplant recipient, including the general risk factors for infection in this population, and the most frequent bacterial, viral, fungal and other less frequent opportunistic infections. The epidemiology, diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment and outcomes for the different microbial pathogens will be reviewed. The effects of infection on lung transplant rejection will also be discussed.

  8. Transcriptional Activation of Mucin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide in the Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Dohrman, Austin F.; Gallup, Marianne; Miyata, Susumu; Gum, James R.; Kim, Young S.; Nadel, Jay A.; Prince, Alice; Basbaum, Carol B.

    1997-02-01

    An unresolved question in cystic fibrosis (CF) research is how mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, a CI ion channel, cause airway mucus obstruction leading to fatal lung disease. Recent evidence has linked the CF transmembrane conductance regulator mutation to the onset and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the airways, and here we provide evidence directly linking P. aeruginosa infection to mucus overproduction. We show that P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide profoundly upregulates transcription of the mucin gene MUC 2 in epithelial cells via inducible enhancer elements and that this effect is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin AG 126. These findings improve our understanding of CF pathogenesis and suggest that the attenuation of mucin production by lipopolysaccharide antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors could reduce morbidity and mortality in this disease.

  9. A lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Collie, David; Govan, John; Wright, Steven; Thornton, Elisabeth; Tennant, Peter; Smith, Sionagh; Doherty, Catherine; McLachlan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity, mortality and premature death in cystic fibrosis. A new paradigm for managing such infections is needed, as are relevant and translatable animal models to identify and test concepts. We sought to improve on limitations associated with existing models of infection in small animals through developing a lung segmental model of chronic Pseudomonas infection in sheep. Using local lung instillation of P. aeruginosa suspended in agar beads we were able to demonstrate that such infection led to the development of a suppurative, necrotising and pyogranulomatous pneumonia centred on the instilled beads. No overt evidence of organ or systemic compromise was apparent in any animal during the course of infection. Infection persisted in the lungs of individual animals for as long as 66 days after initial instillation. Quantitative microbiology applied to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid derived from infected segments proved an insensitive index of the presence of significant infection in lung tissue (>10(4) cfu/g). The agar bead model of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in sheep is a relevant platform to investigate both the pathobiology of such infections as well as novel approaches to their diagnosis and therapy. Particular ethical benefits relate to the model in terms of refining existing approaches by compromising a smaller proportion of the lung with infection and facilitating longitudinal assessment by bronchoscopy, and also potentially reducing animal numbers through facilitating within-animal comparisons of differential therapeutic approaches.

  10. Use of a Multiplex Transcript Method for Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Expression Profiles in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Alex H; Willger, Sven D; Dolben, Emily L; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana B; Bean, Heather; Hill, Jane E; Hampton, Thomas H; Ashare, Alix; Hogan, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of therapies that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence or that can eradicate chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) will be advanced by an improved understanding of P. aeruginosa behavior in vivo We demonstrate the use of multiplexed Nanostring technology to monitor relative abundances of P. aeruginosa transcripts across clinical isolates, in serial samples, and for the purposes of comparing microbial physiology in vitro and in vivo The expression of 75 transcripts encoded by genes implicated in CF lung disease was measured in a variety of P. aeruginosa strains as well as RNA serial sputum samples from four P. aeruginosa-colonized subjects with CF collected over 6 months. We present data on reproducibility, the results from different methods of normalization, and demonstrate high concordance between transcript relative abundance data obtained by Nanostring or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Furthermore, we address considerations regarding sequence variation between strains during probe design. Analysis of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro identified transcripts that correlated with the different phenotypes commonly observed in CF clinical isolates. P. aeruginosa transcript profiles in RNA from CF sputum indicated alginate production in vivo, and transcripts involved in quorum-sensing regulation were less abundant in sputum than strains grown in the laboratory. P. aeruginosa gene expression patterns from sputum clustered closely together relative to patterns for laboratory-grown cultures; in contrast, laboratory-grown P. aeruginosa showed much greater transcriptional variation with only loose clustering of strains with different phenotypes. The clustering within and between subjects was surprising in light of differences in inhaled antibiotic and respiratory symptoms, suggesting that the pathways represented by these 75 transcripts are stable in chronic CF P. aeruginosa lung infections.

  11. Use of a Multiplex Transcript Method for Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Expression Profiles in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Willger, Sven D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Moulton, Lisa A.; Dorman, Dana B.; Bean, Heather; Hill, Jane E.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of therapies that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence or that can eradicate chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) will be advanced by an improved understanding of P. aeruginosa behavior in vivo. We demonstrate the use of multiplexed Nanostring technology to monitor relative abundances of P. aeruginosa transcripts across clinical isolates, in serial samples, and for the purposes of comparing microbial physiology in vitro and in vivo. The expression of 75 transcripts encoded by genes implicated in CF lung disease was measured in a variety of P. aeruginosa strains as well as RNA serial sputum samples from four P. aeruginosa-colonized subjects with CF collected over 6 months. We present data on reproducibility, the results from different methods of normalization, and demonstrate high concordance between transcript relative abundance data obtained by Nanostring or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Furthermore, we address considerations regarding sequence variation between strains during probe design. Analysis of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro identified transcripts that correlated with the different phenotypes commonly observed in CF clinical isolates. P. aeruginosa transcript profiles in RNA from CF sputum indicated alginate production in vivo, and transcripts involved in quorum-sensing regulation were less abundant in sputum than strains grown in the laboratory. P. aeruginosa gene expression patterns from sputum clustered closely together relative to patterns for laboratory-grown cultures; in contrast, laboratory-grown P. aeruginosa showed much greater transcriptional variation with only loose clustering of strains with different phenotypes. The clustering within and between subjects was surprising in light of differences in inhaled antibiotic and respiratory symptoms, suggesting that the pathways represented by these 75 transcripts are stable in chronic CF P. aeruginosa lung infections. PMID:27481238

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteolytically alters the interleukin 22-dependent lung mucosal defense.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Antoine; Brea, Deborah; Morello, Eric; Tang, Aihua; Jouan, Youenn; Ramphal, Reuben; Korkmaz, Brice; Perez-Cruz, Magdiel; Trottein, Francois; O'Callaghan, Richard J; Gosset, Philippe; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2016-10-28

    The IL-22 signaling pathway is critical for regulating mucosal defense and limiting bacterial dissemination. IL-22 is unusual among interleukins because it does not directly regulate the function of conventional immune cells, but instead targets cells at outer body barriers, such as respiratory epithelial cells. Consequently, IL-22 signaling participates in the maintenance of the lung mucosal barrier by controlling cell proliferation and tissue repair, and enhancing the production of specific chemokines and anti-microbial peptides. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen of ventilator-associated pneumonia and causes considerable lung tissue damage. A feature underlying the pathogenicity of this bacterium is its capacity to persist and develop in the host, particularly in the clinical context of nosocomial lung infections. We aimed to investigate the ability of P. auruginosa to disrupt immune-epithelial cells cross-talk. We found that P. aeruginosa escapes the host mucosal defenses by degrading IL-22, leading to severe inhibition of IL-22-mediated immune responses. We demonstrated in vitro that, protease IV, a type 2 secretion system-dependent serine protease, is responsible for the degradation of IL-22 by P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the major anti-proteases molecules present in the lungs were unable to inhibit protease IV enzymatic activity. In addition, tracheal aspirates of patients infected by P. aeruginosa contain protease IV activity which further results in IL-22 degradation. This so far undescribed cleavage of IL-22 by a bacterial protease is likely to be an immune-evasion strategy that contributes to P. aeruginosa-triggered respiratory infections.

  13. Infection with transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and clinical outcomes in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Shawn D; Vandemheen, Katherine L; Ramotar, Karam; Giesbrecht-Lewis, Tracy; Tullis, Elizabeth; Freitag, Andreas; Paterson, Nigel; Jackson, Mary; Lougheed, M Diane; Dowson, Christopher; Kumar, Vijay; Ferris, Wendy; Chan, Francis; Doucette, Steve; Fergusson, Dean

    2010-11-17

    Studies from Australia and the United Kingdom have shown that some patients with cystic fibrosis are infected with common transmissible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To determine the prevalence and incidence of infection with transmissible strains of P. aeruginosa and whether presence of the organism was associated with adverse clinical outcomes in Canada. Prospective observational cohort study of adult patients cared for at cystic fibrosis clinics in Ontario, Canada, with enrollment from September 2005 to September 2008. Sputum was collected at baseline, 3 months, and yearly thereafter for 3 years; and retrieved P. aeruginosa isolates were genotyped. Vital status (death or lung transplant) was assessed for all enrolled patients until December 31, 2009. Incidence and prevalence of P. aeruginosa isolation, rates of decline in lung function, and time to death or lung transplantation. Of the 446 patients with cystic fibrosis studied, 102 were discovered to be infected with 1 of 2 common transmissible strains of P. aeruginosa at study entry. Sixty-seven patients were infected with strain A (15%), 32 were infected with strain B (7%), and 3 were simultaneously infected with both strains (0.6%). Strain A was found to be genetically identical to the Liverpool epidemic strain but strain B has not been previously described as an epidemic strain. The incidence rate of new infections with these 2 transmissible strains was relatively low (7.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.2 per 1000 person-years). Compared with patients infected with unique strains of P. aeruginosa, patients infected with the Liverpool epidemic strain (strain A) and strain B had similar declines in lung function (difference in decline in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration of 0.64% per year [95% CI, -1.52% to 2.80% per year] and 1.66% per year [95% CI, -1.00% to 4.30%], respectively). However, the 3-year rate of death or lung

  14. Dapagliflozin‐lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo‐Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti‐diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. Experimental Approach The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor‐deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid‐filled lung technique. Key Results Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony‐forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Conclusion and Implications Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. PMID:28192604

  15. Localization of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria in cystic fibrosis lungs and interactions with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hypoxic mucus.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ute; Abdullah, Lubna H; Perlmutt, Olivia S; Albert, Daniel; Davis, C William; Arnold, Roland R; Yankaskas, James R; Gilligan, Peter; Neubauer, Heiner; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The localization of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs, alone or during coinfection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is poorly understood. We performed immunohistochemistry for Bcc and P. aeruginosa bacteria on 21 coinfected or singly infected CF lungs obtained at transplantation or autopsy. Parallel in vitro experiments examined the growth of two Bcc species, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans, in environments similar to those occupied by P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. Bcc bacteria were predominantly identified in the CF lung as single cells or small clusters within phagocytes and mucus but not as "biofilm-like structures." In contrast, P. aeruginosa was identified in biofilm-like masses, but densities appeared to be reduced during coinfection with Bcc bacteria. Based on chemical analyses of CF and non-CF respiratory secretions, a test medium was defined to study Bcc growth and interactions with P. aeruginosa in an environment mimicking the CF lung. When test medium was supplemented with alternative electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions, B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans used fermentation rather than anaerobic respiration to gain energy, consistent with the identification of fermentation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both Bcc species also expressed mucinases that produced carbon sources from mucins for growth. In the presence of P. aeruginosa in vitro, both Bcc species grew anaerobically but not aerobically. We propose that Bcc bacteria (i) invade a P. aeruginosa-infected CF lung when the airway lumen is anaerobic, (ii) inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm-like growth, and (iii) expand the host bacterial niche from mucus to also include macrophages.

  16. Localization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteria in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs and Interactions with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Hypoxic Mucus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Lubna H.; Perlmutt, Olivia S.; Albert, Daniel; Davis, C. William; Arnold, Roland R.; Yankaskas, James R.; Gilligan, Peter; Neubauer, Heiner; Randell, Scott H.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    The localization of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs, alone or during coinfection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is poorly understood. We performed immunohistochemistry for Bcc and P. aeruginosa bacteria on 21 coinfected or singly infected CF lungs obtained at transplantation or autopsy. Parallel in vitro experiments examined the growth of two Bcc species, Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans, in environments similar to those occupied by P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. Bcc bacteria were predominantly identified in the CF lung as single cells or small clusters within phagocytes and mucus but not as “biofilm-like structures.” In contrast, P. aeruginosa was identified in biofilm-like masses, but densities appeared to be reduced during coinfection with Bcc bacteria. Based on chemical analyses of CF and non-CF respiratory secretions, a test medium was defined to study Bcc growth and interactions with P. aeruginosa in an environment mimicking the CF lung. When test medium was supplemented with alternative electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions, B. cenocepacia and B. multivorans used fermentation rather than anaerobic respiration to gain energy, consistent with the identification of fermentation products by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both Bcc species also expressed mucinases that produced carbon sources from mucins for growth. In the presence of P. aeruginosa in vitro, both Bcc species grew anaerobically but not aerobically. We propose that Bcc bacteria (i) invade a P. aeruginosa-infected CF lung when the airway lumen is anaerobic, (ii) inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm-like growth, and (iii) expand the host bacterial niche from mucus to also include macrophages. PMID:25156735

  17. Lung epithelial MyD88 drives early pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a flagellin dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Anas, Adam A; van Lieshout, Miriam H P; Claushuis, Theodora A M; de Vos, Alex F; Florquin, Sandrine; de Boer, Onno J; Hou, Baidong; Van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a flagellated pathogen frequently causing pneumonia in hospitalized patients and sufferers of chronic lung disease. Here we investigated the role of the common Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 in myeloid vs. lung epithelial cells in clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways. Mice deficient for MyD88 in lung epithelial cells (Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice) or myeloid cells (LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice) and bone marrow chimeric mice deficient for TLR5 (the receptor recognizing Pseudomonas flagellin) in either parenchymal or hematopoietic cells were infected with P. aeruginosa via the airways. Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice demonstrated a reduced influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar space and an impaired early antibacterial defense after infection with P. aeruginosa, whereas the response of LysMcre-MyD88-lox mice did not differ from control mice. The immune-enhancing role of epithelial MyD88 was dependent on recognition of pathogen-derived flagellin by epithelial TLR5, as demonstrated by an unaltered clearance of mutant P. aeruginosa lacking flagellin from the lungs of Sftpccre-MyD88-lox mice and an impaired bacterial clearance in bone marrow chimeric mice lacking TLR5 in parenchymal cells. These data indicate that early clearance of P. aeruginosa from the airways is dependent on flagellin-TLR5-MyD88-dependent signaling in respiratory epithelial cells.

  18. In vitro and in vivo T cell responses in mice during bronchopulmonary infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, M M; Kondratieva, T K; Apt, A S; Tam, M F; Skamene, E

    1995-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo T cell responses were determined during the course of bronchopulmonary infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T cell responses were compared in two inbred mouse strains, namely BALB/c mice, which are resistant to the establishment of chronic bronchopulmonary Ps. aeruginosa infection, and C57Bl/6 mice, which have high numbers of bacteria in the lungs through 14 days post-infection. Unseparated lung cells and lung T cells from BALB/c mice exhibited significantly higher in vitro proliferative responses to both heat-killed Ps. aeruginosa and concanavalin A (Con A) than cells from C57Bl/6 mice through 20 days post-intratracheal infection with 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) Ps. aeruginosa. Proliferation of unseparated lung cells but not lung T cells from BALB/c mice infected 6 days previously with 10(5) CFU Ps. aeruginosa was suppressed in response to Con A; these cells were unresponsive to specific antigen. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice infected with 10(4) CFU Ps. aeruginosa and in BALB/c mice infected with 10(5) CFU was found to be mediated by adherent lung cells via the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Determination of in vivo T cell-mediated responses in infected mice demonstrated that resistant BALB/c mice had high DTH and low Pseudomonas-specific antibody responses, while C57Bl/6 mice had low DTH and high antibody levels, in particular, IgG2b and IgM. PMID:7813116

  19. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    47.0% of P. aeruginosa infections were healthcare- associated (HA) cases. P. aeruginosa infections were most susceptible to colistin, piperacillin...aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species were identified.4 P. aeruginosa first garnered wide interest when it was associated with burn infections and...aeruginosa has a well-documented clinical history as associated with burn and wound infections; however, recent manifestations of P. aeruginosa include

  20. Temperate phages enhance pathogen fitness in chronic lung infection.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emily V; James, Chloe E; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Levesque, Roger C; Brockhurst, Michael A; Winstanley, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) is a polylysogenic, transmissible strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, capable of superinfecting existing P. aeruginosa respiratory infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). The LES phages are highly active in the CF lung and may have a role in the competitiveness of the LES in vivo. In this study, we tested this by competing isogenic PAO1 strains that differed only by the presence or absence of LES prophages in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Lysogens invaded phage-susceptible populations, both in head-to-head competition and when invading from rare, in the spatially structured, heterogeneous lung environment. Appreciable densities of free phages in lung tissue confirmed active phage lysis in vivo. Moreover, we observed lysogenic conversion of the phage-susceptible competitor. These results suggest that temperate phages may have an important role in the competitiveness of the LES in chronic lung infection by acting as anti-competitor weapons.

  1. IL-22 exacerbates weight loss in a murine model of chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Hannah K; Ritchie, Neil D; Ward, Christopher; Corris, Paul A; Brodlie, Malcolm; Evans, Thomas J

    2016-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 is a critical mediator of mucosal immunity and tissue regeneration, protecting against a number of respiratory pathogens. Whether IL-22 confers protection against chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. Explanted CF lungs were examined for IL-22 production and immune-localization. A murine model of persistent pulmonary PA infection was used to examine production of IL-22 following infective challenge. The role of IL-22 was examined using IL-22 knockout (KO) animals. IL-22 is produced within the adult CF lung and localizes to the airway epithelium. IL-22 is produced by murine pulmonary lymph node cells following lung infection. The absence of IL-22 resulted in no significant difference in acute mortality, bacterial burden, chronic infection rates, histological changes or neutrophilic inflammation in the chronic PA infection model. However, IL-22 KO animals lost less weight following infection. IL-22 is produced in the CF lung and in response to PA infection yet is dispensable in protection against chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection in a murine model. However, we identified a novel role for the cytokine in promoting infection-related weight-loss, a significant prognostic factor in the CF population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Network Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Chronic Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Oberhardt, Matthew A.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Hogardt, Michael; Papin, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level modeling is beginning to be used to decipher high throughput data in the context of disease. In this study, we present an integration of expression microarray data with a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the context of a chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infection. A genome-scale reconstruction of P. aeruginosa metabolism was tailored to represent the metabolic states of two clonally related lineages of P. aeruginosa isolated from the lungs of a CF patient at different points over a 44-month time course, giving a mechanistic glimpse into how the bacterial metabolism adapts over time in the CF lung. Metabolic capacities were analyzed to determine how tradeoffs between growth and other important cellular processes shift during disease progression. Genes whose knockouts were either significantly growth reducing or lethal in silico were also identified for each time point and serve as hypotheses for future drug targeting efforts specific to the stages of disease progression. PMID:20709898

  3. Community surveillance enhances Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence during polymicrobial infection.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Aishwarya; Trivedi, Urvish; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Whiteley, Marvin

    2013-01-15

    Most infections result from colonization by more than one microbe. Within such polymicrobial infections, microbes often display synergistic interactions that result in increased disease severity. Although many clinical studies have documented the occurrence of synergy in polymicrobial infections, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. A prominent pathogen in many polymicrobial infections is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that displays enhanced virulence during coculture with Gram-positive bacteria. In this study we discovered that during coinfection, P. aeruginosa uses peptidoglycan shed by Gram-positive bacteria as a cue to stimulate production of multiple extracellular factors that possess lytic activity against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Consequently, P. aeruginosa displays enhanced virulence in a Drosophila model of infection when cocultured with Gram-positive bacteria. Inactivation of a gene (PA0601) required for peptidoglycan sensing mitigated this phenotype. Using Drosophila and murine models of infection, we also show that peptidoglycan sensing results in P. aeruginosa-mediated reduction in the Gram-positive flora in the infection site. Our data suggest that P. aeruginosa has evolved a mechanism to survey the microbial community and respond to Gram-positive produced peptidoglycan through production of antimicrobials and toxins that not only modify the composition of the community but also enhance host killing. Additionally, our results suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting Gram-positive bacteria might be a viable approach for reducing the severity of P. aeruginosa polymicrobial infections.

  4. Host DNA Repair Proteins in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Weidong; Kannan, Shibichakravarthy; Weaver, Andrew; Mckibben, Molynda; Herington, Danielle; Zeng, Huawei; Gao, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Although DNA repair proteins in bacteria are critical for pathogens' genome stability and for subverting the host defense, the role of host DNA repair proteins in response to bacterial infection is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly altered the expression and enzymatic activity of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in lung epithelial cells. Downregulation of OGG1 by a small interfering RNA strategy resulted in severe DNA damage and cell death. In addition, acetylation of OGG1 is required for host responses to bacterial genotoxicity, as mutations of OGG1 acetylation sites increased Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein expression. These results also indicate that CSB may be involved in DNA repair activity during infection. Furthermore, OGG1 knockout mice exhibited increased lung injury after infection with P. aeruginosa, as demonstrated by higher myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. Together, our studies indicate that P. aeruginosa infection induces significant DNA damage in host cells and that DNA repair proteins play a critical role in the host response to P. aeruginosa infection, serving as promising targets for the treatment of this condition and perhaps more broadly Gram-negative bacterial infections. PMID:20956573

  5. A case of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa commercial tattoo infection.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, A; Betelli, M; Perego, M R; Foresti, S; Scarabelli, G; Grassi, G

    2015-11-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that can cause disease in immunocompromised patients but also burn wounds and other cutaneous infections. We report the case of a 31 years old woman with a P. Aeruginosa commercial tattoo infection treated with intravenous antibiotic therapy. Today tattooing is increasingly common and despite specific regulations many cases of tattoo site infection are reported in the literature. Principal actual tattoo infective epidemiology includes Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and mycosis infections and parenteral transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV but also recently published cases of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and non tuberculous mycobacterium tattoo infection.

  6. Replication rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the murine lung.

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, D O; Cerquetti, M C; Hooke, A M

    1985-01-01

    Using a method recently developed at our laboratory, we determined the initial rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa replication in the lung under different experimental conditions. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing mixtures of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of P. aeruginosa and its parental wild type (wt). The changes in the ratio of ts:wt were determined by quantitatively culturing homogenates of lungs from animals sacrificed over different time periods. The doubling time (DT) was calculated as the reciprocal of the slope of the linear portion of the curve generated by plotting n = (log [r0/rt])/log 2 against time where r is the ratio of ts:wt at a given time. The DTs measured in both outbred ICR mice and F1 hybrids (DBA/2J X B10.D2/nSnJ) were 32 and 30 min, respectively. These DTs were higher than that determined in the peritoneal cavities of ICR mice (20 min). The DT in the lungs of ICR mice rendered granulocytopenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide was 16 min. Experiments performed with inocula of different sizes showed that DTs tended to be higher in animals aerosolized with low doses of the ts-wt mixture. PMID:3932207

  7. Replication rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the murine lung.

    PubMed

    Sordelli, D O; Cerquetti, M C; Hooke, A M

    1985-11-01

    Using a method recently developed at our laboratory, we determined the initial rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa replication in the lung under different experimental conditions. Mice were exposed to aerosols containing mixtures of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of P. aeruginosa and its parental wild type (wt). The changes in the ratio of ts:wt were determined by quantitatively culturing homogenates of lungs from animals sacrificed over different time periods. The doubling time (DT) was calculated as the reciprocal of the slope of the linear portion of the curve generated by plotting n = (log [r0/rt])/log 2 against time where r is the ratio of ts:wt at a given time. The DTs measured in both outbred ICR mice and F1 hybrids (DBA/2J X B10.D2/nSnJ) were 32 and 30 min, respectively. These DTs were higher than that determined in the peritoneal cavities of ICR mice (20 min). The DT in the lungs of ICR mice rendered granulocytopenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide was 16 min. Experiments performed with inocula of different sizes showed that DTs tended to be higher in animals aerosolized with low doses of the ts-wt mixture.

  8. Host and Pathogen Biomarkers for Severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections.

    PubMed

    Juan, Carlos; Peña, Carmen; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-02-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the leading causes of severe nosocomial infections, particularly affecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Here we review the current knowledge on the factors underlying the outcome of P. aeruginosa nosocomial infections, including aspects related to the pathogen, the host, and treatment. Intestinal colonization and previous use of antibiotics are key risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections, whereas underlying disease, source of infection, and severity of acute presentation are key host factors modulating outcome; delayed adequate antimicrobial therapy is also independently associated with increased mortality. Among pathogen-related factors influencing the outcome of P. aeruginosa infections, antibiotic resistance, and particularly multidrug-resistant profiles, is certainly of paramount relevance, given its obvious effect on the chances of appropriate empirical therapy. However, the direct impact of antibiotic resistance in the severity and outcomes of P. aeruginosa infections is not yet well established. The interplay between antibiotic resistance, virulence, and the concerning international high-risk clones (such as ST111, ST175, and ST235) still needs to be further analyzed. On the other hand, differential presence or expression of virulence factors has been shown to significantly impact disease severity and mortality. The likely more deeply studied P. aeruginosa virulence determinant is the type III secretion system (T3SS); the production of T3SS cytotoxins, and particularly ExoU, has been well established to determine a worse outcome both in respiratory and bloodstream infections. Other relevant pathogen-related biomarkers of severe infections include the involvement of specific clones or O-antigen serotypes, the presence of certain horizontally acquired genomic islands, or the expression of other virulence traits, such as the elastase. Finally, recent data suggest that host genetic factors may also modulate the

  9. Modulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation by chronic iron overload in rat.

    PubMed

    Lê, Bá Vuong; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Iron constitutes a critical nutrient source for bacterial growth, so iron overload is a risk factor for bacterial infections. This study aimed at investigating the role of iron overload in modulating bacterial endotoxin-induced lung inflammation. Weaning male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline or iron sucrose [15 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw), 3 times per week, 4 weeks]. They were then intratracheally injected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 μg kg(-1) bw) or saline. Inflammatory indices were evaluated 4 or 18 h post-LPS/saline injection. At 4 h, LPS-treated groups revealed significant increases in the majority of inflammatory parameters (LPS-binding protein (LBP), immune cell recruitment, inflammatory cytokine synthesis, myeloperoxidase activity, and alteration of alveolar-capillary permeability), as compared with control groups. At 18 h, these parameters reduced strongly with the exception for LBP content and interleukin (IL)-10. In parallel, iron acted as a modulator of immune cell recruitment; LBP, tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 3, and IL-10 synthesis; and alveolar-capillary permeability. Therefore, P. aeruginosa LPS may only act as an acute lung inflammatory molecule, and iron overload may modulate lung inflammation by enhancing different inflammatory parameters. Thus, therapy for iron overload may be a novel and efficacious approach for the prevention and treatment of bacterial lung inflammations.

  10. Pouring Salt on a Wound: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factors Alter Na+ and Cl− Flux in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Ballok, Alicia E.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen with multiple niches in the human body, including the lung. P. aeruginosa infections are particularly damaging or fatal for patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis (CF). To establish an infection, P. aeruginosa relies on a suite of virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharide, phospholipases, exoproteases, phenazines, outer membrane vesicles, type III secreted effectors, flagella, and pili. These factors not only damage the epithelial cell lining but also induce changes in cell physiology and function such as cell shape, membrane permeability, and protein synthesis. While such virulence factors are important in initial infection, many become dysregulated or nonfunctional during the course of chronic infection. Recent work on the virulence factors alkaline protease (AprA) and CF transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitory factor (Cif) show that P. aeruginosa also perturbs epithelial ion transport and osmosis, which may be important for the long-term survival of this microbe in the lung. Here we discuss the literature regarding host physiology-altering virulence factors with a focus on Cif and AprA and their potential roles in chronic infection and immune evasion. PMID:23836869

  11. Nitrite reductase is critical for Pseudomonas aeruginosa survival during co-infection with the oral commensal Streptococcus parasanguinis.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica A; Wu, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major aetiological agent of chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, recent evidence suggests that the polymicrobial community of the CF lung may also harbour oral streptococci, and colonization by these micro-organisms may have a negative impact on P. aeruginosa within the CF lung. Our previous studies demonstrated that nitrite abundance plays an important role in P. aeruginosa survival during co-infection with oral streptococci. Nitrite reductase is a key enzyme involved in nitrite metabolism. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role nitrite reductase (gene nirS) plays in P. aeruginosa survival during co-infection with an oral streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Inactivation of nirS in both the chronic CF isolate FRD1 and acute wound isolate PAO1 reduced the survival rate of P. aeruginosa when co-cultured with S. parasanguinis. Growth of both mutants was restored when co-cultured with S. parasanguinis that was defective for H2O2 production. Furthermore, the nitrite reductase mutant was unable to kill Drosophila melanogaster during co-infection with S. parasanguinis. Taken together, these results suggest that nitrite reductase plays an important role for survival of P. aeruginosa during co-infection with S. parasanguinis.

  12. Differential infection properties of three inducible prophages from an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial pathogen infecting the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) is transmissible, capable of superseding other P. aeruginosa populations and is associated with increased morbidity. Previously, multiple inducible prophages have been found to coexist in the LES chromosome and to constitute a major component of the accessory genome not found in other sequenced P. aerugionosa strains. LES phages confer a competitive advantage in a rat model of chronic lung infection and may, therefore underpin LES prevalence. Here the infective properties of three LES phages were characterised. Results This study focuses on three of the five active prophages (LESφ2, LESφ3 and LESφ4) that are members of the Siphoviridae. All were induced from LESB58 by norfloxacin. Lytic production of LESφ2 was considerably higher than that of LESφ3 and LESφ4. Each phage was capable of both lytic and lysogenic infection of the susceptible P. aeruginosa host, PAO1, producing phage-specific plaque morphologies. In the PAO1 host background, the LESφ2 prophage conferred immunity against LESφ3 infection and reduced susceptibility to LESφ4 infection. Each prophage was less stable in the PAO1 chromosome with substantially higher rates of spontaneous phage production than when residing in the native LESB58 host. We show that LES phages are capable of horizontal gene transfer by infecting P. aeruginosa strains from different sources and that type IV pili are required for infection by all three phages. Conclusions Multiple inducible prophages with diverse infection properties have been maintained in the LES genome. Our data suggest that LESφ2 is more sensitive to induction into the lytic cycle or has a more efficient replicative cycle than the other LES phages. PMID:22998633

  13. Role of Mutant CFTR in Hypersusceptibility of Cystic Fibrosis Patients to Lung Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Gerald B.; Grout, Martha; Zaidi, Tanweer S.; Olsen, John C.; Johnson, Larry G.; Yankaskas, James R.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    1996-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are hypersusceptible to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Cultured human airway epithelial cells expressing the ΔF508 allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were defective in uptake of P. aeruginosa compared with cells expressing the wild-type allele. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-core oligosaccharide was identified as the bacterial ligand for epithelial cell ingestion; exogenous oligosaccharide inhibited bacterial ingestion in a neonatal mouse model, resulting in increased amounts of bacteria in the lungs. CFTR may contribute to a host-defense mechanism that is important for clearance of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract.

  14. ExoU-induced procoagulant activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected airway cells.

    PubMed

    Plotkowski, M C; Feliciano, L F P; Machado, G B S; Cunha, L G; Freitas, C; Saliba, A M; de Assis, M C

    2008-12-01

    The present study addressed the question whether ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, may induce airway epithelial cells to overexpress tissue factor (TF) and exhibit a procoagulant phenotype. Cells from the human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B line were infected with an ExoU-producing P. aeruginosa strain, pre-treated or not with the cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor methylarachidonyl fluorophosphate (MAFP), or with two ExoU-deficient mutants. Control noninfected and infected cells were assessed for the expression of: 1) TF mRNA by RT-PCR; 2) cell-associated TF by enzyme immunoassay and flow cytometry; 3) procoagulant activity by a colorimetric assay; and 4) microparticle-associated TF by flow cytometry. An enzyme immunoassay was also used to assess cell-associated TF in lung extracts from mice infected intratracheally with ExoU-producing and -deficient bacteria. Cells infected with the wild-type bacteria had higher levels of TF mRNA, cell-associated TF expression, procoagulant activity and released microparticle-associated TF than cells infected with the mutants. Bacterial treatment with MAFP significantly reduced the expression of TF by infected cells. Lung samples from mice infected with the wild-type bacteria exhibited higher levels of cell-associated TF and procoagulant activity. The present results demonstrate that ExoU may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung injury by inducing a tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity in airway epithelial cells.

  15. Interleukin-22 level is negatively correlated with neutrophil recruitment in the lungs in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Broquet, Alexis; Jacqueline, Cédric; Davieau, Marion; Besbes, Anissa; Roquilly, Antoine; Martin, Jérôme; Caillon, Jocelyne; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Heslan, Michèle; Josien, Régis; Asehnoune, Karim

    2017-09-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat for immune-compromised patients. Bacterial pneumonia can induce uncontrolled and massive neutrophil recruitment ultimately leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and epithelium damage. Interleukin-22 plays a central role in the protection of the epithelium. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22BP in an acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model in mice. In this model, we noted a transient increase of IL-22 during Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge. Using an antibody-based approach, we demonstrated that IL-22 neutralisation led to increased susceptibility to infection and to lung damage correlated with an increase in neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. On the contrary, rIL-22 administration or IL-22BP neutralisation led to a decrease in mouse susceptibility and lung damage associated with a decrease in neutrophil accumulation. This study demonstrated that the IL-22/IL-22BP system plays a major role during Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia by moderating neutrophil accumulation in the lungs that ultimately leads to epithelium protection.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Periodontal Pathogens in the Oral Cavity and Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Gall, Florence; Revert, Krista; Rault, Gilles; Virmaux, Michèle; Gouriou, Stephanie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Barbier, Georges; Boisramé, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Lung destruction is the principal cause of death by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. There is a high prevalence of oropharyngeal anaerobic bacteria in sputum of CF patients. This study was carried out due to the lack of results comparing subgingival periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the oral cavity and lungs in patients with CF in relation with P. aeruginosa presence. Our first goal was to detect P. aeruginosa in oral and sputum samples by culture and molecular methods and to determine clonality of isolates. In addition, subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were searched for in sputum. A cross-sectional pilot case-control study was conducted in the CF Reference Center in Roscoff, France. Ten CF patients with a ΔF508 homozygous mutation (5 chronically colonized [CC] and 5 not colonized [NC]) were enrolled. P. aeruginosa was detected in saliva, sputum, and subgingival plaque samples by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequently, periodontal bacteria were also detected and quantified in subgingival plaque and sputum samples by qPCR. In CC patients, P. aeruginosa was recovered in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. Sixteen P. aeruginosa strains were isolated in saliva and sputum from this group and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were found in sputum samples. A lower diversity of these species was recovered in the CC patients than in the NC patients. The presence of the same P. aeruginosa clonal types in saliva and sputum samples underlines that the oral cavity is a possible reservoir for lung infection. PMID:25854483

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Periodontal Pathogens in the Oral Cavity and Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Rivas Caldas, Rocio; Le Gall, Florence; Revert, Krista; Rault, Gilles; Virmaux, Michèle; Gouriou, Stephanie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Barbier, Georges; Boisramé, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent lethal genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Lung destruction is the principal cause of death by chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization. There is a high prevalence of oropharyngeal anaerobic bacteria in sputum of CF patients. This study was carried out due to the lack of results comparing subgingival periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the oral cavity and lungs in patients with CF in relation with P. aeruginosa presence. Our first goal was to detect P. aeruginosa in oral and sputum samples by culture and molecular methods and to determine clonality of isolates. In addition, subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were searched for in sputum. A cross-sectional pilot case-control study was conducted in the CF Reference Center in Roscoff, France. Ten CF patients with a ΔF508 homozygous mutation (5 chronically colonized [CC] and 5 not colonized [NC]) were enrolled. P. aeruginosa was detected in saliva, sputum, and subgingival plaque samples by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Subsequently, periodontal bacteria were also detected and quantified in subgingival plaque and sputum samples by qPCR. In CC patients, P. aeruginosa was recovered in saliva and subgingival plaque samples. Sixteen P. aeruginosa strains were isolated in saliva and sputum from this group and compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Subgingival periodontal anaerobic bacteria were found in sputum samples. A lower diversity of these species was recovered in the CC patients than in the NC patients. The presence of the same P. aeruginosa clonal types in saliva and sputum samples underlines that the oral cavity is a possible reservoir for lung infection.

  18. Proximity to blue spaces and risk of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis: A case-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Goeminne, Pieter C; Nawrot, Tim S; De Boeck, Kris; Nemery, Ben; Dupont, Lieven J

    2015-11-01

    The acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with lower survival, decreased lung function, worse radiological scores, increased exacerbations and reduced nutritional status. Open water is a known reservoir and a potential source of exposure to P. aeruginosa. Twenty eight adult CF patients who had no history of P. aeruginosa and had negative P. aeruginosa IgG antibody levels, were matched by age and sex with 28 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Straight line and closest walking distance from patient's residence to the nearest "blue space", i.e. surface water as determined by Google Earth, were compared between the two groups, and odds ratios (OR) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Patients who were never infected with P. aeruginosa lived significantly further away from a natural water source than P. aeruginosa colonized patients, both when considering shortest walking distance (mean 487 m vs 308 m, p=0.014) and beeline (mean 324 m vs 202 m, p=0.021). Conditional logistic regression (correcting for FEV1%) revealed ORs for chronic P. aeruginosa colonization of 0.35 (95% CI 0.13-0.98; p=0.045) and 0.12 (95% CI 0.02-0.81; p=0.028) for each doubling in the beeline or walking distance, respectively, between residence and open water. We discovered that adult CF patients without P. aeruginosa infection live significantly further from blue space than CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Within the limitations of a case-control study, this may indicate that natural open water represents a source of infection by P. aeruginosa in CF. The study was approved by the local ethical committee of the UZ Leuven, Belgium (ML-5028). Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical predictors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia among Gram-negative bacterial infections in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Ha, Young Eun; Kim, Jungok; Kang, Seung-Ji; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Wi, Yu Mi; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    This study was performed to identify risk factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia among Gram-negative bacterial infections in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for P. aeruginosa bacteremia among non-neutropenic patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Each case of P. aeruginosa bacteremia was matched to one or two controls with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter or Citrobacter species in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. Seventy-eight patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia were compared with 98 control patients who had other Gram-negative bacteremias. The most common types of cancer were biliary tract cancer (49/176, 27.8%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (38/176, 21.6%), followed by gastric and bladder cancer. Factors associated with development of P. aeruginosa bacteremia were the presence of lung cancer, percutaneous tubes, nosocomial exposure, an invasive procedure and previous antimicrobial therapy (all P < 0.05). Independent risk factors for P. aeruginosa bacteremia included the presence of lung cancer and previous antimicrobial therapy. In the subgroup analysis including 90 patients with community-onset bacteremia, the previous use of antimicrobial agents and presence of bladder cancer were independent factors significantly associated with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Underlying lung cancer and previous antimicrobial treatment were significantly associated with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. P. aeruginosa should be considered as a probable cause of Gram-negative bacteremia in this patient group. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Why does the healthy cornea resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection?

    PubMed

    Evans, David J; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2013-06-01

    To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa. We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid, and the corneal epithelium that determines health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P aeruginosa infection. Use of "null-infection" in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P aeruginosa survives at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type III secretion system, proteases, and P aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. After more than 2 decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo imaging of bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an acute murine airway infection model.

    PubMed

    Munder, Antje; Wölbeling, Florian; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging allows the analysis of infectious diseases in small animal models. In this study, an acute airway infection of C3H/HeN mice with luxCDABE transformed Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 and an isogenic transposon mutant was followed by optical imaging in vivo. Using the disease-causing dose of 2.0 × 10(6) CFU of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839, subtle luminescence of the lungs was inconsistently visible for the first hour after infection. Conversely, using a 100-fold higher dose of the strongly virulence-attenuated transposon mutant, the robust signal of bioluminescent bacteria increased over 24 h. To monitor murine airway infections with P. aeruginosa in vivo by bioluminescence, one should select an attenuated mutant of a virulent strain or a wild type strain that naturally lacks virulence determinants and/or that has acquired a low virulence persister phenotype by patho-adaptive mutations.

  2. Alginate synthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a key pathogenic factor in chronic pulmonary infections of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    May, T B; Shinabarger, D; Maharaj, R; Kato, J; Chu, L; DeVault, J D; Roychoudhury, S; Zielinski, N A; Berry, A; Rothmel, R K

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infection by mucoid, alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of mortality among patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa is uniquely associated with the environment of the cystic fibrosis-affected lung, where alginate is believed to increase resistance to both the host immune system and antibiotic therapy. Recent evidence indicates that P. aeruginosa is most resistant to antibiotics when the infecting cells are present as a biofilm, as they appear to be in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Inhibition of the protective alginate barrier with nontoxic compounds targeted against alginate biosynthetic and regulatory proteins may prove useful in eradicating P. aeruginosa from this environment. Our research has dealt with elucidating the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism(s) responsible for alginate synthesis by P. aeruginosa. This review summarizes reports on the role of alginate in cystic fibrosis-associated pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa and provides details about the biosynthesis and regulation of this exopolysaccharide. PMID:1906371

  3. Why Does the Healthy Cornea Resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Perspective We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid and the corneal epithelium that determine health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection. Methods Use of “null-infection” in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa survive at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Results and Discussion Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P. aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type three secretion system, proteases, and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. Conclusion After more than two decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P. aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. PMID:23601656

  4. Comparison of culture and qPCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in not chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major respiratory pathogen causing severe lung infections among CF patients, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Once infection is established, early antibiotic treatment is able to postpone the transition to chronic lung infection. In order to optimize the early detection, we compared the sensitivity of microbiological culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of P. aeruginosa in respiratory samples of not chronically infected CF patients. Results In this national study, we followed CF patients during periods between 1 to 15 months. For a total of 852 samples, 729 (86%) remained P. aeruginosa negative by both culture and qPCR, whereas 89 samples (10%) were positive by both culture and qPCR. Twenty-six samples were negative by culture but positive by qPCR, and 10 samples were positive by culture but remained negative by qPCR. Five of the 26 patients with a culture negative, qPCR positive sample became later P. aeruginosa positive both by culture and qPCR. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that qPCR may have a predictive value for impending P. aeruginosa infection for only a limited number of patients. PMID:20868481

  5. Effects of azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, DP; Caceres, S; Caverly, L; Fratelli, C; Kim, SH; Malcolm, KC; Poch, KR; Saavedra, M; Solomon, G; Taylor-Cousar, J; Moskowitz, SM; Nick, JA

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous thermal injuries (i.e. burns) remain a common form of debilitating trauma and outcomes are often worsened by wound infection with environmental bacteria, chiefly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods We tested the effects of early administration of a single dose of azithromycin, with or without subsequent anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, in a mouse model of standardized thermal injury infected with P. aeruginosa on both wound site and systemic infection. We also tested the antimicrobial effects of these antibiotics alone or combined in comparative biofilm and planktonic cultures in vitro. Results In our model, early azithromycin administration significantly reduced wound and systemic infection without altering wound site or circulating neutrophil activity. The antimicrobial effect of azithromycin was additive with ciprofloxacin but significantly reduced the antimicrobial effect of tobramycin. This pattern was reproduced in biofilm cultures and not observed in planktonic cultures of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion these data suggest that early administration of azithromycin following burn-related trauma and infection may reduce P. aeruginosa infection and potential interactions with other antibiotics should be considered when designing future studies. PMID:23478086

  6. Throat Swabs and Sputum Culture as Predictors of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus Lung Colonization in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Darius; Griffin, Mary; Nymon, Amanda; Koeppen, Katja; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF. Methods Adult CF subjects (n = 20) underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Prior to bronchoscopy, a throat swab was obtained. A sputum sample was obtained from subjects who were able to spontaneously expectorate. All samples were sent for standard microbiology culture. Results Using BAL as the gold standard, we found the positive predictive value for Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be 100% in both sputum and throat swab compared to BAL. However, the negative predictive value for P. aeruginosa was 60% and 50% in sputum and throat swab, respectively. Conversely, the positive predictive value for Staphylococcus aureus was 57% in sputum and only 41% in throat swab and the negative predictive value of S. aureus was 100% in sputum and throat swab compared to BAL. Conclusions Our data show that positive sputum and throat culture findings of P. aeruginosa reflect results found on BAL fluid analysis, suggesting these are reasonable surrogates to determine lung colonization with P. aeruginosa. However, sputum and throat culture findings of S. aureus do not appear to reflect S. aureus colonization of the lung. PMID:27711152

  7. Throat Swabs and Sputum Culture as Predictors of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus Lung Colonization in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Darius; Griffin, Mary; Nymon, Amanda; Koeppen, Katja; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, repeated respiratory cultures are obtained to inform treatment. When patients are unable to expectorate sputum, clinicians obtain throat swabs as a surrogate for lower respiratory cultures. There is no clear data in adult subjects demonstrating the adequacy of throat swabs as a surrogate for sputum or BAL. Our study was designed to determine the utility of throat swabs in identifying lung colonization with common organisms in adults with CF. Adult CF subjects (n = 20) underwent bronchoscopy with BAL. Prior to bronchoscopy, a throat swab was obtained. A sputum sample was obtained from subjects who were able to spontaneously expectorate. All samples were sent for standard microbiology culture. Using BAL as the gold standard, we found the positive predictive value for Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be 100% in both sputum and throat swab compared to BAL. However, the negative predictive value for P. aeruginosa was 60% and 50% in sputum and throat swab, respectively. Conversely, the positive predictive value for Staphylococcus aureus was 57% in sputum and only 41% in throat swab and the negative predictive value of S. aureus was 100% in sputum and throat swab compared to BAL. Our data show that positive sputum and throat culture findings of P. aeruginosa reflect results found on BAL fluid analysis, suggesting these are reasonable surrogates to determine lung colonization with P. aeruginosa. However, sputum and throat culture findings of S. aureus do not appear to reflect S. aureus colonization of the lung.

  8. Mimicking the host and its microenvironment in vitro for studying mucosal infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Ledesma, Maria A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Why is a healthy person protected from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, while individuals with cystic fibrosis or damaged epithelium are particularly susceptible to this opportunistic pathogen? In order to address this question, it is essential to thoroughly understand the dynamic interplay between the host microenvironment and P. aeruginosa. Therefore, using modeI systems that represent key aspects of human mucosal tissues in health and disease allows recreating in vivo host-pathogen interactions in a physiologically relevant manner. In this review, we discuss how factors of mucosal tissues, such as apical-basolateral polarity, junctional complexes, extracellular matrix proteins, mucus, multicellular complexity (including indigenous microbiota), and other physicochemical factors affect P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and are thus important to mimic in vitro. We highlight in vitro cell and tissue culture model systems of increasing complexity that have been used over the past 35 years to study the infectious disease process of P. aeruginosa, mainly focusing on lung models, and their respective advantages and limitations. Continued improvements of in vitro models based on our expanding knowledge of host microenvironmental factors that participate in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis will help advance fundamental understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and increase the translational potential of research findings from bench to the patient’s bedside. PMID:24737619

  9. Pathogenic Effects of Biofilm on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection and Its Relationship to Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuangqi; Li, Yanan; Wang, Ke; Cen, Yanling; Lu, Huasong; Dong, Biying; Chen, Yiqiang; Kong, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Background An animal (Sprague-Dawley rat) model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm associated with chronic pulmonary infection in vivo was established and the effects of the biofilm on P. aeruginosa and its relationship to cytokines were investigated. Material/Methods Biofilm of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads and planktonic PA0725 were purified by anion-exchange chromatograph. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with the biofilm and then inhaled the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Anti-biofilm antibody titer was detected using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The cell count and differential count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-1β, MIP-2, and G-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in sera were also measured using an ELISA kit. Results The sera anti-biofilm IgG antibody titer of immunized SD rats was increased significantly on the 5th and 8th days after inhalation. The IL-17 concentration was significantly higher on the 8th day after inhalation. The results indicated that when biofilm-pre-immunized rats were challenged with inhalation of PA0725 of P. aeruginosa, the biofilm acted as an antigen substance and mediated the antibody reaction of the antigen, which might cause serious airway inflammatory response and lung tissue injury. This effect may be related to IL-17. Conclusions P. aeruginosa biofilm protected the bacterium from antibiotics and might induce host immune damage in lung tissue and facilitate bacterium evading the host barrier. PMID:27941713

  10. The role of multispecies social interactions in shaping Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in the cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Siobhán; Fothergill, Joanne L

    2017-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, it is now recognised that a diverse microbial community exists in the airways comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. This rich soup of microorganisms provides ample opportunity for interspecies interactions, particularly when considering secreted compounds. Here, we discuss how P. aeruginosa-secreted products can have community-wide effects, with the potential to ultimately shape microbial community dynamics within the lung. We focus on three well-studied traits associated with worsening clinical outcome in CF: phenazines, siderophores and biofilm formation, and discuss how secretions can shape interactions between P. aeruginosa and other commonly encountered members of the lung microbiome: Staphylococcus aureus, the Burkholderia cepacia complex, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. These interactions may shape the evolutionary trajectory of P. aeruginosa while providing new opportunities for therapeutic exploitation of the CF lung microbiome. © FEMS 2017.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.

    PubMed

    Roser, D J; van den Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Three model forms are identified for predicting disease likelihood from pathogen density. Two are based on Furumoto & Mickey's exponential 'single-hit' model and predict infection likelihood and severity (lesions/m2), respectively. 'Third-generation', mechanistic, dose-response algorithm development is additionally scoped. The proposed formulation integrates dispersion, epidermal interaction, and follicle invasion. The review also details uncertainties needing consideration which pertain to water quality, outbreaks, exposure time, infection sites, biofilms, cerumen, environmental factors (e.g. skin saturation, hydrodynamics), and whether P. aeruginosa is endogenous or exogenous. The review's findings are used to propose a conceptual infection model and identify research priorities including pool dose-response modelling, epidermis ecology and infection likelihood-based hygiene management.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa invades corneal epithelial cells during experimental infection.

    PubMed Central

    Fleiszig, S M; Zaidi, T S; Fletcher, E L; Preston, M J; Pier, G B

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is considered an extracellular pathogen. Using assays to determine intracellular survival in the presence of gentamicin, we have demonstrated that some strains of P. aeruginosa are able to invade corneal cells during experimental bacterial keratitis in mice. Although intracellular bacteria were detectable 15 min after inoculation, the number of intracellular bacteria increased in a time-dependent manner over a 24-h period. Levels of invasion were similar when bacteria were grown as a biofilm on solid medium and when they were grown in suspension. Intracellular bacteria survived in vitro for at least 24 h, although only minimal bacterial multiplication within cells was observed. P. aeruginosa PAK and Escherichia coli HB101 did not cause disease in this model and were not isolated from corneas after 24 h even when an inoculum of 10(8) CFU was applied. Transmission electron microscopy of corneal epithelium from eyes infected for 8 h revealed that intracellular bacteria were present within membrane-bound vacuoles, which suggests that bacterial entry was an endocytic process. At 24 h, the observation of many bacteria free in the cytoplasm indicated that P. aeruginosa was able to escape the endocytic vacuole. The ability of some P. aeruginosa strains to invade corneal epithelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis or to the progression of disease, since intracellular bacteria can evade host immune effectors and antibiotics commonly used to treat infection. Images PMID:8039920

  13. Respiratory Viral Infections in Chronic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Britto, Clemente J; Brady, Virginia; Lee, Seiwon; Dela Cruz, Charles S

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD), affect many individuals worldwide. Patients with these chronic lung diseases are susceptible to respiratory lung infections and some of these viral infections can contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the associations of lung infections and the respective chronic lung diseases and how infection in the different lung diseases affects disease exacerbation and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of IL-1β in Experimental Cystic Fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Jennifer; Marchiol, Tiffany; Piotet, Julie; Fauconnier, Louis; Robinet, Marieke; Reverchon, Flora; Le Bert, Marc; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Buijs-Offerman, Ruvalic; Stolarczyk, Marta; Quesniaux, Valérie F. J.; Scholte, Bob J.; Ryffel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftrtm1eur or d/d), on double deficient for d/d and type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (d/d X IL-1R1−/−), and antibody neutralization. At steady state, young adult d/d mice did not show any signs of spontaneous lung inflammation. However, IL-1R1 deficiency conferred partial protection to repeated P. aeruginosa endotoxins/LPS lung instillation in d/d mice, as 50% of d/d mice succumbed to inflammation, whereas all d/d x IL-1R1−/− double mutants survived with lower initial weight loss and less pulmonary collagen and mucus production, suggesting that the absence of IL-1R1 signaling is protective in d/d mice in LPS-induced lung damage. Using P. aeruginosa acute lung infection we found heightened neutrophil recruitment in d/d mice with higher epithelial damage, increased bacterial load in BALF, and augmented IL-1β and TNF-α in parenchyma as compared to WT mice. Thus, F508del-CFTR mice show enhanced IL-1β signaling in response to P. aeruginosa. IL-1β antibody neutralization had no effect on lung homeostasis in either d/d or WT mice, however P. aeruginosa induced lung inflammation and bacterial load were diminished by IL-1β antibody neutralization. In conclusion, enhanced susceptibility to P. aeruginosa in d/d mice correlates with an excessive inflammation and with increased IL-1β production and reduced bacterial clearance. Further, we show that neutralization of IL-1β in d/d mice through the double mutation d/d x IL-1R1−/− and in WT via antibody neutralization attenuates inflammation. This supports the notion that intervention in the IL-1R1/IL-1β pathway may be detrimental in CF patients. PMID:25500839

  15. Impaired Pulmonary Defense Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in VEGF Gene Inactivated Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Ellen C.; Malloy, Jaret L.; Tang, Kechun; Xia, Feng; Fu, Zhenxing; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Overhage, Joerg; Wagner, Peter D.; Spragg, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Repeated bacterial and viral infections are known to contribute to worsening lung function in several respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies have reported alveolar wall cell apoptosis and parenchymal damage in adult pulmonary VEGF gene ablated mice. We hypothesized that VEGF expressed by type II cells is also necessary to provide an effective host defense against bacteria in part by maintaining surfactant homeostasis. Therefore, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) levels were evaluated in mice following lung-targeted VEGF gene inactivation, and alterations in VEGF-dependent type II cell function were evaluated by measuring surfactant homeostasis in mouse lungs and isolated type II cells. In VEGF-deficient lungs increased PAO1 levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, were detected 24 hours after bacterial instillation compared to control lungs. In vivo lung-targeted VEGF gene deletion (57% decrease in total pulmonary VEGF) did not alter alveolar surfactant or tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) levels. However, sphingomyelin content, choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT) mRNA and SP-D expression were decreased. In isolated type II cells an 80% reduction of VEGF protein resulted in decreases in total phospholipids (PL), DSPC, DSPC synthesis, surfactant associated proteins (SP)-B and -D, and the lipid transporters, ABCA1 and Rab3D. TPA-induced DSPC secretion and apoptosis were elevated in VEGF-deficient type II cells. These results suggest a potential protective role for type II cell-expressed VEGF against bacterial initiated infection. PMID:22718316

  16. In Vivo Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Colistin and Imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana; Song, Zhijun; Høiby, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are sensitive to antibiotics in susceptibility testing, but eradication of the infection is difficult. The main reason is the biofilm formation in the airways of patients with CF. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of antimicrobials can reliably be used to predict whether antimicrobial regimens will achieve the maximum bactericidal effect against infections. Unfortunately, however, most PK/PD studies of antimicrobials have been done on planktonic cells and very few PK/PD studies have been done on biofilms, partly due to the lack of suitable models in vivo. In the present study, a biofilm lung infection model was developed to provide an objective and quantitative evaluation of the PK/PD profile of antimicrobials. Killing curves were set up to detect the antimicrobial kinetics on planktonic and biofilm P. aeruginosa cells in vivo. Colistin showed concentration-dependent killing, while imipenem showed time-dependent killing on both planktonic and biofilm P. aeruginosa cells in vivo. The parameter best correlated to the elimination of bacteria in lung by colistin was the area under the curve (AUC) versus MIC (AUC/MIC) for planktonic cells or the AUC versus minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC; AUC/MBIC) for biofilm cells. The best-correlated parameter for imipenem was the time that the drug concentration was above the MIC for planktonic cells (TMIC) or time that the drug concentration was above the MBIC (TMBIC) for biofilm cells. However, the AUC/MIC of imipenem showed a better correlation with the efficacy of imipenem for biofilm infections (R2 = 0.89) than planktonic cell infections (R2 = 0.38). The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of colistin and imipenem was shorter in biofilm infections than planktonic cell infections in this model. PMID:22354300

  17. In vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of colistin and imipenem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection.

    PubMed

    Hengzhuang, Wang; Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana; Song, Zhijun; Høiby, Niels

    2012-05-01

    Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are sensitive to antibiotics in susceptibility testing, but eradication of the infection is difficult. The main reason is the biofilm formation in the airways of patients with CF. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of antimicrobials can reliably be used to predict whether antimicrobial regimens will achieve the maximum bactericidal effect against infections. Unfortunately, however, most PK/PD studies of antimicrobials have been done on planktonic cells and very few PK/PD studies have been done on biofilms, partly due to the lack of suitable models in vivo. In the present study, a biofilm lung infection model was developed to provide an objective and quantitative evaluation of the PK/PD profile of antimicrobials. Killing curves were set up to detect the antimicrobial kinetics on planktonic and biofilm P. aeruginosa cells in vivo. Colistin showed concentration-dependent killing, while imipenem showed time-dependent killing on both planktonic and biofilm P. aeruginosa cells in vivo. The parameter best correlated to the elimination of bacteria in lung by colistin was the area under the curve (AUC) versus MIC (AUC/MIC) for planktonic cells or the AUC versus minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC; AUC/MBIC) for biofilm cells. The best-correlated parameter for imipenem was the time that the drug concentration was above the MIC for planktonic cells (T(MIC)) or time that the drug concentration was above the MBIC (T(MBIC)) for biofilm cells. However, the AUC/MIC of imipenem showed a better correlation with the efficacy of imipenem for biofilm infections (R(2) = 0.89) than planktonic cell infections (R(2) = 0.38). The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of colistin and imipenem was shorter in biofilm infections than planktonic cell infections in this model.

  18. Impact of fish oils on the outcomes of a mouse model of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Caron, Emilie; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Sergent, Luce; Bartke, Nana; Husson, Marie-Odile; Duhamel, Alain; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-01-28

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that causes pneumonia in immunocompromised humans and severe pulmonary damage in patients with cystic fibrosis. Imbalanced fatty acid incorporation in membranes, including increased arachidonic acid and decreased DHA concentrations, is known to play a critical role in chronic inflammation associated with bacterial infection. Other lipids, such as EPA and alkylglycerols, are also known to play a role in inflammation, particularly by stimulating the immune system, decreasing inflammation and inhibiting bacterial growth. In this context, the goal of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary DHA/EPA, in a 2:1 ratio, and alkylglycerols, as natural compounds extracted from oils of rays and chimeras, respectively, on the inflammatory reaction induced by P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection in mice. To this end, mice were fed with a control diet or isolipidic, isoenergetic diets prepared with oils enriched in DHA/EPA (2:1) or alkylglycerols for 5 weeks before the induction of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection by endotracheal instillation. In our model, DHA/EPA (2:1) significantly improved the survival of mice after infection, which was associated with the acceleration of bacterial clearance and the resolution of inflammation leading to the improvement of pulmonary injuries. By contrast, alkylglycerols did not affect the outcomes of P. aeruginosa infection. Our findings suggest that supplementation with ray oil enriched in DHA/EPA (2:1) can be considered as a preventive treatment for patients at risk for P. aeruginosa infection.

  19. The host genetic background defines diverse immune-reactivity and susceptibility to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Simone, Maura De; Lorè, Nicola Ivan; Fino, Ida De; Basso, Veronica; Mondino, Anna; Cigana, Cristina; Bragonzi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Patients with P. aeruginosa airways infection show markedly variable clinical phenotypes likely influenced by genetic backgrounds. Here, we investigated the cellular events involved in resistance and susceptibility to P. aeruginosa chronic infection using genetically distinct inbred mouse strains. As for patients, different murine genotypes revealed variable susceptibility to infection. When directly compared, resistant C3H/HeOuJ and susceptible A/J strains revealed distinct immune responsiveness to the pathogen. In C3H/HeOuJ resistant mice, IL17-producing cells rapidly and transiently infiltrated the infected lung, and this was paralleled by the acute accumulation of alveolar macrophages, bacterial clearance and resolution of infection. In contrast, A/J susceptible mice revealed a more delayed and prolonged lung infiltration by IL17+ and IFNγ+ cells, persistence of innate inflammatory cells and establishment of chronic infection. We conclude that the host genetic background confers diverse immunoreactivity to P. aeruginosa and IL17-producing cells might contribute to the progress of chronic lung infection. PMID:27848994

  20. [Hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significance in intensive therapy].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, S V; Gel'fand, E B; Mamontova, O A

    1999-01-01

    The significance of P. aeruginosa as an agent of hospital infections in intensive care departments is determined by high prevalence of this microorganism, its natural and acquired resistance to antibiotics of various groups, and severity of the infection it induces. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is different in different regions. Among the strains isolated in Moscow in intensive care wards for newborns 9% were resistant to meropenem, 10% to amicacine, 15% to imipramine, 16% to cefepime, 37% to ceftasidime, 45% to piperacylline/tasobactam, 45% to ciprofloxacine, and 60% to gentamicin; 1.5% of these strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa impedes the choice of drugs for empirical antibiotic therapy and increases the significance of microbiological diagnosis. Even if an agent is sensitive to such antibiotics as semisynthetic penicillines and aminoglycosides, their use as monotherapy in infections caused by P. aeruginosa is ineffective. Carbapenemes, III- IV generations cefalosporines, and fluoroquinolones can be used as mono therapy.

  1. Excessive inflammatory response of cystic fibrosis mice to bronchopulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Heeckeren, A; Walenga, R; Konstan, M W; Bonfield, T; Davis, P B; Ferkol, T

    1997-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), defective function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells and submucosal glands results in chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pulmonary infection incites an intense host inflammatory response, causing progressive suppurative pulmonary disease. Mouse models of CF, however, fail to develop pulmonary disease spontaneously. We examined the effects of bronchopulmonary infection on mice homozygous for the S489X mutation of the CFTR gene using an animal model of chronic Pseudomonas endobronchial infection. Slurries of sterile agarose beads or beads containing a clinical isolate of mucoid P. aeruginosa were instilled in the right lung of normal or CF mice. The mortality of CF mice inoculated with Pseudomonas-laden beads was significantly higher than that of normal animals: 82% of infected CF mice, but only 23% of normal mice, died within 10 d of infection (P = 0.023). The concentration of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha, murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and KC/N51, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in CF mice 3 d after infection and before any mortality, was markedly elevated compared with normal mice. This inflammatory response also correlated with weight loss observed in both CF and normal littermates after inoculation. Thus, this model may permit examination of the relationship of bacterial infections, inflammation, and the cellular and genetic defects in CF. PMID:9389746

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Ghoul, Melanie; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Buckling, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic life styles can lead to highly specialized interactions with host species, potentially resulting in fitness trade-offs in other ecological contexts. Here we studied how adaptation of the environmentally transmitted bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7) and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga) enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months), were innately phage-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years), were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) probably due to weaker in vitro growth and protease expression. These results suggest that P. aeruginosa long-term adaptation to CF-lungs could trade off with its survival in aquatic environmental reservoirs in the presence of microbial enemies, while lowered virulence could reduce pathogen opportunities to infect insect vectors; factors that are both likely to result in poorer environmental transmission. From an applied perspective, phage therapy could be useful against chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections that are often characterized by multidrug resistance: chronic isolates were least resistant to phages and their poor growth will likely slow down the emergence of beneficial resistance mutations.

  3. Airway epithelial control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Campόdonico, Victoria L; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Paradis-Bleau, Catherine; Uluer, Ahmet; Pier, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Defective expression or function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlies the hypersusceptibility of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to chronic airway infections, particularly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CFTR is involved in the specific recognition of P. aeruginosa, thereby contributing to effective innate immunity and proper hydration of the airway surface layer (ASL). In CF, the airway epithelium fails to initiate an appropriate innate immune response, allowing the microbe to bind to mucus plugs that are then not properly cleared because of the dehydrated ASL. Recent studies have identified numerous CFTR-dependent factors that are recruited to the epithelial plasma membrane in response to infection and that are needed for bacterial clearance, a process that is defective in CF patients hypersusceptible to infection with this organism. PMID:18262467

  4. Increased morbidity associated with chronic infection by an epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in CF patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aloul, M; Crawley, J; Winstanley, C; Hart, C; Ledson, M; Walshaw, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary infection with transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported, raising issues of cross infection and patient segregation. The first such strain to be described (the Liverpool epidemic strain, LES) is now widespread in many UK CF centres. However, whether such infection carries a worse prognosis is unknown. To address this, the clinical course of a group of CF patients chronically infected by LES was compared with that in patients harbouring unique strains. Methods: Using P aeruginosa strain genotyping, two cohorts of CF patients attending the Liverpool CF service were identified who were LES positive or negative in 1998 and remained so until 2002. From these, two groups of 12 patients were matched in 1998 for age, spirometric parameters, and nutritional state and their clinical course was followed for 5 years. Patients chronically infected with Burkholderia cepacia were excluded. Results: Patients chronically infected with LES had a greater annual loss of lung function than those not chronically infected by LES (mean difference between groups -4.4% (95% CI -8.1 to -0.9; p<0.02)), and by 2002 their percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was worse (mean 65.0% v 82.6%, p<0.03). Their nutritional state also deteriorated over the study period (mean difference between groups in body mass index -0.7 (95% CI -1.2 to -0.2; p<0.01)), such that by 2002 they were malnourished compared with LES negative patients (mean BMI 19.4 v 22.7, p<0.02). Conclusions: Chronic infection with the Liverpool epidemic P aeruginosa strain in CF patients confers a worse prognosis than infection with unique strains alone, confirming the need for patient segregation. Since this strain is common in many CF units, strain identification in all CF centres is essential. This can only be carried out using genomic typing methods. PMID:15047956

  5. [Early antibiotic treatment for eradication of initial infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Giugno, Hilda; Castaños, Claudio; Lubatti, Alberto; Pinheiro, José Luis; Hernández, Claudia; González Pena, Hebe

    2010-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic autosomal recessive disease that affects approximately 1:6000 live births in our country. Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with higher morbidity and-mortality, and deterioration of lung function. Treatment of initial infection is important to prevent or delay chronic infection. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness and freetime of PA in bronchial secretions after eradication treatment. The secondary objective was to determine changes in the weight and lung function. Prospective, observational study, of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and recent PA infection. After initial infection by PA patients received oral ciprofoxacin and nebulized colistin. We studied effectiveness of treatment to eradicate PA, and changes in the weight measured in Z score and in the respiratory functional tests, pre-infection, during, and after the eradication of PA. We included 24 patients (11 male) with confirmed CF. Seven of them had two PA infections, and received 2 treatment courses. PA was eradicated in 24 (80.5%) out of 31 infections. The value of weight measured in Z score, and functional tests measures through the FVC and FEV1 decreased during the infection by PA, returning to the baseline after eradication. The free-time of PA during the follow-up to these patients was 23.75 (95% CI 14.38-32.86) months. Treatment of initial infection by PA has a high degree of response. Weight and functional values improved after treatment.

  6. Efficacy of liposomal bismuth-ethanedithiol-loaded tobramycin after intratracheal administration in rats with pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Alhariri, Moayad; Omri, Abdelwahab

    2013-01-01

    We sought to investigate alterations in quorum-sensing signal molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone secretion and in the release of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors, as well as the in vivo antimicrobial activity of bismuth-ethanedithiol incorporated into a liposome-loaded tobramycin formulation (LipoBiEDT-TOB) administered to rats chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. The quorum-sensing signal molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone was monitored by using a biosensor organism. P. aeruginosa virulence factors were assessed spectrophotometrically. An agar beads model of chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in rats was used to evaluate the efficacy of the liposomal formulation in the reduction of bacterial count. The levels of active tobramycin in the lungs and the kidneys were evaluated by microbiological assay. LipoBiEDT-TOB was effective in disrupting both quorum-sensing signal molecules N-3-oxo-dodeccanoylhomoserine lactone and N-butanoylhomoserine lactone, as well as significantly (P < 0.05) reducing lipase, chitinase, and protease production. At 24 h after 3 treatments, the CFU counts in lungs of animals treated with LipoBiEDT-TOB were of 3 log(10) CFU/lung, comparated to 7.4 and 4.7 log(10) CFU/lung, respectively, in untreated lungs and in lungs treated with free antibiotic. The antibiotic concentration after the last dose of LipoBiEDT-TOB was 25.1 μg/lung, while no tobramycin was detected in the kidneys. As for the free antibiotic, we found 6.5 μg/kidney but could not detect any tobramycin in the lungs. Taken together, LipoBiEDT-TOB reduced the production of quorum-sensing molecules and virulence factors and could highly improve the management of chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis patients.

  7. Dendritic cells modulate lung response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine model of sepsis-induced immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pène, Frédéric; Zuber, Benjamin; Courtine, Emilie; Rousseau, Christophe; Ouaaz, Fatah; Toubiana, Julie; Tazi, Asmaa; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2008-12-15

    Host infection by pathogens triggers an innate immune response leading to a systemic inflammatory response, often followed by an immune dysfunction which can favor the emergence of secondary infections. Dendritic cells (DCs) link innate and adaptive immunity and may be centrally involved in the regulation of sepsis-induced immune dysfunction. We assessed the contribution of DCs to lung defense in a murine model of sublethal polymicrobial sepsis (cecal ligature and puncture, CLP). In this model, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) retained an immature phenotype, associated with decreased capacity of IL-12p70 release and impaired priming of T cell lymphocytes. Eight days after CLP surgery, we induced a secondary pulmonary infection through intratracheal instillation of 5 x 10(6) CFUs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whereas all sham-operated mice survived, 80% of post-CLP mice died after secondary pneumonia. Post-CLP mice exhibited marked lung damage with early recruitment of neutrophils, cytokine imbalance with decreased IL-12p70 production, and increased IL-10 release, but no defective bacterial lung clearance, while systemic bacterial dissemination was almost constant. Concomitant intrapulmonary administration of exogenous BMDCs into post-CLP mice challenged with P. aeruginosa dramatically improved survival. BMDCs did not improve bacterial lung clearance, but delayed neutrophil recruitment, strongly attenuated the early peak of TNF-alpha and restored an adequate Il-12p70/IL-10 balance in post-CLP mice. Thus, adoptive transfer of BMDCs reversed sepsis-induced immune dysfunction in a relevant model of secondary P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Unexpectedly, the mechanism of action of BMDCs did not involve enhanced antibacterial activity, but occurred by dampening the pulmonary inflammatory response.

  8. Development of an ex vivo porcine lung model for studying growth, virulence, and signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social "cheats" in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Development of an Ex Vivo Porcine Lung Model for Studying Growth, Virulence, and Signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social “cheats” in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. PMID:24866798

  10. Exome sequencing of extreme phenotypes identifies DCTN4 as a modifier of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Emond, Mary J; Louie, Tin; Emerson, Julia; Zhao, Wei; Mathias, Rasika A; Knowles, Michael R; Wright, Fred A; Rieder, Mark J; Tabor, Holly K; Nickerson, Deborah A; Barnes, Kathleen C; Gibson, Ronald L; Bamshad, Michael J

    2012-07-08

    Exome sequencing has become a powerful and effective strategy for the discovery of genes underlying Mendelian disorders. However, use of exome sequencing to identify variants associated with complex traits has been more challenging, partly because the sample sizes needed for adequate power may be very large. One strategy to increase efficiency is to sequence individuals who are at both ends of a phenotype distribution (those with extreme phenotypes). Because the frequency of alleles that contribute to the trait are enriched in one or both phenotype extremes, a modest sample size can potentially be used to identify novel candidate genes and/or alleles. As part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we used an extreme phenotype study design to discover that variants in DCTN4, encoding a dynactin protein, are associated with time to first P. aeruginosa airway infection, chronic P. aeruginosa infection and mucoid P. aeruginosa in individuals with cystic fibrosis.

  11. Role of LecA and LecB Lectins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Lung Injury and Effect of Carbohydrate Ligands ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chemani, Chanez; Imberty, Anne; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Pierre, Maud; Wimmerová, Michaela; Guery, Benoît P.; Faure, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequently encountered pathogen that is involved in acute and chronic lung infections. Lectin-mediated bacterium-cell recognition and adhesion are critical steps in initiating P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate the contributions of LecA and LecB to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa-mediated acute lung injury. Using an in vitro model with A549 cells and an experimental in vivo murine model of acute lung injury, we compared the parental strain to lecA and lecB mutants. The effects of both LecA- and Lec B-specific lectin-inhibiting carbohydrates (α-methyl-galactoside and α-methyl-fucoside, respectively) were evaluated. In vitro, the parental strain was associated with increased cytotoxicity and adhesion on A549 cells compared to the lecA and lecB mutants. In vivo, the P. aeruginosa-induced increase in alveolar barrier permeability was reduced with both mutants. The bacterial burden and dissemination were decreased for both mutants compared with the parental strain. Coadministration of specific lectin inhibitors markedly reduced lung injury and mortality. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between lectins and the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Inhibition of the lectins by specific carbohydrates may provide new therapeutic perspectives. PMID:19237519

  12. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling.

  13. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling. PMID:26903981

  14. Management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients using inhaled antibiotics with a focus on nebulized liposomal amikacin.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Zarmina; Clancy, John P

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) is a highly prevalent bacterial organism recovered from the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and chronic PsA infection is linked to progressive pulmonary function decline. The eradication and treatment of this organism from CF airways is particularly challenging to CF care providers. Aerosolized antibiotics that target PsA help to slow down growth, maintain lung function and reduce the frequency of pulmonary exacerbations. In this review, we discuss the currently available inhaled antibiotics for management of PsA lung infections in CF patients, with a focus on liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI). LAI is a unique formulation of amikacin under development that enhances drug delivery and retention in CF airways via drug incorporation into neutral liposomes. Factors such as once-daily dosing, mucus and biofilm penetration and potentially prolonged off-drug periods make LAI a potentially attractive option to manage chronic PsA lung infections in CF patients.

  15. Management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients using inhaled antibiotics with a focus on nebulized liposomal amikacin

    PubMed Central

    Ehsan, Zarmina; Clancy, John P

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) is a highly prevalent bacterial organism recovered from the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and chronic PsA infection is linked to progressive pulmonary function decline. The eradication and treatment of this organism from CF airways is particularly challenging to CF care providers. Aerosolized antibiotics that target PsA help to slow down growth, maintain lung function and reduce the frequency of pulmonary exacerbations. In this review, we discuss the currently available inhaled antibiotics for management of PsA lung infections in CF patients, with a focus on liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI). LAI is a unique formulation of amikacin under development that enhances drug delivery and retention in CF airways via drug incorporation into neutral liposomes. Factors such as once-daily dosing, mucus and biofilm penetration and potentially prolonged off-drug periods make LAI a potentially attractive option to manage chronic PsA lung infections in CF patients. PMID:26573178

  16. Lung defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in C5-deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed Central

    Cerquetti, M C; Sordelli, D O; Bellanti, J A; Hooke, A M

    1986-01-01

    Lung defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated in C5-deficient strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds. We studied pulmonary clearance and cell responses after aerosol exposure to P. aeruginosa in C5-deficient B10.D2/oSnJ and DBA/2J mice and their closest C5-sufficient counterparts, B10.D2/nSnJ and DBA/1J mice. Different patterns of lung clearance and pulmonary cell responses were found for the two C5-deficient strains. C5-deficient B10.D2/oSnJ mice showed defective lung clearance of P. aeruginosa 4 h after challenge compared with C5-sufficient B10.D2/nSnJ animals. This finding was associated with a decreased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruited into the airways during the same time. Interestingly, C5-deficient DBA/2J mice recruited higher numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes than did C5-sufficient DBA/1J mice by 4 h after aerosolization. Nevertheless, lung clearance of P. aeruginosa in DBA/2J mice was not as effective as in C5-sufficient DBA/1J mice, suggesting that other functions of C5 besides chemotaxism could be involved. Lung clearance of P. aeruginosa was also investigated in C5-deficient and -sufficient hybrids sharing the same genetic background (DBA/2J X B10.D2). The results suggested that murine lung clearance of P. aeruginosa is markedly affected by lack of C5 in a specific genetic background (B10.D2). PMID:3086235

  17. [Mold infections in lung transplants].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Ussetti, Piedad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive infections by molds, mainly Aspergillus infections, account for more than 10% of infectious complications in lung transplant recipients. These infections have a bimodal presentation: an early one, mainly invading bronchial airways, and a late one, mostly focused on lung or disseminated. The Aspergillus colonization at any time in the post-transplant period is one of the major risk factors. Late colonization, together with chronic rejection, is one of the main causes of late invasive forms. A galactomannan value of 0.5 in bronchoalveolar lavage is currently considered a predictive factor of pulmonary invasive infection. There is no universal strategy in terms of prophylaxis. Targeted prophylaxis and preemptive treatment instead of universal prophylaxis, are gaining more followers. The therapeutic drug monitoring level of azoles is highly recommended in the treatment. Monotherapy with voriconazole is the treatment of choice in invasive aspergillosis; combined antifungal therapies are only recommended in severe, disseminated, and other infections due to non-Aspergillus molds.

  18. IL17-Producing γδ T Cells May Enhance Humoral Immunity during Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tingting; Tan, Ruoming; Li, Meiling; Liu, Zhaojun; Wang, Xiaoli; Tian, Lijun; Liu, Jialin; Qu, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    The host acquired immune response, especially the humoral immunity, plays key roles in preventing bacterial pneumonia in the lung. Our previous research demonstrated that interleukin 17-producing γδ T cells (IL17-γδ T cells) have a protective effect on the early innate immune response during acute pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, whether IL17-γδ T cells also play a role in humoral immunity is unknown. In this study, an acute pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection model was established in wild-type and γδ TCR−/− C57BL/6 mice. The expression of IL-17 on γδ T cells isolated from infected lung tissues increased rapidly and peaked at day 7 after acute infection with P. aeruginosa. Compared with wild-type infected mice, the levels of total immunoglobulins including IgA, IgG, and IgM in the serum and BALF were significantly decreased in γδ TCR−/− mice, with the exception of IgM in the BALF. Moreover, CD69 expression in B cells from the lungs and spleen and the level of BAFF in the plasma were also decreased in γδ TCR−/− mice. IL17-γδ T cell transfusion significantly improved the production of immunoglobulins, B cell activation and BAFF levels in γδ TCR−/− mice compared with γδ TCR−/− mice without transfusion; this effect was blocked when cells were pretreated with an IL-17 antibody. Together, these data demonstrate that IL17-γδ T cells are involved in CD19+ B cell activation and the production of immunoglobulins during acute pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection. Thus, we conclude that IL17-γδ T cells may facilitate the elimination of bacteria and improve survival through not only innate immunity but also humoral immunity. PMID:27999768

  19. VDUP1 exacerbates bacteremic shock in mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Piao, Zheng-Hao; Kim, Mi Sun; Jeong, Mira; Yun, Sohyun; Lee, Suk Hyung; Sun, Hu-Nan; Song, Hae Young; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Haiyoung; Yoon, Suk Ran; Kim, Tae-Don; Lee, Young-Ho; Choi, Inpyo

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin-D3 upregulated protein-1 (VDUP1) is a stress response protein. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection is a leading cause of death. Mice infected with live P. aeruginosa exhibit significantly decreased VDUP1 expression. However, the function of VDUP1 during P. aeruginosa-induced mouse bacteremic shock is unknown. To address the function of VDUP1 in P. aeruginosa-infected mice, we constructed a bacteremic shock model wherein both wild-type and VDUP1-deficient mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live P. aeruginosa. We found that VDUP1-deficient mice were more resistant to P. aeruginosa-induced bacteremic shock than wild-type mice, as shown by the increased survival, accelerated bacterial clearance and suppression of cytokine overproduction of the VDUP1-deficient mice. VDUP1 promoted the recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavities of infected mice. VDUP1 impeded the phagocytosis of non-opsonized P. aeruginosa via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in macrophages. P. aeruginosa infection induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the increased production of ROS by the peritoneal cells of VDUP1-deficient mice was advantageous in clearing the bacteria. Overall, VDUP1 aggravates bacteremic shock; thus, VDUP1 can be considered a target molecule for the inhibition of P. aeruginosa-induced bacteremic shock.

  20. Bacteriophages for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Harper, D R; Enright, M C

    2011-07-01

    Bacteriophages were first identified in 1915 and were used as antimicrobial agents from 1919 onwards. Despite apparent successes and widespread application, early users did not understand the nature of these agents and their efficacy remained controversial. As a result, they were replaced in the west by chemical antibiotics once these became available. However, bacteriophages remained a common therapeutic approach in parts of Eastern Europe where they are still in use. Increasing levels of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are now driving demand for novel therapeutic approaches. In cases where antibiotic options are limited or nonexistent, the pressure for new agents is greatest. One of the most prominent areas of concern is multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a prominent member of this class and is the cause of damaging infections that can be resistant to successful treatment with conventional antibiotics. At the same time, it exhibits a number of properties that make it a suitable target for bacteriophage-based approaches, including growth in biofilms that can hydrolyse following phage infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa provides a striking example of an infection where clinical need and the availability of a practical therapy coincide.

  1. Effect of airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation and infection on steady-state bronchiectasis in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Gao, Yong-Hua; Xu, Gang; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-Min; Li, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Jin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Current status of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in clinically stable bronchiectasis in mainland China remains unclear. Objective To compare the inflammation and lung function impairment in bronchiectasis patients isolated or infected with PA, potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) and commensals, and to identify factors associated with PA isolation and infection. Methods Patients with steady-state bronchiectasis and healthy subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood and sputum were sampled to determine inflammatory markers and bacterial loads in steady-state bronchiectasis and health. Spirometry and diffusing capacity were also measured. Results We enrolled 144 bronchiectasis patients and 23 healthy subjects. PA isolation and infection accounted for 44 and 39 patients, who demonstrated significant inflammatory responses and markedly impaired spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, compared with healthy subjects and patients isolated with other PPMs and commensals (all P<0.05). Except for heightened sputum inflammatory responses, there were no notable differences in serum inflammation and lung function as with the increased density of PA. Female gender [odds ratio (OR): 3.10 for PA isolation; OR: 3.74 for PA infection], 4 or more exacerbations within 2 years (OR: 3.74 for PA isolation, OR: 2.95 for PA infection) and cystic bronchiectasis (OR: 3.63 for PA isolation, OR: 4.47 for PA infection) were the factors consistently associated with PA isolation and infection. Conclusions PA elicits intense inflammation and lung function impairment in steady-state bronchiectasis. The density of PA does not correlate with most clinical indices. PA infection is associated with females, frequent exacerbations and cystic bronchiectasis. PMID:25973228

  2. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection of the Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, John R.; Magliocco, Michael V.

    1971-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of human cornea is rare but serious. The work of previous investigators using experimental infection primarily of rabbit cornea resulted in successful therapy for 10 to 50% of clinical cases. The advantage of using the mouse is demonstrated. The methods we adapted for characterizing the untreated experimental infection included: incising the cornea to enable establishing the infection; corneal examination with a steroscopic microscope; grading corneal pathology; qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the infecting bacteria by culturing and staining sectioned and dissected tissues. The characteristics of the tissue pathology, host response, and infection were similar to those reported for other animals and man. Corneal pathology was frequently nearly maximal 1 day after infection; host response involved a progression of events of long duration; pathology persisted well beyond the period of bacterial infection. The infection was essentially noncommunicable, and invasiveness was limited to the tissues of the incised eye. The results show the possibility of tests for invasiveness of clinical isolates and for screening for therapeutic and prophylactic measures. PMID:16557955

  3. The role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the lung is dependent on the host genetic background.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Patrick; Sigounas, Vaia Yioula; Thompson, Jenna L; van Rooijen, Nico; Poynter, Matthew E; Wargo, Matthew J; Boyson, Jonathan E

    2015-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human opportunistic pathogen, accounting for a significant fraction of hospital-acquired lung infections. CD1d-restricted NKT cells comprise an unusual innate-like T cell subset that plays important roles in both bacterial and viral infections. Previous reports have differed in their conclusions regarding the role of NKT cells in clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lung. Since there is significant strain-dependent variation in NKT cell number and function among different inbred strains of mice, we investigated whether the role of NKT cells was dependent on the host genetic background. We found that NKT cells did indeed play a critical role in the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs of BALB/c mice but that they played no discernible role in clearance from the lungs of C57BL/6 mice. We found that the strain-dependent role of NKT cells was associated with significant strain-dependent differences in cytokine production by lung NKT cells and that impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa in BALB/c CD1d(-/-) mice was associated with an increase in neutrophil influx to the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines after infection. Finally, we found that the role of alveolar macrophages was also dependent on the genetic background. These data provide further support for a model in which the unusually high level of variability in NKT cell number and function among different genetic backgrounds may be an important contributor to infectious-disease susceptibility and pathology.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms Biofilms in Acute InfectionIndependent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2006-09-20

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Whitfield, Gregory B.; Kitao, Tomoe; Ivey, Melissa L.; Davis, Michael R.; Grahl, Nora; Hogan, Deborah A.; Rahme, Laurence G.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus. Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO), and rhamnolipids—each required for efficient killing of S. aureus. These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureus. PMID:28325763

  6. Peri-emphysematous lung infection.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D A; D'Esopo, N D

    1981-01-01

    The difficulty in classifying pulmonary infection within areas of bullous emphysema may have contributed to the lack of appreciation of this entity. This process is important to recognize because: (1) the clinical picture is usually benign:; (2) it may be confused with tuberculosis, fungal disease, and carcinoma of the lung; and (3) radiographic resolution may be slow. For these reasons, pneumonitis which occurs within emphysematous lung may have been previously considered as slowly resolving pneumonias. The development of air-fluid levels within bullae has been called "infected emphysematous bullae." We believe that this phrase is misleading since there are no bacteriologic data to support the presence of infection within the bullae containing fluid. In fact, direct sampling of intrabullous fluid has been rarely reported and, if obtained, has been generally negative for bacteria. Furthermore, the clinical course in our patients is alos not consistent with infection within a space. Once fiberoptic bronchoscopy has excluded an obstructing endobronchial lesion, the physician may patiently follow the anticipated gradual resolution. We suggest that the phrase, "periemphysematous lung infection" best describes these related clinical-radiological conditions.

  7. The deletion of TonB-dependent receptor genes is part of the genome reduction process that occurs during adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Jozef; Ye, Lumeng; Hildebrand, Falk; Tontodonati, Francesca; Craggs, Michael; Bilocq, Florence; De Vos, Daniel; Crabbé, Aurélie; Van Houdt, Rob; Malfroot, Anne; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are the main cause of morbidity among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) due to persistent lung inflammation caused by interaction between this bacterium and the immune system. Longitudinal studies of clonally related isolates of a dominant CF clone have indicated that genome reduction frequently occurs during adaptation of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung. In this study, we have evaluated the P. aeruginosa population structure of patients attending the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel) CF reference center using a combination of genotyping methods. Although the UZ Brussel P. aeruginosa CF population is characterized by the absence of a dominant CF clone, some potential interpatient transmissions could be detected. Interestingly, one of these clones showed deletion of the alternative type I ferripyoverdine receptor gene fpvB. Furthermore, we found that several other TonB-dependent receptors are deleted as well. The genome of one potentially transmissible CF clone was sequenced, revealing large deleted regions including all type III secretion system genes and several virulence genes. Remarkably, a large number of deleted genes are shared between the P. aeruginosa CF clone described in this study and isolates belonging to the dominant Copenhagen CF DK2 clone, suggesting parallel evolution. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Overproduction Promotes Coexistence with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model of Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Infection.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Dominique H; Whitfield, Gregory B; Kitao, Tomoe; Ivey, Melissa L; Davis, Michael R; Grahl, Nora; Hogan, Deborah A; Rahme, Laurence G; Howell, P Lynne; O'Toole, George A; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2017-03-21

    While complex intra- and interspecies microbial community dynamics are apparent during chronic infections and likely alter patient health outcomes, our understanding of these interactions is currently limited. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often found to coinfect the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet these organisms compete under laboratory conditions. Recent observations that coinfection correlates with decreased health outcomes necessitate we develop a greater understanding of these interbacterial interactions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa and/or S. aureus adopts phenotypes that allow coexistence during infection. We compared competitive interactions of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates from mono- or coinfected CF patients employing in vitro coculture models. P. aeruginosa isolates from monoinfected patients were more competitive toward S. aureus than P. aeruginosa isolates from coinfected patients. We also observed that the least competitive P. aeruginosa isolates possessed a mucoid phenotype. Mucoidy occurs upon constitutive activation of the sigma factor AlgT/U, which regulates synthesis of the polysaccharide alginate and dozens of other secreted factors, including some previously described to kill S. aureus Here, we show that production of alginate in mucoid strains is sufficient to inhibit anti-S. aureus activity independent of activation of the AlgT regulon. Alginate reduces production of siderophores, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinolone-N-oxide (HQNO), and rhamnolipids-each required for efficient killing of S. aureus These studies demonstrate alginate overproduction may be an important factor driving P. aeruginosa coinfection with S. aureusIMPORTANCE Numerous deep-sequencing studies have revealed the microbial communities present during respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are diverse, complex, and dynamic. We now face the challenge of determining

  9. Effect of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Dingemans, Jozef; Monsieurs, Pieter; Yu, Sung-Huan; Crabbé, Aurélie; Förstner, Konrad U.; Malfroot, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms. In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes associated with the growth of a highly adapted, transmissible P. aeruginosa CF strain in artificial sputum medium under LS conditions. Robust self-aggregating biofilms were observed only under LS conditions. Growth under LS conditions resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in stress response, alginate biosynthesis, denitrification, glycine betaine biosynthesis, glycerol metabolism, and cell shape maintenance, while genes involved in phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion, and multidrug efflux were downregulated. In addition, a number of small RNAs appeared to be involved in the response to shear stress. Finally, quorum sensing was found to be slightly but significantly affected by shear stress, resulting in higher production of autoinducer molecules during growth under high fluid shear (HS) conditions. In summary, our study revealed a way to modulate the behavior of a highly adapted P. aeruginosa CF strain by means of introducing shear stress, driving it from a biofilm lifestyle to a more planktonic lifestyle. PMID:27486191

  10. Bacteriocin-mediated competition in cystic fibrosis lung infections

    PubMed Central

    Ghoul, Melanie; West, Stuart A.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren; Harrison, Odile B.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Jelsbak, Lars; Bruce, John B.; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are toxins produced by bacteria to kill competitors of the same species. Theory and laboratory experiments suggest that bacteriocin production and immunity play a key role in the competitive dynamics of bacterial strains. The extent to which this is the case in natural populations, especially human pathogens, remains to be tested. We examined the role of bacteriocins in competition using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains infecting lungs of humans with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the ability of different strains to kill each other using phenotypic assays, and sequenced their genomes to determine what bacteriocins (pyocins) they carry. We found that (i) isolates from later infection stages inhibited earlier infecting strains less, but were more inhibited by pyocins produced by earlier infecting strains and carried fewer pyocin types; (ii) this difference between early and late infections appears to be caused by a difference in pyocin diversity between competing genotypes and not by loss of pyocin genes within a lineage over time; (iii) pyocin inhibition does not explain why certain strains outcompete others within lung infections; (iv) strains frequently carry the pyocin-killing gene, but not the immunity gene, suggesting resistance occurs via other unknown mechanisms. Our results show that, in contrast to patterns observed in experimental studies, pyocin production does not appear to have a major influence on strain competition during CF lung infections. PMID:26311664

  11. Essential genes in the infection model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-PCR-based signature-tagged mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    PCR-based signature tagged mutagenesis is an "en masse" screening technique based upon unique oligonucleotide tags (molecular barcodes) for identification of genes that will diminish or enhance maintenance of an organism in a specific ecological niche or environment. PCR-based STM applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa permitted the identification of genes essential for in vivo maintenance by transposon insertion and negative selection in a mixed population of bacterial mutants. The innovative adaptations and refinement of the technology presented here with P. aeruginosa STM mutants selected in the rat model of chronic lung infection have given critical information about genes essential for causing a chronic infection and a wealth of information about biological processes in vivo. The additional use of competitive index analysis for measurement of the level of virulence in vivo, microarray-based screening of selected prioritized STM mutants coupled to metabolomics analysis can now be attempted systematically on a genomic scale. PCR-based STM and combined whole-genome methods can also be applied to any organism having selectable phenotypes for screening.

  12. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 inhibits bacterial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nana; Wang, Qin; Zhou, Jian; Li, Jing; Wen, Xiaoxing; Chen, Shujing; Zhu, Zhenhua; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin; Li, Huayin

    2016-01-01

    To determine protective effects of concurrent administration of Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) inoculation on the induced pneumonia. KGF-2 (5 mg/kg) was concurrently administered into the left lobe of 55 mice with P. aeruginosa PAO1 (5 × 10(6) CFU, half-lethal dose); 55 mice in the control group were concurrently administered PBS with the PAO1. We detected and analyzed: body temperature; amount of P. aeruginosa in homogenates; count of total number of nucleated cells and of mononuclear macrophages; protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); lung wet-to-dry weight ratio; cytokines in BALF and blood; and lung morphology. To study survival rate, concurrent administration of KGF-2 (experimental group) versus PBS (control) with a lethal dose of PAO1 (1 × 10(7) CFU was performed, and survivorship was documented for 7 days post-inoculation. The bacterial CFU in lung homogenates was significantly decreased in the KGF-2 group compared to the control group. There were significantly more mononuclear macrophages in the BALF from the KGF-2 group than from the control group (p < 0.05). KGF-2 increased the surfactant protein and GM-CSF mRNA in lung at 6 h and 72 h after inoculation. Significant reduction of lung injury scores, protein concentrations, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and IL-6 and TNF-α levels was noted in the KGF-2 treated rats at 72 h after inoculation (p < 0.05). The 7-day survival rate of the KGF-2 group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). Concurrent administration of KGF-2 facilitates the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs, attenuates P. aeruginosa-induced lung injury, and extends the 7-day survival rate in mice model with P. aeruginosa pneumonia.

  13. Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse.

  14. Insights into host-pathogen interactions from state-of-the-art animal models of respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Anne; Pawar, Vinay; Häussler, Susanne; Weiss, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause acute respiratory infections in immunocompetent patients or chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis. When acquiring the chronic infection state, bacteria are encapsulated within biofilm structures enabling them to withstand diverse environmental assaults, including immune reactions and antimicrobial therapy. Understanding the molecular interactions within the bacteria, as well as with the host or other bacteria, is essential for developing innovative treatment strategies. Such knowledge might be accumulated in vitro. However, it is ultimately necessary to confirm these findings in vivo. In the present Review, we describe state-of-the-art in vivo models that allow studying P. aeruginosa infections in molecular detail. The portrayed mammalian models exclusively focus on respiratory infections. The data obtained by alternative animal models which lack lung tissue, often provide molecular insights that are easily transferable to mammals. Importantly, these surrogate in vivo systems reveal complex molecular interactions of P. aeruginosa with the host. Herein, we also provide a critical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of such models.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  17. Optimised chronic infection models demonstrate that siderophore 'cheating' in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is context specific.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; McNally, Alan; da Silva, Ana C; Heeb, Stephan; Diggle, Stephen P

    2017-07-11

    The potential for siderophore mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attenuate virulence during infection, and the possibility of exploiting this for clinical ends, have attracted much discussion. This has largely been based on the results of in vitro experiments conducted in iron-limited growth medium, in which siderophore mutants act as social 'cheats:' increasing in frequency at the expense of the wild type to result in low-productivity, low-virulence populations dominated by mutants. We show that insights from in vitro experiments cannot necessarily be transferred to infection contexts. First, most published experiments use an undefined siderophore mutant. Whole-genome sequencing of this strain revealed a range of mutations affecting phenotypes other than siderophore production. Second, iron-limited medium provides a very different environment from that encountered in chronic infections. We conducted cheating assays using defined siderophore deletion mutants, in conditions designed to model infected fluids and tissue in cystic fibrosis lung infection and non-healing wounds. Depending on the environment, siderophore loss led to cheating, simple fitness defects, or no fitness effect at all. Our results show that it is crucial to develop defined in vitro models in order to predict whether siderophores are social, cheatable and suitable for clinical exploitation in specific infection contexts.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.103.

  18. [Inhaled colistin in elderly patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bronchial infection].

    PubMed

    Tabernero Huguet, Eva; Gil Alaña, Pilar; Alkiza Basañez, Ramón; Hernández Gil, Anibal; Garros Garay, Javier; Artola Igarza, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is a frequent cause of admission for elderly patients and chronic respiratory diseases. Although some guidelines recommend long-term treatment with inhaled antibiotics in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection, there is limited evidence supporting these prolonged antibiotic treatments in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of inhaled colistin in elderly patients with bronchiectasis and chronic bronchial P. aeruginosa infection in reducing hospital readmissions. A prospective, controlled and open label study was conducted on patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed by computed tomography and persistence of P. aeruginosa in sputum after appropriate antimicrobial therapy. All patients received education, and physiotherapy training. The intervention group also received nebulized colistin 1 million IU twice a day for one year. Data were collected on the demographics, clinical and functional characteristics, admissions in previous year, and sputum microbiology. Patients were followed up every two months for one year, with readmissions, microbiological results, functional tests, and deaths being evaluated. The study included 39 patients, of whom 20 received nebulized colistin and 19 conventional therapy. There were no differences between the two groups in baseline clinical and functional characteristics or previous hospital stay. The mean age was 77.7+/-5, Charlson index 2.85, and FEV1% 41.3+/-15. Five patients (25%) stopped the nebulized treatment because of adverse effects. P. aeruginosa was eradicated in 45% of the colistin treated patients, and in only one of the control group (statistically significant), but at the end of the study year, there were no differences in the number of hospital admissions (control group 1.6+/-1.7 and 2.7+/-3 colistin group), or days of stay (19+/-31 and 23+/-20). There were no differences in lung function or clinical symptoms between

  19. Defect in early lung defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in DBA/2 mice is associated with acute inflammatory lung injury and reduced bactericidal activity in naïve macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kari R.; Napper, Jennifer M.; Denvir, James; Sollars, Vincent E.; Yu, Hongwei D.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious respiratory disease in the immune compromised host. Using an aerosol infection model, eleven inbred mouse strains (129/Sv, A/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeN, C57BL/6, DBA/2, FVB, B10.D2/oSnJ, B10.D2/nSnJ, AKR/J and SWR/J) were tested for increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa lung colonizations. DBA/2 was the only mouse strain that had increased bacterial counts in the lung within 6h post infection. This deficiency incited a marked inflammatory response with reduced bacterial lung clearance and a mortality rate of 96.7%. DBA/2 displayed progressive deterioration of lung pathology with extensive alveolar exudate and edema formation at 48-72h post infection. The neutrophil-specific myeloperoxidase activity remained elevated throughout infection, suggesting that the increased leukocyte infiltrations into alveoli caused acute inflammatory lung injury. DBA/2 lacks the hemolytic complement; however, three additional mouse strains (AKR/J, SWR/J and A/J) with the same defect effectively cleared the infection, indicating other host factors are involved in the defense. Bone marrow derived macrophages of DBA/2 showed an initial increase in phagocytosis, while their bactericidal activity was reduced compared to that of C57BL/6 macrophages. Comparison of pulmonary cytokine profiles of DBA/2 vs. C57BL/6 or C3H/HeN indicated DBA/2 had a similar increase in TNFα, KC, and IL-1a as C3H/HeN but showed specific induction of IL-17, MCP-1, and VEGF. Together, DBA/2 mice have a defect in the initial lung defense against P. aeruginosa colonization, which causes the host to produce a greater, but damaging, inflammatory response. Such a response may originate from the reduced antimicrobial activity of DBA/2 macrophages. PMID:17379707

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III secretion system interacts with phagocytes to modulate systemic infection of zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Mark K; Davis, J Muse; Mathias, Jonathan R; Hall, Chris J; Emerson, Julia C; Crosier, Philip S; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Moskowitz, Samuel M

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause serious infection in those with deficient or impaired phagocytes. We have developed the optically transparent and genetically tractable zebrafish embryo as a model for systemic P. aeruginosa infection. Despite lacking adaptive immunity at this developmental stage, zebrafish embryos were highly resistant to P. aeruginosa infection, but as in humans, phagocyte depletion dramatically increased their susceptibility. The virulence of an attenuated P. aeruginosa strain lacking a functional Type III secretion system was restored upon phagocyte depletion, suggesting that this system influences virulence through its effects on phagocytes. Intravital imaging revealed bacterial interactions with multiple blood cell types. Neutrophils and macrophages rapidly phagocytosed and killed P. aeruginosa, suggesting that both cell types play a role in protection against infection. Intravascular aggregation of erythrocytes and other blood cells with resultant circulatory blockage was observed immediately upon infection, which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications of human P. aeruginosa infections. The real-time visualization capabilities and genetic tractability of the zebrafish infection model should enable elucidation of molecular and cellular details of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis in conditions associated with neutropenia or impaired phagocyte function. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. [Bacteriological monitoring of the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections with amikacin administrated at once-daily dosis in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Canis, F; Husson, M O; Vic, P; Ategbo, S; Turck, D; Courcol, R; Leclerc, H

    1995-04-01

    The interest of the treatment with a single daily dose of amikacin (AMK) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with P. aeruginosa infections has been much debated. The aim of work was to study the efficiency of this treatment on (CF) patients with chronic bronchopulmonary P. aeruginosa infections previously treated for two weeks with the combination ceftazidime (CAZ 200 mg/day in 3 inj. IVD) and AMK (35 mg/day in one IV perf. of 30 minutes). The bacteriological supervision of this treatment was performed 1: by the determination of MICs before and after treatment, 2: by the decrease of P. aeruginosa colonization immediately after this treatment and during 11 months, 3: by the identification of P. aeruginosa strains with phenotypic methods (serotyping and antibiotyping) and with genotypic method (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). The use of AMK in a single daily dose in order to treat chronic lung infections colonized with P. aeruginosa susceptible to this antibiotic shows encouraging results as far as bacteriology is concerned: this treatment has given means to reduce colonization for a month in 15 of 18 patients. For 9 of the 18 patients, no P. aeruginosa strains were isolated for nine months. The serotyping and antibiotyping systems do not enable us to study the P. aeruginosa epidemiology. Genome macrorestriction fingerprinting of P. aeruginosa in pulsed field gel electrophoresis confirms that patient with CF were colonized with one or several clones. In our study no variation of these clones was noticed for the first eleven months. Genome macrorestriction fingerprinting appears to be one of the most effective methods for delineate strains of P. aeruginosa colonizing CF patients.

  2. Tobramycin inhalation powder for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: the EVOLVE trial

    PubMed Central

    Konstan, Michael W; Geller, David E; Minić, Predrag; Brockhaus, Florian; Zhang, Jie; Angyalosi, Gerhild

    2014-01-01

    Tobramycin inhalation solution is used to treat chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a novel, light-porous-particle, dry-powder formulation of tobramycin, which was developed to improve delivery efficiency to the airways and substantially reduce the delivery time. In this randomized, double-blind study, patients with cystic fibrosis (age 6–21 years) received tobramycin inhalation powder (112 mg tobramycin) twice daily (n = 46) or placebo (n = 49) via the T-326 Inhaler for one cycle, followed by two open-label cycles (all patients). Cycles were 28 days on, 28 days off treatment. The primary endpoint was change in FEV1 % predicted from baseline to Day 28 of Cycle 1. The study was terminated early based on positive results in the interim analysis. Tobramycin inhalation powder significantly improved FEV1 % predicted versus placebo at Day 28 (difference 13.3, 95% CI 5.31, 21.28; P = 0.0016). Similar changes in FEV1 were seen in patients switching from placebo to tobramycin inhalation powder in Cycle 2; improvements were maintained over time. Tobramycin inhalation powder also reduced sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density, respiratory-related hospitalization and antipseudomonal antibiotic use versus placebo. The most common adverse event was cough; the frequency of cough was higher in patients receiving placebo (26.5%) versus tobramycin inhalation powder (13.0%) in Cycle 1. Tobramycin inhalation powder was not associated with ototoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Administration time was between 4 and 6 minutes. In conclusion, tobramycin inhalation powder was effective and well tolerated in cystic fibrosis patients, and may offer an important treatment option to decrease the treatment burden of cystic fibrosis pseudomonas lung infections. PMID:20963831

  3. Interaction of a rat lung lectin with the exopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, H A; Ceri, H

    1983-01-01

    The specific interaction between the exopolysaccharide purified from a number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients and a rat lung heparin-lectin was assayed. The polysaccharide prepared from Homma serotypes M, B, I, and G did not act as hapten inhibitors of lectin activity, whereas the polymers prepared from ca. 80% of strains that did not type with Homma serum did act as hapten inhibitors. Inhibition was shown not to be due to lipopolysaccharide. The infrared spectrums of both inhibitory and noninhibitory polymers appeared very similar, although small amounts of glucose and an unidentified amino sugar were found only in the nontypable strains. This evidence suggests that rat lung lectin recognizes and distinguishes a specific type of alginate-like polymer prevalent on the Homma nontypable P. aeruginosa. PMID:6417018

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of an IMP-7-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infection Isolate from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jennison, A.; Wailan, A. M.; Paterson, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT IMP-7 is one of the two IMP-type carbapenemases that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not limited to a geographic area, but it has not been previously reported in the Australian setting. We report here the draft genome sequence of an Australian P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolate that contains IMP-7. PMID:28684579

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of an IMP-7-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bloodstream Infection Isolate from Australia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K L; Jennison, A; Wailan, A M; Paterson, D L

    2017-07-06

    IMP-7 is one of the two IMP-type carbapenemases that in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not limited to a geographic area, but it has not been previously reported in the Australian setting. We report here the draft genome sequence of an Australian P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection isolate that contains IMP-7. Copyright © 2017 McCarthy et al.

  6. Use of artificial sputum medium to test antibiotic efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in conditions more relevant to the cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Sebastian; Fothergill, Joanne L; Wright, Elli A; James, Chloe E; Mowat, Eilidh; Winstanley, Craig

    2012-06-05

    There is growing concern about the relevance of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests when applied to isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Existing methods rely on single or a few isolates grown aerobically and planktonically. Predetermined cut-offs are used to define whether the bacteria are sensitive or resistant to any given antibiotic. However, during chronic lung infections in CF, P. aeruginosa populations exist in biofilms and there is evidence that the environment is largely microaerophilic. The stark difference in conditions between bacteria in the lung and those during diagnostic testing has called into question the reliability and even relevance of these tests. Artificial sputum medium (ASM) is a culture medium containing the components of CF patient sputum, including amino acids, mucin and free DNA. P. aeruginosa growth in ASM mimics growth during CF infections, with the formation of self-aggregating biofilm structures and population divergence. The aim of this study was to develop a microtitre-plate assay to study antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa based on growth in ASM, which is applicable to both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions. An ASM assay was developed in a microtitre plate format. P. aeruginosa biofilms were allowed to develop for 3 days prior to incubation with antimicrobial agents at different concentrations for 24 hours. After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. This assay was used to ascertain the sessile cell minimum inhibitory concentration (SMIC) of tobramycin for 15 different P. aeruginosa isolates under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions and SMIC values were compared to those obtained with standard broth growth. Whilst there was some evidence for increased MIC values for isolates grown in ASM when compared to their planktonic counterparts, the biggest differences were found with bacteria tested in microaerophilic conditions, which showed a much

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa co-infection is associated with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Limoli, D H; Yang, J; Khansaheb, M K; Helfman, B; Peng, L; Stecenko, A A; Goldberg, J B

    2016-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) patients suffer from accelerated rates of pulmonary decline compared to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). However, the mechanisms underlying this difference are unknown. While CFRD is associated with increased respiratory infections, a link between infection and enhanced pulmonary dysfunction remains unclear. The development of glucose intolerance is spectral, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) prior to the diagnosis of CFRD. Inclusion of IGT patients within the NGT group may diminish the ability to identify correlations with CFRD. With this in mind, this study aimed to determine if the association between CFRD and respiratory infections is correlated with pulmonary decline. Respiratory cultures from 234 CF patients with confirmed diagnosis of NGT or CFRD were analyzed to measure rates of infection, focusing on the two most prevalent bacteria in CF, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection status was correlated with pulmonary function and confounding clinical variables including age, gender, blood glucose levels, and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) phenotype were considered in multivariate analyses. CFRD patients, particularly those with extremely high blood glucose levels, were more likely than NGT patients to be co-infected with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, compared to infection with only one pathogen. Co-infection was associated with decreased lung function and increased frequency of pulmonary exacerbations, even after adjustment for confounding variables. Alterations in the microbial community composition, as opposed to the presence of a single pathogen, may account for greater pulmonary decline in CFRD patients.

  8. Protective ventilation reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue in a porcine pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2017-08-31

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg(-1). The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg(-1). 10(11) colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.05) in the lung tissue, and a lower wet-to-dry ratio (p < 0.01) than the control group. The control group deteriorated in arterial oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction, whereas the protective group was unchanged (p < 0.01). In early phase pneumonia, protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.

  9. Respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Leonard J; Noone, Peadar G

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterised by chronic respiratory infections associated with bronchiectasis. Lung transplantation has helped to extend the lives of patients with cystic fibrosis who have advanced lung disease. However, persistent, recurrent, and newly acquired infections can be problematic. Classic cystic fibrosis-associated organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are generally manageable post-transplantation, and are associated with favourable outcomes. Burkholderia cenocepacia poses particular challenges, although other Burkholderia species are less problematic. Despite concerns about non-tuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, post-transplantation survival has not been definitively shown to be less than average in patients with these infections. Fungal species can be prevalent before and after transplantation and are associated with high morbidity, so should be treated aggressively. Appropriate viral screening and antiviral prophylaxis are necessary to prevent infection with and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus and their associated complications. Awareness of drug pharmacokinetics and interactions in cystic fibrosis is crucial to prevent toxic effects and subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug dosing. With the large range of potential infectious organisms in patients with cystic fibrosis, infection control in hospital and outpatient settings is important. Despite its complexity, lung transplantation in the cystic fibrosis population is safe, with good outcomes if the clinician is aware of all the potential pathogens and remains vigilant by means of surveillance and proactive treatment.

  10. Diverse effects of Galleria mellonella infection with entomopathogenic and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Andrejko, Mariola; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In numerous studies, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been exploited as an alternative model host for investigating virulence factors of different pathogenic bacteria. In the present paper, we provide evidence that G. mellonella constitutes a useful and convenient model for analysis of the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains. In this in vivo study on the G. mellonella–P. aeruginosa interaction, a bidirectional analysis comprising evaluation of humoral immune response of the bacteria-infected larvae and determination of P. aeruginosa proteinases synthesized during the infection was performed. The effects of G. mellonella infection by two clinical strains (PA C124/9 and PA 02/18) and one entomopathogenic strain (ATCC 27853) cultured in a rich LB and minimal M9 medium, known to induce synthesis of different sets of extracellular proteinases, were evaluated. Both clinical isolates were able to establish infection in G. mellonella caterpillars after intrahemocelic injection. However, although the final effect of the larvae infection by each P. aeruginosa strain was their death within ca. 48 h, considerable strain and medium-dependent differences in the immune response of the insects were detected. The results indicated that G. mellonella larvae distinguished between the three P. aeruginosa strains, which was well reflected by the diverse humoral immune response. The significant differences concerned, among others, the level of phenoloxidase, lysozyme, and antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of the infected insects. An analysis of proteinases performed using specific activity tests, zymography and immunoblotting, revealed that elastase B and alkaline protease were synthesized by each P. aeruginosa strain during the infection. In contrast, a high level of elastase A activity was detected only in the larvae infected by the P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain. It can be postulated that the three P. aeruginosa strains exploit different

  11. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulatory Factor Enhances the Pro-Inflammatory Response of Interferon-γ-Treated Macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  12. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor enhances the pro-inflammatory response of interferon-γ-treated macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  13. [Strategies for management of difficult to treat Gram-negative infections: focus on Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo

    2007-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often involved in the aetiology of numerous infections, particularly those occurring in hospital. The infections in which P. aeruginosa most frequently has a pathogenic role include respiratory tract infections, particularly those occurring in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and cystic fibrosis, as well as those developing in patients with AIDS, bacteraemia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, especially those related to catheterisation or kidney transplants, infections in neutropenic patients, and skin infections, particular those developing in surgical wounds or in burns. Thus, in practice, P. aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in all body districts. Particular attention should also be given to the presence of P. aeruginosa in the community setting, for example when it causes community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly or pneumonia in patients with advanced stage COPD. The mortality rate of patients with severe P. aeruginosa infections is very high. Treatment should be initiated very promptly with the most suitable drug, perhaps making use of combination therapy with a beta-lactam and a fluoroquinolone when indicated, and continued for a sufficiently long period. As far as concerns future therapeutic options for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections, the only two new molecules that will probably become available are doripenem and ceftobiprole. Given this prospective, trust must be placed in the already known drugs, exploiting them more appropriately.

  14. Enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung clearance after local immunization with a temperature-sensitive mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, D O; Cerquetti, M C; Hooke, A M; Bellanti, J A

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of the temperature-sensitive mutant strain A/10/25 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ts-Psa) to induce enhancement of lung defenses against wild type P. aeruginosa (wt-Psa). Mice of the DBA/2J inbred strain were immunized by aerosolization with a single dose of 2 x 10(5) to 4 x 10(5) CFU of ts-Psa and were challenged 7, 14, and 21 days later with wt-Psa. The uncleared bacteria ratio was determined 4 h after aerosol exposure; significant enhancement in lung clearance of wt-Psa (P less than 0.01) was evident as early as 7 days after immunization and detectable for at least 21 days. Aerosol immunization with Staphylococcus aureus did not enhance lung clearance of wt-Psa; however, slight but significant enhancement in S. aureus clearance was observed in mice immunized 7 days before with ts-Psa. No enhancement of S. aureus clearance was seen in ts-Psa immunized animals after 14 and 21 days. Analysis of the cell composition of lung lavage fluids revealed a transient cell response characterized by rapid increase in the absolute number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, followed later by an increase in alveolar macrophages. The characteristics of lung lavages returned to base-line values 6 days after aerosol immunization, and a second exposure to a ts-Psa aerosol produced a response of similar magnitude and quality. We conclude that aerosol immunization with a temperature-sensitive mutant of P. aeruginosa enhances specific pulmonary defense mechanisms against the parental pathogen in mice. PMID:6404822

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moses; Christley, Scott; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Fleming, Irma; Huang, Yong; Chang, Eugene; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2015-04-01

    Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here, we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative Day 6, and abdominal tissues were analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissue components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to the skin, fascia, and muscle. Gross wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues versus noninjured (80% vs.10%) tissues (n = 20 per group, p < 0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to the fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection.

  16. Bacterial activity in cystic fibrosis lung infections

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geraint B; Carroll, Mary P; Serisier, David J; Hockey, Peter M; Kehagia, Valia; Jones, Graeme R; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2005-01-01

    Background Chronic lung infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. Recent molecular biological based studies have identified a surprisingly wide range of hitherto unreported bacterial species in the lungs of CF patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether the species present were active and, as such, worthy of further investigation as potential pathogens. Methods Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles were generated from PCR products amplified from 16S rDNA and Reverse Transcription Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RT-T-RFLP) profiles, a marker of metabolic activity, were generated from PCR products amplified from 16S rRNA, both extracted from the same CF sputum sample. To test the level of activity of these bacteria, T-RFLP profiles were compared to RT-T-RFLP profiles. Results Samples from 17 individuals were studied. Parallel analyses identified a total of 706 individual T-RF and RT-T-RF bands in this sample set. 323 bands were detected by T-RFLP and 383 bands were detected by RT-T-RFLP (statistically significant; P ≤ 0.001). For the group as a whole, 145 bands were detected in a T-RFLP profile alone, suggesting metabolically inactive bacteria. 205 bands were detected in an RT-T-RFLP profile alone and 178 bands were detected in both, suggesting a significant degree of metabolic activity. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa was present and active in many patients, a low occurrence of other species traditionally considered to be key CF pathogens was detected. T-RFLP profiles obtained for induced sputum samples provided by healthy individuals without CF formed a separate cluster indicating a low level of similarity to those from CF patients. Conclusion These results indicate that a high proportion of the bacterial species detected in the sputum from all of the CF patients in the study are active. The widespread activity of bacterial species in these samples

  17. Short term Candida albicans colonization reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related lung injury and bacterial burden in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent cause of ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP). Candida tracheobronchial colonization is associated with higher rates of VAP related to P. aeruginosa. This study was designed to investigate whether prior short term Candida albicans airway colonization modulates the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in a murine model of pneumonia and to evaluate the effect of fungicidal drug caspofungin. Methods BALB/c mice received a single or a combined intratracheal administration of C. albicans (1 × 105 CFU/mouse) and P. aeruginosa (1 × 107 CFU/mouse) at time 0 (T0) upon C. albicans colonization, and Day 2. To evaluate the effect of antifungal therapy, mice received caspofungin intraperitoneally daily, either from T0 or from Day 1 post-colonization. After sacrifice at Day 4, lungs were analyzed for histological scoring, measurement of endothelial injury, and quantification of live P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Blood samples were cultured for dissemination. Results A significant decrease in lung endothelial permeability, the amount of P. aeruginosa, and bronchiole inflammation was observed in case of prior C. albicans colonization. Mortality rate and bacterial dissemination were unchanged by prior C. albicans colonization. Caspofungin treatment from T0 (not from Day 1) increased their levels of endothelial permeability and lung P. aeruginosa load similarly to mice receiving P. aeruginosa alone. Conclusions P. aeruginosa-induced lung injury is reduced when preceded by short term C. albicans airway colonization. Antifungal drug caspofungin reverses that effect when used from T0 and not from Day 1. PMID:21689424

  18. Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis does not affect time to first infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Tardivo, Irene; Bellezza-Fontana, Rossana; Forneris, Maria Pia; Lezo, Antonella; Anfossi, Luciano; Castello, Mario; Aleksandar, Veljkovic; Bignamini, Elisabetta

    2006-09-01

    Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis was introduced in the Piedmont region of Italy in the year 2000. Our aim with this study was to estimate the effect of newborn screening on the risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection at the regional cystic fibrosis pediatric reference center. The time to first infection with P aeruginosa within the historical cohort of cystic fibrosis children diagnosed between January 1, 1997, and June 30, 2004, was investigated, comparing survival functions and the adjusted hazard ratio of children diagnosed before and after newborn screening introduction. The role of pancreatic insufficiency was also concurrently investigated. Overall, 71 children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis were identified, 27 cases were clinically diagnosed before newborn screening introduction, and 5 of them presented with meconium ileus, whereas 44 were identified by newborn screening. Among them 35 needed pancreatic enzyme supplementation, whereas 34 children were infected with P aeruginosa. Both the nonparametric and semiparametric survival estimates failed to show any significant increase in the risk of P aeruginosa infection among screened children compared with historical controls. However, the median time from cystic fibrosis diagnosis to P aeruginosa infection among screened children was significantly shorter (183 vs 448 days). Children with impaired pancreatic function were at high risk of P aeruginosa infection. The results of the study suggest that health authorities should regard newborn screening for cystic fibrosis as an opportunity to improve care and outcomes among affected children and shift the focus from whether it is appropriate to screen to how to optimize biomedical and psychosocial outcomes of screening.

  19. A beta-linked mannan inhibits adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Azghani, A O; Williams, I; Holiday, D B; Johnson, A R

    1995-02-01

    Adherence through carbohydrate-binding adhesins is an early step in colonization of the lung by gram-negative organisms, and because published data indicate that binding involves mannose groups, we tested the ability of a beta-linked acetyl-mannan (acemannan) to inhibit adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cultures of human lung epithelial cells. Adherence of radiolabelled P.aeruginosa to A549 cells (a type II-like pneumocyte line) increased linearly with the duration of the incubation. Acemannan inhibited adherence of bacteria, and the extent of inhibition was related to the concentration of the mannan. Inhibition required continued contact between acemannan and the target epithelial cells; cells washed free of acemannan no longer discouraged bacterial binding. Comparison of binding between seven different strains of P.aeruginosa indicated that fewer mucoid than non-mucoid bacteria adhered, but binding of either phenotype was inhibited by acemannan. Mannose, methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside, methyl beta-D-mannopyranoside and dextran did not affect adherence of any of the non-mucoid strains. Mannose inhibited adherence by one mucoid strain, but not the other, indicating differences between strains of the same phenotype. Since prior treatment of epithelial cells with concanavalin A did not affect acemannan-induced inhibition of bacterial adherence, we concluded that the inhibitory effect of acemannan probably does not involve mannose-containing receptors.

  20. Effect of 0. 64 ppm ozone on alveolar macrophage lysozyme levels in rats with chronic pulmonary bacterial infection. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, R.L.; Lippert, W.E.; Goldstein, E.

    1986-12-01

    A rat model of chronic pulmonary infection (CPI) initiated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in agar beads was used to test the effect of ozone on lysosomal enzyme levels in alveolar macrophages (AM). CPI was induced by intratracheal instillation of a 0.1-ml suspension of infected beads into the left lung. Ten days after infection half the rats were exposed to atmospheres of air and half to 0.64 ppm ozone for 4 weeks. Enzyme levels were measured using a scanning cytospectrophotometer linked to a PDP/11 computer. Measurement of lysozyme in individual rat AM in situ showed a significant decrease in cell size and enzyme content in ozone-exposed uninfected animals. Cell size and enzyme content of ozone-exposed animals with CPI were further reduced, suggesting a synergistic effect between ozone exposure and chronic infection.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: molecular epidemiology and infection control measures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a non-fermentative, gram-negative rod, is responsible for a wide variety of clinical syndromes in NICU patients, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and skin infections. An increased number of infections and colonisations by P. aeruginosa has been observed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our university hospital between 2005 and 2007. Methods Hand disinfection compliance before and after an educational programme on hand hygiene was evaluated. Identification of microrganisms was performed using conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by MIC microdilution. Genotyping was performed by PFGE analysis. Results The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the NICU of the Federico II University hospital (Naples, Italy) and the infection control measures adopted to stop the spreading of P. aeruginosa in the ward were described. From July 2005 to June 2007, P. aeruginosa was isolated from 135 neonates and caused severe infections in 11 of them. Macrorestriction analysis of clinical isolates from 90 neonates identified 20 distinct genotypes, one major PFGE type (A) being isolated from 48 patients and responsible for 4 infections in 4 of them, four other distinct recurrent genotypes being isolated in 6 to 4 patients. Seven environmental strains were isolated from the hand of a nurse and from three sinks on two occasions, two of these showing PFGE profiles A and G identical to two clinical isolates responsible for infection. The successful control of the outbreak was achieved through implementation of active surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in the ward together with environmental microbiological sampling and an intense educational programme on hand disinfection among the staff members. Conclusion P. aeruginosa infections in the NICU were caused by the cross-transmission of an epidemic clone in 4 neonates, and by the selection of sporadic clones in 7

  2. A novel multiplex PCR for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A major cause of wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Haque, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Wound infections are often difficult to treat due to various bacterial pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the common invaders of open wounds. Precise diagnosis of this etiological agent in wound infections is of critical importance particularly in treatment of problematic cases. The existing diagnostic methods have certain limitations particularly related to specificity. Our objective was to to establish a comprehensive and reliable multiplex PCR to confirm diagnosis of P. aeruginosa. Methods: A multiplex PCR test was developed for rapid and comprehensive identification of P. aeruginosa. Four highly specific genes were targeted simultaneously for detection of genus, species and exotoxin production (16S rDNA, gyrB, oprL and ETA) in P. aeruginosa; additionally one internal control gene (invA) of Salmonella was used. The specificity of the multiplex PCR was confirmed using internal and negative controls. Amplified fragments were confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. Results: The developed method was applied on 40 morphologically suspected P. aeruginosa isolates (from 200 pus samples) and 18 isolates were confirmed as P. aeruginosa. In comparison, only 12 could be identified biochemically. Conclusions: Combination of the four reported genes in multiplex PCR provided more confident and comprehensive detection of P. aeruginosa which is applicable for screening of wound infections and assisting treatment strategy. PMID:24353667

  3. Protective effect of DNA vaccine encoding pseudomonas exotoxin A and PcrV against acute pulmonary P. aeruginosa Infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingzi; Yao, Jing; Feng, Ganzhu

    2014-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been a long-standing challenge for clinical therapy because of complex pathogenesis and resistance to antibiotics, thus attaching importance to explore effective vaccines for prevention and treatment. In the present study, we constructed a novel DNA vaccine by inserting mutated gene toxAm encoding Pseudomonas Exotoxin A and gene pcrV encoding tip protein of the type III secretion system into respective sites of a eukaryotic plasmid pIRES, named pIRES-toxAm-pcrV, and next evaluated the efficacy of the vaccine in murine acute Pseudomonas pneumonia models. Compared to DNA vaccines encoding single antigen, mice vaccinated with pIRES-toxAm-pcrV elicited higher levels of antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), enhanced splenic cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa antigens, additionally PAO1 challenge in mice airway resulted in reduced bacteria burden and milder pathologic changes in lungs. Besides, it was observed that immunogenicity and protection could be promoted by the CpG ODN 1826 adjuvant. Taken together, it's revealed that recombinant DNA vaccine pIRES-toxAm-pcrV was a potential candidate for immunotherapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and the CpG ODN 1826 a potent stimulatory adjuvant for DNA vaccination.

  4. Electrostatically entrapped colistin liposomes for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Tang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Enbo; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    The potential use of liposomes for the pulmonary delivery of colistin has been hindered by their phospholipid membrane permeability resulting in a very low entrapment of colistin in the liposomes. To increase the entrapment capacity of colistin in liposomes, the anionic lipid sodium cholesteryl sulfate (Chol-SO4(-)) was used to enhance the electrostatic attraction between colistin and the lipid membrane. The resulting colistin-entrapped liposomes of Chol-SO4(-) (CCL) showed significantly greater entrapment efficiency in comparison with liposomes without Chol-SO4(-). A time-kill kinetics study showed that colistin could redistribute from the liposomes into a new bacterial cell membrane to exert bactericidal activity. After intratracheal instillation, the CCL exhibited prolonged colistin retention in the lung with less colistin being transferred to the bloodstream and kidney, and the improved biodistribution further resulted in the enhanced therapeutic efficacy in a murine pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model compared with the colistin solution. These results highlight the suitability of applying an electrostatic attraction to entrap colistin in liposomes for pulmonary delivery by increasing colistin retention in the lung, while reducing the systemic exposure.

  5. Interleukin-17 Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Intervention in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Daniel; Taylor, Patricia; Fletcher, Dave; van Heeckeren, Rolf; Eastman, Jean; van Heeckeren, Anna; Davis, Pamela; Chmiel, James F.; Pearlman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by an excessive neutrophilic inflammatory response within the airway as a result of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR) expression and function. Interleukin-17A induces airway neutrophilia and mucin production associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, which is associated with the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis. The objectives of this study were to use the preclinical murine model of cystic fibrosis lung infection and inflammation to investigate the role of IL-17 in CF lung pathophysiology and explore therapeutic intervention with a focus on IL-17. Cftr-deficient mice (CF mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice) infected with P. aeruginosa had robust IL-17 production early in the infection associated with a persistent elevated inflammatory response. Intratracheal administration of IL-17 provoked a neutrophilic response in the airways of WT and CF animals which was similar to that observed with P. aeruginosa infection. The neutralization of IL-17 prior to infection significantly improved the outcomes in the CF mice, suggesting that IL-17 may be a therapeutic target. We demonstrate in this report that the pathophysiological contribution of IL-17 may be due to the induction of chemokines from the epithelium which is augmented by a deficiency of Cftr and ongoing inflammation. These studies demonstrate the in vivo contribution of IL-17 in cystic fibrosis lung disease and the therapeutic validity of attenuating IL-17 activity in cystic fibrosis. PMID:27271746

  6. Drosophila melanogaster as an Animal Model for the Study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Heidi; Sibley, Christopher D.; Surette, Michael G.; Lewenza, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3) demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo. PMID:21998591

  7. Salmonella Typhimurium strain expressing OprF-OprI protects mice against fatal infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Sun, Changjiang; Gu, Jingmin; Yan, Xinwu; Wang, Bin; Cui, Ziyin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Tong, Chunyu; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat to human health and to the mink industry. Thus, development of vaccines that elicit robust humoral and cellular immunity against P. aeruginosa is greatly needed. In this study, a recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) that expresses the outer membrane proteins fusion OprF190-342 -OprI21-83 (F1I2) from P. aeruginosa was constructed and the potency of this vaccine candidate assessed by measuring F1I2-specific humoral immune responses upon vaccination through s.c. or oral routes. S.C. administration achieved higher serum IgG titers and IgA titers in the intestine and induced stronger F1I2-specific IgG and IgA titers in lung homogenate than did oral administration, which resulted in low IgG titers and no local IgA production. High titers of IFN-γ, IL-4, and T-lymphocyte subsets induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response in mice immunized s.c., indicating elicitation of cellular immunity. Importantly, when immunized mice were challenged with P. aeruginosa by the intranasal route 30 days after the initial immunization, s.c. vaccination achieved 77.78% protection, in contrast to 41.18% via oral administration and 66.67% via Escherichia coli-expressed F1I2 (His-F1I2) vaccination. These results indicate that s.c. vaccination provides a better protective response against P. aeruginosa infection than do oral administration and the His-F1I2 vaccine. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The Stringent Response Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence in the Rat Lung Agar Bead and Drosophila melanogaster Feeding Models of Infection▿†

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Stefanie L.; Green, Christopher; Stevens, Katarzyna M.; Day, Brad; Erickson, David L.; Woods, Donald E.; Storey, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    The stringent response is a regulatory system that allows bacteria to sense and adapt to nutrient-poor environments. The central mediator of the stringent response is the molecule guanosine 3′,5′-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), which is synthesized by the enzymes RelA and SpoT and which is also degraded by SpoT. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that a relA mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the principal cause of lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients, was attenuated in virulence in a Drosophila melanogaster feeding model of infection. In this study, we examined the role of spoT in P. aeruginosa virulence. We generated an insertion mutation in spoT within the previously constructed relA mutant, thereby producing a ppGpp-devoid strain. The relA spoT double mutant was unable to establish a chronic infection in D. melanogaster and was also avirulent in the rat lung agar bead model of infection, a model in which the relA mutant is fully virulent. Synthesis of the virulence determinants pyocyanin, elastase, protease, and siderophores was impaired in the relA spoT double mutant. This mutant was also defective in swarming and twitching, but not in swimming motility. The relA spoT mutant and, to a lesser extent, the relA mutant were less able to withstand stresses such as heat shock and oxidative stress than the wild-type strain PAO1, which may partially account for the inability of the relA spoT mutant to successfully colonize the rat lung. Our results indicate that the stringent response, and SpoT in particular, is a crucial regulator of virulence processes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:21788391

  9. A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Adriana Ester; Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Galindo-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the concentration of sCD40L, a product of platelet activation, correlates with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to determine its possible clinical association. Sixty patients with CF, ranging in age from 2 months to 36 years, were studied. The demographics, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry measurements, radiographic and tomographic scans, platelet count in peripheral blood, sCD40L, IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM1 data were collected. Infection-colonization of the airway was evaluated using sputum and throat swab cultures; the levels of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies (Anti-PaAb) were evaluated. Patients with CF and chronic colonization had anti-PaAb values of 11.6 ± 2.1 ELISA units (EU) and sCD40L in plasma of 1530.9 ±1162.3 pg/mL; those with intermittent infection had 5.7 ± 2.7 EU and 2243.6 ± 1475.9 pg/mL; and those who were never infected had 3.46 ± 1.8 EU (p≤0.001) and 1008.1 ± 746.8 pg/mL (p≤0.01), respectively. The cutoff value of sCD40L of 1255 pg/mL was associated with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97), reflecting P. aeruginosa infection with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. Lung damage was determined using the Brasfield Score, the Bhalla Score, and spirometry (FVC%, FEV1%) and found to be significantly different among the groups (p≤0.001). Circulating sCD40L levels are increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and P. aeruginosa infection. Soluble CD40L appears to reflect infection and provides a tool for monitoring the evolution of lung deterioration.

  10. A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Galindo-Rodríguez, Gabriela; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the concentration of sCD40L, a product of platelet activation, correlates with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the airway of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to determine its possible clinical association. Methods Sixty patients with CF, ranging in age from 2 months to 36 years, were studied. The demographics, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype, spirometry measurements, radiographic and tomographic scans, platelet count in peripheral blood, sCD40L, IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM1 data were collected. Infection-colonization of the airway was evaluated using sputum and throat swab cultures; the levels of anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies (Anti-PaAb) were evaluated. Results Patients with CF and chronic colonization had anti-PaAb values of 11.6 ± 2.1 ELISA units (EU) and sCD40L in plasma of 1530.9 ±1162.3 pg/mL; those with intermittent infection had 5.7 ± 2.7 EU and 2243.6 ± 1475.9 pg/mL; and those who were never infected had 3.46 ± 1.8 EU (p≤0.001) and 1008.1 ± 746.8 pg/mL (p≤0.01), respectively. The cutoff value of sCD40L of 1255 pg/mL was associated with an area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97), reflecting P. aeruginosa infection with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 89%. Lung damage was determined using the Brasfield Score, the Bhalla Score, and spirometry (FVC%, FEV1%) and found to be significantly different among the groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion Circulating sCD40L levels are increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and P. aeruginosa infection. Soluble CD40L appears to reflect infection and provides a tool for monitoring the evolution of lung deterioration. PMID:28030642

  11. Second harmonic generation imaging of corneal stroma after infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Danielle M.; Rogers, Nathan A.; Petroll, W. Matthew; Zhu, Meifang

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic gram-negative organism that has the ability to cause blinding corneal infections following trauma and during contact lens wear. In this study, we investigated the directional movement and orientation of an invasive corneal isolate of P. aeruginosa in the corneal stroma during infection of ex vivo and in vivo rabbit corneas using multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Ex vivo, rabbit corneas were subject to three partial thickness wounds prior to inoculation. In vivo, New Zealand white rabbits were fit with P. aeruginosa laden contact lenses in the absence of a penetrating wound. At all time points tested, infiltration of the corneal stroma by P. aeruginosa revealed a high degree of alignment between the bacteria and collagen lamellae ex vivo (p < 0.001). In vivo, P. aeruginosa traveled throughout the stroma in discrete regions or bands. Within each region, the bacteria showed good alignment with collagen lamellae (P = 0.002). Interestingly, in both the in vitro and in vivo models, P. aeruginosa did not appear to cross the corneal limbus. Taken together, our findings suggest that P. aeruginosa exploits the precise spacing of collagen lamellae in the central cornea to facilitate spread throughout the stroma. PMID:28397809

  12. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute burn and chronic surgical wound infection.

    PubMed

    Turner, Keith H; Everett, Jake; Trivedi, Urvish; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-07-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq) to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn wound infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Emile; Rode, Heinz; Kahn, Delawir

    2013-05-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a major cause of morbidity in burns patients. There is a paucity of publications dealing with this infection in the paediatric population. We describe the incidence, microbiology and impact of P. aeruginosa infection in a dedicated paediatric burns unit. A retrospective review of patients with clinically significant P. aeruginosa infection between April 2007 and January 2010 in the burns unit at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, was performed. During the 36-month study period, 2 632 patients were admitted. Of 2 791 bacteriology samples sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity, 406 (14.5%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. Thirty-four patients had clinically significant P. aeruginosa wound infection, giving an incidence of 1.3%. Three patients had loss of Biobrane or allografts, and 23 cases of skin graft loss occurred in 18 patients. An average of 12 dressing days was needed to obtain negative swabs. All isolates were sensitive to chlorhexidine, whereas 92.5% were resistant to povidone-iodine. Piperacillin-tazobactam was the systemic antimicrobial to which there was most resistance (36.1%), and tobramycin had least resistance (3.3%). The incidence of clinically significant burn wound infection is low in our unit, yet the morbidity due to debridement and re-grafting is significant. We observed very high resistance to topical povidone-iodine. Resistance to systemic antimicrobials is lower than that reported from other burns units.

  14. Influence of carbapenem resistance on mortality of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoqing; Li, Wenzhang; Du, Xinmiao; He, Jian-Qing; Tao, Chuanmin; Feng, Yulin

    2015-06-25

    Treatment of infectious diseases caused by the carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) is becoming more challenging with each passing year. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of carbapenem resistance on mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa infection. We searched PUBMED, Web of science, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library up to December 25, 2014, to identify published cohort or case-control studies. 17 studies, including 6660 patients carrying P. aeruginosa, were identified. The pooling analysis indicated that patients infected with CRPA had significantly higher mortality than those infected with carbapenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (CSPA) (crude OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.93; adjusted OR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.53, 3.69). The elevated risk of mortality in patients with CRPA infection was not lessened when stratified by study design, sites of infection, or type of carbapenem, except that the estimate effect vanished in CRPA high-incidence region, South America (crude OR = 1.12; 95%CI = 0.64, 1.99). Begg's (z = 0.95, p = 0.34) and Egger's test (t = 1.23, p = 0.24) showed no evidence of publication bias. Our results suggest that carbapenem resistance may increase the mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa infection, whether under univariate or multivariate analysis.

  15. Influence of carbapenem resistance on mortality of patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoqing; Li, Wenzhang; Du, Xinmiao; He, Jian-Qing; Tao, Chuanmin; Feng, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diseases caused by the carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) is becoming more challenging with each passing year. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of carbapenem resistance on mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa infection. We searched PUBMED, Web of science, EMBASE, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library up to December 25, 2014, to identify published cohort or case-control studies. 17 studies, including 6660 patients carrying P. aeruginosa, were identified. The pooling analysis indicated that patients infected with CRPA had significantly higher mortality than those infected with carbapenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa (CSPA) (crude OR = 1.64; 95%CI = 1.40, 1.93; adjusted OR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.53, 3.69). The elevated risk of mortality in patients with CRPA infection was not lessened when stratified by study design, sites of infection, or type of carbapenem, except that the estimate effect vanished in CRPA high-incidence region, South America (crude OR = 1.12; 95%CI = 0.64, 1.99). Begg’s (z = 0.95, p = 0.34) and Egger’s test (t = 1.23, p = 0.24) showed no evidence of publication bias. Our results suggest that carbapenem resistance may increase the mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa infection, whether under univariate or multivariate analysis. PMID:26108476

  16. Nosocomial Infections with IMP-19−Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Linked to Contaminated Sinks, France

    PubMed Central

    Amoureux, Lucie; Riedweg, Karena; Chapuis, Angélique; Bador, Julien; Siebor, Eliane; Péchinot, André; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; de Curraize, Claire

    2017-01-01

    We isolated IMP-19–producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 7 patients with nosocomial infections linked to contaminated sinks in France. We showed that blaIMP-19 was located on various class 1 integrons among 8 species of gram-negative bacilli detected in sinks: P. aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, A. aegrifaciens, P. putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, P. mendocina, Comamonas testosteroni, and Sphingomonas sp. PMID:28098548

  17. Arginine Is a Critical Substrate for the Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Jake; Turner, Keith; Cai, Qiuxian; Gordon, Vernita; Whiteley, Marvin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in burn wound infections. Comparison of burned versus noninjured tissue revealed that l-arginine (l-Arg) was significantly depleted in burn wounds as a consequence of elevated arginase produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We also observed that l-Arg was a potent chemoattractant for P. aeruginosa, and while low concentrations of l-Arg increased P. aeruginosa’s swimming motility, high concentrations resulted in diminished swimming. Based on these observations, we tested whether the administration of exogenous l-Arg into the burn wound could attenuate the virulence of P. aeruginosa in thermally injured mice. Administration of l-Arg resulted in decreased P. aeruginosa spread and sepsis and increased animal survival. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the availability of environmental arginine greatly influences the virulence of P. aeruginosa in vivo and may represent a promising phenotype-modulating tool for future therapeutic avenues. PMID:28292986

  18. Honey as an Antimicrobial Agent Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vishnu Prasad; Ballal, Mamatha; Shivananda, PG; Bairy, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Background: As natural products garner attention in the medical field due to emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, honey is valued for its antibacterial activity. Objective: Fifty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds were evaluated for their antibacterial action using honey in comparison with different antibiotics and Dettol. Methodology and Results: All the strains were found to be sensitive to honey at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20% in comparison with Dettol at 10% using agar dilution method. In the second step, the time kill assay was performed on five isolates of P. aeruginosa to demonstrate the bactericidal activity of honey at different dilutions of honey ranging from 20% to 100% at regular time intervals. All the isolates of P. aeruginosa tested were killed in 12-24 h depending on the dilutions of the honey tested. Thus, honey could prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa even if it was diluted by deionized water by fivefolds in vitro. Honey had almost uniform bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of their susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics. Conclusion: Honey which is a natural, non-toxic, and an inexpensive product has activity against the P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds may make it an alternative topical choice in the treatment of wound infections. PMID:22754244

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Induces Lung Injury through TNF-α/c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ching-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogen and VAP caused by PA carries a high rate of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the molecular mechanism of PA VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and JNK1 knockout (JNK1-/-) mice received mechanical ventilation (MV) for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA. The WT and JNK1-/- mice also received MV after the induction of lung injury by instillation of supernatants from PA-stimulated alveolar macrophages (AMs). AMs isolated from WT, IκB-kinase (IKK)βΔMye (IKKβ was selectively deleted in macrophages), and JNK1-/- mice were ex vivo stimulated with live PA and supernatants were collected for cytokine assay. Intranasal instillation of 106 PA enhanced MV-induced NF-κB DNA binding activity in the lungs and nitrite levels in BALF. MV after PA instillation significantly increased the expression of ICAM and VCAM in the lungs and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of WT mice, but not in JNK1-/- mice. MV after supernatant instillation induced more total protein concentration in BALF and neutrophil sequestration in the lungs in WT mice than JNK1-/- mice and cytokine assay of supernatants indicated that TNF-α is a critical regulator of PA VAP-induced lung injury. Ex vivo PA stimulation induced TNF-α production by AMs from WT as well as JNK1-/- mice but not IKKβΔMye mice. In summary, PA colonization plays an important role in PA VAP-induced lung injury through the induction of JNK1-mediated inflammation. These results suggest that the pathogenesis mechanism of PA VAP involves production of TNF-α through activation of IKK/NF-κB pathways in AMs and JNK signaling pathway in the lungs. PMID:28060857

  20. Phage Therapy: a Step Forward in the Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Diana P.; Vilas Boas, Diana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance constitutes one of the major worldwide public health concerns. Bacteria are becoming resistant to the vast majority of antibiotics, and nowadays, a common infection can be fatal. To address this situation, the use of phages for the treatment of bacterial infections has been extensively studied as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Since Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common causes of health care-associated infections, many studies have reported the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy of phage therapy against this bacterium. This review collects data of all the P. aeruginosa phages sequenced to date, providing a better understanding about their biodiversity. This review further addresses the in vitro and in vivo results obtained by using phages to treat or prevent P. aeruginosa infections as well as the major hurdles associated with this therapy. PMID:25972556

  1. Human lung ex vivo infection models.

    PubMed

    Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Hippenstiel, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia is counted among the leading causes of death worldwide. Viruses, bacteria and pathogen-related molecules interact with cells present in the human alveolus by numerous, yet poorly understood ways. Traditional cell culture models little reflect the cellular composition, matrix complexity and three-dimensional architecture of the human lung. Integrative animal models suffer from species differences, which are of particular importance for the investigation of zoonotic lung diseases. The use of cultured ex vivo infected human lung tissue may overcome some of these limitations and complement traditional models. The present review gives an overview of common bacterial lung infections, such as pneumococcal infection and of widely neglected pathogens modeled in ex vivo infected lung tissue. The role of ex vivo infected lung tissue for the investigation of emerging viral zoonosis including influenza A virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is discussed. Finally, further directions for the elaboration of such models are revealed. Overall, the introduced models represent meaningful and robust methods to investigate principles of pathogen-host interaction in original human lung tissue.

  2. Characterization of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in a culture collection

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, C.C.S.; Mingrone, R.C.C.; Kisielius, J.J.; Ueda-Ito, M.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested. PMID:23969975

  3. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection: a classification that should not falsely reassure the clinician.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K L; Paterson, D L

    2016-12-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) is predominantly acquired in the hospital setting. Community-onset infection is less common. Differences in epidemiology, clinical features, microbiological factors and BSI outcomes led to the separation of bacterial community-onset BSI into the categories of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and community-acquired infection (CAI). Community-acquired P. aeruginosa BSI epidemiology is not well defined in the literature. In addition, it is also not clear if the same factors separate CAI and HCAI BSI caused by P. aeruginosa alone. A retrospective multicentre cohort study was performed looking at P. aeruginosa BSI from January 2008 to January 2011. Strict definitions for HCAI and CAI were applied. Extensive epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were obtained. Thirty-four CAI episodes and 156 HCAI episodes were analysed. The CAI group could be characterised into seven distinct categories based on comorbidities and clinically suspected source of infection. A pre-morbidly healthy group could not be identified. On multivariate analysis, the presence of a rheumatological or a gastrointestinal comorbidity were significantly associated with CAI. There was no significant difference in length of stay or rates of mortality between HCAI or CAI. The clinician should not be falsely reassured regarding outcome by the diagnosis of a community-acquired P. aeruginosa BSI.

  4. Screening of Molecular Virulence Markers in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cotar, Ani-Ioana; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Dinu, Sorin; Bucur, Marcela; Iordache, Carmen; Banu, Otilia; Dracea, Olguta; Larion, Cristina; Lazar, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Pseudomonas (Ps.) aeruginosa are two of the most frequently opportunistic pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised hosts. The frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains has determined the development of new strategies in order to elucidate the different mechanisms used by these bacteria at different stages of the infectious process, providing the scientists with new procedures for preventing, or at least improving, the control of S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular markers of virulence in S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens. We used multiplex and uniplex PCR assays to detect the genes encoding different cell-wall associated and extracellular virulence factors, in order to evaluate potential associations between the presence of putative virulence genes and the outcome of infections caused by these bacteria. Our results demonstrate that all the studied S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains synthesize the majority of the investigated virulence determinants, probably responsible for different types of infections. PMID:21614207

  5. Bactericidal antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by adults with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, D L; Ourth, D D

    1979-01-01

    In this investigation we found that adults with upper urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced serum antibodies with bactericidal activity against the bacterium. Seventeen of 20 infected adults showed bactericidal activity with a titer range of 1:10 to 1:10,000. PMID:117024

  6. Mold infections in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Archana; Hosseini-Moghaddam, S M; Rotstein, Coleman; Husain, Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Fungal infections continue to produce morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients despite the widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis. There has been a decline in Candida infections but Aspergillus species predominate. Other mold pathogens including Fusarium, Scedosporium, and Zygomycetes also cause infections in lung transplant recipients. Furthermore, the widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has prompted a delay in onset of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant recipients. Pulmonary parenchymal disease has become the most common manifestation of invasive aspergillosis. Among the risk factors pre- or posttransplant Aspergillus colonization is the most important risk factor reported in several retrospective studies. Recently posttransplant colonization has been implicated in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Other factors that have been reported include preceding cytomegalovirus infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and single-lung transplantation. The risk factors for other mold infections such as Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Zygomycetes are not well studied. The best antimold prophylaxis strategy and choice of drug remains to be elucidated. Most lung transplant centers use either voriconazole or inhaled amphotericin preparations. However, data have emerged regarding the increased risk of squamous cell cancer in lung transplant recipients on voriconazole prophylaxis. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis have resulted in a significant decrease in mortality. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Bacteriogenic Cyanide in the Lungs of Live Mice Infected with Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seong-Won; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Lim, Jeesun; Kim, So Hyun; Kim, Sang-Tae; Cho, You-Hee; Yoon, Juyoung; Park, Sungsu

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), commonly found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, often produce cyanide (CN), which inhibits cellular respiration. CN in sputa is a potential biomarker for lung infection by CF pathogens. However, its actual concentration in the infected lungs is unknown. Methods and Findings This work reports observation of CN in the lungs of mice infected with cyanogenic PA or Bcc strains using a CN fluorescent chemosensor (4′,5′-fluorescein dicarboxaldehyde) with a whole animal imaging system. When the CN chemosensor was injected into the lungs of mice intratracheally infected with either PA or B. cepacia strains embedded in agar beads, CN was detected in the millimolar range (1.8 to 4 mM) in the infected lungs. CN concentration in PA-infected lungs rapidly increased within 24 hours but gradually decreased over the following days, while CN concentration in B. cepacia-infected lungs slowly increased, reaching a maximum at 5 days. CN concentrations correlated with the bacterial loads in the lungs. In vivo efficacy of antimicrobial treatments was tested in live mice by monitoring bacteriogenic CN in the lungs. Conclusions The in vivo imaging method was also found suitable for minimally invasive testing the efficacy of antibiotic compounds as well as for aiding the understanding of bacterial cyanogenesis in CF lungs. PMID:21750709

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection involves activation of its iron acquisition system in response to fascial contact

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M.; Christley, S.; Khodarev, N. N.; Fleming, I.; Huang, Y.; Chang, E.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound infections are traditionally thought to occur when microbial burden exceeds the innate clearance capacity of host immune system. Here we introduce the idea that the wound environment itself plays a significant contributory role to wound infection. Methods We developed a clinically relevant murine model of soft tissue infection to explore the role of activation of microbial virulence in response to tissue factors as a mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria cause wound infections. Mice underwent abdominal skin incision and light muscle injury with a crushing forceps versus skin incision alone followed by topical inoculation of P. aeruginosa. Mice were sacrificed on postoperative day 6 and abdominal tissues analyzed for clinical signs of wound infection. To determine if specific wound tissues components induce bacterial virulence, P. aeruginosa was exposed to skin, fascia, and muscle. Results Gross wound infection due to P. aeruginosa was observed to be significantly increased in injured tissues vs non-injured (80% vs 10%) tissues (n=20/group, p<0.0001). Exposure of P. aeruginosa to individual tissue components demonstrated that fascia significantly induced bacterial virulence as judged by the production of pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine compound known to kill immune cells. Whole genome transcriptional profiling of P. aeruginosa exposed to fascia demonstrated activation of multiple genes responsible for the synthesis of the iron scavenging molecule pyochelin. Conclusion We conclude that wound elements, in particular fascia, may play a significant role in enhancing the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis of clinical wound infection. PMID:25807409

  9. Arginine Is a Critical Substrate for the Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jake; Turner, Keith; Cai, Qiuxian; Gordon, Vernita; Whiteley, Marvin; Rumbaugh, Kendra

    2017-03-14

    Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in burn wound infections. Comparison of burned versus noninjured tissue revealed that l-arginine (l-Arg) was significantly depleted in burn wounds as a consequence of elevated arginase produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We also observed that l-Arg was a potent chemoattractant for P. aeruginosa, and while low concentrations of l-Arg increased P. aeruginosa's swimming motility, high concentrations resulted in diminished swimming. Based on these observations, we tested whether the administration of exogenous l-Arg into the burn wound could attenuate the virulence of P. aeruginosa in thermally injured mice. Administration of l-Arg resulted in decreased P. aeruginosa spread and sepsis and increased animal survival. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the availability of environmental arginine greatly influences the virulence of P. aeruginosa in vivo and may represent a promising phenotype-modulating tool for future therapeutic avenues.IMPORTANCE Despite our growing understanding of the pathophysiology of burn wounds and the evolution of techniques and practices to manage infections, sepsis remains a significant medical concern for burn patients. P. aeruginosa continues to be a leader among all causes of bacteremic infections due to its tendency to cause complications in immunocompromised patients and its ubiquitous presence in the hospital setting. With the unforgiving emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, it

  10. Molecular detection of virulence genes as markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Dhall, Shriya; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections by P. aeruginosa are related to variety of complications. Quorum sensing and related circuitry guard its virulence potential. Though P. aeruginosa accounts for an appreciable amount of virulence factors, this organism is highly unstable phenotypically. Thus, genotyping of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is of utmost importance for understanding the epidemiology of infection. This may contribute towards development of immunotherapeutic approaches against this multi drug resistant pathogen. Moreover, no epidemiological study has been reported yet on uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Thus this study was planned to obtain information regarding presence, distribution and rate of occurrence of quorum sensing and some associated virulence genes at genetic level. The profiling of quorum sensing genes lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and virulence genes like toxA, aprA, rhlAB, plcH, lasB and fliC of twelve strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with UTIs was done by direct PCR. The results showed variable distribution of quorum sensing genes and virulence genes. Their percentage occurrence may be specifically associated with different levels of intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity in urinary tract. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.

  11. Impact of new water systems on healthcare-associated colonization or infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Annick; Quantin, Catherine; Vanhems, Philippe; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Bertrand, Xavier; Astruc, Karine; Chavanet, Pascal; Aho-Glélé, Ludwig S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to study the impact of new water systems, which were less contaminated with P. aeruginosa, on the incidence of healthcare-associated P. aeruginosa cases (colonizations or infections) in care units that moved to a different building between 2005 and 2014. Methods: Generalized Estimated Equations were used to compare the incidence of P. aeruginosa healthcare-associated cases according to the building. Results: Twenty-nine units moved during the study period and 2,759 cases occurred in these units. No difference was observed when the new building was compared with older buildings overall. Conclusion: Our results did not support our hypothesis of a positive association between water system contamination and the incidence of healthcare-associated P. aeruginosa cases. These results must be confirmed by linking results of water samples and patients’ data. PMID:27274443

  12. Tobramycin Inhalation Powder (TIP): An Efficient Treatment Strategy for the Management of Chronic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, John; Vaughan, Steven; Parkins, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of acute and chronic lung infections are responsible for progressive pulmonary function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the archetypical CF pathogen, causes chronic infection in 70% of individuals, and is associated with an accelerated clinical decline. The management of P. aeruginosa in CF has been revolutionized with the development and widespread use of inhaled antibiotics. Aerosol delivery of antimicrobial compounds in CF enables extremely high concentrations of antibiotics to be reached directly at the site of infection potentially overcoming adaptive resistance and avoiding the potential for cumulative systemic toxicities. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) represents the first dry powder inhaled (DPI) antibiotic available for use in CF. DPIs are notable for a markedly reduced time for administration, ease of portability, and increased compliance. TIP has been developed as a therapeutic alternative to tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), the standard of care for the past 20 years within CF. Relative to TIS 300 mg nebulized twice daily in on-and-off cycles of 28 days duration, TIP 112 mg twice daily via the T-326 inhaler administered on the same schedule is associated with marked time savings, increased patient satisfaction, and comparable clinical end points. TIP represents an innovative treatment strategy for those individuals with CF and holds the promise of increased patient compliance and thus the potential for improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24324354

  13. Refined analyses suggest that recombination is a minor source of genomic diversity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic cystic fibrosis infections

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David; Paterson, Steve; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic bacterial airway infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) are often caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, typically showing high phenotypic diversity amongst co-isolates from the same sputum sample. Whilst adaptive evolution during chronic infections has been reported, the genetic mechanisms underlying the observed rapid within-population diversification are not well understood. Two recent conflicting reports described very high and low rates of homologous recombination in two closely related P. aeruginosa populations from the lungs of different chronically infected CF patients. To investigate the underlying cause of these contrasting observations, we combined the short read datasets from both studies and applied a new comparative analysis. We inferred low rates of recombination in both populations. The discrepancy in the findings of the two previous studies can be explained by differences in the application of variant calling techniques. Two novel algorithms were developed that filter false-positive variants. The first algorithm filters variants on the basis of ambiguity within duplications in the reference genome. The second omits probable false-positive variants at regions of non-homology between reference and sample caused by structural rearrangements. As gains and losses of prophage or genomic islands are frequent causes of chromosomal rearrangements within microbial populations, this filter has broad appeal for mitigating false-positive variant calls. Both algorithms are available in a Python package. PMID:28348847

  14. Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Désirée; Cesaro, Simone; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Manicone, Rosaria; Livadiotti, Susanna; Cellini, Monica; Frenos, Stefano; Milano, Giuseppe M.; Cappelli, Barbara; Licciardello, Maria; Beretta, Chiara; Aricò, Maurizio; Castagnola, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one leading gram-negative organism associated with nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is life-threatening in the immunocompromised host. Increasing frequency of multi-drug-resistant (MDRPA) strains is concerning. We started a retrospective survey in the pediatric hematology oncology Italian network. Between 2000 and 2008, 127 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia were reported from 12 centers; 31.4% of isolates were MDRPA. Death within 30 days of a positive blood culture occurred in 19.6% (25/127) of total patients; in patients with MDRPA infection it occurred in 35.8% (14/39). In the multivariate analysis, only MDRPA had significant association with infection-related death. This is the largest series of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia cases from pediatric hematology oncology centers. Monitoring local bacterial isolates epidemiology is mandatory and will allow empiric antibiotic therapy to be tailored to reduce fatalities. PMID:20305140

  15. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-02-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections.

  16. High Mobility Group Box-1 mediates hyperoxia-induced impairment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clearance and inflammatory lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vivek S; Sitapara, Ravikumar A; Gore, Ashwini; Phan, Binh; Sharma, Lokesh; Sampat, Vaishali; Li, Jian Hua; Yang, Huan; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Wang, Haichao; Tracey, Kevin J; Mantell, Lin L

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical ventilation with supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen (hyperoxia) is routinely used to treat patients with respiratory distress. However, a significant number of patients on ventilators exhibit enhanced susceptibility to infections and develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most common species of bacteria found in these patients. Previously, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can compromise the ability of alveolar macrophages (AMs), an essential part of the innate immunity, to phagocytose PA. This study sought to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms underlying hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity against bacterial infection in a murine model of PA pneumonia. Here, we show that exposure to hyperoxia (≥ 99% O2) led to a significant elevation in concentrations of airway high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and increased mortality in C57BL/6 mice infected with PA. Treatment of these mice with a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) resulted in a reduction in bacterial counts, injury, and numbers of neutrophils in the lungs, and an increase in leukocyte phagocytic activity compared with mice receiving control mAb. This improved phagocytic function was associated with reduced concentrations of airway HMGB1. The correlation between phagocytic activity and concentrations of extracellular HMGB1 was also observed in cultured macrophages. These results indicate a pathogenic role for HMGB1 in hyperoxia-induced impairment with regard to a host's ability to clear bacteria and inflammatory lung injury. Thus, HMGB1 may provide a novel molecular target for improving hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity in patients with VAP.

  17. Mucoidy, Quorum Sensing, Mismatch Repair and Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Airways Infections

    PubMed Central

    Feliziani, Sofía; Sola, Claudia; Bocco, José L.; Montanaro, Patricia; Canigia, Liliana Fernández; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Smania, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic infections is based on a genetic adaptation process consisting of mutations in specific genes, which can produce advantageous phenotypic switches and ensure its persistence in the lung. Among these, mutations inactivating the regulators MucA (alginate biosynthesis), LasR (quorum sensing) and MexZ (multidrug-efflux pump MexXY) are the most frequently observed, with those inactivating the DNA mismatch repair system (MRS) being also highly prevalent in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, leading to hypermutator phenotypes that could contribute to this adaptive mutagenesis by virtue of an increased mutation rate. Here, we characterized the mutations found in the mucA, lasR, mexZ and MRS genes in P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from Argentinean CF patients, and analyzed the potential association of mucA, lasR and mexZ mutagenesis with MRS-deficiency and antibiotic resistance. Thus, 38 isolates from 26 chronically infected CF patients were characterized for their phenotypic traits, PFGE genotypic patterns, mutations in the mucA, lasR, mexZ, mutS and mutL gene coding sequences and antibiotic resistance profiles. The most frequently mutated gene was mexZ (79%), followed by mucA (63%) and lasR (39%) as well as a high prevalence (42%) of hypermutators being observed due to loss-of-function mutations in mutL (60%) followed by mutS (40%). Interestingly, mutational spectra were particular to each gene, suggesting that several mechanisms are responsible for mutations during chronic infection. However, no link could be established between hypermutability and mutagenesis in mucA, lasR and mexZ, indicating that MRS-deficiency was not involved in the acquisition of these mutations. Finally, although inactivation of mucA, lasR and mexZ has been previously shown to confer resistance/tolerance to antibiotics, only mutations in MRS genes could be related to an antibiotic resistance increase. These results help to unravel the

  18. Always expect the unexpected: lung abscess due to pseudomonas aeruginosa mimicking pulmonary aspergilloma in acute B-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dieks, J-K; von Bueren, A O; Schaefer, I-M; Menke, J; Lex, C; Krause, U; Zenker, D; Kühnle, I; Kramm, C M

    2013-11-01

    We report on a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and consecutive lung abscess in a 13-year-old patient with acute B-cell leukemia. At first, radiographic findings strongly suggested presence of pulmonary aspergilloma and only microbiological testing of the surgically enucleated mass revealed the correct underlying pathogen and confirmed final diagnosis.

  19. A case of orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takeshi; Kase, Kaori; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2011-09-28

    Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman) of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics, but her loss of left vision did not improve. Recently, sinusitis cases due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reported to be a increasing. Therefore, we should consider the possibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as mycosis as infections of the sinus, especially inpatients who are immunocompromised body.

  20. A case of orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Takeshi; Kase, Kaori; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Orbital apex syndrome is commonly been thought to have a poor prognosis. Many cases of this syndrome have been reported to be caused by paranasal sinus mycosis. We encountered a very rare case (60-year-old woman) of sinusitis with orbital apex syndrome due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. She had received insulin and dialysis for diabtes and diabetic nephropathy, moreover anticoagulants after heart by-pass surgery. She underwent endoscopic sinus operation and was treated with antibiotics, but her loss of left vision did not improve. Recently, sinusitis cases due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reported to be a increasing. Therefore, we should consider the possibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as mycosis as infections of the sinus, especially inpatients who are immunocompromised body. PMID:24765368

  1. Detecting bacterial lung infections: In vivo evaluation of in vitro volatile fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiangjiang; Bean, Heather D.; Wargo, Matthew J.; Leclair, Laurie W.; Hill, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of bacteria by their volatilomes is of interest to many scientists and clinicians as it holds the promise of diagnosing infections in situ, particularly lung infections via breath analysis. While there are many studies reporting various bacterial volatile biomarkers or fingerprints using in vitro experiments, it has proven difficult to translate these data to in vivo breath analyses. Therefore, we aimed to create secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) pathogen fingerprints directly from the breath of mice with lung infections. In this study we demonstrated that SESI-MS is capable of differentiating infected vs. uninfected mice, P. aeruginosa–infected vs. S. aureus–infected mice, as well as distinguish between infections caused by P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 vs. FRD1, with statistical significance (p < 0.05). In addition, we compared in vitro and in vivo volatiles and observed that only 25–34% of peaks are shared between the in vitro and in vivo SESI-MS fingerprints. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first breath volatiles measured for P. aeruginosa PAO1, FRD1, and S. aureus RN450, and the first comparison of in vivo and in vitro volatile profiles from the same strains using the murine infection model. PMID:23307645

  2. Virulence Gene Profiles of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated From Iranian Hospital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Nastaran; Momtaz, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The most common hospital-acquired pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a multidrug resistant bacterium causing systemic infections. Objectives: The present study was carried out in order to investigate the distribution of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various types of hospital infections in Iran. Patients and Methods: Two-hundred and seventeen human infection specimens were collected from Baqiyatallah and Payambaran hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The clinical samples were cultured immediately and samples positive for P. aeruginosa were analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance and bacterial virulence genes using PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion methodology with Müeller–Hinton agar. Results: Fifty-eight out of 127 (45.66%) male infection specimens and 44 out of 90 (48.88%) female infection specimens harbored P. aeruginosa. Also, 65% (in male specimens) and 21% (in female specimens) of respiratory system infections were positive for P. aeruginosa, which was a high rate. The genes encoding exoenzyme S (67.64%) and phospholipases C (45.09%) were the most common virulence genes found among the strains. The incidences of various β-lactams encoding genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M, blaDHA, and blaVEB were 94.11%, 16.66%, 15.68%, 18.62%, 21.56%, and 17.64%, respectively. The most commonly detected fluoroquinolones encoding gene was gyrA (15. 68%). High resistance levels to penicillin (100%), tetracycline (90.19%), streptomycin (64.70%), and erythromycin (43.13%) were observed too. Conclusions: Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in hospitalized patients in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution in prescribing antibiotics, especially in cases of human infections. PMID:25763199

  3. Recombination is a key driver of genomic and phenotypic diversity in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population during cystic fibrosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Darch, Sophie E.; McNally, Alan; Harrison, Freya; Corander, Jukka; Barr, Helen L.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Holden, Stephen; Fogarty, Andrew; Crusz, Shanika A.; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung harbors a complex, polymicrobial ecosystem, in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of sustaining chronic infections, which are highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here, we investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of 44 morphologically identical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from a single CF patient sputum sample. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of isolates revealed large variances and trade-offs in growth, virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) signals. Whole genome analysis of 22 isolates revealed high levels of intra-isolate diversity ranging from 5 to 64 SNPs and that recombination and not spontaneous mutation was the dominant driver of diversity in this population. Furthermore, phenotypic differences between isolates were not linked to mutations in known genes but were statistically associated with distinct recombination events. We also assessed antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates. Resistance to antibiotics significantly increased when multiple isolates were mixed together. Our results highlight the significant role of recombination in generating phenotypic and genetic diversification during in vivo chronic CF infection. We also discuss (i) how these findings could influence how patient-to-patient transmission studies are performed using whole genome sequencing, and (ii) the need to refine antibiotic susceptibility testing in sputum samples taken from patients with CF. PMID:25578031

  4. Recombination is a key driver of genomic and phenotypic diversity in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population during cystic fibrosis infection.

    PubMed

    Darch, Sophie E; McNally, Alan; Harrison, Freya; Corander, Jukka; Barr, Helen L; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Holden, Stephen; Fogarty, Andrew; Crusz, Shanika A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2015-01-12

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung harbors a complex, polymicrobial ecosystem, in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of sustaining chronic infections, which are highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here, we investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of 44 morphologically identical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from a single CF patient sputum sample. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of isolates revealed large variances and trade-offs in growth, virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) signals. Whole genome analysis of 22 isolates revealed high levels of intra-isolate diversity ranging from 5 to 64 SNPs and that recombination and not spontaneous mutation was the dominant driver of diversity in this population. Furthermore, phenotypic differences between isolates were not linked to mutations in known genes but were statistically associated with distinct recombination events. We also assessed antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates. Resistance to antibiotics significantly increased when multiple isolates were mixed together. Our results highlight the significant role of recombination in generating phenotypic and genetic diversification during in vivo chronic CF infection. We also discuss (i) how these findings could influence how patient-to-patient transmission studies are performed using whole genome sequencing, and (ii) the need to refine antibiotic susceptibility testing in sputum samples taken from patients with CF.

  5. Arsenic alters transcriptional responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and decreases antimicrobial defense of human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goodale, Britton C; Rayack, Erica J; Stanton, Bruce A

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen. Bronchial epithelial cells line the airway surface, providing a physical barrier and serving critical roles in antimicrobial defense and signaling to professional immune cells. We used RNA-seq to define the transcriptional response of HBE cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and investigated how arsenic affected HBE gene networks in the presence and absence of the bacterial challenge. Environmentally relevant levels of arsenic significantly changed the expression of genes involved in cellular redox homeostasis and host defense to bacterial infection, and decreased genes that code for secreted antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Using pathway analysis, we identified Sox4 and Nrf2-regulated gene networks that are predicted to mediate the arsenic-induced decrease in lysozyme secretion. In addition, we demonstrated that arsenic decreased lysozyme in the airway surface liquid, resulting in reduced lysis of Microccocus luteus. Thus, arsenic alters the expression of genes and proteins in innate host defense pathways, thereby decreasing the ability of the lung epithelium to fight bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lung Cancer in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Mena, Álvaro; Meijide, Héctor; Marcos, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect. Smoking, lung infections, and chronic pulmonary diseases are risk factors for lung cancer. All may contribute to the cumulative incidence of lung cancer in persons living with HIV. It is double that in the general population. The role of HAART in lung cancer development in persons living with HIV is not well established. Although data supporting it could be too preliminary, persons living with HIV should be considered within high-risk groups that could benefit from screening strategies with low-dose computed tomography, especially those with airway obstruction and emphysema. Current evidence suggests that quitting smoking strategies in persons living with HIV achieve abstinence rates comparable to those in healthy HIV-negative smokers.

  7. Direct Evaluation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Mediators in a Chronic Infection Model ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Matthew S.; Pang, Bing; Hong, Wenzhou; Waligora, Elizabeth A.; Juneau, Richard A.; Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Weimer, Kristen E. D.; Murrah, Kyle; Mann, Ethan E.; Lu, Haiping; Sprinkle, April; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kock, Nancy D.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Swords, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms contribute to Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence in a variety of diseases, including cystic fibrosis, burn wounds, and chronic suppurative otitis media. However, few studies have directly addressed P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo. We used a chinchilla model of otitis media, which has previously been used to study persistent Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infections, to show that structures formed in vivo are biofilms of bacterial and host origin within a matrix that includes Psl, a P. aeruginosa biofilm polysaccharide. We evaluated three biofilm and/or virulence mediators of P. aeruginosa known to affect biofilm formation in vitro and pathogenesis in vivo—bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), flagella, and quorum sensing—in a chinchilla model. We show that c-di-GMP overproduction has a positive impact on bacterial persistence, while quorum sensing increases virulence. We found no difference in persistence attributed to flagella. We conclude from these studies that a chinchilla otitis media model provides a means to evaluate pathogenic mediators of P. aeruginosa and that in vitro phenotypes should be examined in multiple infection systems to fully understand their role in disease. PMID:21646454

  8. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium aurantiacum, an opportunistic fungal pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jashanpreet; Pethani, Bhavin P.; Kumar, Sheemal; Kim, Minkyoung; Sunna, Anwar; Kautto, Liisa; Penesyan, Anahit; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens isolated from lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa has been known to suppress the growth of a number of CF related fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum have not been investigated in depth. Hence we assessed the effect of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 and two clinical isolates PASS1 and PASS2 on the growth of two clinical S. aurantiacum isolates WM 06.482 and WM 08.202 using solid plate assays and liquid cultures, in a synthetic medium mimicking the nutrient condition in the CF sputum. Solid plate assays showed a clear inhibition of growth of both S. aurantiacum strains when cultured with P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In addition to using chemical fluorescent stains, strains tagged with yfp (P. aeruginosa PASS1) and mCherry (S. aurantiacum WM 06.482) were created to facilitate detailed microscopic observations on strain interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing successful genetic transformation of S. aurantiacum. Inhibition of growth was observed only in co-cultures of P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum; the cell fractions obtained from independent bacterial monocultures failed to initiate a response against the fungus. In the liquid co-cultures, biofilm forming P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1 displayed higher inhibition of fungal growth when compared to PASS2. No change was observed in the inhibition pattern when direct cell contact between the bacterial and fungal strains was prevented using a separation membrane suggesting the involvement of extracellular metabolites in the fungal inhibition. However, one of the most commonly described bacterial virulence factors, pyocyanin, had no effect against either of the S

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium aurantiacum, an opportunistic fungal pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jashanpreet; Pethani, Bhavin P; Kumar, Sheemal; Kim, Minkyoung; Sunna, Anwar; Kautto, Liisa; Penesyan, Anahit; Paulsen, Ian T; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens isolated from lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa has been known to suppress the growth of a number of CF related fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum have not been investigated in depth. Hence we assessed the effect of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 and two clinical isolates PASS1 and PASS2 on the growth of two clinical S. aurantiacum isolates WM 06.482 and WM 08.202 using solid plate assays and liquid cultures, in a synthetic medium mimicking the nutrient condition in the CF sputum. Solid plate assays showed a clear inhibition of growth of both S. aurantiacum strains when cultured with P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In addition to using chemical fluorescent stains, strains tagged with yfp (P. aeruginosa PASS1) and mCherry (S. aurantiacum WM 06.482) were created to facilitate detailed microscopic observations on strain interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing successful genetic transformation of S. aurantiacum. Inhibition of growth was observed only in co-cultures of P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum; the cell fractions obtained from independent bacterial monocultures failed to initiate a response against the fungus. In the liquid co-cultures, biofilm forming P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1 displayed higher inhibition of fungal growth when compared to PASS2. No change was observed in the inhibition pattern when direct cell contact between the bacterial and fungal strains was prevented using a separation membrane suggesting the involvement of extracellular metabolites in the fungal inhibition. However, one of the most commonly described bacterial virulence factors, pyocyanin, had no effect against either of the S

  11. Association of alginate from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with two forms of heparin-binding lectin isolated from rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Ceri, H; McArthur, H A; Whitfield, C

    1986-01-01

    An endogenous heparin-binding lectin activity isolated from rat lung was separated into two distinct isolectin forms which showed subtle changes in carbohydrate specificity. The two lectin forms displayed different specificities toward alginic acid-purified cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when assayed by inhibition of both hemagglutination and [3H]heparin binding. This ability of isolectin forms to show higher affinity toward alginic acid from certain P. aeruginosa strains may suggest that there is a selective mechanism in the colonization of patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:3079726

  12. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae for measuring the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of antibiotic therapies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lucy; Veli, Neyme; Coote, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Galleria mellonella larvae can be used (i) as an in vivo infection model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) for evaluating the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of antipseudomonal antibiotics. Two strains of P. aeruginosa were employed, NCTC 10662 (antibiotic-susceptible) and NCTC 13437 (multidrug-resistant). Larvae were infected with increasing doses of either P. aeruginosa strain to investigate the effect of inoculum size on survival. Subsequently, infected larvae were treated with a range of antibiotics to examine whether these agents were effective against P. aeruginosa infection in vivo and whether the efficacy of these drugs matched the known susceptibilities of each bacterial strain. Larval burden of P. aeruginosa was also determined after infection and treatment with cefotaxime. Pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics tested were measured using a well diffusion assay to determine the concentration of antibiotics in larval haemolymph over time. Galleria mellonella larvae were sensitive to P. aeruginosa infection, and increasing inoculum doses of live cells resulted in greater larval mortality. Heat-killed bacteria had no detrimental effect on survival. Antibiotic efficacy against P. aeruginosa-infected G. mellonella correlated with the measured in vitro sensitivities of the two strains tested. The therapeutic benefit arising from administration of cefotaxime correlated with a reduced burden of bacteria present in the haemolymph. There was a clear correlation between measured antibiotic pharmacokinetics and the therapeutic effect. This study strongly supports future application of the G. mellonella infection model to initial studies of novel antipseudomonal treatments.

  13. Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan: Prevalence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Yin; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence and clinical impact on mortality of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) is unclear in Taiwan. We aim to clarify these clinical issues by using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program. Patients from five hospitals with their P. aeruginosa isolates collected by TSAR II-VII (2000-2010) program were considered as the potential study population. All patients with CRPA were enrolled as case patients. Patients with carbapenem-susceptible P. aeruginosa were randomly selected in a 1:1 ratio to case patients as control patients. CRPA isolates were tested for the presence of carbapenemase-producing genes. The clinical data were collected to identify risk factors for CRPA carriage and mortality of P. aeruginosa infection. The overall prevalence of CRPA was 10.2% (349/3408), which increased significantly by the TSAR period (p = 0.007). Among the 164 enrolled patients, the risk factor for carrying CRPA was previous fluoroquinolone exposure (p = 0.004). The risk factors for mortality among 80 patients with infection by P. aeruginosa included: intensive care unit (ICU) setting, receipt of antifungal therapy, and presence of invasive devices (p = 0.001, 0.010, and 0.017; respectively). Carbapenem resistance did not play a role. Among the 82 CRPA isolates enrolled in this study, 15 isolates were found to carry carbapenemase-producing genes. In Taiwan, the prevalence of CRPA and carriage of carbapenemase-producing genes was high. However, carbapenem resistance did not play a role in the mortality of patients with P. aeruginosa infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development and evaluation of murine lung-specific disease models for Pseudomonas aeruginosa applicable to therapeutic testing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenz, Matthew B.; Biller, Ashley E.; Cramer, Daniel E.; Kraenzle, Jennifer L.; Sotsky, Julie B.; Vanover, Carol D.; Yoder-Himes, Deborah R.; Pollard, Angela; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing a wide range of disease manifestations, including severe bacterial pneumonia. Recently, clinics have reported a rise in nosocomial infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) species, including MDR strains of P. aeruginosa. In order to quickly evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutics for MDR infections, highly reproducible and validated animal models need to be developed for pre-clinical testing. Here, we describe the characterization of two murine models to study MDR P. aeruginosa respiratory disease. We evaluated and compared these models using a non-invasive intratracheal instillation method and established the 50% lethal dose, course of infection, biometric parameters of disease and degree of pneumonia development for each model. Further, we tested meropenem as a proof-of-concept therapeutic and report efficacy data that suggests that the leukopenic model could serve a robust pre-clinical model to test novel therapeutics. PMID:25857733

  15. Spanish consensus on the prevention and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bronchial infections in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Máiz, Luis; Escribano, Amparo; Olveira, Casilda; Oliver, Antonio; Asensio, Oscar; Gartner, Silvia; Roma, Eva; Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Salcedo, Antonio; Girón, Rosa; Barrio, María Isabel; Pastor, María Dolores; Prados, Concepción; Martínez-Martínez, María Teresa; Barberán, José; Castón, Juan José; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Poveda, José Luis; Vázquez, Carlos; de Gracia, Javier; Solé, Amparo

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main pathogen in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. It can only be eradicated at early infection stages while reduction of its bacterial load is the therapeutic goal during chronic infection or exacerbations. Neonatal screening and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic knowledge has modified the management of CF-patients. A culture based microbiological follow-up should be performed in patients with no infection with P.aeruginosa. At initial infection, inhaled colistin (0,5-2MU/tid), tobramycin (300mg/bid) or aztreonam (75mg/tid) with or without oral ciprofloxacin (15-20mg/kg/bid, 2-3weeks) are recommended. In chronic infections, treatment is based on continuous administration of colistin or with a 28-day on-off regimen with tobramycin or aztreonam. During mild-moderate exacerbations oral ciprofloxacin (2-3weeks) can be administered while serious exacerbations must be treated with intravenous combination therapy (beta-lactam with an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone). Future studies will support antibiotic rotation and/or new combination therapies. Epidemiological measures are also recommended to avoid new P.aeruginosa infections and "patient-to-patient transmission" of this pathogen.

  16. Is Quorum Sensing Interference a Viable Alternative to Treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections?

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) coordinates the expression of multiple virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; hence its inhibition has been postulated as a new alternative to treat its infections. In particular, QS interference approaches claim that they attenuate bacterial virulence without directly decreasing bacterial growth and suggest that in vivo the immune system would control the infections. Moreover, since in vitro experiments performed in rich medium demonstrate that interfering with QS decreases the production of virulence factors without affecting bacterial growth it was assumed than in vivo therapies will minimize the selection of resistant strains. Therefore, the underlying assumptions toward an effective implementation of a successful Quorum sensing interference (QSI) therapy for treating P. aeruginosa infections are that (i) QS only exerts important effects in the regulation of virulence genes but it does not affect metabolic processes linked to growth, (ii) the expression of virulence factors is only positively regulated by QS, (iii) inhibition of virulence factors in vivo do not affect bacterial growth, (iv) the immune system of the infected patients will be able to get rid of the infections, and (v) the therapy will be effective in the strains that are actively producing the infections. Nevertheless, for QSI in P. aeruginosa, substantial experimental evidence against the validity of most of these assumptions has accumulated during the past years, suggesting that a far better understanding of its virulence and its behavior during infections is needed in order to design truly solid QSI therapeutic alternatives to combat this remarkable pathogen. PMID:27683577

  17. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection definition: EuroCareCF Working Group report.

    PubMed

    Pressler, T; Bohmova, C; Conway, S; Dumcius, S; Hjelte, L; Høiby, N; Kollberg, H; Tümmler, B; Vavrova, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa develops in most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); by adulthood 80% of patients are infected and chronic P. aeruginosa infection is the primary cause of increased morbidity and mortality in CF. Chronic infection is preceded by an intermittent stage of infection. The initial stage is characteristically followed by the gradual emergence of mucoid variants of the colonizing strains and a rise in anti-Pseudomonas antibodies. In addition to optimizing existing therapeutic strategies, effective new agents need to be identified. Studies in patients with CF are particularly challenging: the progressive nature of the disease and the wide variation in severity influence considerably the outcome of drug testing. A validated, universally accepted, and clinically useful classification of patients infected with P. aeruginosa, particularly those chronically infected, is needed that can be used as both a criterion for patient selection for clinical trials and as a study endpoint. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Drosophila melanogaster Toll Pathway Participates in Resistance to Infection by the Gram-Negative Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Gee W.; Goumnerov, Boyan C.; Walendziewicz, Cynthia L.; Hewitson, Jennifer; Xiao, Wenzhong; Mahajan-Miklos, Shalina; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative pathogen that infects immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. The molecular basis of the host-P. aeruginosa interaction and the effect of specific P. aeruginosa virulence factors on various components of the innate immunity pathways are largely unknown. We examine interactions between P. aeruginosa virulence factors and components of innate immunity response in the Drosophila melanogaster model system to reveal the importance of the Toll signaling pathway in resistance to infection by the P. aeruginosa human isolate PA14. Using the two PA14-isogenic mutants plcS and dsbA, we show that Drosophila loss-of-function mutants of Spatzle, the extracellular ligand of Toll, and Dorsal and Dif, two NF-κB-like transcription factors, allow increased P. aeruginosa infectivity within fly tissues. In contrast, a constitutively active Toll mutant and a loss-of-function mutant of Cactus, an IκB-like factor that inhibits the Toll signaling, reduce infectivity. Our finding that Dorsal activity is required to restrict P. aeruginosa infectivity in Drosophila provides direct in vivo evidence for Dorsal function in adult fly immunity. Additionally, our results provide the basis for future studies into interactions between P. aeruginosa virulence factors and components of the Toll signaling pathway, which is functionally conserved between flies and humans. PMID:12819096

  19. Multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial respiratory and urinary infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2015-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.

  20. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from chronically infected children with cystic fibrosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Gunjan; Kapil, Arti; Kabra, Susheel Kumar; Das, Bimal Kumar; Dwivedi, Sada Nand

    2005-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). With chronicity of infection, the organism resides as a biofilm, shows multi-drug resistance, diversifies its colony morphology and becomes auxotrophic. The patients have been found to be colonized with multiple genotypes. The present work was carried out to characterize P. aeruginosa isolated from children with cystic fibrosis using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results We studied 56 patients with CF attending the Pediatric Chest clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India during August 1998-August 2001. These patients were regularly followed up at the clinic. Out of 56 patients, 27 were culture positive for P. aeruginosa where 8 were chronically infected (Group1) and 19 were intermittently colonized with the organism (Group2). Patients under Group1 had significantly higher rates of hospitalization, death and colonization with different colony morphotypes (p < 0.05). The isolates from Group1 patients were the positive producers of extended spectrum beta lactamase. A total of 5 auxotrophs were recovered from 2 patients where one was chronically infected with P. aeruginosa and the other was a recently enrolled patient. The auxotrophs had the specific requirement for methionine and arginine. Molecular typing revealed 33 ERIC-PCR (E1-E33) and 5 PCR-ribotyping (P1-P5) patterns. By ERIC-PCR, 4 patients were colonized with 2–4 genotypes and the remaining 23 patients were colonized with the single genotype. Conclusion With chronicity of infection, P. aeruginosa becomes multidrug resistant, diversifies its colony morphology, acquires mucoidity and shows auxotrophy for amino acids. The chronically infected patients can be colonized with multiple genotypes. Thus in a particular clinical set up, high index of suspicion should be there for diagnosis of CF patients so as to prevent the delay in diagnosis and management of CF

  1. A Cell-Free Biosensor for Detecting Quorum Sensing Molecules in P. aeruginosa-Infected Respiratory Samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ke Yan; Cameron, Loren; Chappell, James; Jensen, Kirsten; Bell, David J; Kelwick, Richard; Kopniczky, Margarita; Davies, Jane C; Filloux, Alain; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-10-05

    Synthetic biology designed cell-free biosensors are a promising new tool for the detection of clinically relevant biomarkers in infectious diseases. Here, we report that a modular DNA-encoded biosensor in cell-free protein expression systems can be used to measure a bacterial biomarker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection from human sputum samples. By optimizing the cell-free system and sample extraction, we demonstrate that the quorum sensing molecule 3-oxo-C12-HSL in sputum samples from cystic fibrosis lungs can be quantitatively measured at nanomolar levels using our cell-free biosensor system, and is comparable to LC-MS measurements of the same samples. This study further illustrates the potential of modular cell-free biosensors as rapid, low-cost detection assays that can inform clinical practice.

  2. Infection, inflammation, and lung function decline in infants with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pillarisetti, Naveen; Williamson, Elizabeth; Linnane, Barry; Skoric, Billy; Robertson, Colin F; Robinson, Phil; Massie, John; Hall, Graham L; Sly, Peter; Stick, Stephen; Ranganathan, Sarath

    2011-07-01

    Better understanding of evolution of lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its association with pulmonary inflammation and infection is crucial in informing both early intervention studies aimed at limiting lung damage and the role of lung function as outcomes in such studies. To describe longitudinal change in lung function in infants with CF and its association with pulmonary infection and inflammation. Infants diagnosed after newborn screening or clinical presentation were recruited prospectively. FVC, forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds (FEV(0.5)), and forced expiratory flows at 75% of exhaled vital capacity (FEF(75)) were measured using the raised-volume technique, and z-scores were calculated from published reference equations. Pulmonary infection and inflammation were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage within 48 hours of lung function testing. Thirty-seven infants had at least two successful repeat lung function measurements. Mean (SD) z-scores for FVC were -0.8 (1.0), -0.9 (1.1), and -1.7 (1.2) when measured at the first visit, 1-year visit, or 2-year visit, respectively. Mean (SD) z-scores for FEV(0.5) were -1.4 (1.2), -2.4 (1.1), and -4.3 (1.6), respectively. In those infants in whom free neutrophil elastase was detected, FVC z-scores were 0.81 lower (P=0.003), and FEV(0.5) z-scores 0.96 lower (P=0.001), respectively. Significantly greater decline in FEV(0.5) z-scores occurred in those infected with Staphylococcus aureus (P=0.018) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P=0.021). In infants with CF, pulmonary inflammation is associated with lower lung function, whereas pulmonary infection is associated with a greater rate of decline in lung function. Strategies targeting pulmonary inflammation and infection are required to prevent early decline in lung function in infants with CF.

  3. Immune surveillance mechanisms of the skin against the stealth infection strategy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-review.

    PubMed

    Andonova, Maria; Urumova, Valentina

    2013-09-01

    The present review aims to provide insight into the complex interactions between the host and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-an opportunistic microbial agent causing skin infections. Heat, humidity and skin pH are among the factors beneficial for the development of this Gram-negative agent. To cause infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa should first overcome the primary mechanisms of defense including the cell elements and humoral factors of the skin, as well as non-specific responses-phagocytosis, inflammation, acute phase response. All they are analysed with emphasis on the fact that their detailed understanding would help revealing their potential and allow for their efficient control. The microorganism, being more alterable and more flexible than the host, uses stealth strategies and modes of life. The review goes over the arsenal of virulence factors, used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attack the host defense mechanisms. The bacterial pathogenic strategies for invasion, resulting in collapse of skin defense are analysed. Several novel therapeutic approached to Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections are briefly reviewed.

  4. Fusarium Infection in Lung Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Herman A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Restrepo, Alejandro; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium is a fungal pathogen of immunosuppressed lung transplant patients associated with a high mortality in those with severe and persistent neutropenia. The principle portal of entry for Fusarium species is the airways, and lung involvement almost always occurs among lung transplant patients with disseminated infection. In these patients, the immunoprotective mechanisms of the transplanted lungs are impaired, and they are, therefore, more vulnerable to Fusarium infection. As a result, fusariosis occurs in up to 32% of lung transplant patients. We studied fusariosis in 6 patients following lung transplantation who were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during an 8-year period and reviewed 3 published cases in the literature. Cases were identified by the microbiology laboratory and through discharge summaries. Patients presented with dyspnea, fever, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and headache. Blood tests showed elevated white blood cell counts with granulocytosis and elevated inflammatory markers. Cultures of Fusarium were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and sputum specimens. Treatments included amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole, either alone or in combination. Lung involvement occurred in all patients with disseminated disease and it was associated with a poor outcome. The mortality rate in this group of patients was high (67%), and of those who survived, 1 patient was treated with a combination of amphotericin B and voriconazole, 1 patient with amphotericin B, and 1 patient with posaconazole. Recommended empirical treatment includes voriconazole, amphotericin B or liposomal amphotericin B first-line, and posaconazole for refractory disease. High-dose amphotericin B is recommended for treatment of most cases of fusariosis. The echinocandins (for example, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin) are generally avoided because Fusarium species have intrinsic resistance to them. Treatment

  5. Gallium Maltolate Treatment Eradicates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Thermally Injured Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Katrina; Balldin, Fredrik; Watters, Chase; Hamood, Abdul; Griswold, John; Sreedharan, Sunil; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2009-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) is a semimetallic element that has demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic-imaging potential in a number of disease settings, including cancer and infectious diseases. Gallium's biological actions stem from its ionic radius being almost the same as that of ferric iron (Fe3+), whereby it can replace iron (Fe) in Fe3+-dependent biological systems, such as bacterial and mammalian Fe transporters and Fe3+-containing enzymes. Unlike Fe3+, ionic gallium (Ga3+) cannot be reduced, and when incorporated, it inactivates Fe3+-dependent reduction and oxidation processes that are necessary for bacterial and mammalian cell proliferation. Most pathogenic bacteria require Fe for growth and function, and the availability of Fe in the host or environment can greatly enhance virulence. We examined whether gallium maltolate (GaM), a novel formulation of Ga, had antibacterial activity in a thermally injured acute infection mouse model. Dose-response studies indicated that a GaM dose as low as 25 mg/kg of body weight delivered subcutaneously was sufficient to provide 100% survival in a lethal P. aeruginosa-infected thermally injured mouse model. Mice treated with 100 mg/kg GaM had undetectable levels of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in their wounds, livers, and spleens, while the wounds of untreated mice were colonized with over 108 P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue and their livers and spleens were colonized with over 105 P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue. GaM also significantly reduced the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii in the wounds of thermally injured mice. Furthermore, GaM was also therapeutically effective in preventing preestablished P. aeruginosa infections at the site of the injury from spreading systemically. Taken together, our data suggest that GaM is potentially a novel antibacterial agent for the prevention and treatment of wound infections following thermal injury. PMID:19188381

  6. Gallium maltolate treatment eradicates Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in thermally injured mice.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Katrina; Balldin, Fredrik; Watters, Chase; Hamood, Abdul; Griswold, John; Sreedharan, Sunil; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2009-04-01

    Gallium (Ga) is a semimetallic element that has demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic-imaging potential in a number of disease settings, including cancer and infectious diseases. Gallium's biological actions stem from its ionic radius being almost the same as that of ferric iron (Fe(3+)), whereby it can replace iron (Fe) in Fe(3+)-dependent biological systems, such as bacterial and mammalian Fe transporters and Fe(3+)-containing enzymes. Unlike Fe(3+), ionic gallium (Ga(3+)) cannot be reduced, and when incorporated, it inactivates Fe(3+)-dependent reduction and oxidation processes that are necessary for bacterial and mammalian cell proliferation. Most pathogenic bacteria require Fe for growth and function, and the availability of Fe in the host or environment can greatly enhance virulence. We examined whether gallium maltolate (GaM), a novel formulation of Ga, had antibacterial activity in a thermally injured acute infection mouse model. Dose-response studies indicated that a GaM dose as low as 25 mg/kg of body weight delivered subcutaneously was sufficient to provide 100% survival in a lethal P. aeruginosa-infected thermally injured mouse model. Mice treated with 100 mg/kg GaM had undetectable levels of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in their wounds, livers, and spleens, while the wounds of untreated mice were colonized with over 10(8) P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue and their livers and spleens were colonized with over 10(5) P. aeruginosa CFU/g of tissue. GaM also significantly reduced the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii in the wounds of thermally injured mice. Furthermore, GaM was also therapeutically effective in preventing preestablished P. aeruginosa infections at the site of the injury from spreading systemically. Taken together, our data suggest that GaM is potentially a novel antibacterial agent for the prevention and treatment of wound infections following thermal injury.

  7. Restoring Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function Reduces Airway Bacteria and Inflammation in People with Cystic Fibrosis and Chronic Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    Hisert, Katherine B; Heltshe, Sonya L; Pope, Christopher; Jorth, Peter; Wu, Xia; Edwards, Rachael M; Radey, Matthew; Accurso, Frank J; Wolter, Daniel J; Cooke, Gordon; Adam, Ryan J; Carter, Suzanne; Grogan, Brenda; Launspach, Janice L; Donnelly, Seamas C; Gallagher, Charles G; Bruce, James E; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J; Hoffman, Lucas R; McKone, Edward F; Singh, Pradeep K

    2017-06-15

    Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis and G551D-CFTR mutations but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once cystic fibrosis lung disease is established. To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with cystic fibrosis and chronic airway infections. We studied 12 subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations and chronic airway infections before and after ivacaftor. We measured lung function, sputum bacterial content, and inflammation, and obtained chest computed tomography scans. Ivacaftor produced rapid decreases in sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density that began within 48 hours and continued in the first year of treatment. However, no subject eradicated their infecting P. aeruginosa strain, and after the first year P. aeruginosa densities rebounded. Sputum total bacterial concentrations also decreased, but less than P. aeruginosa. Sputum inflammatory measures decreased significantly in the first week of treatment and continued to decline over 2 years. Computed tomography scans obtained before and 1 year after ivacaftor treatment revealed that ivacaftor decreased airway mucous plugging. Ivacaftor caused marked reductions in sputum P. aeruginosa density and airway inflammation and produced modest improvements in radiographic lung disease in subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations. However, P. aeruginosa airway infection persisted. Thus, measures that control infection may be required to realize the full benefits of CFTR-targeting treatments.

  8. Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Li, Jinyuan; Goldufsky, Josef W; Gupta, Kajal H; Moghtaderi, Masoomeh; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17 % of all hospital-acquired infections. Although short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2>60 %) versus low (FiO2<40 %) oxygen in reducing SSI. In this report, we designed a rat model for muscle surgery to compare the effectiveness of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2=80 %) versus a standard low (FiO2=30 %) oxygen in reducing SSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - one of the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogens, responsible for nosocomial SSIs. Our data demonstrate that 5 h perioperative treatment with 80 % FiO2 is significantly more effective in reducing SSI with P. aeruginosa compared to 30 % FiO2 treatment. We further show that whilst 80 % FiO2 treatment does not affect neutrophil infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected muscles, neutrophils in the 80 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group are significantly more activated than neutrophils in the 30 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group, suggesting that high oxygen perioperative treatment reduces SSI with P. aeruginosa by enhancing neutrophil activation in infected wounds.

  9. Development of Topical Treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Infections by Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Mediated by Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Infections by Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Mediated by Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Development of Topical Treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Wound Infections by Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Mediated by Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimers ...finding was the specific inhibition of PAMAM dendrimers on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm formation and growth. This is significant because PA in

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are important for infection and inflammation in a rat prostatitis model.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lisa K; D'Amours, Genevieve H; Sproule-Willoughby, Kimberley M; Morck, Douglas W; Ceri, Howard

    2009-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently acts as an opportunistic pathogen of mucosal surfaces; yet, despite causing aggressive prostatitis in some men, its role as a pathogen in the prostate has not been investigated. Consequently, we developed a Ps. aeruginosa infection model in the rat prostate by instilling wild-type (WT) Ps. aeruginosa strain PAO1 into the rat prostate. It was found that Ps. aeruginosa produced acute and chronic infections in this mucosal tissue as determined by bacterial colonization, gross morphology, tissue damage and inflammatory markers. WT strain PAO1 and its isogenic mutant PAO-JP2, in which both the lasI and rhlI quorum-sensing signal systems have been silenced, were compared during both acute and chronic prostate infections. In acute infections, bacterial numbers and inflammatory markers were comparable between WT PA01 and PAO-JP2; however, considerably less tissue damage occurred in infections with PAO-JP2. Chronic infections with PAO-JP2 resulted in reduced bacterial colonization, tissue damage and inflammation as compared to WT PAO1 infections. Therefore, the quorum-sensing lasI and rhlI genes in Ps. aeruginosa affect acute prostate infections, but play a considerably more important role in maintaining chronic infections. We have thus developed a highly reproducible model for the study of Ps. aeruginosa virulence in the prostate.

  11. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J; Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R; Southern, Kevin W; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0-12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15-0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6-3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection.

  12. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M.; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R.; Southern, Kevin W.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15–0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6–3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection. PMID:27730156

  13. Inhaled antibiotics for the treatment of chronic bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Máiz, Luis; Girón, Rosa M; Olveira, Casilda; Quintana, Esther; Lamas, Adelaida; Pastor, Dolores; Cantón, Rafael; Mensa, Josep

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled antibiotics are probably the safest and most effective therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To summarise the available evidence, a systematic review of the three currently available inhaled antibiotics (aztreonam lysine (AZLI), colistin (COL) and tobramycin (TOB)) was performed. The three AZLI placebo-controlled studies showed that the improvements in FEV1 and mean sputum P. aeruginosa density were statistically significant better than with placebo. The two COL placebo-controlled studies involved few patients but showed that COL was better than placebo in terms of maintenance of some pulmonary function parameters. The tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) and tobramycin inhalation powder studies showed that the efficacy of both formulations was similar but significantly better than placebo. In the comparative studies, TIS showed more efficacy than COL solution, colistin inhalation powder showed non-inferiority to TIS and AZLI was superior to TIS. Placebo-controlled and comparative clinical trials have shown that clinical evidence of inhaled antibiotics is very different. The choice of treatment for each individual CF patient must be based on the features of the drug (clinical evidence on efficacy and safety), the inhalation system and the patient characteristics. Development of new inhaled antibiotics will allow new end points of efficacy and therapy regimens to be assessed.

  14. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Fountain, Kimberly; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models, including the hindlimb-unloading model, have become important tools for increasing understanding of how spaceflight conditions can influence physiology. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the susceptibility of mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hindlimb-unloaded and control mice were subcutaneously infected with 1 LD50 of P. aeruginosa. Survival, bacterial organ load, and antibody and corticosterone levels were compared among the groups. Hindlimb unloading had detrimental effects for infected mice. Animals in the hindlimb-unloaded group, compared with controls, 1). showed significantly increased mortality and reduced time to death, 2). had increased levels of corticosterone, and 3). were much less able to clear bacteria from the organs. These results suggest that hindlimb unloading may induce the production of corticosterone, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection.

  15. Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections at an outpatient chemotherapy center.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Thomas E; Guh, Alice Y; Oakes, Peggy; Vince, Mary Jan; Forbi, Joseph C; Jensen, Bette; Moulton-Meissner, Heather; Byers, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Four patients were hospitalized July 2011 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI), 2 of whom also had Klebsiella pneumoniae BSI. All 4 patients had an indwelling port and received infusion services at the same outpatient oncology center. Cases were defined by blood or port cultures positive for K pneumoniae or P aeruginosa among patients receiving infusion services at the oncology clinic during July 5-20, 2011. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on available isolates. Interviews with staff and onsite investigations identified lapses of infection control practices. Owing to concerns over long-standing deficits, living patients who had been seen at the clinic between January 2008 and July 2011 were notified for viral blood-borne pathogen (BBP) testing; genetic relatedness was determined by molecular testing. Fourteen cases (17%) were identified among 84 active clinic patients, 12 of which involved symptoms of a BSI. One other patient had a respiratory culture positive for P aeruginosa but died before blood cultures were obtained. Available isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE. Multiple injection safety lapses were identified, including overt syringe reuse among patients and reuse of syringes to access shared medications. Available BBP results did not demonstrate iatrogenic viral infection in 331 of 623 notified patients (53%). Improper preparation and handling of injectable medications likely caused the outbreak. Increased infection control oversight of oncology clinics is critical to prevent similar outbreaks. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in an SCT unit.

    PubMed

    Fanci, R; Bartolozzi, B; Sergi, S; Casalone, E; Pecile, P; Cecconi, D; Mannino, R; Donnarumma, F; Leon, A G; Guidi, S; Nicoletti, P; Mastromei, G; Bosi, A

    2009-02-01

    From May to October 2006, six severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were diagnosed in patients undergoing SCT in the SCT unit of the Careggi hospital (Florence, Italy). Four of the infected patients were treated consecutively in the same room (room N). On the hypothesis of a possible environmental source of infection, samples were collected from different sites that had potential for cross-contamination throughout the SCT unit, including the electrolytic chloroxidant disinfectant used for hand washing (Irgasan) and the disinfectant used for facilities cleaning. Four of the environmental samples were positive for P. aeruginosa: three Irgansan soap samples and a tap swab sample from the staff cleaning and dressing room. The AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) typing method employed to evaluate strain clonality showed that the isolates from the patients who had shared the same room and an isolate from Irgasan soap had a significant molecular similarity (dice index higher than 0.93). After adequate control measures, no subsequent environmental sample proved positive for P. aeruginosa. These data strongly support the hypothesis of the clonal origin of the infective strains and suggest an environmental source of infection. The AFLP method was fast enough to allow a 'real-time' monitoring of the outbreak, permitting additional preventive measures.

  17. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Fountain, Kimberly; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models, including the hindlimb-unloading model, have become important tools for increasing understanding of how spaceflight conditions can influence physiology. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the susceptibility of mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hindlimb-unloaded and control mice were subcutaneously infected with 1 LD50 of P. aeruginosa. Survival, bacterial organ load, and antibody and corticosterone levels were compared among the groups. Hindlimb unloading had detrimental effects for infected mice. Animals in the hindlimb-unloaded group, compared with controls, 1). showed significantly increased mortality and reduced time to death, 2). had increased levels of corticosterone, and 3). were much less able to clear bacteria from the organs. These results suggest that hindlimb unloading may induce the production of corticosterone, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection.

  18. Impact of mold infections in explanted lungs on outcomes of lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vadnerkar, Aniket; Clancy, Cornelius J; Celik, Umit; Yousem, Samuel A; Mitsani, Dimitra; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Nguyen, Minh-Ly; Kwak, Eun J; Pilewski, Joseph; Silveira, Fernanda P; Crespo, Maria; Nguyen, M Hong

    2010-01-27

    Little is known about the incidence or significance of mold infections in the explanted lungs of lung transplant recipients. We reviewed the histopathology of the explanted lungs from 304 patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution from 2005 to 2007 and received alemtuzumab induction therapy and posttransplant voriconazole prophylaxis. Invasive mold infections were present in the explanted lungs of 5% (14 of 304) of patients, including chronic necrotizing pneumonias (n=7), mycetomas (n=4), and invasive fungal pneumonias (n=3). Only 21% (3 of 14) received immunosuppressive therapy within 1 year before lung transplantation, suggesting that lung damage itself predisposed patients to mold infections. The risk of mold infection was higher in patients with cystic fibrosis (11%, 4 of 35) than other underlying lung diseases (4%, 10 of 269). Pulmonary mold infections were not diagnosed or suspected in 57% (8 of 14) of patients. Despite secondary voriconazole prophylaxis, fungal infections developed in 43% (6 of 14) of patients with mold infections of the explanted lungs compared with 14% (42 of 290) of patients without mold infections (P=0.01). Three patients developed invasive fungal infections while on voriconazole prophylaxis and three developed fungal infections more than 8 months after the discontinuation of voriconazole. The mortality attributable to invasive fungal infections among patients with mold infections of the explanted lungs was 29% (4 of 14). Invasive mold infections in the explanted lungs are often not recognized before lung transplantation and are associated with poor outcomes.

  19. Effect of systemic infection induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the brain uptake of colistin in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2012-10-01

    In view of reports of colistin-induced neurotoxicity in infected patients, the aim of this study was to assess whether the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the brain uptake of colistin are altered in the presence of systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Bacteremia was confirmed 8 h after intramuscular administration of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 to Swiss Outbred mice, at which time a single subcutaneous dose of colistin sulfate (40 mg/kg of body weight) or an intravenous dose of [(14)C]sucrose (2 μCi) was administered. Despite a substantial elevation in plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 during bacterial infection, the brain uptake of colistin was similar between infected and noninfected mice with AUC(brain)/AUC(plasma) (where AUC(brain) is the area under the brain concentration-time curve and AUC(plasma) is the area under the plasma concentration-time curve) ratios of 0.023 and 0.024, respectively. Similarly, the brain-to-plasma ratios of [(14)C]sucrose were no different between infected and noninfected mice, consistent with a lack of effect of bacteremia on BBB integrity. To further correlate any relationship between BBB disruption and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, BBB integrity, colistin brain uptake, and plasma proinflammatory cytokines were measured following the administration of Salmonella enterica lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agent known to induce BBB disruption. Despite LPS inducing a 4-fold increase in colistin brain uptake and a significant (P < 0.05) 1.2-fold increase in [(14)C]sucrose BBB penetration, plasma cytokine levels were lower with LPS treatment relative to those obtained with bacterial infection with P. aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that the brain uptake of colistin is not increased in mice during P. aeruginosa-induced systemic bacteremia despite a significant increase in plasma levels of three proinflammatory cytokines.

  20. Homogentisate 1-2-Dioxygenase Downregulation in the Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian Epidemic Strain-1 in the CF Lung.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Wynn, Matthew; Pinto, Rachel; Cordwell, Stuart; Rose, Barbara R; Harbour, Colin; Triccas, James A; Manos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains including Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1 or AUS-01) cause persistent chronic infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with greater morbidity and mortality. Factors conferring persistence are largely unknown. Previously we analysed the transcriptomes of AES-1 grown in Luria broth, nematode growth medium for Caenorhabditis elegans assay (both aerobic) and artificial sputum medium (mainly hypoxic). Transcriptional comparisons included chronic AES-1 strains against PAO1 and acute AES-1 (AES-1R) against its chronic isogen (AES-1M), isolated 10.5 years apart from a CF patient and not eradicated in the meantime. Prominent amongst genes downregulated in AES-1M in all comparisons was homogentisate-1-2-dioxygenase (hmgA); an oxygen-dependent gene known to be mutationally deactivated in many chronic infection strains of P. aeruginosa. To investigate if hmgA downregulation and deactivation gave similar virulence persistence profiles, a hmgA mutant made in UCBPP-PA14 utilising RedS-recombinase and AES-1M were assessed in the C. elegans virulence assay, and the C57BL/6 mouse for pulmonary colonisation and TNF-α response. In C. elegans, hmgA deactivation resulted in significantly increased PA14 virulence while hmgA downregulation reduced AES-1M virulence. AES-1M was significantly more persistent in mouse lung and showed a significant increase in TNF-α (p<0.0001), sustained even with no detectable bacteria. PA14ΔhmgA did not show increased TNF-α. This study suggests that hmgA may have a role in P. aeruginosa persistence in chronic infection and the results provide a starting point for clarifying the role of hmgA in chronic AES-1.

  1. Potential Use of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Treatment of Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiao; Wu, Qiaolian; Bai, Dangdang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Lin; Jin, Sheng; Wu, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent to dissolve water-insoluble drugs or other test samples in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It was observed during our experiment that DMSO at noninhibitory concentrations could significantly inhibit pyocyanin production in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pyocyanin is an important pathogenic factor whose production is controlled by a cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) system. Investigation of the effect of DMSO on QS showed that DMSO has significant QS antagonistic activities and concentrations of DMSO in the micromolar range attenuated a battery of QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid, elastase, and LasA protease production and biofilm formation. Further study indicated that DMSO inhibition of biofilm formation and pyocyanin production was attained by reducing the level of production of an autoinducer molecule of the rhl QS system, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). In a mouse model of a burn wound infection with P. aeruginosa, treatment with DMSO significantly decreased mouse mortality compared with that for mice in the control group. The capacity of DMSO to attenuate the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa points to the potential use of DMSO as an antipathogenic agent for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection. As a commonly used solvent, however, DMSO's impact on bacterial virulence calls for cautionary attention in its usage in biological, medicinal, and clinical studies. PMID:27645245

  2. Characterization of the first double-stranded RNA bacteriophage infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhui; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Mengyu; Tan, Yinling; Li, Gang; Li, Ming; Wang, Jing; Hu, Fuquan; Le, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are widely distributed in the biosphere and play a key role in modulating microbial ecology in the soil, ocean, and humans. Although the role of DNA bacteriophages is well described, the biology of RNA bacteriophages is poorly understood. More than 1900 phage genomes are currently deposited in NCBI, but only 6 dsRNA bacteriophages and 12 ssRNA bacteriophages genome sequences are reported. The 6 dsRNA bacteriophages were isolated from legume samples or lakes with Pseudomonas syringae as the host. Here, we report the first Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage phiYY with a three-segmented dsRNA genome. phiYY was isolated from hospital sewage in China with the clinical P. aeruginosa strain, PAO38, as a host. Moreover, the dsRNA phage phiYY has a broad host range, which infects 99 out of 233 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from four provinces in China. This work presented a detailed characterization of the dsRNA bacteriophage infecting P. aeruginosa. PMID:27934909

  3. Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a Galleria mellonella infection model.

    PubMed

    Beeton, M L; Alves, D R; Enright, M C; Jenkins, A T A

    2015-08-01

    The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to assess the in vivo efficacy of phage therapy against laboratory and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a first series of experiments, Galleria were infected with the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and were treated with varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) of phages either 2h post-infection (treatment) or 2h pre-infection (prevention) via injection into the haemolymph. To address the kinetics of infection, larvae were bled over a period of 24h for quantification of bacteria and phages. Survival rates at 24h when infected with 10 cells/larvae were greater in the prevention versus treatment model (47% vs. 40%, MOI=10; 47% vs. 20%, MOI=1; and 33% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). This pattern held true when 100 cells/larvae were used (87% vs. 20%, MOI=10; 53% vs. 13%, MOI=1; 67% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). By 24h post-infection, phages kept bacterial cell numbers in the haemolymph 1000-fold lower than in the non-treated group. In a second series of experiments using clinical strains to further validate the prevention model, phages protected Galleria when infected with both a bacteraemia (0% vs. 85%) and a cystic fibrosis (80% vs. 100%) isolate. Therefore, this study validates the use of G. mellonella as a simple, robust and cost-effective model for initial in vivo examination of P. aeruginosa-targeted phage therapy, which may be applied to other pathogens with similarly low infective doses.

  4. Biofilm-forming capacity of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenbo; Sun, Xuguang; Wang, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yang

    2012-08-17

    To investigate the biofilm-forming capacity of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ocular infections. S. epidermidis strains, S. aureus strains, and P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from patients with ocular infections between 2009 and 2011. The biofilm-forming capacity of these bacteria was examined using Congo red agar (CRA) and microtiter plate assays. The biofilm-forming related genes, icaA, of S. epidermidis and S. aureus, and pslA, of P. aeruginosa, were detected using PCR. Additionally, the morphology of biofilms was observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Of the isolated S. epidermidis strains, 34.38% were CRA positive, 28.13% were adherence positive using the microtiter plate assay, and 40.63% carried the icaA gene. Of the isolated S. aureus strains, 55.56% were CRA positive, 51.90% were adherence positive, and 11.11% carried the icaA gene. None of the P. aeruginosa strains were phenotypic positive using CRA and microtiter plate assays, whereas 31.03% contained the pslA gene. There were significant differences between the three species when the biofilm-forming capacity of the strains was compared using the CRA method (P < 0.01) and the microtiter plate assay method (P < 0.01). Ophthalmic isolates of S. epidermidis and S. aureus could produce biofilms in vitro, whereas clinical strains of P. aeruginosa could not. The bacterial strains possess the genetic ability to produce biofilms, but that does not necessarily mean that biofilms will be produced. The knowledge of the process of bacterial adhesion suggests that a timely and appropriate intervention strategy be implemented in the early stages of biofilm-mediated infections.

  5. Ex vivo transcriptional profiling reveals a common set of genes important for the adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to chronically infected host sites.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Piotr; Komor, Uliana; Bielecka, Agata; Müsken, Mathias; Puchałka, Jacek; Pletz, Mathias W; Ballmann, Manfred; Martins dos Santos, Vítor A P; Weiss, Siegfried; Häussler, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major nosocomial pathogen causing both devastating acute and chronic persistent infections. During the course of an infection, P.  aeruginosa rapidly adapts to the specific conditions within the host. In the present study, we aimed at the identification of genes that are highly expressed during biofilm infections such as in chronically infected lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), burn wounds and subcutaneous mouse tumours. We found a common subset of differentially regulated genes in all three in vivo habitats and evaluated whether their inactivation impacts on the bacterial capability to form biofilms in vitro and to establish biofilm-associated infections in a murine model. Additive effects on biofilm formation and host colonization were discovered by the combined inactivation of several highly expressed genes. However, even combined inactivation was not sufficient to abolish the establishment of an infection completely. These findings can be interpreted as evidence that either redundant traits encode functions that are essential for in vivo survival and chronic biofilm infections and/or bacterial adaptation is considerably achieved independently of transcription levels. Supplemental screens, will have to be applied in order to identify the minimal set of key genes essential for the establishment of chronic infectious diseases. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Fungal infections of the lung in children.

    PubMed

    Toma, Paolo; Bertaina, Alice; Castagnola, Elio; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D'Andrea, Maria Luisa; Finocchi, Andrea; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Granata, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response.

  7. Selective Sweeps and Parallel Pathoadaptation Drive Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolution in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T.; Coburn, Bryan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Pauline W.; Donaldson, Sylva L.; Tullis, D. Elizabeth; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Waters, Valerie J.; Hwang, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pulmonary infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a recalcitrant problem in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While the clinical implications and long-term evolutionary patterns of these infections are well studied, we know little about the short-term population dynamics that enable this pathogen to persist despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy. Here, we describe a short-term population genomic analysis of 233 P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 12 sputum specimens obtained over a 1-year period from a single patient. Whole-genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling identified the expansion of two clonal lineages. The first lineage originated from the coalescence of the entire sample less than 3 years before the end of the study and gave rise to a high-diversity ancestral population. The second expansion occurred 2 years later and gave rise to a derived population with a strong signal of positive selection. These events show characteristics consistent with recurrent selective sweeps. While we cannot identify the specific mutations responsible for the origins of the clonal lineages, we find that the majority of mutations occur in loci previously associated with virulence and resistance. Additionally, approximately one-third of all mutations occur in loci that are mutated multiple times, highlighting the importance of parallel pathoadaptation. One such locus is the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, which received three independent mutations. Our functional analysis of these alleles shows that they provide differential fitness benefits dependent on the antibiotic under selection. These data reveal that bacterial populations can undergo extensive and dramatic changes that are not revealed by lower-resolution analyses. PMID:26330513

  8. Breathprints of model murine bacterial lung infections are linked with immune response.

    PubMed

    Bean, Heather D; Jiménez-Díaz, Jaime; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    In this model study, we explored the host's contribution of breath volatiles to diagnostic secondary electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprints for acute bacterial lung infections, their correlation with the host's immune response, and their use in identifying the lung pathogen. Murine airways were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cell lysates or to PBS (controls), and their breath and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at six time points (from 6 to 120 h) after exposure. Five to six mice per treatment group and four to six mice per control group were sampled at each time. Breath volatiles were analysed using SESI-MS and the BALF total leukocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and cytokine concentrations were quantified. Lysate exposure breathprints contain host volatiles that persist for up to 120 h; are pathogen specific; are unique from breathprints of controls, active infections and cleared infections; and are correlated with the host's immune response. Bacterial lung infections induce changes to the host's breath volatiles that are selective and specific predictors of the source of infection. Harnessing the pathogen-specific volatiles in the host's breath may provide useful information for detecting latent bacterial lung infections and managing the spread of respiratory diseases. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. Breathprints of model murine bacterial lung infections are linked with immune response

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Heather D.; Jiménez-Díaz, Jaime; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Hill, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    In this model study, we explored the host’s contribution of breath volatiles to diagnostic secondary electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) breathprints for acute bacterial lung infections, their correlation with the host’s immune response, and their use in identifying the lung pathogen. Murine airways were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cell lysates or to PBS (controls), and their breath and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at six time points (from 6 to 120 h) after exposure. Five to six mice per treatment group and four to six mice per control group were sampled at each time. Breath volatiles were analysed using SESI-MS and the BALF total leukocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and cytokine concentrations were quantified. Lysate exposure breathprints contain host volatiles that persist for up to 120 h; are pathogen specific; are unique from breathprints of controls, active infections and cleared infections; and are correlated with the host’s immune response. Bacterial lung infections induce changes to the host’s breath volatiles that are selective and specific predictors of the source of infection. Harnessing the pathogen-specific volatiles in the host’s breath may provide useful information for detecting latent bacterial lung infections and managing the spread of respiratory diseases. PMID:25323243

  10. Molecular Control of Innate Immune Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Intestinal let-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 is an important miRNA identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and has been shown to be involved in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms for let-7 regulation of innate immunity remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal let-7 in the regulation of innate immunity. Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 decreased let-7::GFP expression. Intestine- or neuron-specific activity of let-7 was required for its function in the regulation of innate immunity. During the control of innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, SDZ-24 was identified as a direct target for intestinal let-7. SDZ-24 was found to be predominantly expressed in the intestine, and P. aeruginosa PA14 infection increased SDZ-24::GFP expression. Intestinal let-7 regulated innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by suppressing both the expression and the function of SDZ-24. Knockout or RNA interference knockdown of sdz-24 dampened the resistance of let-7 mutant to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Intestinal overexpression of sdz-24 lacking 3’-UTR inhibited the susceptibility of nematodes overexpressing intestinal let-7 to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. In contrast, we could observed the effects of intestinal let-7 on innate immunity in P. aeruginosa PA14 infected transgenic strain overexpressing sdz-24 containing 3’-UTR. In the intestine, certain SDZ-24-mediated signaling cascades were formed for nematodes against the P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Our results highlight the crucial role of intestinal miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response to pathogenic infection. PMID:28095464

  11. High-Sensitivity Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Homoserine Lactones Protect Mice from Lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    PubMed Central

    Downham, Christina; Broadbent, Ian; Charlton, Keith; Porter, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of bacteria, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilize homoserine lactones (HSLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signaling compounds and engage in cell-to-cell communication to coordinate their behavior. Blocking this bacterial communication may be an attractive strategy for infection control as QS takes a central role in P. aeruginosa biology. In this study, immunomodulation of HSL molecules by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used as a novel approach to prevent P. aeruginosa infections and as tools to detect HSLs in bodily fluids as a possible first clue to an undiagnosed Gram-negative infection. Using sheep immunization and recombinant antibody technology, a panel of sheep-mouse chimeric MAbs were generated which recognized HSL compounds with high sensitivity (nanomolar range) and cross-reactivity. These MAbs retained their nanomolar sensitivity in complex matrices and were able to recognize HSLs in P. aeruginosa cultures grown in the presence of urine. In a nematode slow-killing assay, HSL MAbs significantly increased the survival of worms fed on the antibiotic-resistant strain PA058. The therapeutic benefit of these MAbs was further studied using a mouse model of Pseudomonas infection in which groups of mice treated with HSL-2 and HSL-4 MAbs survived, 7 days after pathogen challenge, in significantly greater numbers (83 and 67%, respectively) compared with the control groups. This body of work has provided early proof-of-concept data to demonstrate the potential of HSL-specific, monoclonal antibodies as theranostic clinical leads suitable for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of life-threatening bacterial infections. PMID:24185854

  12. Bacteriophage-based therapy in cystic fibrosis-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: rationale and current status

    PubMed Central

    Hraiech, Sami; Brégeon, Fabienne; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary infections involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the leading causes of the deterioration of the respiratory status of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains in such populations, favored by iterative antibiotic cures, has led to the urgent need for new therapies. Among them, bacteriophage-based therapies deserve a focus. One century of empiric use in the ex-USSR countries suggests that bacteriophages may have beneficial effects against a large range of bacterial infections. Interest in bacteriophages has recently renewed in Western countries, and the in vitro data available suggest that bacteriophage-based therapy may be of significant interest for the treatment of pulmonary infections in CF patients. Although the clinical data concerning this specific population are relatively scarce, the beginning of the first large randomized study evaluating bacteriophage-based therapy in burn infections suggests that the time has come to assess the effectiveness of this new therapy in CF P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Consequently, the aim of this review is, after a brief history, to summarize the evidence concerning bacteriophage efficacy against P. aeruginosa and, more specifically, the in vitro studies, animal models, and clinical trials targeting CF. PMID:26213462

  13. Interactions of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Polymicrobial Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Nusbaum, Aron G.; Gil, Joel; Patel, Shailee B.; Chen, Juan; Valdes, Jose; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Plano, Lisa R.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Davis, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathology resulting from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial wound infections is of great importance due to their ubiquitous nature, increasing prevalence, growing resistance to antimicrobial agents, and ability to delay healing. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 is the leading cause of community-associated bacterial infections resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. We utilized a well-established porcine partial thickness wound healing model to study the synergistic effects of USA300 and P. aeruginosa on wound healing. Wound re-epithelialization was significantly delayed by mixed-species biofilms through suppression of keratinocyte growth factor 1. Pseudomonas showed an inhibitory effect on USA300 growth in vitro while both species co-existed in cutaneous wounds in vivo. Polymicrobial wound infection in the presence of P. aeruginosa resulted in induced expression of USA300 virulence factors Panton-Valentine leukocidin and α-hemolysin. These results provide evidence for the interaction of bacterial species within mixed-species biofilms in vivo and for the first time, the contribution of virulence factors to the severity of polymicrobial wound infections. PMID:23451098

  14. Bacteriophage-based therapy in cystic fibrosis-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: rationale and current status.

    PubMed

    Hraiech, Sami; Brégeon, Fabienne; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary infections involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the leading causes of the deterioration of the respiratory status of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains in such populations, favored by iterative antibiotic cures, has led to the urgent need for new therapies. Among them, bacteriophage-based therapies deserve a focus. One century of empiric use in the ex-USSR countries suggests that bacteriophages may have beneficial effects against a large range of bacterial infections. Interest in bacteriophages has recently renewed in Western countries, and the in vitro data available suggest that bacteriophage-based therapy may be of significant interest for the treatment of pulmonary infections in CF patients. Although the clinical data concerning this specific population are relatively scarce, the beginning of the first large randomized study evaluating bacteriophage-based therapy in burn infections suggests that the time has come to assess the effectiveness of this new therapy in CF P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Consequently, the aim of this review is, after a brief history, to summarize the evidence concerning bacteriophage efficacy against P. aeruginosa and, more specifically, the in vitro studies, animal models, and clinical trials targeting CF.

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of “Nubiotics” against Burn Wound Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Roderic M. K.; Schnell, Glen; Wong, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    “Nubiotics” are a novel class of proprietary protonated nucleic acid-based drugs shown to have potent in vitro antibacterial activities against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These nubiotics are evaluated here for their in vivo therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of burn wound infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To achieve this, a burn wound infection model was established in mice by using a highly pathogenic burn wound clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa. Lethal doses of the bacteria were determined for two routes of infection (subcutaneous and topical), representing systemic and local forms of infection, respectively. Using this infection model, treatment with nubiotics by various routes of drug administration was evaluated and optimized. A total of 12 nubiotics and their analogues were tested and of these, Nu-2, -3, -4, and -5 were found to be extremely efficacious in the postexposure treatment of burn wound infection (60 to 100% survival rates versus 0% for untreated control [P < 0.05]). These nubiotics were effective when given either systemically by intravenous and/or subcutaneous administration or given locally to the affected site in the skin by topical application. Treatment by these two routes resulted in almost 100% survival rates and complete eradication of the bacteria from infection sites in the livers, spleens, and blood. These nubiotics were found to be as effective as intravenously administered ciprofloxacin, a potent and broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone. These results suggest that nubiotics may be a promising and effective approach for the treatment of burn wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:15273101

  16. Mobile genetic elements of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hydrotherapy facility and respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Pereira, S G; Cardoso, O

    2014-03-01

    The content of mobile genetic elements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates of a pristine natural mineral water system associated with healthcare was compared with clinical isolates from respiratory infections. One isolate, from the therapy pool circuit, presented a class 1 integron, with 100% similarity to a class 1 integron contained in plasmid p4800 of the Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp4800 strain, which is the first time it has been reported in P. aeruginosa. Class 1 integrons were found in 25.6% of the clinical isolates. PAGI1 orf3 was more prevalent in environmental isolates, while PAGI2 c105 and PAGI3 sg100 were more prevalent in clinical isolates. Plasmids were not observed in either population. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  18. Novel bacteriophage therapy for controlling metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Catfish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage therapy is an effective antimicrobial approach with potentially important applications in medicine and biotechnology which can be seen as an additional string in the bow. Emerging drug resistant bacteria in aquaculture industry due to unrestricted use of antibiotics warrants more sustainable and environmental friendly strategies for controlling fish infections. The isolated bacteria from fish lesions was characterised based on isolation on selective and differential medium like Pseudomonas agar, gram staining, biochemical tests and 16SrRNA sequencing. The metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing bacterial isolate was evaluated using Imipenem - Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disk method. The specific bacteriophage was isolated and concentrated using coal bed developed in our lab at CSIR-NEERI. The isolated and enriched bacteriophage was characterised by nucleotide sequencing and electron microscopy. The phage therapy was applied for treating ulcerative lesion in fish. Results The pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing ulcerative lesions in catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One out of twenty P. aeruginosa isolate showing multi drug resistance (MDR) was incidentally found to be MBL producing as determined by Imipenem-EDTA disk method. The phage therapy effectively cured the ulcerative lesions of the infected fish in 8–10 days of treatment, with a sevenfold reduction of the lesion with untreated infection control. Conclusion Bacteriophage therapy can have potential applications soon as an alternative or as a complement to antibiotic treatment in the aquaculture. We present bacteriophage therapy as a treatment method for controlling MDR P. aeruginosa infection in C. gariepinus. To the best of our knowledge this is a first report of application of phage therapy against MBL producing P. aeruginosa isolated from aquatic ecosystem. PMID:24369750

  19. Bivalent flagellin immunotherapy protects mice against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in both acute pneumonia and burn wound models.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hosein; Behrouz, Bahador; Irajian, Gholamreza; Amirmozafari, Nour; Naghavi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are a serious challenge to therapy because of the complex pathogenesis and paucity of new effective antibiotics, thus renewing interest in antibody-based therapeutic strategies. Immunotherapy strategies typically target selected virulence factors that are expressed by the majority of clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, particularly because virulence factors mediate infection. Type a and b flagellins (flagellin a+b) of P. aeruginosa are acute virulence factors that play a major role in the establishment of infection. Here we evaluate the protective efficacy of antibodies raised against "flagellin a+b" in both acute pneumonia and burn models. A combination strategy using antibodies against "flagellin a+b" provided greater protection against cell invasion and enhanced opsono-phagocytosis and decreased motility of P. aeruginosa strains, compared to strategies using antibodies against a single flagellin. Antibodies against "flagellin a+b"-protected mice infected with P. aeruginosa strains significantly reduced bacterial dissemination from the site of infection to the liver and spleen. Passive immunization with antibodies against "flagellin a+b" led to an efficacious protection against P. aeruginosa infection in both acute pneumonia and burn models. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of healthcare-acquired infections associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in taps in neonatal units in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Jhutty, A; Parks, S; Willis, C; Copley, V; Turton, J F; Hoffman, P N; Bennett, A M

    2014-01-01

    In December 2011 and early 2012 four neonates died from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia in hospitals in Northern Ireland. To assess whether P. aeruginosa was associated with the neonatal unit taps and whether waterborne isolates were consistent with patient isolates. Thirty taps and eight flow straighteners from the relevant hospitals were categorized and dismantled into 494 components and assessed for aerobic colony and P. aeruginosa counts using non-selective and selective agars. P. aeruginosa isolates were typed by variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. Selected tap components were subjected to epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy to visualize biofilm. The highest P. aeruginosa counts were from the flow straighteners, metal support collars and the tap bodies surrounding these two components. Complex flow straighteners had a significantly higher P. aeruginosa count than other types of flow straighteners (P < 0.05). Highest aerobic colony counts were associated with integrated mixers and solenoids (P < 0.05), but there was not a strong correlation (r = 0.33) between the aerobic colony counts and P. aeruginosa counts. Representative P. aeruginosa tap isolates from two hospital neonatal units had VNTR profiles consistent with strains from the tap water and infected neonates. P. aeruginosa was predominantly found in biofilms in flow straighteners and associated components in the tap outlets and was a possible source of the infections observed. Healthcare providers should be aware that water outlets can be a source of P. aeruginosa contamination and should take steps to reduce such contamination, monitor it and have strategies to minimize risk to susceptible patients. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extended-infusion cefepime reduces mortality in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Karri A; West, Jessica E; O'Brien, James M; Goff, Debra A

    2013-07-01

    In an era of escalating resistance and a lack of new antimicrobial discovery, stewardship programs must utilize knowledge of pharmacodynamics to achieve maximal exposure in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We evaluated the clinical and economic outcomes associated with extended-infusion cefepime in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. This single-center study compared inpatients who received cefepime for bacteremia and/or pneumonia admitted from 1 January 2008 through 30 June 2010 (a 30-min infusion of 2 g every 8 h) to those admitted from 1 July 2010 through 31 May 2011 (a 4-h infusion of 2 g every 8 h). The overall mortality was significantly lower in the group that received extended-infusion treatment (20% versus 3%; P = 0.03). The mean length of stay was 3.5 days less for patients who received extended infusion (P = 0.36), and for patients admitted to the intensive care unit the mean length of stay was significantly less in the extended-infusion group (18.5 days versus 8 days; P = 0.04). Hospital costs were $23,183 less per patient, favoring the extended-infusion treatment group (P = 0.13). We conclude that extended-infusion treatment with cefepime provides increased clinical and economic benefits in the treatment of invasive P. aeruginosa infections.

  2. Rhl quorum sensing affects the virulence potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an experimental urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems (QSS) las, rhl and PQS play a significant role in pathogenicity. Although multiple studies have explored the role of the las QSS in various types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), the role of the rhl QSS is still poorly understood. In this study, an attempt was made to explore the role of the rhl QSS in the pathogenesis of UTI. The wild-type strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its isogenic rhl QSS mutant strains, PDO-100 and PDO-111, were used. Strains were studied for the expression of extra-cellular virulence factors and the ability to induce experimental UTI in a mouse model. Evaluation was based on in vitro estimation of virulence factors (elastase, protease, rhamnolipid) and in vivo bacteriological and histopathological analysis of renal and bladder tissue. The cytokine levels were determined in the renal tissue of infected mice. Wild-type PAO1 showed the highest level of virulence traits. The tissue bacteriology and histopathology were indicative of establishment of UTI. The level of inflammatory cytokines was consistent with the bacteriology and pathology results. The rhl QSS mutant strains showed significantly reduced pathogenicity. On supplementation with C4-homoserine lactone, strain PDO-100 showed a significant increase in pathogenicity. The results indicate that the rhl QSS affects the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa and that, despite the presence of the las QSS, mutant strains exhibited reduced pathology. Therefore, the rhl QSS may be exploited in more detail for future drug intervention tactics.

  3. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:6769805

  4. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at P<0.05. The results were corroborative with histopathology and ultrastructural analysis. The bacterial infection of P. aeruginosa treated using neem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry.

  5. Prevention of bloodstream infections by photodynamic inactivation of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M. C. E.; Prates, R. A.; Toffoli, D. J.; Courrol, L. C.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Bloodstream infections are potentially life-threatening diseases. They can cause serious secondary infections, and may result in endocarditis, severe sepsis or toxic-shock syndrome. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the most important etiological factors responsible for nosocomial infections, mainly in immuno-compromissed hosts, characteristic of patients with severe burns. Its multiresistance to antibiotics produces many therapeutic problems, and for this reason, the development of an alternative method to antibiotic therapy is needed. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may be an effective and alternative therapeutic option to prevent bloodstream infections in patients with severe burns. In this study we report the use of PDI to prevent bloodstream infections in mice with third-degree burns. Burns were produced on the back of the animals and they were infected with 109 cfu/mL of multi-resistant (MR) P. aeruginosa. Fifteen animals were divided into 3 groups: control, PDT blue and PDT red. PDT was performed thirty minutes after bacterial inoculation using 10μM HB:La+3 and a light-emitting diode (LED) emitting at λ=460nm+/-20nm and a LED emitting at λ=645 nm+/-10nm for 120s. Blood of mice were colected at 7h, 10h, 15h, 18h and 22h pos-infection (p.i.) for bacterial counting. Control group presented 1×104 cfu/mL in bloodstream at 7h p.i. increasing to 1×106 at 22h, while mice PDT-treated did not present any bacteria at 7h; only at 22h p.i. they presented 1×104cfu/mL. These results suggest that HB:La+3 associated to blue LED or red LED is effective to delay and diminish MR P.aeruginosa bloodstream invasion in third-degree-burned mice.

  6. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing for acute exacerbations in chronic infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2008-07-16

    Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with CF with acute exacerbations. To compare antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with CF and chronic infection with P. aeruginosa. We identified relevant trials from the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register. Most recent search: November 2007. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in CF due to chronic infection with P. aeruginosa. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed their quality and extracted data from eligible studies. Additionally, the authors contacted the study investigators to obtain further information. The search identified one study eligible for inclusion in the review. This study prospectively assessed whether the use of multiple combination bactericidal antibiotic testing (MCBT) improved clinical outcomes in participants with acute pulmonary exacerbations of CF who were infected with multiresistant bacteria. 132 participants were randomised in the study. The study investigators provided data specific to the participants who were only

  7. Successful implementation of infection control strategies prevents P. aeruginosa transmission among cystic fibrosis patients inside the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Benedikt; Mitteregger, Dieter; Renner, Sabine; Presterl, Elisabeth; Assadian, Ojan; Diab-Elschahawi, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to characterise the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) by molecular genetic fingerprinting in order to understand transmission ways and to evaluate the established infection control protocols. Methods: The outpatient clinic for CF patients at the VGH cares for children and adolescents up to the age of 18 years. Among an average of 139 patients cared for at the clinic, 41 were tested positive for P. aeruginosa during the study period. Fifty P. aeruginosa isolates, obtained between August 2010 and March 2012 from routine examinations of CF patients, were subject to molecular characterization using the DiversiLab® method. Results: 42 distinguishable molecular-biological patterns were identified, 7 of which were found multiple times. 40 out of 42 genotypes were retrieved from single patients only, while two patterns were present in two patients each. Nine patients presented with two or more phenotypically diverse P. aeruginosa isolates. In five of these cases the retrieved isolates belonged to the same genotype. Conclusion: The broad genetic heterogeneity of P. aeruginosa in the studied patient population suggests that the majority of CF patients cared for at the VGH acquire P. aeruginosa from environmental sources. It may be concluded that implemented infection control guidelines have been successful in preventing nosocomial transmission of P. aeruginosa among CF patients within the VGH and patient-to-patient transmission outside the hospital. Chronic polyclonal infection/colonization was rare in the study population. PMID:25285264

  8. The contribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors and host factors in the establishment of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Newman, John W; Floyd, Rachel V; Fothergill, Joanne L

    2017-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche. P. aeruginosa urinary tract infections are highly antibiotic resistant and require costly and intensive treatment. By understanding the infection dynamics of this organism within this specific niche, we may be able to identify novel therapeutic strategies to enhance the use of existing antibiotics. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Mediated by Exopolysaccharide-Independent Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephanie J.; Records, Angela R.; Orr, Mona W.; Linden, Sara B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is especially adept at forming surface-associated biofilms. P. aeruginosa causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) through biofilm formation on the surface of indwelling catheters. P. aeruginosa encodes three extracellular polysaccharides, PEL, PSL, and alginate, and utilizes the PEL and PSL polysaccharides to form biofilms in vitro; however, the requirement of these polysaccharides during in vivo infections is not well understood. Here we show in a murine model of CAUTI that PAO1, a strain harboring pel, psl, and alg genes, and PA14, a strain harboring pel and alg genes, form biofilms on the implanted catheters. To determine the requirement of exopolysaccharide during in vivo biofilm infections, we tested isogenic mutants lacking the pel, psl, and alg operons and showed that PA14 mutants lacking these operons can successfully form biofilms on catheters in the CAUTI model. To determine the host factor(s) that induces the ΔpelD mutant to form biofilm, we tested mouse, human, and artificial urine and show that urine can induce biofilm formation by the PA14 ΔpelD mutant. By testing the major constituents of urine, we show that urea can induce a pel-, psl-, and alg-independent biofilm. These pel-, psl-, and alg-independent biofilms are mediated by the release of extracellular DNA. Treatment of biofilms formed in urea with DNase I reduced the biofilm, indicating that extracellular DNA supports biofilm formation. Our results indicate that the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a distinct program to form biofilms that are independent of exopolysaccharides during CAUTI. PMID:24595142

  10. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B received 10% licorice extract and Group C was considered as control group and received gel base as the base of medication. Group D did not receive any medication and just underwent burn injury. A standard 3rd degree burn wound was produced by a hot plate with similar size about 20% of total body surface area (TBSA) and at identical temperature. After 24 h of burn production, 108 colony forming units (CFU) of toxigenic strains of P. aeruginosa (PA 103) were inoculated subcutaneously into the burnt area. After 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically evaluated. RESULTS Decrease in size of the burn wounds, in inflammation and re-epithelialization were poor in groups B-D. Infection to P. aeruginosa was still visible in groups B-D but was absent in Group A. The mean histological score, tensile strength, maximum stress, yield strength and stiffness in groups B-D were lower compared with Group A. CONCLUSION Licorice extract in 10% concentration was shown not to be effective in healing of P. aeruginosa infected burn wounds. PMID:25489532

  11. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing for acute exacerbations in chronic infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2017-06-19

    Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To compare antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of latest search: 19 December 2016.We also searched ongoing trials registries. Date of latest search: 08 March 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled studies of antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis due to chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both authors independently selected studies, assessed their quality and extracted data from eligible studies. Additionally, the authors contacted the study investigators to obtain further information. The search identified one multicentre study

  12. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, R; Lebrón, J; Guerrero-León, M; Del Arco, A; Colmenero, J; Márquez, M; Santos, J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012) were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%), and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2), with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9) years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7%) patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5%) had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232), the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397), and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0%) and 23 (38.3%) cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3%) cases with advanced stages (III and IV) at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%), chemotherapy 14 (24.1%), surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%), radiotherapy 7 (12.1%), surgery 4 (6.9%), and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%). Forty-six (76.7%) patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%). Conclusions The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma

  13. Multiple roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 PilY1 in motility, transport and infection

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Yu-Sing Tammy; Brandes, Gudrun; Rakhimova, Elza; Horatzek, Sonja; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Munder, Antje; van Barneveld, Andrea; Jordan, Doris; Bredenbruch, Florian; Häußler, Susanne; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Hoiby, Niels; Tümmler, Burkhard; Wiehlmann, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important mammalian host defence cells against infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Screening of a signature tagged mutagenesis library of the non-piliated P. aeruginosa strain TBCF10839 uncovered that transposon inactivation of its pilY1 gene rendered the bacterium more resistant against killing by neutrophils than the wild type and any other of the more than 3000 tested mutants. Inactivation of pilY1 led to the loss of twitching motility in twitching-proficient wild-type PA14 and PAO1 strains, predisposed to autolysis and impaired the secretion of quinolones and pyocyanin, but on the other hand promoted growth in stationary phase and bacterial survival in murine airway infection models. The PilY1 population consisted of a major full-length and a minor shorter PilY1* isoform. PilY1* was detectable in small extracellular quinolone-positive aggregates, but not in the pilus. P. aeruginosa PilY1 is not an adhesin on the pilus tip, but assists in pilus biogenesis, twitching motility, secretion of secondary metabolites and in the control of cell density in the bacterial population. PMID:19054330

  14. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection.

    PubMed

    Souto, Renata; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH) and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients ≤ 35 and > 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05). In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p < 0.01). Smokers presenting P. aeruginosa and high frequencies of supragingival plaque were more likely to present CP than PH. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are frequently detected in the oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis.

  15. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Renata; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M.; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH) and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients ≤ 35 and > 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05). In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p < 0.01). Smokers presenting P. aeruginosa and high frequencies of supragingival plaque were more likely to present CP than PH. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are frequently detected in the oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis. PMID:25242933

  16. [Outbreak of nosocomial urinary tract infections due to a multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, I; Boukadida, J; Triki, O; Hannachi, N; Ben Redjeb, S

    2003-04-01

    An outbreak of a multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa including imipenem resistance occurred in the urology intensive care unit at Charles Nicolle Hospital (Tunis). All isolates presented the same antibiotic resistance pattern and were only susceptible to colistin. The epidemic strain was detected in different sites of this unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after enzymatic restriction using XbaI was performed in order to establish an epidemiologic link between these infections. Genotypic analysis showed two different patterns and the environmental source was identified in both cases. Although the same antibiotype was harbored by all the isolates, two outbreaks occurring in the same period were identified. The strengthening of hygiene measures allowed to stop the outbreak spreading. Since the hospital environment is the major source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination, a continuous surveillance of the patients and the environmental sources is required for the implementation efficient control measures.

  17. The Healing Effect of Scrophularia Striata on Experimental Burn Wounds Infected to Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Haddadi, Mohammad Hossein; Rokni-Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Hossienzadeh, Masood; Mehrabani, Davood; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Koohi-Hossienabadi, Omid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of death in burn patients after 48 hours of hospitalization has been reported to be bacterial infections. Recently, due to the compounds accelerating the healing process and the intense reduction of treatment side effects, medicinal plants are used to cure burn wound infections. This study aims to investigate the medicinal effect of the ethanolic extract of Scrophularia striata on burn wound infection in in-vivo and in-vitro in comparison with silver sulfadiazine (SSD). METHODS One hundred and fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 equal groups. A hot plate of 1×1cm was used to create second degree burn wounds. The ethanolic extract of S. striata was provided through percolation method. Group 1 was treated with SSD, group 2 with S. striata, and group 3 was considered as control group. All animals were infected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. On days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 after burn wound injury, the animals were euthanized and were evaluated histologically. The MIC and MBC were determined using the micro dilution method. RESULTS The rate of wound healing was significantly greater in S. striata group in comparison to SSD and control groups. CONCLUSION S. striata contains was shown to have anti-bacterial and wound healing effects while this effect was significantly more than SSD denoting to its use when needed for burn wounds infected to P. aeruginosa. PMID:25606472

  18. Clinico-microbiological study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wound infections and the detection of metallo-β-lactamase production.

    PubMed

    Bangera, Divya; Shenoy, Suchitra M; Saldanha, Dominic Rm

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogen of humans among the Gram-negative bacilli. Clinically, it is associated with nosocomial infections like burns and surgical-site wound infections and remains a major health concern, especially among critically ill and immunocompromised patients. This is a prospective laboratory-based 2 year study conducted to isolate P. aeruginosa from wound specimens and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern with reference to metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production. Two hundred and twenty-four samples of P. aeruginosa isolated from wound specimens were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MBL-producing P. aeruginosa was detected using the EDTA disk diffusion synergy test. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS 11 package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Out of the 224 P. aeruginosa isolates, 100% were susceptible to polymyxin B and colistin, 92·8% were sensitive to imipenem, 38% showed resistance to gentamicin followed by ceftazidime (31·69%) and meropenem (33·03). Sixteen (7·14%) isolates showed MBL production. Infection caused by drug-resistant P. aeruginosa is important to identify as it poses a therapeutic problem and is also a serious concern for infection control management. The acquired resistance genes can be horizontally transferred to other pathogens or commensals if aseptic procedures are not followed. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lung Infections in Systemic Rheumatic Disease: Focus on Opportunistic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Manuela; Lucchino, Bruno; Spaziante, Martina; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Valesini, Guido; Iaiani, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Systemic rheumatic diseases have significant morbidity and mortality, due in large part to concurrent infections. The lung has been reported among the most frequent sites of infection in patients with rheumatic disease, who are susceptible to developing pneumonia sustained both by common pathogens and by opportunistic microorganisms. Patients with rheumatic disease show a peculiar vulnerability to infectious complications. This is due in part to intrinsic disease-related immune dysregulation and in part to the immunosuppressive treatments. Several therapeutic agents have been associated to a wide spectrum of infections, complicating the management of rheumatic diseases. This review discusses the most frequent pulmonary infections encountered in rheumatic diseases, focusing on opportunistic agents, consequent diagnostic challenges and appropriate therapeutic strategies. PMID:28146077

  20. Evaluation of Mannosidase and Trypsin Enzymes Effects on Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Banar, Maryam; Emaneini, Mohammad; Satarzadeh, Mhboubeh; Abdellahi, Nafiseh; Beigverdi, Reza; van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated. All tested enzymes, destroyed the biofilms and reduced the ceftazidime MBECs. However, only trypsin had no cytotoxic effect on A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, since trypsin had better features than mannosidase enzymes, it can be a promising agent in combatting P. aeruginosa burn wound infections. PMID:27736961

  1. Antibiotic consumption to detect epidemics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a burn centre: A paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Anne; Voirol, Pierre; Krähenbühl, Marie; Bonnemain, Claire-Lise; Fournier, Camille; Pantet, Olivier; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Pannatier, André; Eggimann, Philippe; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-05-01

    The control of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections are major challenges for specialized burn centres. Early detection of those epidemic outbreaks is crucial to limit the human and financial burden. We hypothesize that data collected by antibiotic consumption medico-economic surveys could be used as warning signal to detect early nosocomial outbreaks. A retrospective analysis was conducted that included all burn patients staying >48h on the Lausanne BICU (Burn Intensive Care Unit) between January 2001 and October 2012 who received systemic therapeutic antibiotics. Infection episodes were characterized according to predefined criteria. Antibiotic consumption data, obtained from the quarterly surveillance of drug consumption surveys, were translated into defined daily doses (DDDs). In total, 297 out of 414 burn patients stayed >48h, giving a total of 7458 'burn-days'. We identified 610 infection episodes (burn wound [32.0%], respiratory [31.1%], and catheter [21.8%]), from 774 microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), and Candida albicans (7.0%) were the main pathogens. We observed three distinct outbreaks of P. aeruginosa infections in 2002-2003, 2006, and 2009-2011. These outbreaks correlated with an increase in the DDDs of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics. Our data support a paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial P. aeruginosa epidemics in burn centres, using the rise in antibiotic consumption as an early trigger to initiate the molecular typing of P. aeruginosa strains and the reinforcement of standard infection control procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pseudomonas infection and mucociliary and absorptive clearance in the cystic fibrosis lung.

    PubMed

    Locke, Landon W; Myerburg, Michael M; Weiner, Daniel J; Markovetz, Matthew R; Parker, Robert S; Muthukrishnan, Ashok; Weber, Lawrence; Czachowski, Michael R; Lacy, Ryan T; Pilewski, Joseph M; Corcoran, Timothy E

    2016-05-01

    Airway surface liquid hyperabsorption and mucus accumulation are key elements of cystic fibrosis lung disease that can be assessed in vivo using functional imaging methods. In this study we evaluated experimental factors affecting measurements of mucociliary clearance (MCC) and small-molecule absorption (ABS) and patient factors associated with abnormal absorption and mucus clearance.Our imaging technique utilises two radiopharmaceutical probes delivered by inhalation. Measurement repeatability was assessed in 10 adult cystic fibrosis subjects. Experimental factors were assessed in 29 adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis subjects (51 scans). Patient factors were assessed in a subgroup with optimal aerosol deposition (37 scans; 24 subjects). Paediatric subjects (n=9) underwent initial and 2-year follow-up scans. Control subjects from a previously reported study are included for comparison.High rates of central aerosol deposition influenced measurements of ABS and, to a lesser extent, MCC. Depressed MCC in cystic fibrosis was only detectable in subjects with previous Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Cystic fibrosis subjects without P. aeruginosa had similar MCC to control subjects. Cystic fibrosis subjects had consistently higher ABS rates.We conclude that the primary experimental factor affecting MCC/ABS measurements is central deposition percentage. Depressed MCC in cystic fibrosis is associated with P. aeruginosa infection. ABS is consistently increased in cystic fibrosis.

  3. Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis patients with difficult to treat lung infections.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Lieven

    2017-11-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with end-stage pulmonary disease, lung transplantation (LTx) remains a life-extending therapy with good outcome in most patients. Despite early concern about chronic pretransplantation infections in the context of posttransplantation immunosuppression, typical CF-associated organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa turned out to be quite well manageable and associated with favorable outcomes in transplanted CF patients, even in patients with highly resistant strains. However, the situation is less evident with other pathogens. Burkholderia cenocepacia is associated with reduced survival and regarded as a contraindication for LTx in most centers, other Burkholderia species are less problematic. Other resistant Gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in CF patients are not regarded as a contraindication. Nontuberculous mycobacteria disease in CF patients does not preclude successful recovery after LTx, although postoperative complications can be expected in patients with Mycobacterium abscessus and specific management is indicated. Fungal species should be treated aggressively to limit morbidity after transplantation. Despite its complexity, LTx is safe in most CF patients, with good outcomes if the pathogens that are present are identified and adequately treated.

  4. Glutaredoxin-1 Attenuates S-Glutathionylation of the Death Receptor Fas and Decreases Resolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Anathy, Vikas; Aesif, Scott W.; Hoffman, Sidra M.; Bement, Jenna L.; Guala, Amy S.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Leclair, Laurie W.; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Cool, Carlyne D.; Wargo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: The death receptor Fas is critical for bacterial clearance and survival of mice after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Objectives: Fas ligand (FasL)–induced apoptosis is augmented by S-glutathionylation of Fas (Fas-SSG), which can be reversed by glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interplay between Grx1 and Fas in regulating the clearance of P. aeruginosa infection. Methods: Lung samples from patients with bronchopneumonia were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Primary tracheal epithelial cells, mice lacking the gene for Grx1 (Glrx1−/−), Glrx1−/− mice treated with caspase inhibitor, or transgenic mice overexpressing Grx1 in the airway epithelium were analyzed after infection with P. aeruginosa. Measurements and Main Results: Patient lung samples positive for P. aeruginosa infection demonstrated increased Fas-SSG compared with normal lung samples. Compared with wild-type primary lung epithelial cells, infection of Glrx1−/− cells with P. aeruginosa showed enhanced caspase 8 and 3 activities and cell death in association with increases in Fas-SSG. Infection of Glrx1−/− mice with P. aeruginosa resulted in enhanced caspase activity and increased Fas-SSG as compared with wild-type littermates. Absence of Glrx1 significantly enhanced bacterial clearance, and decreased mortality postinfection with P. aeruginosa. Inhibition of caspases significantly decreased bacterial clearance postinfection with P. aeruginosa, in association with decreased Fas-SSG. In contrast, transgenic mice that overexpress Grx1 in lung epithelial cells had significantly higher lung bacterial loads, enhanced mortality, decreased caspase activation, and Fas-SSG in the lung after infection with P. aeruginosa, compared with wild-type control animals. Conclusions: These results suggest that S-glutathionylation of Fas within the lung epithelium enhances epithelial apoptosis and promotes clearance of P. aeruginosa and that

  5. Identification of a bacteriolysis-associated virulence factor against lung epithelial cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 cell lysate.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Goto, Maki; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Yanagihara, Nozomi; Watanabe, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    The precise identities of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after bacteriolysis are still unknown. In the present study, we identified PA0423 protein, which was isolated from the Pseudomonas PAO-1 strain, as the factor responsible for cytotoxicity in lung epithelial cells. Whole bacterial cell lysate of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 caused cytotoxicity in A549 lung epithelial cells. This cytotoxic factor could be partially purified via gel-filtration and anion-exchange column chromatography, and its activity was attenuated by proteinase K treatment. The cytotoxic fraction increased caspase-3/7 activity in A549 cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This fraction was then subjected to amino-acid sequence analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, resulting in the identification of 7 matches, 4 of which were with known proteins (PA0122, PA2687, PA3406, and PA0423). Deletion mutant analysis of these 7 candidates revealed that only the PA0423 mutation led to reduced cytotoxicity, indicating that this protein is the virulence factor. Furthermore, PA0423 recombinant protein was constructed, purified, and refolded. Transduction of recombinant PA0423, but not PA0122, into A549 cells engendered a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect. These results show the first evidence that specific bacteriolysis-induced virulence factor PA0423 from Pseudomonas is toxic to lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection among cystic fibrosis and ICU patients in the referral children medical hospital in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Z; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Sabouni, F; Ashtiani Haghi, M T; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, R; Mamishi, S

    2013-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the important causes of hospital-acquired infections in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and considered as a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to investigate clonal diversity among randomly picked P. aeruginosa isolates of CF and the other hospitalized patients in ICU. Cultivation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa isolates were performed using standard techniques. The genetic similarity of the strains was investigated by amplification of the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) sequence. Among 49 isolates, sixteen were isolated from 11 patients affected by CF and 33 came from an epidemiological investigation of 25 P. aeruginosa infected patients of ICU. Five clusters were generated for all isolates analyzed through ERIC-PCR genotyping. Two major clusters (B and C) were discovered in P. aeruginosa isolates of ICU and CF patients during the whole period of this study. Fifteen unique antibiogram patterns obtained from all isolates and multi-resistant P. aeruginosa (MRPA) were identified in 23 isolates (47%). MRPA isolates were detected in all clusters (except A) while pan-resistant isolates were recovered only in cluster C. The high prevalence of related or identical isolates in CF and non-CF patients can be due to transmission of particular dominant clones in ICU ward. Therefore, enhanced infection-control may become necessary to prevent further spread of clonal strains.

  7. The Effect of Infection Control Nurses on the Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Healthcare-Acquired Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Critically-Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; He, Linxi; Liu, Chunfeng; Rong, Jian; Shi, Yongyan; Song, Wenliang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), which have a high incidence, increase treatment costs and mortality, and seriously threaten the safety of critically ill children. It is essential to seek convenient and effective methods to control and prevent healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). This research was conducted to study the effect of infection control nurses on the occurrence of P. aeruginosa HAIs and multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains in PICU. Methods The clinical data was divided into two groups, with the age ranging from 1 month to 14 years. One group of the critically ill patients(N = 3,722) was admitted to PICU from 2007 to 2010, without the management of infection control nurses. The other group of the critically ill patients (N = 3,943) was admitted to PICU from 2011 to 2013, with the management of infection control nurses. Compare the mortality, morbidity and the incidence of acquired P. aeruginosa infections to evaluate the effect of infection control nurses. Results After implementation of the post of infection control nurses, the patient's overall mortality fell from 4.81% to 3.73%. Among the patients with endotracheal intubation more than 48 hours, the incidence of endotracheal intubation-related pneumonia decreased from 44.6% to 34.32%. The mortality of patients with endotracheal intubation decreased from 16.96% to 10.17%, and the morbidity of HAIs with P. aeruginosa decreased from 1.89% to 1.07%. The mutual different rate (MDR) dropped from 67.95% to 44.23%. There were remarkable differences in these rates between the two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Implementing the post of infection control nurses is associated with effectively reducing the HAI rate, especially the incidence and morbidity of P. aeruginosa HAIs, reducing PICU mortality, improving P. aeruginosa drug resistance. PMID:26630032

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains causing infection in an Italian general hospital. A one-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Grigis, A; Farina, C; Moioli, F; Parea, M; Cirillo, D M; Goglio, A; Marchiaro, G

    1995-06-01

    During the 1989 calendar year, P. aeruginosa caused clinical infections in 0.46% of patients admitted to Ospedali Riuniti (a general hospital), Bergamo, Italy. Strains (n = 267) of P. aeruginosa were collected during this period, and epidemiological characteristics were studied. The mean prevalence of P. aeruginosa infection in inpatients was 1.1% (range 0.06-7.3), whereas outpatients showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection (0.05%). Strains were recovered from inpatients of surgical wards (n = 126; 47.2%), and outpatients (n = 15; 5.6%). Males were more often affected than females (2.7:1). Infection of the urinary tract was the most common (34.1%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also involved in lower respiratory tract infections (18.7%) and septicaemia (17.6%). Four typing methods were performed, i.e. serotyping, antibiotyping, pyocin typing, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). Serotypes O:11 and O:6 were endemic in the hospital. Some serotypes correlated with specific clinical wards. Pyocin typing was an unreliable epidemiological tool. However, antibiotyping showed the presence of some epidemic clusters, probably related to the antibiotic consumption of the patients. REA suggested the circulation of edemic P. aeruginosa strains in both the obstetrics and neurosurgery wards.

  9. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario; Pascual, Javier; Cabrera, Eva; Lebrón, Jose M; Guerrero-León, Miguel A; del Arco, Alfonso; Colmenero, Juan D; Santos, Jesús

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of lung cancer (LC) in HIV patients and compare them with LC patients from the general population. All HIV patients diagnosed at three hospitals in Malaga (southern Spain) who developed LC during January 1989-June 2012 were reviewed. They were compared with a sample of patients with LC taken from the Pneumology and Oncology Department of the Hospital Virgen de le Victoria (Malaga) during the same period. Of the 4721 HIV patients (83% men) followed-up during the study period, 61 (1.29%) developed LC: 82% were men, mean age 48 years, all except two were smokers, 47.5% had a prior lung infection, and the median CD4 count was 237 cells/mm(3). Forty (65.5%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy at LC diagnosis (70% had an undetectable viral load). The HIV-negative group was older at diagnosis, contained fewer active smokers, had a greater frequency of the squamous cell carcinoma histological subtype and fewer cases of adenocarcinoma. Presentation was advanced in both groups and the median survival of HIV patients was three months. LC is a common tumour in HIV patients. It affects men and women equally, with a history of smoking and often a prior opportunistic lung disease. Affected patients are often immunosuppressed and have had an AIDS-related diagnosis.

  10. Fingerprinting of galectins in normal, P. aeruginosa-infected, and chemically burned mouse corneas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Cao, Zhiyi; Truong, Laetitia; Sugaya, Satoshi; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-01-06

    In this study, we aimed to assess whether the expression pattern of galectins is altered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected and chemically burned mouse corneas. Galectin (Gal) fingerprinting of normal, P. aeruginosa-infected, and silver nitrate-cauterized corneas was performed by Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and qRT-PCR. In normal corneas, Gal-1 was distributed mainly in the stroma, Gal-3 was localized mainly in epithelium, and Gal-7, -8, and -9 were detected in both corneal epithelium and stroma. Expression levels of the five galectins were drastically altered under pathological conditions. In both infected and cauterized corneas, overall Gal-3 expression was downregulated, whereas overall Gal-8 and -9 were upregulated. Changes in the expression level of Gal-7, -8, and -9 were distinct in the epithelium of infected and cauterized corneas. Expression of these three galectins was upregulated in corneal epithelium of infected corneas but not in cauterized corneas. Consistent with the changes in protein expression: (1) Gal-7, -8, and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in cauterized corneas, and (2) Gal-3 mRNA was downregulated and Gal-9 mRNA expression was upregulated in infected corneas. Our data demonstrate differential regulation of various members of the galectin family in the course of corneal infection and neovascularization. The emerging functionality of the sugar code of cell surface receptors via endogenous galectins reflect to the pertinent roles of the five tested galectins in the diseases of cornea. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Sylvie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Gidrol, Xavier; Lemercier, Claudie

    2013-11-01

    Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing γH2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in γH2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design.

  12. Characterization of corneal damage from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by the use of multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Wen; Chen, Shean-Jen; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Using multiphoton autofluorescence (MAF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we investigate the morphology and the structure of the corneal epithelium and stroma collagen of bovine cornea following injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that corneal epithelial cells are damaged and stromal collagen becoming increasingly autofluorescent with time. We also characterized infected cornea cultured for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h by quantitative ratiometric MAF to SHG index (MAFSI) analysis. MAFSI results show that the destruction of the stromal collagen corresponds to a decrease in SHG intensity and increase of MAF signal with time.

  13. Activity of Novispirin G10 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro and in Infected Burns

    PubMed Central

    Steinstraesser, Lars; Tack, Brian F.; Waring, Alan J.; Hong, Teresa; Boo, Lee M.; Fan, Ming-Hui; Remick, Daniel I.; Su, Grace L.; Lehrer, Robert I.; Wang, Stewart C.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes has serious implications for managing infection and sepsis and has stimulated efforts to develop alternative treatments, such as antimicrobial peptides. The objective of this study was to test a designer peptide, novispirin G10, against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. By two-stage radial diffusion assays, its activity against such organisms compared favorably with that of standard antibiotics and other antimicrobial peptides. It killed bacteria very rapidly, was nonhemolytic, and was relatively noncytotoxic. The peptide induced an immediate, massive efflux of potassium from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that it altered the permeability of its inner membrane. The presence of human serum reduced but did not eliminate its activity. We tested the in vivo activity of novispirin G10 in rats with an infected, partial-thickness burn that covered 20% of their total body surface area. The burned area was seeded with 106 CFU of a Silvadene-resistant P. aeruginosa strain, and 24 h later a single treatment with 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg of synthetic novispirin G10 (n = 16 at each concentration) per kg was given intradermally. Significant bacterial killing (P < 0.0001) was evident within 4 h in each peptide group compared to controls receiving vehicle. Antimicrobial peptides such as novispirin G10 may provide a useful alternative or adjunct to standard antibiotic agents in treating burns or other wound infections. PMID:12019098

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in biofilm infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hengzhuang, Wang; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2014-01-01

    Although progress on biofilm research has been obtained during the past decades, the treatment of biofilm infections with antibiotics remains a riddle. The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of an antimicrobial agent provide important information helping to establish an efficient dosing regimen and to minimize the development of antimicrobial tolerance and resistance in biofilm infections. Unfortunately, most previous PK/PD studies of antibiotics have been done on planktonic cells, and extrapolation of the results on biofilms is problematic as bacterial biofilms differ from planktonic grown cells in the growth rate, gene expression, and metabolism. Here, we set up several protocols for the studies of PK/PD of antibiotics in biofilm infections of P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. It should be underlined that none of the protocols in biofilms have yet been certificated for clinical use or proved useful for guidance of antibiotic therapy.

  15. Interactions between Neutrophils and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects 70,000 patients worldwide. Morbidity and mortality in CF is largely caused by lung complications due to the triad of impaired mucociliary clearance, microbial infections and chronic inflammation. Cystic fibrosis airway inflammation is mediated by robust infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs, neutrophils). Neutrophils are not capable of clearing lung infections and contribute to tissue damage by releasing their dangerous cargo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in immunocompromised individuals. P. aeruginosa is a main respiratory pathogen in CF infecting most patients. Although PMNs are key to attack and clear P. aeruginosa in immunocompetent individuals, PMNs fail to do so in CF. Understanding why neutrophils cannot clear P. aeruginosa in CF is essential to design novel therapies. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms by which PMNs attack and eliminate P. aeruginosa. It also summarizes current advances in our understanding of why PMNs are incapable of clearing P. aeruginosa and how this bacterium adapts to and resists PMN-mediated killing in the airways of CF patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28282951

  16. Contribution of quorum sensing to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pressure ulcer infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Ohta, Yasunori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Huang, Lijuan; Nagase, Takashi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    The impact of quorum sensing (QS) in in vivo models of infection has been widely investigated, but there are no descriptions for ischemic wound infection. To explore the role of QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the establishment of ischemic wound infection, we challenged a pressure ulcer model in rats with the PAO-1, PAO-1 derivatives ΔlasIΔrhlI and ΔlasRΔrhlR strains, which cannot induce the virulence factor under QS control, thus the reduced tissue destruction was expended in these mutant strains. However unexpectedly, on postwounding day 3, the inflammatory responses in the three groups were similarly severe and the numbers of bacteria in tissue samples did not differ among the three strains. Biofilm formation was immature in QS-deficient strains, defined by the absence of dense bacterial aggregates and extracellular polymeric substance, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS signal, acylated homoserine lactone, was only quantified from wound samples in the PAO-1 group. The swimming and twitching motilities were significantly enhanced in the ΔlasRΔrhlR group compared with the PAO-1 group in vitro. A significantly larger wound area was correlated with the bacterial motility. The inflammation in the early phase of bacterial challenge to wounds with immature biofilm formation in the QS-deficient strains indicated that the role of QS was more crucial for the chronic phase than for the acute phase of infection. The present findings indicate a difference in the importance of QS in ischemic wound infections compared with other infection models.

  17. Efflux pump regulatory genes mutations in multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound infections in Isfahan hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Vaez, Hamid; Faghri, Jamshid; Isfahani, Bahram Nasr; Moghim, Sharareh; Yadegari, Sima; Fazeli, Hossein; Moghofeei, Mohsen; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa) is a worldwide threat for public health. Hyperexpression of efflux pump systems (MexAB-OprM and MexCD-OprJ), which is a well-known mechanisms for MDR emerging, is controlled by regulatory genes, mexR and nfxB, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate point mutations in mexR and nfxB genes in MDR- P. aeruginosa isolated from wound infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 P. aeruginosa cultures obtained from wound infections were analyzed. Among them eight isolates identified as MDR-P. aeruginosa and were subjected to determination of mutations in mexR and nfxB genes. Results: We detected eight-point mutations in mexR and 12-point mutations in nfxB. The most common mutations were common G327-A (eight isolates), G384-A (eight isolates), G411-A (eight isolates). Mutations in A371-C and A372-C were the predominant substitution which was seen in nfxB. Amino acid substitutions were also found at position 124 and 126 for NfxB and MexR, respectively. Conclusions: P. aeruginosa isolates with mutation in efflux pump regulatory genes such as mexR and nfxB could be a main factor contributed to antibiotic resistance and must be considered in antibiotic treatment. PMID:24949288

  18. Efflux pump regulatory genes mutations in multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wound infections in Isfahan hospitals.

    PubMed

    Vaez, Hamid; Faghri, Jamshid; Isfahani, Bahram Nasr; Moghim, Sharareh; Yadegari, Sima; Fazeli, Hossein; Moghofeei, Mohsen; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa) is a worldwide threat for public health. Hyperexpression of efflux pump systems (MexAB-OprM and MexCD-OprJ), which is a well-known mechanisms for MDR emerging, is controlled by regulatory genes, mexR and nfxB, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate point mutations in mexR and nfxB genes in MDR- P. aeruginosa isolated from wound infections. A total of 34 P. aeruginosa cultures obtained from wound infections were analyzed. Among them eight isolates identified as MDR-P. aeruginosa and were subjected to determination of mutations in mexR and nfxB genes. We detected eight-point mutations in mexR and 12-point mutations in nfxB. The most common mutations were common G327-A (eight isolates), G384-A (eight isolates), G411-A (eight isolates). Mutations in A371-C and A372-C were the predominant substitution which was seen in nfxB. Amino acid substitutions were also found at position 124 and 126 for NfxB and MexR, respectively. P. aeruginosa isolates with mutation in efflux pump regulatory genes such as mexR and nfxB could be a main factor contributed to antibiotic resistance and must be considered in antibiotic treatment.

  19. Chronic infection phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with failure of eradication in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vidya, P; Smith, L; Beaudoin, T; Yau, Y C; Clark, S; Coburn, B; Guttman, D S; Hwang, D M; Waters, V

    2016-01-01

    Early eradication treatment with inhaled tobramycin is successful in the majority of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) with incident Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, in 10-40 % of cases, eradication fails and the reasons for this are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific microbial characteristics could explain eradication treatment failure. This was a cross-sectional study of CF patients (aged 0-18 years) with incident P. aeruginosa infection from 2011 to 2014 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Phenotypic assays were done on all incident P. aeruginosa isolates, and eradicated and persistent isolates were compared using the Mann-Whitney test or the two-sided Chi-square test. A total of 46 children with CF had 51 incident P. aeruginosa infections. In 72 % (33/46) of the patients, eradication treatment was successful, while 28 % failed eradication therapy. Persistent isolates were less likely to be motile, with significantly less twitch motility (p=0.001), were more likely to be mucoid (p=0.002), and more likely to have a tobramycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 128 μg/mL (p=0.02) compared to eradicated isolates. Although biofilm production was similar, there was a trend towards more persistent isolates with deletions in quorum-sensing genes compared with eradicated isolates (p=0.06). Initial acquisition of P. aeruginosa with characteristics of chronic infection is associated with failure of eradication treatment.

  20. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Pobiega, Monika; Maciąg, Joanna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Pomorska-Wesolowska, Monika; Ziolkowski, Grzegorz; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2015-11-01

    Due to the clinical threat posed by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and importance of virulence factors produced in infection, 21 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were analyzed. 42.8% metallo-beta-lactamases-positive strains were identified. 85.7% of strains were meropenem resistant. 14.2% of strains were MDR; 38%, extensively drug-resistant (XDR). ExoY was present in all strains; exoT, in 95.2%; exoS, in 90.5%; exoU, in 47.6%. Eight XDR strains were typed using multilocus sequence typing: 4 as ST235, 2 as ST260, 2 as ST654 and ST234. MDR P. aeruginosa were isolated from hospitalized patients and among those from the community. Our study demonstrates the serious clinical issues posed by MDR P. aeruginosa and underscores the need for new treatment.

  1. Emergence of resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics during moxalactam therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed Central

    Preheim, L C; Penn, R G; Sanders, C C; Goering, R V; Giger, D K

    1982-01-01

    In four patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, the infecting strain developed resistance to moxalactam during therapy with this drug. In addition, P. aeruginosa isolates from two of these four patients showed increased resistance to aminoglycosides. Isolates from a third patient acquired cross-resistance to other antipseudomonal beta-lactams. In three of the cases, disk susceptibility tests failed to detect the resistance that was demonstrated in broth dilution assays. Isolate identities were confirmed by serotyping. No new plasmids were found by agarose gel electrophoresis. The mechanisms for this resistance did not involve enzymatic antibiotic degradation. These findings suggest that currently available expanded-spectrum cephalosporin derivatives should probably not be used alone for most serious infections due to P. aeruginosa. They also suggest that strains with multiple antibiotic resistance may become more prevalent in hospitals if these drugs are used extensively. PMID:6218778

  2. Effect of bacteriophage infection in combination with tobramycin on the emergence of resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Lindsey B; McLean, Robert J C; Rohde, Rodney E; Aron, Gary M

    2014-10-03

    Bacteriophage infection and antibiotics used individually to reduce biofilm mass often result in the emergence of significant levels of phage and antibiotic resistant cells. In contrast, combination therapy in Escherichia coli biofilms employing T4 phage and tobramycin resulted in greater than 99% and 39% reduction in antibiotic and phage resistant cells, respectively. In P. aeruginosa biofilms, combination therapy resulted in a 60% and 99% reduction in antibiotic and PB-1 phage resistant cells, respectively. Although the combined treatment resulted in greater reduction of E. coli CFUs compared to the use of antibiotic alone, infection of P. aeruginosa biofilms with PB-1 in the presence of tobramycin was only as effective in the reduction of CFUs as the use of antibiotic alone. The study demonstrated phage infection in combination with tobramycin can significantly reduce the emergence of antibiotic and phage resistant cells in both E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms, however, a reduction in biomass was dependent on the phage-host system.

  3. Seeking the source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in a recently opened hospital: an observational study using whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Joshua; Cumley, Nicola; Wearn, Christopher M; Niebel, Marc; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Thomas, Chris M; Pallen, Mark J; Moiemen, Naiem S; Bamford, Amy; Oppenheim, Beryl; Loman, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality internationally. Patients may become colonised or infected with P. aeruginosa after exposure to contaminated sources within the hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can be used to determine the source in a cohort of burns patients at high risk of P. aeruginosa acquisition. Study design An observational prospective cohort study. Setting Burns care ward and critical care ward in the UK. Participants Patients with >7% total burns by surface area were recruited into the study. Methods All patients were screened for P. aeruginosa on admission and samples taken from their immediate environment, including water. Screening patients who subsequently developed a positive P. aeruginosa microbiology result were subject to enhanced environmental surveillance. All isolates of P. aeruginosa were genome sequenced. Sequence analysis looked at similarity and relatedness between isolates. Results WGS for 141 P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from patients, hospital water and the ward environment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight distinct clades, with a single clade representing the majority of environmental isolates in the burns unit. Isolates from three patients had identical genotypes compared with water isolates from the same room. There was clear clustering of water isolates by room and outlet, allowing the source of acquisitions to be unambiguously identified. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of biofilm DNA extracted from a thermostatic mixer valve revealed this was the source of a P. aeruginosa subpopulation previously detected in water. In the remaining two cases there was no clear link to the hospital environment. Conclusions This study reveals that WGS can be used for source tracking of P. aeruginosa in a hospital setting, and that acquisitions can be traced to a specific source within a

  4. Fluoroquinolone resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates causing nosocomial infection is correlated with levofloxacin but not ciprofloxacin use.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuarn-Jang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chun; Sun, Kuo-Lun; Chun, Chi-Li; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the correlation between fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) use and rates of fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with nosocomial infection at a medical centre in Taiwan. Antibiotic utilisation data were extracted on a monthly basis from the inpatient pharmacy computer system records from January 2003 to December 2008. Fluoroquinolone use was expressed as defined daily dose per 1000 patient-days and was correlated with rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant P. aeruginosa every 6 months. Regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use (both parenteral and oral forms) and resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates. During the study period, the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones decreased after increasing use of fluoroquinolones, and increased after decreasing use of levofloxacin. Parenteral levofloxacin use was significantly positively correlated with resistance of P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin (P=0.015) and fluoroquinolones (either ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, P=0.014). Use of both parenteral and oral forms of levofloxacin was also significantly positively correlated with resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to ciprofloxacin (P=0.029), levofloxacin (P=0.031) and fluoroquinolones (P=0.010). The total amount of ciprofloxacin (oral and parenteral) and parenteral ciprofloxacin use were negatively correlated with resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to fluoroquinolones. However, the amounts of oral ciprofloxacin, parenteral levofloxacin, oral levofloxacin and total levofloxacin use were each positively correlated with resistance of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin use was associated with increased resistance of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones, whereas ciprofloxacin use did not have a significant impact on fluoroquinolone resistance rates. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy

  5. Profile of Virulence Factors in the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains of Human Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Asghar; Honarmand, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Putative virulence factors are responsible for the pathogenicity of UTIs caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used antibiotics is caused by the extreme overprescription of those antibiotics. Objectives: The goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates in UTI cases in Iran. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty urine samples were collected from patients who suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured immediately, and those that were P. aeruginosa-positive were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of the 250 urine samples analyzed, 8 samples (3.2%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa in male and female patients was 2.7% and 3.5%, respectively, (P = 0.035). In patients less than 10 years old, it was 4.2%, and in patients more than 55 years old, it was 4.2%. These were the most commonly infected groups. The highest levels of resistance were seen against ampicillin (87.5%), norfloxacin (62.5%), gentamycin (62.5%), amikacin (62.5%), and aztreonam (62.5%), while the lowest were seen for meropenem (0%), imipenem (12.5%), and polymyxin B (12.5%). LasB (87.5%), pclH (75%), pilB (75%), and exoS (75%) were the most commonly detected virulence factors in the P. aeruginosa isolates. Conclusions: It is logical to first prescribe meropenem, imipenem, and polymyxin B in cases of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa. Medical practitioners should be aware of the presence of levels of antibiotic resistance in hospitalized UTI patients in Iran. PMID:26756017

  6. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation.

  7. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing for acute exacerbations in chronic infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2015-11-02

    Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with CF with acute exacerbations. This is an updated version of a previously published review. To compare antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with CF and chronic infection with P. aeruginosa. We identified relevant trials from the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register.Latest search: 27 July 2015. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in CF due to chronic infection with P. aeruginosa. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed their quality and extracted data from eligible studies. Additionally, the authors contacted the study investigators to obtain further information. The search identified one study eligible for inclusion in the review. This study prospectively assessed whether the use of multiple combination bactericidal antibiotic testing (MCBT) improved clinical outcomes in participants with acute pulmonary exacerbations of CF who were infected with multiresistant bacteria. A total of 132 participants were randomised in the study. The study

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a three-dimensional lung epithelial model and the influence of fetal bovine serum

    PubMed Central

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Liu, Yulong; Matthijs, Nele; Rigole, Petra; De La Fuente-Nùñez, César; Davis, Richard; Ledesma, Maria A.; Sarker, Shameema; Van Houdt, Rob; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Coenye, Tom; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro models that mimic in vivo host-pathogen interactions are needed to evaluate candidate drugs that inhibit bacterial virulence traits. We established a new approach to study Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm susceptibility on biotic surfaces, using a three-dimensional (3-D) lung epithelial cell model. P. aeruginosa formed antibiotic resistant biofilms on 3-D cells without affecting cell viability. The biofilm-inhibitory activity of antibiotics and/or the anti-biofilm peptide DJK-5 were evaluated on 3-D cells compared to a plastic surface, in medium with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS). In both media, aminoglycosides were more efficacious in the 3-D cell model. In serum-free medium, most antibiotics (except polymyxins) showed enhanced efficacy when 3-D cells were present. In medium with FBS, colistin was less efficacious in the 3-D cell model. DJK-5 exerted potent inhibition of P. aeruginosa association with both substrates, only in serum-free medium. DJK-5 showed stronger inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa associated with plastic compared to 3-D cells. The combined addition of tobramycin and DJK-5 exhibited more potent ability to inhibit P. aeruginosa association with both substrates. In conclusion, lung epithelial cells influence the efficacy of most antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, which in turn depends on the presence or absence of FBS. PMID:28256611

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a three-dimensional lung epithelial model and the influence of fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Liu, Yulong; Matthijs, Nele; Rigole, Petra; De La Fuente-Nùñez, César; Davis, Richard; Ledesma, Maria A; Sarker, Shameema; Van Houdt, Rob; Hancock, Robert E W; Coenye, Tom; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2017-03-03

    In vitro models that mimic in vivo host-pathogen interactions are needed to evaluate candidate drugs that inhibit bacterial virulence traits. We established a new approach to study Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm susceptibility on biotic surfaces, using a three-dimensional (3-D) lung epithelial cell model. P. aeruginosa formed antibiotic resistant biofilms on 3-D cells without affecting cell viability. The biofilm-inhibitory activity of antibiotics and/or the anti-biofilm peptide DJK-5 were evaluated on 3-D cells compared to a plastic surface, in medium with and without fetal bovine serum (FBS). In both media, aminoglycosides were more efficacious in the 3-D cell model. In serum-free medium, most antibiotics (except polymyxins) showed enhanced efficacy when 3-D cells were present. In medium with FBS, colistin was less efficacious in the 3-D cell model. DJK-5 exerted potent inhibition of P. aeruginosa association with both substrates, only in serum-free medium. DJK-5 showed stronger inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa associated with plastic compared to 3-D cells. The combined addition of tobramycin and DJK-5 exhibited more potent ability to inhibit P. aeruginosa association with both substrates. In conclusion, lung epithelial cells influence the efficacy of most antimicrobials against P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, which in turn depends on the presence or absence of FBS.

  10. IL-6 ameliorates acute lung injury in influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chung-Teng; Yang, Shiu-Ju; Leu, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wu, Chao-Liang; Shiau, Ai-Li

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses to defend against pathogens. It also participates in the process of influenza infection by affecting viral clearance and immune cell responses. However, whether IL-6 impacts lung repair in influenza pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of IL-6 in acute influenza infection in mice. IL-6-deficient mice infected with influenza virus exhibited higher lethality, lost more body weight and had higher fibroblast accumulation and lower extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in the lung than their wild-type counterparts. Deficiency in IL-6 enhanced proliferation, migration and survival of lung fibroblasts, as well as increased virus-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. IL-6-deficient lung fibroblasts produced elevated levels of TGF-β, which may contribute to their survival. Furthermore, macrophage recruitment to the lung and phagocytic activities of macrophages during influenza infection were reduced in IL-6-deficient mice. Collectively, our results indicate that IL-6 is crucial for lung repair after influenza-induced lung injury through reducing fibroblast accumulation, promoting epithelial cell survival, increasing macrophage recruitment to the lung and enhancing phagocytosis of viruses by macrophages. This study suggests that IL-6 may be exploited for lung repair during influenza infection. PMID:28262742

  11. Screening & profiling of quorum sensing signal molecules in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from catheterized urinary tract infection patients

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravi; Chhibber, Sanjay; Gupta, Varsha; Harjai, Kusum

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Catheter associated urinary tract infections are the second most common nosocomial infections and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common organism responsible for these infections. In this study P. aeruginosa isolates from catheterized urinary tract infection patients were screened and profiled for the presence of different type of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. Methods: Screening and quantitation of AHLs was done by using cross feeding assay and by determining β-galactosidase activity respectively using Escherichia coli MG4 as reporter strain. Further, AHL profiles were determined by separating AHLs on TLC coupled with their detection using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumifaciens A136 biosensor strains. Results: All uroisolates from catheterized patients having urinary tract infections were found to be producers of QS signal molecules. There were differences in amounts and type of AHL produced amongst uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Several AHLs belonging to C4-HSL, C6-HSL, oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL and C12-HSL were determined in these strains. Interpretation & conclusions: Simultaneous use of more than one reporter strain and assay method proved useful in determining the AHLs profile in uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Observed differences in the amounts and types of AHLs may reflect differences in virulence potential of P. aeruginosa to cause UTIs which can be further confirmed by employing animal model system. The present study speculates that production of QS signal molecules may act as a new virulence marker of P. aeruginosa responsible for causing catheter associated UTIs and can be considered as futuristic potential drug targets towards treatment of UTIs. PMID:21911974

  12. Screening & profiling of quorum sensing signal molecules in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from catheterized urinary tract infection patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravi; Chhibber, Sanjay; Gupta, Varsha; Harjai, Kusum

    2011-08-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections are the second most common nosocomial infections and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common organism responsible for these infections. In this study P. aeruginosa isolates from catheterized urinary tract infection patients were screened and profiled for the presence of different type of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. Screening and quantitation of AHLs was done by using cross feeding assay and by determining β-galactosidase activity respectively using Escherichia coli MG4 as reporter strain. Further, AHL profiles were determined by separating AHLs on TLC coupled with their detection using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumifaciens A136 biosensor strains. All uroisolates from catheterized patients having urinary tract infections were found to be producers of QS signal molecules. There were differences in amounts and type of AHL produced amongst uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Several AHLs belonging to C4-HSL, C6-HSL, oxo-C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL and C12-HSL were determined in these strains. Simultaneous use of more than one reporter strain and assay method proved useful in determining the AHLs profile in uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Observed differences in the amounts and types of AHLs may reflect differences in virulence potential of P. aeruginosa to cause UTIs which can be further confirmed by employing animal model system. The present study speculates that production of QS signal molecules may act as a new virulence marker of P. aeruginosa responsible for causing catheter associated UTIs and can be considered as futuristic potential drug targets towards treatment of UTIs.

  13. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Periplasmic Protease CtpA Can Affect Systems That Impact Its Ability To Mount Both Acute and Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some are exported to act on host targets and facilitate tissue destruction and bacterial dissemination. Others work within the bacterial cell to process virulence factors and regulate virulence gene expression. Relatively little is known about the role of one class of bacterial serine proteases known as the carboxyl-terminal processing proteases (CTPs). The P. aeruginosa genome encodes two CTPs annotated as PA3257/Prc and PA5134/CtpA in strain PAO1. Prc degrades mutant forms of the anti-sigma factor MucA to promote mucoidy in some cystic fibrosis lung isolates. However, nothing is known about the role or importance of CtpA. We have now found that endogenous CtpA is a soluble periplasmic protein and that a ctpA null mutant has specific phenotypes consistent with an altered cell envelope. Although a ctpA null mutation has no major effect on bacterial growth in the laboratory, CtpA is essential for the normal function of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), for cytotoxicity toward host cells, and for virulence in a mouse model of acute pneumonia. Conversely, increasing the amount of CtpA above its endogenous level induces an uncharacterized extracytoplasmic function sigma factor regulon, an event that has been reported to attenuate P. aeruginosa in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Therefore, a normal level of CtpA activity is critical for T3SS function and acute virulence, whereas too much activity can trigger an apparent stress response that is detrimental to chronic virulence. PMID:24082078

  14. Targeting bacterial adherence inhibits multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection following burn injury.

    PubMed

    Huebinger, Ryan M; Stones, Daniel H; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Carlson, Deborah L; Song, Juquan; Vaz, Diana Pereira; Keen, Emma; Wolf, Steven E; Orth, Kim; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-12-20

    Classical antimicrobial drugs target proliferation and therefore place microbes under extreme selective pressure to evolve resistance. Alternative drugs that target bacterial virulence without impacting survival directly offer an attractive solution to this problem, but to date few such molecules have been discovered. We previously discovered a widespread group of bacterial adhesins, termed Multivalent Adhesion Molecules (MAMs) that are essential for initial binding of bacteria to host tissues and virulence. Thus, targeting MAM-based adherence is a promising strategy for displacing pathogens from host tissues and inhibiting infection. Here, we show that topical application of polymeric microbeads functionalized with the adhesin MAM7 to a burn infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa substantially decreased bacterial loads in the wound and prevented the spread of the infection into adjacent tissues. As a consequence, the application of this adhesion inhibitor allowed for vascularization and wound healing, and maintained local and systemic inflammatory responses to the burn. We propose that MAM7-functionalized microbeads can be used as a topical treatment, to reduce bacterial attachment and hence prevent bacterial colonization and infection of wounds. As adhesion is not required for microbial survival, this anti-infective strategy has the potential to treat multidrug-resistant infections and limit the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens.

  15. Targeting bacterial adherence inhibits multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Huebinger, Ryan M.; Stones, Daniel H.; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Carlson, Deborah L.; Song, Juquan; Vaz, Diana Pereira; Keen, Emma; Wolf, Steven E.; Orth, Kim; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Classical antimicrobial drugs target proliferation and therefore place microbes under extreme selective pressure to evolve resistance. Alternative drugs that target bacterial virulence without impacting survival directly offer an attractive solution to this problem, but to date few such molecules have been discovered. We previously discovered a widespread group of bacterial adhesins, termed Multivalent Adhesion Molecules (MAMs) that are essential for initial binding of bacteria to host tissues and virulence. Thus, targeting MAM-based adherence is a promising strategy for displacing pathogens from host tissues and inhibiting infection. Here, we show that topical application of polymeric microbeads functionalized with the adhesin MAM7 to a burn infected with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa substantially decreased bacterial loads in the wound and prevented the spread of the infection into adjacent tissues. As a consequence, the application of this adhesion inhibitor allowed for vascularization and wound healing, and maintained local and systemic inflammatory responses to the burn. We propose that MAM7-functionalized microbeads can be used as a topical treatment, to reduce bacterial attachment and hence prevent bacterial colonization and infection of wounds. As adhesion is not required for microbial survival, this anti-infective strategy has the potential to treat multidrug-resistant infections and limit the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:27996032

  16. Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum infections by anti-adhesion-active components of edible seeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to animal/human cells for infection establishment involves adhesive proteins, including its galactose- and fucose-binding lectins PA-IL (LecA) and PA-IIL (LecB). The lectin binding to the target-cell receptors may be blocked by compatible glycans that compete with those of the receptors, functioning as anti-adhesion glycodecoys. The anti-adhesion treatment is of the utmost importance for abrogating devastating antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunodeficient and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This strategy functions in nature in protecting embryos and neonates. We have shown that PA-IL, PA-IIL, and also CV-IIL (a PA-IIL homolog produced in the related pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum) are highly useful for revealing natural glycodecoys that surround embryos in diverse avian eggs and are supplied to neonates in milks and royal jelly. In the present study, these lectins were used as probes to search for seed embryo-protecting glycodecoys. Methods The lectin-blocking glycodecoy activities were shown by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were detected by Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled lectins. Results The present work reports the finding - by using PA-IL, PA-IIL, and CV-IIL - of rich glycodecoy activities of low (< 10 KDa) and high MW (> 10 kDa) compounds (including glycoproteins) in extracts of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seeds, resembling those of avian egg whites, mammal milks, and royal jelly. Conclusions Edible seed extracts possess lectin-blocking glycodecoys that might protect their embryos from infections and also might be useful for hampering human and animal infections. PMID:22336073

  17. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer enhances host resistance against pseudomonas aeruginosa infection through MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongwei; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chunxia; Chen, Jianshe; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Hu, Yue; Niu, Xiaobin; Pei, Dongxu; He, Zhiqiang; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the role of extra-cellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the drug resistance of the pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). The BALB/c mice were transfected with PA, then the mice were infected with the siRNA of EMMPRIN to silence the EMMPRIN gene. The EMMPRIN mRNA and protein were detected by using RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. In order to examine the function of EMMPRIN in drug resistance of PA, the BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were treated with EMMPRIN siRNA. The cytokines, EMMPRIN and MMP9 were examined by the RP-PCR and ELISA, respectively, undergoing the silence of EMMPRIN siRNA. Moreover, the western blot assay was also used to test the phosphorylated MAPK in the murine macrophages after silenced by the EMMPRIN siRNA. The EMMPRIN was activated, with lipopolysaccharide stimulation and treated with the MAPK inhibitor, to evaluate whether the MAPK participates in the EMMPRIN-triggered drug resistance. The results indicated that the EMMPRIN expression was elevated in the infected BALB/c at 3 or 5 days post-infection. Silence of EMMPRIN Enhanced the Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PA keratitis. Silence of EMMPRIN significantly up-regulated Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-18, but down-regulated Th2-type cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. MMP9 was increased in the cells with rEMMPRIN treatment. EMMPRIN inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production via a MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, EMMPRIN promotes host resistance against pseudomonas aeruginosa infection via MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:28078032

  18. Contribution of ExsA-regulated factors to corneal infection by cytotoxic and invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine scarification model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen J; Cowell, Brigitte A; Evans, David J; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2003-09-01

    The exoenzyme S regulatory protein ExsA regulates a type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro, cytotoxic strains use this system to secrete exotoxin (Exo)U and ExoT causing cytotoxicity and inhibiting their phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Invasive P. aeruginosa secrete ExoT and ExoS, but exsA mutation has little impact on their short-term interactions with epithelia. In the present study, the contribution of these ExsA-regulated proteins toward corneal infections in vivo was investigated. After anesthesia, the left cornea of C57BL/6 mice was scratch injured and then inoculated with cytotoxic (PA103) or invasive (PAK) P. aeruginosa or with isogenic mutants in exsA-related genes. Inocula of 10(3) to 10(6) bacteria/5 micro L were used, and at least five animals were assigned to each experimental group. Corneal disease was quantified at regular intervals for 14 days in masked fashion with two different scoring systems. For the cytotoxic strain, mutation of either exoU or exoT alone had little effect on virulence, whereas simultaneous mutation of both exoT and exoU or of exsA resulted in a significantly reduced capacity to cause corneal disease. Complementation of the double exoUexoT mutant with exoU alone restored bacterial colonization levels (>3-log increase) and disease severity to wild-type levels. Complementation with exoT alone increased colonization ( approximately 3-log increase) and increased virulence to almost the same levels as wild-type or exoU-complemented infections. Virulence of the invasive strain was not reduced by mutation of exsA or of genes encoding the ExsA-regulated secreted proteins. ExsA contributed to corneal virulence of only cytotoxic P. aeruginosa, with contributions made by both ExoU and ExoT to bacterial survival and disease severity. This differs from cytotoxic P. aeruginosa virulence in the lung, which is ExoU-dependent.

  19. Urinary tract infection caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Olaru, Ioana D; Popoiu, Mona; Breuil, J; Aramă, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in recent years of antimicrobial resistance of Gram negative bacilli (GNB). Carbapenems, the mainstay for the treatment of multidrug resistant GNB infections, are no longer always effective leaving treatment options limited. We present the case of patient with recurrent, complicated urinary tract infections. The current episode was caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa and carbapenem-susceptible, but MDR E. cloacae. Resistance to carbapenems of K. pneumoniae was conferred by the production of the class B metallo-beta-lactamase, VIM1. Infection control measures were implemented and following a 2-week course of treatment with colistin, the infection resolved and the patient was discharged. We discuss the changes in the epidemiology, the mechanisms involved and the means of detecting carbapenem resistance in GNB. We would also like to stress the role of infection control measures in limiting patient-to-patient spread of MDR organisms which, are of paramount importance in cases when few treatment options are left available.

  20. Effects of phosphate supplementation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasive behavior in burn wound infections: A simple approach to a big problem.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman; Kouroshfard, Shahriyar; Azarpira, Negar

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of inorganic phosphate supplementation on invasive behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wound infections. An emulsion-based lotion containing sodium dihydrogen phosphate was formulated and then 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats with burn wounds were used to assess the effect of phosphate supplementation on swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. On the second day after burn, four groups of rats were inoculated with P. aeruginosa and one group was left as negative control. The treatment was started on day 3 and the animals were followed up for 4 weeks. Significant improvement in wound healing was observed in the phosphate-receiving group after the 4-week follow-up, compared to the negative control, positive control, and silver sulfadiazine-receiving groups. Histopathological assessment of the tissue samples also indicated the healing process in phosphate-enriched lotion receiving group. The results showed that inorganic phosphate supplementation results in alteration of the virulence behavior of P. aeruginosa and improvement in the wound healing process. In conclusion, phosphate supplementation would be a rational strategy in the eradication of P. aeruginosa wound infection.

  1. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26266047

  2. Isolation and characterization of quorum-sensing signalling molecules in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Lakshmana Gowda, Krishnappa; John, James; Marie, Mohammed A M; Sangeetha, Gopalkrishnan; Bindurani, Shanta Range

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Many studies have documented the role of quorum-sensing (QS) systems in antibiotic tolerance of P. aeruginosa. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as QS signalling molecules and can be a target for modulating bacterial pathogenicity. In this study, nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa were characterized for the presence of different types of QS signalling molecules. AHLs were solvent extracted and quantified by determination of β-galactosidase activity using the Escherichia coli MG4 reporter strain. Further characterization was performed by analytical thin layer chromatography coupled with detection using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 biosensor strain. All P. aeruginosa isolates produced AHLs, but there were differences in the quantity and nature of AHLs. We identified AHLs belonging to C4-homoserine lactone (HSL), C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL and C12-HSL. AHL profiling of P. aeruginosa isolates showed differences in the amounts and types of AHLs, suggesting differences in the virulence factors and the potential for infection. Our results may be investigated further using animal model systems.

  3. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

  4. Cyclic Di-GMP Signaling Contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Mediated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bis-(3′-5′) cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) controls the lifestyle transition between the sessile and motile states in many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Under laboratory conditions, high concentrations of c-di-GMP decrease motility and promote biofilm formation, while low concentrations of c-di-GMP promote motility and decease biofilm formation. Here we sought to determine the contribution of c-di-GMP signaling to biofilm formation during P. aeruginosa-mediated catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Using a murine CAUTI model, a decrease in CFU was detected in the bladders and kidneys of mice infected with strains overexpressing the phosphodiesterases (PDEs) encoded by PA3947 and PA2133 compared to those infected with wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conversely, overexpression of the diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) encoded by PA3702 and PA1107 increased the number of bacteria in bladder and significantly increased dissemination of bacteria to the kidneys compared to wild-type infection. To determine which of the DGCs and PDEs contribute to c-di-GMP signaling during infection, a panel of PA14 in-frame deletion mutants lacking DGCs and PDEs were tested in the CAUTI model. Results from these infections revealed five mutants, three containing GGDEF domains (ΔPA14_26970, ΔPA14_72420, and ΔsiaD) and two containing dual GGDEF-EAL domains (ΔmorA and ΔPA14_07500), with decreased colonization of the bladder and dissemination to the kidneys. These results indicate that c-di-GMP signaling influences P. aeruginosa-mediated biofilms during CAUTI. IMPORTANCE Biofilm-based infections are an important cause of nosocomial infections, since they resist the immune response and traditional antibiotic treatment. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that promotes biofilm formation in many Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we determined the contribution of c

  5. Blue light rescues mice from potentially fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infection: efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Sherwood, Margaret E; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Blue light has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. However, the use of blue light for wound infections has not been established yet. In this study, we demonstrated the efficacy of blue light at 415 nm for the treatment of acute, potentially lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infections in mice. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the inactivation rate of P. aeruginosa cells by blue light was approximately 35-fold higher than that of keratinocytes (P = 0.0014). Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-mediated intracellular damage to P. aeruginosa cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that coproporphyrin III and/or uroporphyrin III are possibly the intracellular photosensitive chromophores associated with the blue light inactivation of P. aeruginosa. In vivo studies using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging technique and an area-under-the-bioluminescence-time-curve (AUBC) analysis showed that a single exposure of blue light at 55.8 J/cm(2), applied 30 min after bacterial inoculation to the infected mouse burns, reduced the AUBC by approximately 100-fold in comparison with untreated and infected mouse burns (P < 0.0001). Histological analyses and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays indicated no significant damage in the mouse skin exposed to blue light at the effective antimicrobial dose. Survival analyses revealed that blue light increased the survival rate of the infected mice from 18.2% to 100% (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, blue light therapy might offer an effective and safe alternative to conventional antimicrobial therapy for P. aeruginosa burn infections.

  6. Blue Light Rescues Mice from Potentially Fatal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn Infection: Efficacy, Safety, and Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Ying-Ying; Yin, Rui; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Tegos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Blue light has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the addition of exogenous photosensitizers. However, the use of blue light for wound infections has not been established yet. In this study, we demonstrated the efficacy of blue light at 415 nm for the treatment of acute, potentially lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa burn infections in mice. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the inactivation rate of P. aeruginosa cells by blue light was approximately 35-fold higher than that of keratinocytes (P = 0.0014). Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light-mediated intracellular damage to P. aeruginosa cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that coproporphyrin III and/or uroporphyrin III are possibly the intracellular photosensitive chromophores associated with the blue light inactivation of P. aeruginosa. In vivo studies using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging technique and an area-under-the-bioluminescence-time-curve (AUBC) analysis showed that a single exposure of blue light at 55.8 J/cm2, applied 30 min after bacterial inoculation to the infected mouse burns, reduced the AUBC by approximately 100-fold in comparison with untreated and infected mouse burns (P < 0.0001). Histological analyses and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays indicated no significant damage in the mouse skin exposed to blue light at the effective antimicrobial dose. Survival analyses revealed that blue light increased the survival rate of the infected mice from 18.2% to 100% (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, blue light therapy might offer an effective and safe alternative to conventional antimicrobial therapy for P. aeruginosa burn infections. PMID:23262998

  7. Examining the Role of Actin-Plasma Membrane Association in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection and Type III Secretion Translocation in Migratory T24 Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Martin, Karen H.; Moore, Elizabeth R.; Lee, Wendy M.; Carroll, James A.; Rocha, Claudia L.

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa targets wounded epithelial barriers, but the cellular alteration that increases susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection remains unclear. This study examined how cell migration contributes to the establishment of P. aeruginosa infections using (i) highly migratory T24 epithelial cells as a cell culture model, (ii) mutations in the type III secretion (T3S) effector ExoS to manipulate P. aeruginosa infection, and (iii) high-resolution immunofluorescent microscopy to monitor ExoS translocation. ExoS includes both GTPase-activating (GAP) and ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activities, and P. aeruginosa cells expressing wild-type ExoS preferentially bound to the leading edge of T24 cells, where ExoS altered leading-edge architecture and actin anchoring in conjunction with interrupting T3S translocation. Inactivation of ExoS GAP activity allowed P. aeruginosa to be internalized and secrete ExoS within T24 cells, but as with wild-type ExoS, translocation was limited in association with disruption of actin anchoring. Inactivation of ExoS ADPRT activity resulted in significantly enhanced T3S translocation by P. aeruginosa cells that remained extracellular and in conjunction with maintenance of actin-plasma membrane association. Infection with P. aeruginosa expressing ExoS lacking both GAP and ADPRT activities resulted in the highest level of T3S translocation, and this occurred in conjunction with the entry and alignment of P. aeruginosa and ExoS along actin filaments. Collectively, in using ExoS mutants to modulate and visualize T3S translocation, we were able to (i) confirm effector secretion by internalized P. aeruginosa, (ii) differentiate the mechanisms underlying the effects of ExoS GAP and ADPRT activities on P. aeruginosa internalization and T3S translocation, (iii) confirm that ExoS ADPRT activity targeted a cellular substrate that interrupted T3S translocation, (iv) visualize the ability of P. aeruginosa and Exo

  8. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections pose growing threat to health care-associated infection control in the hospitals of Southern China: a case-control surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yang; Bi, Jiaqi; Shi, Jing; Li, Ying; Ye, Xiaohua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2014-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is one of the most common agents among health care-associated infections. There is a lack of data on the clinical features of MDRPA from Southern China. A case-control surveillance study of P aeruginosa was conducted based on surveillance from July 2008-December 2012, in 5 hospitals of Guangzhou, China. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression using Stata 13 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Of the 348 P aeruginosa strains, the prevalence of MDRPA was 54%, and it has increased over time. Isolates of P aeruginosa showed increased resistance to most antimicrobials during this time period. Independent risk factors were tracheal intubation insertion (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-4.23; P = .02) and use of carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-6.47; P < .01). The distribution of MDRPA infections was uneven among the 5 hospitals (P = .01). Being infected with MDRPA strains resulted in longer duration of hospitalization (39 vs 24 days) and higher mortality (49% vs 20%). The infections of MDRPA were severe issues. More stringent measures should be applied for those with independent predictors of MDRPA infections because they may induce adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excessive pediatric fasciitis necrotisans due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection successfully treated with negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Levente; Szegedi, István; Kiss, Csongor; Szikszay, Edit; Remenyik, Éva; Csízy, István; Juhász, István

    2015-01-01

    The case of a 10-year old female child is described with a history of myeloproliferative disorder having skin, bone and visceral involvement. Bone marrow biopsy revealed histiocytosis X. During chemotherapy necrotizing fasciitis of the lower abdominal wall was diagnosed. Multiple microbiological cultures taken from the wound base revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Surgical necrectomy and application of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was started together with intensive care treatment for sepsis. As both wound and general condition of the patient improved, autologous split thickness skin grafting was carried out in two sitting under continuing NPWT application. The applied skin grafts showed excellent take, the perilesional subcutaneous recesses resolved and complete healing was achieved after 28 days of NPWT treatment. Proper dermatological diagnosis and immediate escharectomy complemented with application of NPWT can be life-saving in the treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

  10. Selection of phages and conditions for the safe phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Victor; Shaburova, Olga; Pleteneva, Elena; Krylov, Sergey; Kaplan, Alla; Burkaltseva, Maria; Polygach, Olga; Chesnokova, Elena

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens forced us to consider the phage therapy as one of the possible alternative approaches to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to consider the conditions for the safe, long-term use of phage therapy against various infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We describe the selection of the most suitable phages, their most effective combinations and some approaches for the rapid recognition of phages unsuitable for use in therapy. The benefits and disadvantages of the various different approaches to the preparation of phage mixtures are considered, together with the specific conditions that are required for the safe application of phage therapy in general hospitals and the possibilities for the development of personalized phage therapy.

  11. Heterogeneity of pulmonary endothelial cyclic nucleotide response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY infection

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, K. A.; Seifert, R.; Kaever, V.; Britain, A. L.; Sayner, S. L.; Ochoa, C. D.; Cioffi, E. A.; Frank, D. W.; Rich, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that a promiscuous bacterial cyclase synthesizes purine and pyrimidine cyclic nucleotides in the pulmonary endothelium. To test this hypothesis, pulmonary endothelial cells were infected with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that introduces only exoenzyme Y (PA103 ΔexoUexoT::Tc pUCPexoY; ExoY+) via a type III secretion system. Purine and pyrimidine cyclic nucleotides were simultaneously detected using mass spectrometry. Pulmonary artery (PAECs) and pulmonary microvascular (PMVECs) endothelial cells both possess basal levels of four different cyclic nucleotides in the following rank order: cAMP > cUMP ≈ cGMP ≈ cCMP. Endothelial gap formation was induced in a time-dependent manner following ExoY+ intoxication. In PAECs, intercellular gaps formed within 2 h and progressively increased in size up to 6 h, when the experiment was terminated. cGMP concentrations increased within 1 h postinfection, whereas cAMP and cUMP concentrations increased within 3 h, and cCMP concentrations increased within 4 h postinfection. In PMVECs, intercellular gaps did not form until 4 h postinfection. Only cGMP and cUMP concentrations increased at 3 and 6 h postinfection, respectively. PAECs generated higher cyclic nucleotide levels than PMVECs, and the cyclic nucleotide levels increased earlier in response to ExoY+ intoxication. Heterogeneity of the cyclic nucleotide signature in response to P. aeruginosa infection exists between PAECs and PMVECs, suggesting the intracellular milieu in PAECs is more conducive to cNMP generation. PMID:26386118

  12. Pharmacodynamics of Ceftazidime and Avibactam in Neutropenic Mice with Thigh or Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melchers, Maria J.; van Mil, Anita C.; Lagarde, Claudia M.; Schuck, Virna J.; Nichols, Wright W.

    2015-01-01

    Avibactam is a new non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that shows promising restoration of ceftazidime activity against microorganisms producing Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases such as KPCs, class C β-lactamases (AmpC), and some class D enzymes. To determine optimal dosing combinations of ceftazidime-avibactam for treating infections with ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pharmacodynamic responses were explored in murine neutropenic thigh and lung infection models. Exposure-response relationships for ceftazidime monotherapy were determined first. Subsequently, the efficacy of adding avibactam every 2 h (q2h) or q8h to a fixed q2h dose of ceftazidime was determined in lung infection for two strains. Dosing avibactam q2h was significantly more efficacious, reducing the avibactam daily dose for static effect by factors of 2.7 and 10.1, whereas the mean percentage of the dosing interval that free drug concentrations remain above the threshold concentration of 1 mg/liter (%fT>CT 1 mg/liter) yielding bacteriostasis was similar for both regimens, with mean values of 21.6 (q2h) and 18.5 (q8h). Dose fractionation studies of avibactam in both the thigh and lung models indicated that the effect of avibactam correlated well with %fT>CT 1 mg/liter. This parameter of avibactam was further explored for four P. aeruginosa strains in the lung model and six in the thigh model. Parameter estimates of %fT>CT 1 mg/liter for avibactam ranged from 0 to 21.4% in the lung model and from 14.1 to 62.5% in the thigh model to achieve stasis. In conclusion, addition of avibactam enhanced the effect of ceftazidime, which was more pronounced at frequent dosing and well related with %fT>CT 1 mg/liter. The thigh model appeared more stringent, with higher values, ranging up to 62.5% fT>CT 1 mg/liter, required for a static effect. PMID:26525790

  13. Pharmacodynamics of Ceftazidime and Avibactam in Neutropenic Mice with Thigh or Lung Infection.

    PubMed

    Berkhout, Johanna; Melchers, Maria J; van Mil, Anita C; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Lagarde, Claudia M; Schuck, Virna J; Nichols, Wright W; Mouton, Johan W

    2015-11-02

    Avibactam is a new non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that shows promising restoration of ceftazidime activity against microorganisms producing Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases such as KPCs, class C β-lactamases (AmpC), and some class D enzymes. To determine optimal dosing combinations of ceftazidime-avibactam for treating infections with ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pharmacodynamic responses were explored in murine neutropenic thigh and lung infection models. Exposure-response relationships for ceftazidime monotherapy were determined first. Subsequently, the efficacy of adding avibactam every 2 h (q2h) or q8h to a fixed q2h dose of ceftazidime was determined in lung infection for two strains. Dosing avibactam q2h was significantly more efficacious, reducing the avibactam daily dose for static effect by factors of 2.7 and 10.1, whereas the mean percentage of the dosing interval that free drug concentrations remain above the threshold concentration of 1 mg/liter (%fT>C(T) 1 mg/liter) yielding bacteriostasis was similar for both regimens, with mean values of 21.6 (q2h) and 18.5 (q8h). Dose fractionation studies of avibactam in both the thigh and lung models indicated that the effect of avibactam correlated well with %fT>C(T) 1 mg/liter. This parameter of avibactam was further explored for four P. aeruginosa strains in the lung model and six in the thigh model. Parameter estimates of %fT>C(T) 1 mg/liter for avibactam ranged from 0 to 21.4% in the lung model and from 14.1 to 62.5% in the thigh model to achieve stasis. In conclusion, addition of avibactam enhanced the effect of ceftazidime, which was more pronounced at frequent dosing and well related with %fT>C(T) 1 mg/liter. The thigh model appeared more stringent, with higher values, ranging up to 62.5% fT>C(T) 1 mg/liter, required for a static effect. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Protective role of murine norovirus against Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thépaut, Marion; Grandjean, Teddy; Hober, Didier; Lobert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bortolotti, Perrine; Faure, Karine; Dessein, Rodrigue; Kipnis, Eric; Guery, Benoit

    2015-09-04

    The murine norovirus (MNV) is a recently discovered mouse pathogen, representing the most common contaminant in laboratory mouse colonies. Nevertheless, the effects of MNV infection on biomedical research are still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that MNV infection could alter immune response in mice with acute lung infection. Here we report that co-infection with MNV increases survival of mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute lung injury and decreases in vivo production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that MNV infection can deeply modify the parameters studied in conventional models of infection and lead to false conclusions in experimental models.

  15. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation, Quorum Sensing and Infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Natural Products-Inspired Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Nathaniel C.; McKean, Kurt A.; Behnke, Jason; Kubec, Roman; Mosier, Aaron P.; Kasper, Stephen H.; Burz, David S.; Musah, Rabi A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO) (1 mM). Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control), and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed. PMID:22715388

  16. Inhibition of biofilm formation, quorum sensing and infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by natural products-inspired organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Cady, Nathaniel C; McKean, Kurt A; Behnke, Jason; Kubec, Roman; Mosier, Aaron P; Kasper, Stephen H; Burz, David S; Musah, Rabi A

    2012-01-01

    Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO) (1 mM). Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control), and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed.

  17. Evaluation of quantitative PCR for early diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Héry-Arnaud, G; Nowak, E; Caillon, J; David, V; Dirou, A; Revert, K; Munck, M-R; Frachon, I; Haloun, A; Horeau-Langlard, D; Le Bihan, J; Danner-Boucher, I; Ramel, S; Pelletier, M-P; Rosec, S; Gouriou, S; Poulhazan, E; Payan, C; Férec, C; Rault, G; Le Gal, G; Le Berre, R

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung positivity is a key element in cystic fibrosis (CF) management. PCR has increased the accuracy of detection of many microorganisms. Clinical relevance of P. aeruginosa quantitative PCR (qPCR) in this context is unclear. Our aim was to determine P. aeruginosa qPCR sensitivity and specificity, and to assess the possible time saved by qPCR in comparison with standard practice (culture). A multicentre cohort study was conducted over a 3-year period in 96 patients with CF without chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Sputum samples were collected at each visit. Conventional culture and two-step qPCR (oprL qPCR and gyrB/ecfX qPCR) were performed for 707 samples. The positivity criteria were based on the qPCR results, defined in a previous study as follow: oprL qPCR positivity alone if bacterial density was <730 CFU/mL or oprL qPCR combined with gyrB/ecfX qPCR if bacterial density was ≥730 CFU/mL. During follow up, 36 of the 96 patients with CF were diagnosed on culture as colonized with P. aeruginosa. This two-step qPCR displayed a sensitivity of 94.3% (95% CI 79.7%-98.6%), and a specificity of 86.3% (95% CI 83.4%-88.7%). It enabled P. aeruginosa acquisition to be diagnosed earlier in 20 patients, providing a median detection time gain of 8 months (interquartile range 3.7-17.6) for them. Implementing oprL and gyrB/ecfX qPCR in the management of patients with CF allowed earlier detection of first P. aeruginosa lung positivity than culture alone. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early airway infection, inflammation, and lung function in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, G; Armstrong, D; Carzino, R; Carlin, J; Olinsky, A; Robertson, C; Grimwood, K

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between lower airway infection and inflammation, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective study of children with CF aged younger than 3 years, diagnosed by a newborn screening programme. All were clinically stable and had testing as outpatients. Subjects underwent bronchial lavage (BL) and lung function testing by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique under general anaesthesia. BL fluid was cultured and analysed for neutrophil count, interleukin 8, and neutrophil elastase. Lung function was assessed by forced expiratory volume in 0.5, 0.75, and 1 second. Results: Thirty six children with CF were tested on 54 occasions. Lower airway infection shown by BL was associated with a 10% reduction in FEV0.5 compared with subjects without infection. No relation was identified between airway inflammation and lung function. Daily moist cough within the week before testing was reported on 20/54 occasions, but in only seven (35%) was infection detected. Independent of either infection status or airway inflammation, those with daily cough had lower lung function than those without respiratory symptoms at the time of BL (mean adjusted FEV0.5 195 ml and 236 ml respectively). Conclusions: In young children with CF, both respiratory symptoms and airway infection have independent, additive effects on lung function, unrelated to airway inflammation. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of airway obstruction in these young patients. PMID:12244003

  19. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    DOE PAGES

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel; ...

    2015-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  20. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciTech Connect

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  1. Phenotypic Characterization of Clonal and Nonclonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Lungs of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Tingpej, Pholawat; Smith, Lucas; Rose, Barbara; Zhu, Hua; Conibear, Tim; Al Nassafi, Khaled; Manos, Jim; Elkins, Mark; Bye, Peter; Willcox, Mark; Bell, Scott; Wainwright, Claire; Harbour, Colin

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones is a threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients globally. Characterization of clonal P. aeruginosa strains is critical for an understanding of its clinical impact and developing strategies to meet this problem. Two clonal strains (AES-1 and AES-2) are circulating within CF centers in eastern Australia. In this study, phenotypic characteristics of 43 (14 AES-1, 5 AES-2, and 24 nonclonal) P. aeruginosa isolates were compared to gain insight into the properties of clonal strains. All 43 isolates produced bands of the predicted size in PCRs for vfr, rhlI, rhlR, lasA, lasB, aprA, rhlAB, and exoS genes; 42 were positive for lasI and lasR, and none had exoU. Thirty-seven (86%) isolates were positive in total protease assays; on zymography, 24 (56%) produced elastase/staphylolysin and 22 (51%) produced alkaline protease. Clonal isolates were more likely than nonclonal isolates to be positive for total proteases (P = 0.02), to show elastase and alkaline protease activity by zymography (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively), and to show elastase activity by the elastin-Congo red assay (P = 0.04). There were no other associations with genotype. Overall, increasing patient age was associated with decreasing elastase activity (P = 0.03). Thirty-two (74%) isolates had at least one N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) by thin-layer chromatography. rhl-associated AHL detection was associated with the production and level of total protease and elastase activity (all P < 0.01). Thirty-three (77%) isolates were positive for ExoS by Western blot analysis, 35 (81%) produced rhamnolipids, and 34 (79%) showed chitinase activity. Findings suggest that protease activity during chronic infection may contribute to the transmissibility or virulence of these clonal strains. PMID:17392437

  2. Ex Vivo Perfusion Treatment of Infection in Human Donor Lungs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, D; Cypel, M; Bonato, R; Machuca, T N; Iskender, I; Hashimoto, K; Linacre, V; Chen, M; Coutinho, R; Azad, S; Martinu, T; Waddell, T K; Hwang, D M; Husain, S; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2016-04-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a platform to treat infected donor lungs with antibiotic therapy before lung transplantation. Human donor lungs that were rejected for transplantation because of clinical concern regarding infection were randomly assigned to two groups. In the antibiotic group (n = 8), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h with high-dose antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 400 mg or azithromycin 500 mg, vancomycin 15 mg/kg, and meropenem 2 g). In the control group (n = 7), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h without antibiotics. A quantitative decrease in bacterial counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was found in all antibiotic-treated cases but in only two control cases. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were significantly lower in the antibiotic group compared with the control group. EVLP with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy significantly improved pulmonary oxygenation and compliance and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were strongly correlated with levels of perfusates tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β at 12 h. In conclusion, EVLP treatment of infected donor lungs with broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduced BAL bacterial counts and endotoxin levels and improved donor lung function. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Lung cancer in HIV infected patients: facts, questions and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cadranel, J; Garfield, D; Lavolé, A; Wislez, M; Milleron, B; Mayaud, C

    2006-11-01

    AIDS related mortality has fallen sharply in industrialised countries since 1996 following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. This has been accompanied by an increase in the proportion of deaths attributable to non-AIDS defining solid tumours, especially lung cancer. The risk of developing lung cancer seems to be higher in HIV infected subjects than in the general population of the same age, partly because the former tend more frequently to be smokers and, especially, intravenous drug users. The carcinogenic role of the antiretroviral nucleoside drugs and their interaction with smoking needs to be examined. Interestingly, there is no clear relationship between the degree of immunosuppression and the risk of lung cancer, so the reason for the increased risk is unknown. The mean age of HIV infected patients at the time of lung cancer diagnosis is 45 years and most are symptomatic. Lung cancer is diagnosed when locally advanced or metastatic (stage III-IV) in 75-90% of cases, similar to patients with unknown HIV status. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The prognosis is worse in HIV infected patients than in the general lung cancer population. Efficacy and toxicity data for chemotherapy and radiation therapy are few and imprecise. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for localised disease in patients with adequate pulmonary function and general good health, regardless of immune status. Prospective clinical trials are needed to define the optimal detection and treatment strategies for lung cancer in HIV infected patients.

  4. Decreased Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic lung model

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features. These differences were evaluated using an in vitro model of the pediatric airway to simulate a ventilated patient in the pediatric intensive care unit. Each experiment was run for 24 hours and was supported by computational models of the ETT. Dynamic conditions within the ETT had an impact on the location of bacterial growth within the tube. These conditions also quantitatively affected bacterial growth especially within the areas of tube curvature. Most importantly, experiments in the in vitro model revealed a 2.7 log reduction in the number (colony forming units/mL) of P. aeruginosa on the nanoroughened ETTs compared to the untreated PVC ETTs after 24 hours. This reduction in total colony forming units/mL along the x-axis of the tube was similar to previous studies completed for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, this dynamic study showed that lipase etching can create surface features of nanoscale roughness on PVC ETTs that decrease bacterial attachment of P. aeruginosa without the use of antibiotics and may provide clinicians with an effective and inexpensive tool to combat VAP. PMID:27563242

  5. Decreased Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic lung model.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features. These differences were evaluated using an in vitro model of the pediatric airway to simulate a ventilated patient in the pediatric intensive care unit. Each experiment was run for 24 hours and was supported by computational models of the ETT. Dynamic conditions within the ETT had an impact on the location of bacterial growth within the tube. These conditions also quantitatively affected bacterial growth especially within the areas of tube curvature. Most importantly, experiments in the in vitro model revealed a 2.7 log reduction in the number (colony forming units/mL) of P. aeruginosa on the nanoroughened ETTs compared to the untreated PVC ETTs after 24 hours. This reduction in total colony forming units/mL along the x-axis of the tube was similar to previous studies completed for Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, this dynamic study showed that lipase etching can create surface features of nanoscale roughness on PVC ETTs that decrease bacterial attachment of P. aeruginosa without the use of antibiotics and may provide clinicians with an effective and inexpensive tool to combat VAP.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in a Group of Captive Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    PubMed

    Widmer, Dimitri; Ziemssen, Eva; Schade, Benjamin; Kappe, Eva; Schmitt, Ferdinand; Kempf, Hermann; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2016-06-01

    Nine Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ), between 1 and 1.5 years old and kept at Zoo Dresden, developed local and systemic infections with various opportunistic pathogens within a period of 4 months. Affected birds died peracutely without preceding symptoms or showed various clinical signs, including separation from conspecifics, reduced food intake, lethargy, dyspnea, swelling of the salt glands, and ocular discharge. One bird showed central nervous signs, including seizures. Pathologic examination of deceased birds revealed severe necrotizing inflammation of the mucous membranes and deep structures of the glottis, trachea, nasal sinus, and conchae and granulomatous inflammation of the salt glands. Further findings were airsacculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, and myositis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant pathogen in 7 cases. Six penguins died or were euthanatized, whereas 3 penguins that received systemic antibiotic treatment with tobramycin (10 mg/kg IM q24h for 10 days) showed rapid clinical improvement. Insufficient turnover rate of the filtration system, biofilm formation on pipe surfaces, and other factors are assumed to have promoted pathogen buildup in the pool water and subsequent infection.

  7. Development of Liposomal Ciprofloxacin to Treat Lung Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cipolla, David; Blanchard, Jim; Gonda, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Except for management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in cystic fibrosis, there are no approved inhaled antibiotic treatments for any other diseases or for infections from other pathogenic microorganisms such as tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, fungal infections or potential inhaled biowarfare agents including Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Coxiella burnetii (which cause pneumonic tularemia, plague and Q fever, respectively). Delivery of an antibiotic formulation via the inhalation route has the potential to provide high concentrations at the site of infection with reduced systemic exposure to limit side effects. A liposomal formulation may improve tolerability, increase compliance by reducing the dosing frequency, and enhance penetration of biofilms and treatment of intracellular infections. Two liposomal ciprofloxacin formulations (Lipoquin® and Pulmaquin®) that are in development by Aradigm Corporation are described here. PMID:26938551

  8. Evaluation of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Production and Carriage of bla-VIM Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mahmood; Firoozeh, Farzaneh; Pourbabaee, Mohammad; Zibaei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Metallo-β-lactamase-production among Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has become a challenge for treatment of infections due to these resistant bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study was to evaluate the metallo-β-lactamase-production and carriage of bla-VIM genes among carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to July 2015. One hundred and fifty P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered from 600 patients with burn wound infections treated at Imam-Musa-Kazem Hospital in Isfahan city, Iran. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were screened by disk diffusion using CLSI guidelines. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were identified using an imipenem-EDTA double disk synergy test (EDTA-IMP DDST). For detection of MBL genes including bla-VIM-1 and bla-VIM-2, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and sequencing were used. Results Among the 150 P. aeruginosa isolates, 144 (96%) were resistant to imipenem by the disk diffusion method, all of which were identified as metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa isolates by EDTA-IMP DDST. Twenty-seven (18%) and 8 (5.5%) MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates harbored bla-VIM-1 and bla-VIM-2 genes, respectively. Conclusions Our findings showed a high occurrence of metallo-β-lactamase production among P. aeruginosa isolates in burn patient infections in our region. Also, there are P. aeruginosa isolates carrying the bla-VIM-1 and bla-VIM-2 genes in Isfahan province. PMID:28144604

  9. [Scedosporium apiospermum disseminated infection in a single lung transplant recipient].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are filamentous fungi, and the 2 most important species are Scedosporium prolificans and Scedosporium apiospermum. S. apiospermum accounts for approximately 25% of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi infections in organ transplant recipients. Scedosporium can colonize the sinuses and airways of lung recipients with underlying pulmonary diseases, such as bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis before transplant, and develop invasive disease after lung transplantation. In fact, invasive diseases caused by S. apiospermum have been reported only rarely, in single lung transplant recipients and cystic fibrosis transplant patients. The treatment of scedosporiasis is complicated due to the difficulty in early diagnosis together with inherent resistance to amphotericin B. A case of disseminated S. apiospermum infection after single lung transplant in a patient with pulmonary fibrosis is reported. Leg mycetoma was the initial sign of this disseminated infection. In this case report, current treatment options are discussed, and a review of the literature of previously published cases of lung transplants is made. One conclusion based on this case is the risk of emergent molds related to antifungal prophylaxis. In addition, colonization by Scedosporium in transplant recipients should not be ignored, and target prophylaxis or suppressive therapy should be considered in all those cases with residual lesions in native lung or chronic rejection in transplanted lungs. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventilator-associated respiratory infection following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Riera, Jordi; Caralt, Berta; López, Iker; Augustin, Salvador; Roman, Antonio; Gavalda, Joan; Rello, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    The medical records of 170 adult patients who underwent lung transplantation between January 2010 and December 2012 were reviewed to assess the incidence, causative organisms, risk factors and outcomes of post-operative pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. 20 (12%) patients suffered 24 episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The condition was associated with mean increases of 43 days in mechanical ventilation and of 35 days in hospital stay, and significantly higher hospital mortality (OR 9.0, 95% CI 3.2-25.1). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (eight out of 12 patients were multidrug-resistant) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (one out of five patients produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases). Gastroparesis occurred in 55 (32%) patients and was significantly associated with pneumonia (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.2-17.2). Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis was associated with a mean increase of 28 days in mechanical ventilation and 30.5 days in hospital stay, but was not associated with higher mortality (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-3.2). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (six out of 16 patients were multidrug resistant) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (three out of 14 patients produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase). Patients with gastroparesis also had more episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (40% versus 12%, p<0.001). In conclusion, ventilator-associated pneumonia following lung transplantation increased mortality. Preventing gastroparesis probably decreases the risk of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Multidrug-resistant bacteria frequently cause post-lung-transplantation pneumonia and tracheobronchitis. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  11. Baicalein attenuates the quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and relieves the inflammatory response in P. aeruginosa-infected macrophages by downregulating the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Kong, Jin-liang; Dong, Bi-ying; Huang, Hong; Wang, Ke; Wu, Li-hong; Hou, Chang-chun; Liang, Yue; Li, Bing; Chen, Yi-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Burgeoning antibiotic resistance and unfavorable outcomes of inflammatory injury after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have necessitated the development of novel agents that not only target quorum sensing (QS) but also combat inflammatory injury with the least risk of resistance. This study aimed to assess the anti-QS and anti-inflammatory activities of baicalein, a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the People’s Republic of China, against P. aeruginosa infection. We found that subminimum inhibitory concentrations of baicalein efficiently interfered with the QS-signaling pathway of P. aeruginosa via downregulation of the transcription of QS-regulated genes and the translation of QS-signaling molecules. This interference resulted in the global attenuation of QS-controlled virulence factors, such as motility and biofilm formation, and the secretion into the culture supernatant of extracellular virulence factors, including pyocyanin, LasA protease, LasB elastase, and rhamnolipids. Moreover, we examined the anti-inflammatory activity of baicalein and its mode of action via a P. aeruginosa-infected macrophage model to address its therapeutic effect. Baicalein reduced the P. aeruginosa-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. In addition, baicalein suppressed P. aeruginosa-induced activation of the MAPK and NFκB signal-transduction pathways in cocultured macrophages; this may be the mechanism by which baicalein inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baicalein represents a potential treatment for P. aeruginosa infection because it clearly exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26792984

  12. Targeting Lung Cancer Using an Infectivity Enhanced CXCR4-CRAd

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zeng B.; Rivera, Angel A.; Makhija, Sharmila K.; Lu, Baogen; Wang, Minghui; Izumi, Miiru; Cerfolio, Robert; Stoff-Khalili, Mariam A.; Zhou, Fen; Takayama, Koichi; Siegal, Gene P.; Curiel., David T.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional treatments are not adequate for the majority of lung cancer patients. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) represent a promising new modality for the treatment of neoplastic diseases, including non-small cell lung cancer. Specifically, following cellular infection, the virus replicates selectively in the infected tumor cells and kills the cells by cytolysis. Next, the progeny virions infect a new population of surrounding target cells, replicate again and eradicate the infected tumor cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. However, to date there have been two main limitations to successful clinical application of these CRAd agents; i.e. poor infectivity and poor tumor specificity. Here we report the construction of a CRAd agent, CRAd-CXCR4.RGD, in which the adenovirus E1 gene is driven by a tumor-specific CXCR4 promoter and the viral infectivity is enhanced by a capsid modification, RGD4C. This agent CRAd-CXCR4.RGD, as expected, improved both of the viral infectivity and tumor specificity as evaluated in an established lung tumor cell line and in primary tumor tissue from multiple patients. As an added benefit, the activity of the CXCR4 promoter was low in human liver as compared to three other promoters regularly used for targeting tumors. In addition, this agent has the potential of targeting multiple other tumor cell types. From theses data, the CRAd-CXCR4.RGD appears to be a promising novel CRAd agent for lung cancer targeting with low host toxicity. PMID:17113184

  13. Quorum-Quenching Acylase Reduces the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Evelina; Wahjudi, Mariana; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Koch, Gudrun; Setroikromo, Rita; Quax, Wim J.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 gene pvdQ encodes an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) acylase capable of degrading N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone by cleaving the AHL amide. PvdQ has been proven to function as a quorum quencher in vitro in a number of phenotypic assays. To address the question of whether PvdQ also shows quorum-quenching properties in vivo, an infection model based on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was explored. In a fast-acting paralysis assay, strain PAO1(pMEpvdQ), which overproduces PvdQ, was shown to be less virulent than the wild-type strain. More than 75% of the nematodes exposed to PAO1(pMEpvdQ) survived and continued to grow when using this strain as a food source. Interestingly, in a slow-killing assay monitoring the survival of the nematodes throughout a 4-day course, strain PAO1-ΔpvdQ was shown to be more virulent than the wild-type strain, confirming the role of PvdQ as a virulence-reducing agent. It was observed that larval stage 1 (L1) to L3-stage larvae benefit much more from protection by PvdQ than L4 worms. Finally, purified PvdQ protein was added to C. elegans worms infected with wild-type PAO1, and this resulted in reduced pathogenicity and increased the life span of the nematodes. From our observations we can conclude that PvdQ might be a strong candidate for antibacterial therapy against Pseudomonas infections. PMID:19721066

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory tract infections associated with contaminated ultrasound gel used for transesophageal echocardiography - Michigan, December 2011-January 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-04-20

    In late December 2011, the Department of Epidemiology at Beaumont Health System (BHS) in Royal Oak, Michigan, noted an increase in the number of positive respiratory cultures in one surgical intensive-care unit (ICU), prompting further investigation. The increase in positive cultures was attributed entirely to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Investigation by BHS staff members found that all of these positive cultures were related to use of ultrasound transmission gel from a single manufacturer during transesophageal echocardiography. Seven patients were infected with P. aeruginosa based on National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria, and nine were colonized. Cultures from one open and one unopened bottle of the gel grew P. aeruginosa closely related to the outbreak strain based on molecular typing via repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The Oakland County Health Department, the Michigan Department of Community Health, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were notified of the findings. On January 23, all implicated ultrasound gel in multiuse bottles was removed from BHS facilities and replaced with a single-use, sterile ultrasound gel for all potentially invasive procedures. On April 18, FDA issued a Safety Communication* advising health-care professionals and facilities not to use certain lot numbers of the ultrasound transmission gel and further advising that the only ultrasound gel that is sterile is unopened gel in containers labeled as sterile. To date, no further respiratory cultures have been positive for P. aeruginosa.

  15. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on airway epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Bilodeau, Claudia; Maillé, Émilie; LaFayette, Shantelle L; McKay, Geoffrey A; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Beaudoin, Trevor; Desrosiers, Martin-Yvon; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are associated with progressive epithelial damage and lung function decline. In addition to its role in tissue injury, the persistent presence of P. aeruginosa-secreted products may also affect epithelial repair ability, raising the need for new antivirulence therapies. The purpose of our study was to better understand the outcomes of P. aeruginosa exoproducts exposure on airway epithelial repair processes to identify a strategy to counteract their deleterious effect. We found that P. aeruginosa exoproducts significantly decreased wound healing, migration, and proliferation rates, and impaired the ability of directional migration of primary non-cystic fibrosis (CF) human airway epithelial cells. Impact of exoproducts was inhibited after mutations in P. aeruginosa genes that encoded for the quorum-sensing (QS) transcriptional regulator, LasR, and the elastase, LasB, whereas impact was restored by LasB induction in ΔlasR mutants. P. aeruginosa purified elastase also induced a significant decrease in non-CF epithelial repair, whereas protease inhibition with phosphoramidon prevented the effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a QS inhibitor, abrogated the negative impact of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on airway epithelial repair. Finally, we confirmed our findings in human airway epithelial cells from patients with CF, a disease featuring P. aeruginosa chronic respiratory infection. These data demonstrate that secreted proteases under the control of the LasR QS system impair airway epithelial repair and that QS inhibitors could be of benefit to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients.-Ruffin, M., Bilodeau, C., Maillé, É., LaFayette, S. L., McKay, G. A., Trinh, N. T. N., Beaudoin, T., Desrosiers, M.-Y., Rousseau, S., Nguyen, D., Brochiero, E. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact

  16. Short Synthetic β-Sheet Antimicrobial Peptides for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guansheng; Cheng, Junchi; Liang, Zhen Chang; Xu, Liang; Lou, Weiyang; Bao, Chang; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Dong, Huihui; Yang, Yi Yan; Fan, Weimin

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often implicated in burn wound infections; its inherent drug resistance often renders these infections extremely challenging to treat. This is further compounded by the problem of emerging drug resistance and the dearth of novel antimicrobial drug discovery in recent years. In the perennial search for effective antimicrobial compounds, the authors identify short synthetic β-sheet folding peptides, IRIKIRIK (IK8L), IRIkIrIK (IK8-2D), and irikirik (IK8D) as prime candidates owing to their high potency against Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the peptides are first assayed against 20 clinically isolated multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains in comparison with the conventional antibiotics imipenem and ceftazidime, and IK8L is demonstrated to be the most effective. IK8L also exhibits superior antibacterial killing kinetics compared to imipenem and ceftazidime. From transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and protein release analyses, IK8L shows membrane-lytic antimicrobial mechanism. Repeated use of IK8L does not induce drug resistance, while the bacteria develop resistance against the antibiotics after several times of treatment at sublethal doses. Analysis of mouse blood serum chemistry reveals that peptide does not induce systemic toxicity. The potential utility of IK8L in the in vivo treatment of P. aeruginosa-infected burn wounds is further demonstrated in a mouse model.

  17. Identification of broadly protective human antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl by phenotypic screening

    PubMed Central

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Warrener, Paul; Hamilton, Melissa; Guillard, Sandrine; Ravn, Peter; Minter, Ralph; Camara, Maria Margarita; Venkatraman, Vignesh; MacGill, Randall S.; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qun; Keller, Ashley Elaine; Bonnell, Jessica C.; Tomich, Mladen; Jermutus, Lutz; McCarthy, Michael P.; Melnick, David A.; Suzich, JoAnn A.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-associated infections in the seriously ill, and the primary agent of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. A major obstacle to effective control of P. aeruginosa infections is its intrinsic resistance to most antibiotic classes, which results from chromosomally encoded drug-efflux systems and multiple acquired resistance mechanisms selected by years of aggressive antibiotic therapy. These factors demand new strategies and drugs to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we describe a monoclonal antibody (mAb) selection strategy on whole P. aeruginosa cells using single-chain variable fragment phage libraries derived from healthy individuals and patients convalescing from P. aeruginosa infections. This approach enabled identification of mAbs that bind three distinct epitopes on the product of the Psl. This exopolysaccharide is important for P. aeruginosa attachment to mammalian cells, and for the formation and maintenance of biofilms produced by nonmucoid and mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates. Functional screens revealed that mAbs to one epitope exhibit superior activity in opsonophagocytic killing and cell attachment assays, and confer significant protection in multiple animal models. Our results indicate that Psl is an accessible serotype-independent surface feature and promising novel protective antigen for preventing P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, our mAb discovery strategy holds promise for application to other bacterial pathogens. PMID:22734046

  18. Efficacy of 1% acetic acid in the treatment of chronic wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: prospective randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, V L

    2016-12-01

    Chronic wounds are those wounds that are persistent and do not respond to any sort of treatment. The concept of using topical antiseptics on open wounds is to prevent and treat infections. They also help to shorten the time taken to heal the wounds. The use of topical agents on wounds to prevent infection is a minimal ability to develop resistance to the microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen with innate resistance to many antibiotics. In places that are economically backward, these problems get compounded by the inability of patients to afford newer expensive drugs. Topically applied dilute acetic acid, which is cheap and easily available, has been found to be effective in such chronic wounds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to use 1% acetic acid as the sole antimicrobial agent for the treatment of pseudomonal wound infections. A control limb was used in which the wounds were treated with normal saline. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of acetic acid in low concentration of 1% in chronic wounds infected with P. aeruginosa. This was a prospective study conducted over a period of 6 months. All patients with chronic wounds infected with P. aeruginosa. Wounds due to massive burns, suspected malignancy, immunocompromised individuals and individuals with sepsis. A total of 32 patients enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomised equally to the 1% acetic acid group and saline dressing group. None of the patients received any systemic antibiotics during the study period and received twice daily dressings. The endpoint of the treatment was wounds free of P. aeruginosa. The duration of treatment required to eliminate the Pseudomonas from the wounds in the acetic acid group was on an average 7 days less than that required by the saline group. P value was <0·001. In the 1% acetic acid group irrespective of the sensitivity of the organism to antibiotics, Pseudomonas organisms were eliminated within the same

  19. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis: a bacterial lung infection mimicking lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, M A; Pando-Sandoval, A; García-Clemente, M; Jiménez, H; Álvarez-Álvarez, C; Casan-Clara, P

    2013-07-01

    Primary pulmonary botryomycosis, or bacterial pseudomycosis, is an unusual bacterial infection characterised by the formation of eosinophilic granules that resemble those of Actinomyces species infection. The diagnosis of botryomycosis is based on culture of the granules revealing gram-positive cocci or gram-negative bacilli. The bacterial pathogen most frequently found is Staphylococcus aureus. The pathobiology remains unknown. Pulmonary botryomycosis can resemble actinomycosis, tuberculosis or invasive carcinoma. Definitive treatment requires a combination of both surgical debridement and long-term antimicrobial therapy. We present a case of primary pulmonary botryomycosis in an immunocompetent patient.

  20. Evolutionary adaptations of biofilms infecting cystic fibrosis lungs promote mechanical toughness by adjusting polysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Kristin; Davis-Fields, Megan; Irie, Yasuhiko; Jain, Kanishk; Doorwar, Shashvat; Vuong, Katherine; Dhamani, Numa; Mohanty, Kishore; Touhami, Ahmed; Gordon, Vernita D

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system. In cystic fibrosis infections, production of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate has long been known to increase with time and to chemically protect biofilms. More recently, it is being recognized that chronic cystic fibrosis infections also evolve to increase production of another extracellular polysaccharide, Psl; much less is known about Psl's protective benefits to biofilms. We use oscillatory bulk rheology, on biofilms grown from longitudinal clinical isolates and from genetically-manipulated lab strains, to show that increased Psl stiffens biofilms and increases biofilm toughness, which is the energy cost to cause the biofilm to yield mechanically. Further, atomic force microscopy measurements reveal greater intercellular cohesion for higher Psl expression. Of the three types of extracellular polysaccharides produced by P. aeruginosa, only Psl increases the stiffness. Stiffening by Psl requires CdrA, a protein that binds to mannose groups on Psl and is a likely cross-linker for the Psl components of the biofilm matrix. We compare the elastic moduli of biofilms to the estimated stresses exerted by neutrophils during phagocytosis, and infer that increased Psl could confer a mechanical protection against phagocytic clearance.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis: scientific evidence regarding clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Ferreira, Flavia de Aguiar; Reis, Francisco José Caldeira; de Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim; Levy, Carlos Emilio; Clark, Otavio; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based techniques have been increasingly used in the creation of clinical guidelines and the development of recommendations for medical practice. The use of levels of evidence allows the reader to identify the quality of scientific information that supports the recommendations made by experts. The objective of this review was to address current concepts related to the clinical impact, diagnosis, and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. For the preparation of this review, the authors defined a group of questions that would be answered in accordance with the principles of PICO–an acronym based on questions regarding the Patients of interest, Intervention being studied, Comparison of the intervention, and Outcome of interest. For each question, a structured review of the literature was performed using the Medline database in order to identify the studies with the methodological design most appropriate to answering the question. The questions were designed so that each of the authors could write a response. A first draft was prepared and discussed by the group. Recommendations were then made on the basis of the level of scientific evidence, in accordance with the classification system devised by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, as well as the level of agreement among the members of the group. PMID:24068273

  2. Efficacy of the Novel Antibiotic POL7001 in Preclinical Models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cigana, Cristina; Bernardini, Francesca; Facchini, Marcella; Alcalá-Franco, Beatriz; Riva, Camilla; De Fino, Ida; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; Misson, Pauline; Chevalier, Eric; Brodmann, Maj; Schmitt, Michel; Wach, Achim; Dale, Glenn E.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical development of antibiotics with a new mode of action combined with efficient pulmonary drug delivery is a priority against untreatable Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. POL7001 is a macrocycle antibiotic belonging to the novel class of protein epitope mimetic (PEM) molecules with selective and potent activity against P. aeruginosa. We investigated ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and cystic fibrosis (CF) as indications of the clinical potential of POL7001 to treat P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections. MICs of POL7001 and comparators were measured for reference and clinical P. aeruginosa strains. The therapeutic efficacy of POL7001 given by pulmonary administration was evaluated in murine models of P. aeruginosa acute and chronic pneumonia. POL7001 showed potent in vitro activity against a large panel of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates with adaptive phenotypes such as mucoid or hypermutable phenotypes. The efficacy of POL7001 was demonstrated in both wild-type and CF mice. In addition to a reduced bacterial burden in the lung, POL7001-treated mice showed progressive body weight recovery and reduced levels of inflammatory markers, indicating an improvement in general condition. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that POL7001 reached significant concentrations in the lung after pulmonary administration, with low systemic exposure. These results support the further evaluation of POL7001 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections. PMID:27297477

  3. Esculentin-1a-Derived Peptides Promote Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Internalized in Bronchial Cells of Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Lung Cell Migration: Biochemical Properties and a Plausible Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Cappiello, Floriana; Di Grazia, Antonio; Segev-Zarko, Li-Av; Scali, Silvia; Ferrera, Loretta; Galietta, Luis; Pini, Alessandro; Shai, Yechiel; Di, Y Peter; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major microorganism colonizing the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers. The widespread use of available antibiotics has drastically reduced their efficacy, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative. Among them, the frog skin-derived AMPs, i.e., Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer, Esc(1-21)-1c, have recently shown potent activity against free-living and sessile forms of P. aeruginosa Importantly, this pathogen also escapes antibiotics treatment by invading airway epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that both AMPs kill Pseudomonas once internalized into bronchial cells which express either the functional or the ΔF508 mutant of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. A higher efficacy is displayed by Esc(1-21)-1c (90% killing at 15 μM in 1 h). We also show the peptides' ability to stimulate migration of these cells and restore the induction of cell migration that is inhibited by Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide when used at concentrations mimicking lung infection. This property of AMPs was not investigated before. Our findings suggest new therapeutics that not only eliminate bacteria but also can promote reepithelialization of the injured infected tissue. Confocal microscopy indicated that both peptides are intracellularly localized with a different distribution. Biochemical analyses highlighted that Esc(1-21)-1c is significantly more resistant than the all-l peptide to bacterial and human elastase, which is abundant in CF lungs. Besides proposing a plausible mechanism underlying the properties of the two AMPs, we discuss the data with regard to differences between them and suggest Esc(1-21)-1c as a candidate for the development of a new multifunctional drug against Pseudomonas respiratory infections.

  4. Molecular Detection of the Virulent ExoU Genotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Surgical Incisions.

    PubMed

    Hassuna, Noha A

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections, which harbor a wide array of virulence factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the virulent ExoU genotype in relation to the ExoS genotype among isolated P. aeruginosa from infected surgical incisions, followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 66 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characteristics. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility against the following antimicrobial agents: imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, amoxycillin, cefotaxime, cefepime, and levofloxacin. Molecular detection of the ExoS and ExoU as well as two other virulence genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of ExoU gene and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Approximately 81% of the isolated P. aeruginosa were multi-drug resistant. The ExoS genotype was more prevalent (63%) among the isolates than the ExoU genotype (18%), with 9% of the isolates possessing both toxins. LasB and AprA were detected in 63.6% and 27.2% of the isolates, respectively. An association was observed between the number of virulence genes and the presence of multi-drug resistance. All the ExoU were multi-drug resistant (MDR), whereas 71% of the ExoS were MDR. Phylogenetic analysis of ExoU gene showed a 99% similarity with four different strains. Despite the greater frequency of the ExoS genotype, the presence of the virulent MDR ExoU genotype isolates from surgical site infections is an alarming sign requiring further intervention and investigations.

  5. Production of elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputa during pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis in patients chronically infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffar-Bandjee, M C; Lazdunski, A; Bally, M; Carrère, J; Chazalette, J P; Galabert, C

    1995-01-01

    Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputum during bronchopulmonary exacerbations was examined in 18 cystic fibrosis patients chronically infected with this microorganism. The patients were studied during one or several exacerbation periods necessitating hospitalizations of 12 to 20 days. In all cases, P. aeruginosa was present in bronchial secretions at admission and was not eradicated after treatment. The P. aeruginosa density decreased significantly after antibiotic therapy but remained greater than 10(6) CFU/g of sputum in most cases. Significant amounts of P. aeruginosa exoproteins were measured in total homogenized bronchial secretions by immunoenzymatic assays. The detection of higher levels of exoproteins at admission, the significant decrease after treatment, and the absence of exoproteins during intercrisis phases constituted arguments for a renewal of virulence of P. aeruginosa during exacerbations. Nevertheless, the concomitant changes in bacteria load and the triggering of the inflammatory process and immune complex formation could also contribute to pulmonary exacerbations. PMID:7790462

  6. Depletion of natural killer cells increases mice susceptibility in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Broquet, Alexis; Roquilly, Antoine; Jacqueline, Cédric; Potel, Gilles; Caillon, Jocelyne; Asehnoune, Karim

    2014-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a clinically relevant infection involved in pneumonia in ICUs. Understanding the type of immune response initiated by the host during pneumonia would help defining new strategies to interfere with the bacteria pathogenicity. In this setting, the role of natural killer cells remains controversial. We assessed the role of systemic natural killer cells in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mouse pneumonia model. Experimental study. Research laboratory from a university hospital. RjOrl:SWISS and BALB/cJ mice (weight, 20-24 g). Lung injuries were assessed by bacterial load, myeloperoxidase activity, endothelial permeability (pulmonary edema), immune cell infiltrate (histological analysis), proinflammatory cytokine release, and Ly6-G immunohistochemistry. Bacterial loads were assessed in the lungs and spleen. Natural killer cell number and status were assessed in spleen (flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Depletion of natural killer cells was achieved through an IV anti-asialo-GM1 antibody injection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tracheal instillation led to an acute pneumonia with a rapid decrease of bacterial load in lungs and with an increase of endothelial permeability, proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), and myeloperoxidase activity followed by Ly6-G positive cell infiltrate in lungs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in the spleen. Membrane markers of activation and maturation (CD69 and KLRG1 molecules) were increased in splenic natural killer cells during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Splenic natural killer cells activated upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection produced interferon-γ but not interleukin-10. Ultimately, mice depleted of natural killer cells displayed an increased neutrophil numbers in the lungs and an increased mortality rate without bacterial load modifications in the lungs, indicating that mice depleted of natural killer cells were much more susceptible to

  7. Expression of Interleukin-6 in the Cornea in Response to Infection with Different Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nerida; Bao, Shisan; Willcox, Mark; Husband, Alan J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing keratitis can be either cytotoxic (6206) or invasive (6294), while a strain (Paer1) causing contact lens-induced acute red eye has been shown to be neither. In situ hybridization was used to examine the location and identity of cells expressing interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in the murine cornea and changes in expression in response to infection with different strains of P. aeruginosa. The number of IL-6-positive cells was determined by image analysis. IL-6 protein levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BALB/c mice were challenged by use of the wounded-cornea model with P. aeruginosa 6294, 6206, or Paer1 (2 × 106 CFU). At time intervals up to 24 h, postchallenge corneal tissue was probed for IL-6 mRNA. IL-6 mRNA expression was rapidly elevated in the epithelium in response to strains 6294 and 6206. At the conclusion of the experiments, infiltrating inflammatory cells also stained positively for IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, corneas challenged with strain Paer1 showed significant upregulation of IL-6 mRNA only at 4 h postchallenge. Three distinct patterns of IL-6 mRNA expression in the mouse cornea occur in response to these three ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa. The data obtained for mRNA expression in the cornea for all three strains of P. aeruginosa correlated well with IL-6 protein analysis of whole-eye homogenates. Differences in the cytokine responses to these strains correlate with differences in the pathology associated with each strain and may offer an opportunity to develop strategies for the improved management of ocular inflammation. PMID:10225913

  8. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection.

    PubMed

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; D'Arpa, Peter; Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  9. The TAK1→IKKβ→TPL2→MKK1/MKK2 Signaling Cascade Regulates IL-33 Expression in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells Following Infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Raquel; Rousseau, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic respiratory infections result in an exaggerated and uncontrolled inflammatory response that ultimately lead to a decrease in pulmonary function. We have previously described the presence of the alarmin IL-33 in lung explants from CF patients. The signals regulating IL-33 expression in the airway epithelium following a gram-negative bacterial infection are currently unknown. Our objective was to characterize the pathways in CF airway epithelial cells (AECs) leading to an increase in IL-33 expression. We found that, in CF AECs expressing a deletion of a phenylalanine at position 508 of the gene coding for Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTRdelF508), exposure to live Pseudomonas aeruginosa upregulates IL-33 via the TLR2 and TLR5 signaling pathways. This up-regulation can be partially or fully reverted by pre-incubating CFTRdelF508 AECs with a CFTR corrector (VX-809) and/or a CFTR potentiator (VX-770). Similarly, incubation with the CFTR corrector and/or the CFTR potentiator also decreased IL-8 expression in response to infection. Moreover, using different protein kinase inhibitors that target elements downstream of TLR signaling, we show that the TAK1→IKKβ→TPL2→MKK1/MKK2 pathway regulates IL-33 expression following an infection with P. aeruginosa. Our findings represent the first characterization of the signals regulating IL-33 expression in CF airway epithelial cells in response to a bacterial infection. PMID:26793709

  10. Tasco®: a product of Ascophyllum nodosum enhances immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan T; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Tasco®, a product made from the brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) were tested for the ability to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A water extract of Tasco® (TWE) reduced P. aeruginosa inflicted mortality in the nematode. The TWE, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, offered the maximum protection and induced the expression of innate immune response genes viz.; zk6.7 (Lypases), lys-1 (Lysozyme), spp-1 (Saponin like protein), f28d1.3 (Thaumatin like protein), t20g5.7 (Matridin SK domain protein), abf-1 (Antibacterial protein) and f38a1.5 (Lectin family protein). Further, TWE treatment also affected a number of virulence components of the P. aeuroginosa and reduced its secreted virulence factors such as lipase, proteases and toxic metabolites; hydrogen cyanide and pyocyanin. Decreased virulence factors were associated with a significant reduction in expression of regulatory genes involved in quorum sensing, lasI, lasR, rhlI and rhlR. In conclusion, the TWE-treatment protected the C. elegans against P. aeruginosa infection by a combination of effects on the innate immunity of the worms and direct effects on the bacterial quorum sensing and virulence factors.

  11. Tasco®: A Product of Ascophyllum nodosum Enhances Immune Response of Caenorhabditis elegans Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Khan, Wajahatullah; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan T.; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Tasco®, a product made from the brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) were tested for the ability to protect Caenorhabditis elegans against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A water extract of Tasco® (TWE) reduced P. aeruginosa inflicted mortality in the nematode. The TWE, at a concentration of 300 µg/mL, offered the maximum protection and induced the expression of innate immune response genes viz.; zk6.7 (Lypases), lys-1 (Lysozyme), spp-1 (Saponin like protein), f28d1.3 (Thaumatin like protein), t20g5.7 (Matridin SK domain protein), abf-1 (Antibacterial protein) and f38a1.5 (Lectin family protein). Further, TWE treatment also affected a number of virulence components of the P. aeuroginosa and reduced its secreted virulence factors such as lipase, proteases and toxic metabolites; hydrogen cyanide and pyocyanin. Decreased virulence factors were associated with a significant reduction in expression of regulatory genes involved in quorum sensing, lasI, lasR, rhlI and rhlR. In conclusion, the TWE-treatment protected the C. elegans against P. aeruginosa infection by a combination of effects on the innate immunity of the worms and direct effects on the bacterial quorum sensing and virulence factors. PMID:22363222

  12. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment.

  13. Epidemic of Lung Cancer in Patients With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Winstone, Tiffany A.; Man, S. F. Paul; Hull, Mark; Montaner, Julio S.

    2013-01-01

    The survival of patients with HIV infection has improved dramatically over the past 20 years, largely owing to a significant reduction in opportunistic infections and AIDs-defining malignancies, such as lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. However, with improved survival, patients with HIV are experiencing morbidity and mortality from other (non-AIDs-defining) complications, such as solid organ malignancies. Of these, the leading cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population is lung cancer, accounting for nearly 30% of all cancer deaths and 10% of all non-HIV-related deaths. Importantly, the average age of onset of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population is 25 to 30 years earlier than that in the general population and at lower exposure to cigarette smoke. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of lung cancer in the HIV-infected population and discusses some of the important risk factors and pathways that may enhance the risk of lung cancer in this population. PMID:23381313

  14. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B.; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection—first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  15. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    PubMed

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment.

  16. Coexistence and Within-Host Evolution of Diversified Lineages of Hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Long-term Cystic Fibrosis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Feliziani, Sofía; Moyano, Alejandro J.; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Krogh Johansen, Helle; Molin, Søren; Smania, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has made it possible to follow the genomic evolution of pathogenic bacteria by comparing longitudinally collected bacteria sampled from human hosts. Such studies in the context of chronic airway infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have indicated high bacterial population diversity. Such diversity may be driven by hypermutability resulting from DNA mismatch repair system (MRS) deficiency, a common trait evolved by P. aeruginosa strains in CF infections. No studies to date have utilized whole-genome sequencing to investigate within-host population diversity or long-term evolution of mutators in CF airways. We sequenced the genomes of 13 and 14 isolates of P. aeruginosa mutator populations from an Argentinian and a Danish CF patient, respectively. Our collection of isolates spanned 6 and 20 years of patient infection history, respectively. We sequenced 11 isolates from a single sample from each patient to allow in-depth analysis of population diversity. Each patient was infected by clonal populations of bacteria that were dominated by mutators. The in vivo mutation rate of the populations was ∼100 SNPs/year–∼40-fold higher than rates in normo-mutable populations. Comparison of the genomes of 11 isolates from the same sample showed extensive within-patient genomic diversification; the populations were composed of different sub-lineages that had coexisted for many years since the initial colonization of the patient. Analysis of the mutations identified genes that underwent convergent evolution across lineages and sub-lineages, suggesting that the genes were targeted by mutation to optimize pathogenic fitness. Parallel evolution was observed in reduction of overall catabolic capacity of the populations. These findings are useful for understanding the evolution of pathogen populations and identifying new targets for control of chronic infections. PMID:25330091

  17. Use of Phage Display To Identify Potential Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Products Relevant to Early Cystic Fibrosis Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Christiane; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Ernst, Robert; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Miller, Samuel I.; Burns, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. Treatment of established infections is difficult, even with microbiologically active agents. Thus, prevention of infection is an important goal of management. Isolates from cystic fibrosis patients appear to originate from the environment but adapt to the milieu of the airway of the cystic fibrosis patient and evolve toward a common phenotype. Identification of the antigens expressed early in infection may lead to novel targets for vaccine development. Immunogenic peptides were identified in a J404 random nonapeptide phage display library with serum from cystic fibrosis patients obtained within the first year of P. aeruginosa infection. One hundred sixty-five reactive clones were verified by plaque lift assays, and their inserts were sequenced. The sequenced nonapeptides were compared with the published sequence of strain PAO1, identifying homologies to 76 genes encoding outer membrane and secreted proteins. The majority of these were proteins involved in small-molecule transport, membrane structural proteins, and secreted factors. An in silico analysis was performed that suggested that the occurrence of multiple matches to predominantly outer membrane and secreted proteins was not attributable to random chance. Finally, gene expression array data from early isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients was compared with the results from phage display analysis. Eleven outer membrane and secreted proteins were common between the two data sets. These included genes involved in iron acquisition, antibiotic efflux, fimbrial biogenesis, and pyocin synthesis. These results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of this novel approach and suggest potential targets for future development. PMID:15618183

  18. Coexistence and within-host evolution of diversified lineages of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in long-term cystic fibrosis infections.

    PubMed

    Feliziani, Sofía; Marvig, Rasmus L; Luján, Adela M; Moyano, Alejandro J; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Krogh Johansen, Helle; Molin, Søren; Smania, Andrea M

    2014-10-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has made it possible to follow the genomic evolution of pathogenic bacteria by comparing longitudinally collected bacteria sampled from human hosts. Such studies in the context of chronic airway infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have indicated high bacterial population diversity. Such diversity may be driven by hypermutability resulting from DNA mismatch repair system (MRS) deficiency, a common trait evolved by P. aeruginosa strains in CF infections. No studies to date have utilized whole-genome sequencing to investigate within-host population diversity or long-term evolution of mutators in CF airways. We sequenced the genomes of 13 and 14 isolates of P. aeruginosa mutator populations from an Argentinian and a Danish CF patient, respectively. Our collection of isolates spanned 6 and 20 years of patient infection history, respectively. We sequenced 11 isolates from a single sample from each patient to allow in-depth analysis of population diversity. Each patient was infected by clonal populations of bacteria that were dominated by mutators. The in vivo mutation rate of the populations was ∼100 SNPs/year-∼40-fold higher than rates in normo-mutable populations. Comparison of the genomes of 11 isolates from the same sample showed extensive within-patient genomic diversification; the populations were composed of different sub-lineages that had coexisted for many years since the initial colonization of the patient. Analysis of the mutations identified genes that underwent convergent evolution across lineages and sub-lineages, suggesting that the genes were targeted by mutation to optimize pathogenic fitness. Parallel evolution was observed in reduction of overall catabolic capacity of the populations. These findings are useful for understanding the evolution of pathogen populations and identifying new targets for control of chronic infections.

  19. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection mimicking lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matzumura-Kuan, Melissa; Jennings, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary infections can mimic a pulmonary neoplasm. Multiple organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, can present with similar clinical, radiographic, and surgical findings as neoplastic processes. Because treatment and the prognosis are completely different, an accurate diagnosis is crucial, and lung biopsy is usually required. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is part of the normal oral flora and is a rare cause of invasive infection due to hematogenous dissemination or aspiration, particularly infective endocarditis. We present a case of A. actinomycetemcomitans and Actinomyces co-infection that presented as a mediastinal mass, with surgical findings similar to lung malignancy but with biopsy and culture showing an infectious origin. After antibiotic treatment, follow-up images showed resolution of the mass.

  20. Inhaled Formulation Design for the Treatment of Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Yadav, Khushwant S

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections may be bacterial, viral or fungal and they are typically treated with oral or parenteral antibiotics. Inhaled dry powder formulations offer unique opportunities for treating lung infections with enhanced effectiveness and stability. Since drug delivery to the lungs requires chronic and repeated administration of larger amounts of therapeutics, dry powder formulations are attractive alternatives to deliver drugs directly to the lungs as they are not limited by solubility issues and they are regarded as being more stable than liquid dosage forms. This state-of-the-art review presents the use of inhaled formulations for tuberculosis as a main focus, but also for other diseases such as bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and respiratory infections occurring as complications during lung transplants. Opportunities for the use of inhaled therapies and other respiratory diseases or as prevention or antidotes against warfare agents are offered. Typical and novel inhaled formulations that have been used as well as preclinical and clinical studies and evaluation of these inhaled therapies are discussed for each disease state. Lastly, the use of inhaled therapies as an alternative to end the emergence of drug resistant strains is discussed along with the risks of increasing these resistant strains if the inhaled therapy is not designed based on dosing regimens established by wellplanned pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and caveolin-1 regulate epithelial cell internalization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajmoczi, Milan; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Alper, Seth L.; Pier, Gerald B.; Golan, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit defective innate immunity and are susceptible to chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the molecular bases for the hypersusceptibility of CF patients to P. aeruginosa, we used the IB3-1 cell line with two defective CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genes (ΔF508/W1282X) to generate isogenic stable, clonal lung epithelial cells expressing wild-type (WT)-CFTR with an NH2-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag. GFP-CFTR exhibited posttranslational modification, subcellular localization, and anion transport function typical of WT-CFTR. P. aeruginosa internalization, a component of effective innate immunity, required functional CFTR and caveolin-1, as shown by: 1) direct correlation between GFP-CFTR expression levels and P. aeruginosa internalization; 2) enhanced P. aeruginosa internalization by aminoglycoside-induced read through of the CFTR W1282X allele in IB3-1 cells; 3) decreased P. aeruginosa internalization following siRNA knockdown of GFP-CFTR o