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Sample records for aeruginosa pao1 genome

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

  2. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed.

  3. Fructooligosacharides Reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pathogenicity through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed. PMID:24465697

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown at both body and elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Kumutha; Chang, Chien-Yi; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics research can give us valuable insights into bacterial gene function. RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) can generate information on transcript abundance in bacteria following abiotic stress treatments. In this study, we used the RNA-seq technique to study the transcriptomes of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following heat shock. Samples were grown at both the human body temperature (37 °C) and an arbitrarily-selected temperature of 46 °C. In this work using RNA-seq, we identified 133 genes that are differentially expressed at 46 °C compared to the human body temperature. Our work identifies some key P. aeruginosa PAO1 genes whose products have importance in both environmental adaptation as well as in vivo infection in febrile hosts. More importantly, our transcriptomic results show that many genes are only expressed when subjected to heat shock. Because the RNA-seq can generate high throughput gene expression profiles, our work reveals many unanticipated genes with further work to be done exploring such genes products. PMID:27547539

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grown at both body and elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Priya, Kumutha; Chang, Chien-Yi; Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Yamin; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics research can give us valuable insights into bacterial gene function. RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq) can generate information on transcript abundance in bacteria following abiotic stress treatments. In this study, we used the RNA-seq technique to study the transcriptomes of the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 following heat shock. Samples were grown at both the human body temperature (37 °C) and an arbitrarily-selected temperature of 46 °C. In this work using RNA-seq, we identified 133 genes that are differentially expressed at 46 °C compared to the human body temperature. Our work identifies some key P. aeruginosa PAO1 genes whose products have importance in both environmental adaptation as well as in vivo infection in febrile hosts. More importantly, our transcriptomic results show that many genes are only expressed when subjected to heat shock. Because the RNA-seq can generate high throughput gene expression profiles, our work reveals many unanticipated genes with further work to be done exploring such genes products. PMID:27547539

  6. The ferripyoverdine receptor FpvA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 recognizes the ferripyoverdines of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. fluorescens ATCC 13525.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J M; Stintzi, A; Poole, K

    1999-01-01

    FpvA, the ferripyoverdine outer membrane receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (PAO1 strain), is not specific to the pyoverdine produced by PAO1, but is also able to recognize the structurally different (ferri)pyoverdine of P. fluorescens ATCC 13525. The specificity of FpvA was assessed by iron uptake competitions using the wild-type strains P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 and P. fluorescens ATCC 13525 and their respective ferripyoverdines, and by fpvA gene complementation of a FpvA-deficient mutant of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692. The receptor mutant was able to utilize none of the two pyoverdines, while the same but fpvA-complemented mutant recovered simultaneously the ability to incorporate iron thanks to each of the two siderophores. The broad specificity of recognition of FpvA is viewed as an advantage for the strain in iron competition. Moreover, it allows an interesting approach for the understanding of the recognition mechanism between a (ferri)pyoverdine and its cognate outer membrane receptor. PMID:9919663

  7. Genetic determinants involved in the biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthrene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Wang, Bobo; Li, Jing; Ning, Huanhuan; Wang, Yingjuan; Kong, Weina; Shen, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Pseudomonas sp. are predominant isolates of degradation-competent strains while very few studies have explored the degradation-related genes and pathways in most of the degrading strains. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found capable of degrading naphthalene and phenanthrene efficiently. In order to investigate the degradation-related genes of naphthalene and phenanthrene in P. aeruginosa PAO1, a random promoter library of about 5760 strains was constructed. Thirty-two clones for differentially expressed promoters were obtained by screening in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Among them, 13 genes were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated in the presence of naphthalene as well as phenanthrene. The four remaining genes have different regulation tendencies by naphthalene or phenanthrene. By comparing the growth between the wild type and mutants as well as the complementations, the roles of seven selected up-regulated genes on naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation were investigated. Five of the seven selected up-regulated genes, like PA2666 and PA4780, were found playing key roles on the degradation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Also, the results imply that these genes participate in the overlapping part of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation pathways in PAO1. Results in the article offer the convenience quick method and platform for searching degradation-related genes. It also laid a foundation for understanding of the role of the regulated genes.

  8. Comparative Molecular docking analysis of DNA Gyrase subunit A in Pseudomonas aeruginosaPAO1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aman; Sharma, Vanashika; Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Surenderkumar, Vipul; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Mathur, Ashwani; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium known for causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Recently, several drug targets in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 have been reported using network biology approaches on the basis of essentiality and topology and further ranked on network measures viz. degree and centrality. Till date no drug/ligand molecule has been reported against this targets.In our work we have identified the ligand /drug molecules, through Orthologous gene mapping against Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168 and performed modelling and docking analysis. From the predicted drug targets in PA PAO1, we selected those drug targets which show statistically significant orthology with a model organism and whose orthologs are present in all the selected drug targets of PA PAO1.Modeling of their structure has been done using I-Tasser web server. Orthologous gene mapping has been performed using Cluster of Orthologs (COGs) and based on orthology; drugs available for Bacillus sp. have been docked with PA PAO1 protein drug targets using MoleGro virtual docker version 4.0.2.Orthologous gene for PA3168 gyrA is BS gyrAfound in Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. The drugs cited for Bacillus sp. have been docked with PA genes and energy analyses have been made. Based on Orthologous gene mapping andin-silico studies, Nalidixic acid is reported as an effective drug against PA3168 gyrA for the treatment of CF and COPD.

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 Lipopolysaccharide-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine: Preparation, Characterization and Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Najafzadeh, Faezeh; Shapouri, Reza; Rahnema, Mehdi; Rokhsartalab Azar, Shadi; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 infections through immunological means has been proved to be efficient and protective. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to produce a conjugate vaccine composed of detoxified lipopolysaccharide (D-LPS) P. aeruginosa and diphtheria toxoid (DT). Materials and Methods: Firstly, LPS was purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and then detoxified. D-LPS was covalently coupled to DT as a carrier protein via amidation method with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer molecule and 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a linker. The molar ratio of LPS to DT in the prepared conjugate was 3:1. The immunogenicity of D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine in mice model was evaluated as well. Results: The conjugate was devoid of endotoxin activity and 0.125 U/mL of D-LPS was acceptable for immunization. D-LPS-DT conjugate was nonpyrogenic for rabbits and nontoxic for mice. Mice immunization with D-LPS-DT conjugate vaccine elicited the fourfold higher IgG antibody compared to D-LPS. Anti-LPS IgG antibody was predominantly IgG1 subclass and then IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b, respectively. Conclusions: Vaccine based on the conjugation of P. aeruginosa PAO-1 LPS with DT increased anti-LPS antibodies and had a significant potential to protect against Pseudomonas infections. PMID:26301059

  10. Extracts of Cordia gilletii de wild (Boraginaceae) quench the quorum sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Okusa, Philippe N.; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Vandeputte, Olivier; Stévigny, Caroline; Jaziri, Mondher El; Duez, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The fight against infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistances needs the exploration of new active compounds with new proprieties like disrupting quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which is a cell-to-cell communication that regulates bacterial virulence factors. In this work, leaves and root barks extracts of a Congolese medicinal plant, Cordia gilletii, were investigated for their effect on the production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa major virulence factors regulated by QS. Materials and Methods: The effect of C. gilletii extracts on virulence factors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was studied by the evaluation of the production of pyocyanine, elastase and biofilm; and by the measurement of the expression of QS-related genes. Results: The dichloromethane extract from root barks was found to quench the production of pyocyanin, a QS-dependent virulence factor in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, this extract specifically inhibits the expression of several QS-regulated genes (i.e. lasB, rhlA, lasI, lasR, rhlI, and rhlR) and reduces biofilm formation by PAO1. Conclusion: This study contributes to explain the efficacy of C. gilletii in the traditional treatment of infectious diseases caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26401363

  11. Direct Glutaminyl-tRNA Biosynthesis and Indirect Asparaginyl-tRNA Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Akochy, Pierre-Marie; Bernard, Dominic; Roy, Paul H.; Lapointe, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was searched for the presence of open reading frames (ORFs) encoding enzymes potentially involved in the formation of Gln-tRNA and of Asn-tRNA. We found ORFs similar to known glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS), glutaminyl-tRNA synthetases (GlnRS), aspartyl-tRNA synthetases (AspRS), and trimeric tRNA-dependent amidotransferases (AdT) but none similar to known asparaginyl-tRNA synthetases (AsnRS). The absence of AsnRS was confirmed by biochemical tests with crude and fractionated extracts of P. aeruginosa PAO1, with the homologous tRNA as the substrate. The characterization of GluRS, AspRS, and AdT overproduced from their cloned genes in P. aeruginosa and purified to homogeneity revealed that GluRS is discriminating in the sense that it does not glutamylate tRNAGln, that AspRS is nondiscriminating, and that its Asp-tRNAAsn product is transamidated by AdT. On the other hand, tRNAGln is directly glutaminylated by GlnRS. These results show that P. aeruginosa PAO1 is the first organism known to synthesize Asn-tRNA via the indirect pathway and to synthesize Gln-tRNA via the direct pathway. The essential role of AdT in the formation of Asn-tRNA in P. aeruginosa and the absence of a similar activity in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells identifies AdT as a potential target for antibiotics to be designed against this human pathogen. Such novel antibiotics could be active against other multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens such as Burkholderia and Neisseria as well as all pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. PMID:14729703

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exopolysaccharides are important for mixed species biofilm community development and stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Periasamy, Saravanan; Nair, Harikrishnan A. S.; Lee, Kai W. K.; Ong, Jolene; Goh, Jie Q. J.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces three polysaccharides, alginate, Psl, and Pel that play distinct roles in attachment and biofilm formation for monospecies biofilms. Considerably less is known about their role in the development of mixed species biofilm communities. This study has investigated the roles of alginate, Psl, and Pel during biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa in a defined and experimentally informative mixed species biofilm community, consisting of P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide had the biggest impact on the integration of P. aeruginosa in the mixed species biofilms, where the percent composition of the psl mutant was significantly lower (0.06%) than its wild-type (WT) parent (2.44%). In contrast, loss of the Pel polysaccharide had no impact on mixed species biofilm development. Loss of alginate or its overproduction resulted in P. aeruginosa representing 8.4 and 18.11%, respectively, of the mixed species biofilm. Dual species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were not affected by loss of alginate, Pel, or Psl, while the mucoid P. aeruginosa strain achieved a greater biomass than its parent strain. When P. aeruginosa was grown with P. protegens, loss of the Pel or alginate polysaccharides resulted in biofilms that were not significantly different from biofilms formed by the WT PAO1. In contrast, overproduction of alginate resulted in biofilms that were comprised of 35–40% of P. aeruginosa, which was significantly higher than the WT (5–20%). Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly reduced the percentage composition of P. aeruginosa in dual species biofilms with P. protegens (<1%). Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly disrupted the communal stress resistance of the three species biofilms. Thus, the polysaccharide composition of an individual species significantly impacts mixed species biofilm development and the emergent properties of such communities. PMID

  13. Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Hong; Fan, Lu; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Agulló-Barceló, Míriam; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L

    2016-05-17

    Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of micro-organisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:27116299

  14. Comparative Molecular docking analysis of DNA Gyrase subunit A in Pseudomonas aeruginosaPAO1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aman; Sharma, Vanashika; Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Surenderkumar, Vipul; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Mathur, Ashwani; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium known for causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Recently, several drug targets in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 have been reported using network biology approaches on the basis of essentiality and topology and further ranked on network measures viz. degree and centrality. Till date no drug/ligand molecule has been reported against this targets.In our work we have identified the ligand /drug molecules, through Orthologous gene mapping against Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168 and performed modelling and docking analysis. From the predicted drug targets in PA PAO1, we selected those drug targets which show statistically significant orthology with a model organism and whose orthologs are present in all the selected drug targets of PA PAO1.Modeling of their structure has been done using I-Tasser web server. Orthologous gene mapping has been performed using Cluster of Orthologs (COGs) and based on orthology; drugs available for Bacillus sp. have been docked with PA PAO1 protein drug targets using MoleGro virtual docker version 4.0.2.Orthologous gene for PA3168 gyrA is BS gyrAfound in Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168. The drugs cited for Bacillus sp. have been docked with PA genes and energy analyses have been made. Based on Orthologous gene mapping andin-silico studies, Nalidixic acid is reported as an effective drug against PA3168 gyrA for the treatment of CF and COPD. PMID:23423379

  15. Major proteomic changes associated with amyloid-induced biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Søndergaard, Mads T; Kjeldal, Henrik; Stensballe, Allan; Nielsen, Per H; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The newly identified functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap) are associated with increased aggregation and biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa; however, whether this phenomenon can be simply ascribed to the mechanical properties of the amyloid fibrils remains undetermined. To gain a deeper understanding of the Fap-mediated biofilm formation, the physiological consequences of Fap expression were investigated using label-free protein quantification. The functional amyloids were found to not solely act as inert structural biofilm components. Their presence induced major changes in the global proteome of the bacterium. These included the lowered abundance of classical virulence factors such as elastase B and the secretion system of alkaline protease A. Amyloid-mediated biofilm formation furthermore increased abundance of the alginate and pyoverdine synthesis machinery, which turned P. aeruginosa PAO1 into an unexpected mucoid phenotype. The results imply a significant impact of functional amyloids on the physiology of P. aeruginosa with subsequent implications for biofilm formation and chronic infections.

  16. Three functional β-carbonic anhydrases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: role in survival in ambient air

    PubMed Central

    Lotlikar, Shalaka R.; Hnatusko, Shane; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Choudhari, Shyamal P.; Picking, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial β-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes catalysing reversible hydration of CO2. They maintain the intracellular balance of CO2/bicarbonate required for biosynthetic reactions and represent a new group of antimicrobial drug targets. Genome sequence analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opportunistic human pathogen causing life threatening infections, identified three genes, PAO102, PA2053 and PA4676, encoding putative β-CAs that share 28–45 % amino acid sequence identity and belong to clades A and B. The genes are conserved among all sequenced pseudomonads. The CAs were cloned, heterologously expressed and purified. Metal and enzymic analyses confirmed that the proteins contain Zn2+ and catalyse hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate. PAO102 (psCA1) was 19–26-fold more active, and together with PA2053 (psCA2) showed CA activity at both pH 7.5 and 8.3, whereas PA4676 (psCA3) was active only at pH 8.3. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that psCA2 and psCA3 undergo pH-dependent structural changes. Taken together, the data suggest that psCA1 may belong to type I and psCA3 to type II β-CAs. Immunoblot analysis showed that all three CAs are expressed in PAO1 cells when grown in ambient air and at 5 % CO2; psCA1 appeared more abundant under both conditions. Growth studies of transposon mutants showed that the disruption of psCA1 impaired PAO1 growth in ambient air and caused a minor defect at high CO2. Thus, psCA1 contributes to the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to low CO2 conditions and will be further studied for its role in virulence and as a potential antimicrobial drug target in this organism. PMID:23728627

  17. Gene PA2449 Is Essential for Glycine Metabolism and Pyocyanin Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Thornton, William; Dornan, Mark H.; Villegas-Peñaranda, Luis Roberto; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria. PMID:23457254

  18. Nanomechanical Response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Bacterial Cells to Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shun; Walters, Grant; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    We have used an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based creep deformation technique to study changes to the viscoelastic properties of individual Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 cells as a function of time of exposure to two cationic peptides: polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic antimicrobial peptide, and the structurally-related compound, polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN). The measurements provide a direct measure of the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and the results can be understood in terms of simple viscoelastic models of arrangements of springs and dashpots, which can be ascribed to different components within the bacterial cell. Time-resolved creep deformation experiments reveal abrupt changes to the viscoelastic properties of P. aeruginosa bacterial cells after exposure to both PMB and PMBN, with quantitatively different changes for the two cationic peptides. These measurements provide new insights into the kinetics and mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides on bacterial cells.

  19. Pigments influence the tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to photodynamically induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Viviana T; Bolognese, Fabrizio; Chiodaroli, Luca; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Barbieri, Paola

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known to be resistant to different classes of antibiotics and disinfectants. P. aeruginosa also displays a certain degree of tolerance to photodynamic therapy (PDT), an alternative antimicrobial approach exploiting a photo-oxidative stress induced by exogenous photosensitizers and visible light. To evaluate whether P. aeruginosa pigments can contribute to its relative tolerance to PDT, we analysed the response to this treatment of isogenic transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with altered pigmentation. In general, in the presence of pigments a higher tolerance to PDT-induced photo-oxidative stress was observed. Hyperproduction of pyomelanin makes the cells much more tolerant to stress caused by either radicals or singlet oxygen generated by different photosensitizers upon photoactivation. Phenazines, pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, produced in different amounts depending on the cultural conditions, are able to counteract both types of PDT-elicited reactive oxygen species. Hyperproduction of pyoverdine, caused by a mutation in a quorum-sensing gene, rendered P. aeruginosa more tolerant to a photosensitizer that generates mainly singlet oxygen, although in this case the observed tolerance to photo-oxidative stress cannot be exclusively attributed to the presence of the pigment. PMID:26419906

  20. Global Regulator MorA Affects Virulence-Associated Protease Secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Ayshwarya; Wong, Chui Ching; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion plays a critical role in the establishment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and is aided by two major virulence factors – surface appendages and secreted proteases. The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is known to affect bacterial attachment to surfaces, biofilm formation and related virulence phenomena. Here we report that MorA, a global regulator with GGDEF and EAL domains that was previously reported to affect virulence factors, negatively regulates protease secretion via the type II secretion system (T2SS) in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Infection assays with mutant strains carrying gene deletion and domain mutants show that host cell invasion is dependent on the active domain function of MorA. Further investigations suggest that the MorA-mediated c-di-GMP signaling affects protease secretion largely at a post-translational level. We thus report c-di-GMP second messenger system as a novel regulator of T2SS function in P. aeruginosa. Given that T2SS is a central and constitutive pump, and the secreted proteases are involved in interactions with the microbial surroundings, our data broadens the significance of c-di-GMP signaling in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and ecological fitness. PMID:25894344

  1. In vitro antibiofilm activity of Murraya koenigii essential oil extracted using supercritical fluid CO₂ method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Vittal, Ravishankar Rai

    2015-01-01

    The antibiofilm activity of Murraya koenigii essential oil (EO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was investigated in this study. A decrease in the production of rhamnolipid, extracellular polymeric substance and swarming motility was observed by the EO treatment (0.3% v/v). The static microtitre plate assay revealed 80% reduction in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PAO1 on M. koenigii EO treatment. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the reduction of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 when treated with M. koenigii EO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the EO revealed the presence of well-known antibiofilm agents such as spathulenol (5.85%), cinnamaldehyde (0.37%) and linalool (0.04%). Cinnamaldehyde has not been previously reported in M. koenigii EO. The potent antibiofilm properties of M. koenigii EO may be effectively exploited in food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in controlling Pseudomonas biofilms on indwelling medical devices. PMID:25635569

  2. Effect of nitrofurans and NO generators on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Burkholderia cenocepacia 370.

    PubMed

    Zaitseva, Julia; Granik, Vladimir; Belik, Alexandr; Koksharova, Olga; Khmel, Inessa

    2009-06-01

    Antibacterial drugs in the nitrofuran series, such as nitrofurazone, furazidin, nitrofurantoin and nifuroxazide, as well as the nitric oxide generators sodium nitroprusside and isosorbide mononitrate in concentrations that do not suppress bacterial growth, were shown to increase the capacity of pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Burkholderia cenocepacia 370 to form biofilms. At 25-100microg/ml, nitrofurans 2-2.5-fold enhanced biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1, and NO donors 3-6-fold. For B. cenocepacia 370, the enhancement was 2-5-fold (nitrofurans) and 4.5-fold (sodium nitroprusside), respectively. PMID:19460431

  3. Feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans is an indicator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence

    PubMed Central

    Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Giroux, Lauriane; Zamponi, Alexandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as an infection model for pathogenesis studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The standard virulence assays rely on the slow and fast killing or paralysis of nematodes but here we developed a behaviour assay to monitor the preferred bacterial food sources of C. elegans. We monitored the food preferences of nematodes fed the wild type PAO1 and mutants in the type III secretion (T3S) system, which is a conserved mechanism to inject secreted effectors into the host cell cytosol. A ΔexsEΔpscD mutant defective for type III secretion served as a preferred food source, while an ΔexsE mutant that overexpresses the T3S effectors was avoided. Both food sources were ingested and observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Using the slow killing assay, we showed that the ΔexsEΔpscD had reduced virulence and thus confirmed that preferred food sources are less virulent than the wild type. Next we developed a high throughput feeding behaviour assay with 48 possible food colonies in order to screen a transposon mutant library and identify potential virulence genes. C. elegans identified and consumed preferred food colonies from a grid of 48 choices. The mutants identified as preferred food sources included known virulence genes, as well as novel genes not identified in previous C. elegans infection studies. Slow killing assays were performed and confirmed that several preferred food sources also showed reduced virulence. We propose that C. elegans feeding behaviour can be used as a sensitive indicator of virulence for P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:25165631

  4. Major proteomic changes associated with amyloid-induced biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Søndergaard, Mads T; Kjeldal, Henrik; Stensballe, Allan; Nielsen, Per H; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The newly identified functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap) are associated with increased aggregation and biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa; however, whether this phenomenon can be simply ascribed to the mechanical properties of the amyloid fibrils remains undetermined. To gain a deeper understanding of the Fap-mediated biofilm formation, the physiological consequences of Fap expression were investigated using label-free protein quantification. The functional amyloids were found to not solely act as inert structural biofilm components. Their presence induced major changes in the global proteome of the bacterium. These included the lowered abundance of classical virulence factors such as elastase B and the secretion system of alkaline protease A. Amyloid-mediated biofilm formation furthermore increased abundance of the alginate and pyoverdine synthesis machinery, which turned P. aeruginosa PAO1 into an unexpected mucoid phenotype. The results imply a significant impact of functional amyloids on the physiology of P. aeruginosa with subsequent implications for biofilm formation and chronic infections. PMID:25317949

  5. Identification of Novel Genes Responsible for Overexpression of ampC in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yuko; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The development of resistance to antipseudomonal penicillins and cephalosporins mediated by the chromosomal ampC gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of clinical importance. We isolated piperacillin-resistant mutants derived from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and analyzed two mutants that had an insertion in mpl and nuoN. One mutant, YT1677, was resistant to piperacillin and ceftazidime and had an insertion in mpl, which encodes UDP-N-acetylmuramate:l-alanyl-γ-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate ligase. The other mutant, YT7988, showed increased MICs of piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefoperazone, and the insertion was mapped to nuoN, which encodes NADH dehydrogenase I chain N. Complementation experiments demonstrated that these mutations resulted in higher levels of resistance to β-lactams. The expression of genes reported to be involved in β-lactam resistance was examined by real-time PCR in YT1677 and YT7988 mutants. Overexpression was observed for only ampC, and other genes were expressed normally. Deletion of the ampR gene in YT1677 and YT7988 resulted in decreased expression of ampC, indicating that the mutations in YT1677 and YT7988 affected the expression of ampC through the function of AmpR. PMID:24041903

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa High-Level Resistance to Polymyxins and Other Antimicrobial Peptides Requires cprA, a Gene That Is Disrupted in the PAO1 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gutu, Alina D.; Rodgers, Nicole S.; Park, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    The arn locus, found in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, mediates resistance to polymyxins and other cationic antimicrobial peptides through 4-amino-l-arabinose modification of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) control the arn locus, which is necessary but not sufficient for these resistance phenotypes. A previous transposon mutagenesis screen to identify additional polymyxin resistance genes that these systems regulate implicated an open reading frame designated PA1559 in the genome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Resequencing of this chromosomal region and bioinformatics analysis for a variety of P. aeruginosa strains revealed that in the sequenced PAO1 strain, a guanine deletion at the end of PA1559 results in a frameshift and truncation of a full-length open reading frame that also encompasses PA1560 in non-PAO1 strains, such as P. aeruginosa PAK. Deletion analysis in the PAK strain showed that this full-length open reading frame, designated cprA, is necessary for polymyxin resistance conferred by activating mutations in the PhoPQ, PmrAB, and CprRS TCSs. The cprA gene was also required for PmrAB-mediated resistance to other cationic antimicrobial peptides in the PAK strain. Repair of the mutated cprA allele in the PAO1 strain restored polymyxin resistance conferred by an activating TCS mutation. The deletion of cprA did not affect the arn-mediated lipid A modification, indicating that the CprA protein is necessary for a different aspect of polymyxin resistance. This protein has a domain structure with a strong similarity to the extended short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family that comprises isomerases, lyases, and oxidoreductases. These results suggest a new avenue through which to pursue targeted inhibition of polymyxin resistance. PMID:26100714

  7. cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases, aerobic respiratory enzymes, impact the anaerobic life of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Masakaze; Toyofuku, Masanori; Miyano, Tomoki; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2014-11-01

    For bacteria, many studies have focused on the role of respiratory enzymes in energy conservation; however, their effect on cell behavior is poorly understood. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can perform both aerobic respiration and denitrification. Previous studies demonstrated that cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases that support aerobic respiration are more highly expressed in P. aeruginosa under anoxic conditions than are other aerobic respiratory enzymes. However, little is known about their role under such conditions. In this study, it was shown that cbb3 oxidases of P. aeruginosa PAO1 alter anaerobic growth, the denitrification process, and cell morphology under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, biofilm formation was promoted by the cbb3 oxidases under anoxic conditions. cbb3 oxidases led to the accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), which is produced during denitrification. Cell elongation induced by NO accumulation was reported to be required for robust biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 under anoxic conditions. Our data show that cbb3 oxidases promote cell elongation by inducing NO accumulation during the denitrification process, which further leads to robust biofilms. Our findings show that cbb3 oxidases, which have been well studied as aerobic respiratory enzymes, are also involved in denitrification and influence the lifestyle of P. aeruginosa PAO1 under anoxic conditions.

  8. In vitro antibiofilm activity of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata: a case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Ciric, Ana; Karaman, Ivo; Horvatovic, Mladen; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The antibiofilm and possible antiquorum sensing effects against the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 of five crude extracts of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata (Hancock, 1850) were evaluated in vitro for the first time. H. punctata ethyl acetate extract (HpEtAc) exhibited the highest antibiofilm activity reducing the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in the range of 80.63-88.13%. While all tested extracts reduced the twitching motility of the aforementioned bacterial strain, HpEtAc showed to be the most effective. Finally, at a concentration of 0.5 MIC, the same extract mostly inhibited the production of pyocyanin by P. aeruginosa PAO1 (71.53%). In comparison both with the positive controls used (streptomycin and ampicillin, 67.13 and 69.77%, respectively), HpEtAc was found to inhibit pyocyanin in a higher extent. An extensive chemical characterisation of this particular extract may result in isolation and identification of novel lead compounds targeting P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen.

  9. In vitro antibiofilm activity of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata: a case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Ciric, Ana; Karaman, Ivo; Horvatovic, Mladen; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The antibiofilm and possible antiquorum sensing effects against the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 of five crude extracts of the freshwater bryozoan Hyalinella punctata (Hancock, 1850) were evaluated in vitro for the first time. H. punctata ethyl acetate extract (HpEtAc) exhibited the highest antibiofilm activity reducing the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in the range of 80.63-88.13%. While all tested extracts reduced the twitching motility of the aforementioned bacterial strain, HpEtAc showed to be the most effective. Finally, at a concentration of 0.5 MIC, the same extract mostly inhibited the production of pyocyanin by P. aeruginosa PAO1 (71.53%). In comparison both with the positive controls used (streptomycin and ampicillin, 67.13 and 69.77%, respectively), HpEtAc was found to inhibit pyocyanin in a higher extent. An extensive chemical characterisation of this particular extract may result in isolation and identification of novel lead compounds targeting P. aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26264659

  10. The Cryptic dsdA Gene Encodes a Functional D-Serine Dehydratase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-06-01

    D-Serine, an important neurotransmitter, also contributes to bacterial adaptation and virulence in humans. It was reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 can grow on D-serine as the sole nitrogen source, and growth was severely reduced in the dadA mutant devoid of the D-alanine dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. In this study, the dsdA gene (PA3357) encoding a putative D-serine dehydratase was subjected to further characterization. Growth on D-serine as the sole source of nitrogen was retained in the ∆dsdA mutant and was abolished completely in the ∆dadA and ∆dadA-∆dsdA mutants. However, when complemented by dsdA on a plasmid, the double mutant was able to grow on D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, supporting the proposed biochemical function of DsdA in the conversion of D-serine into pyruvate and ammonia. Among D- and L-amino acids tested, only D-serine and D-threonine could serve as the substrates of DsdA, and the Km of DsdA with D-serine was calculated to be 330 μM. Comparative genomics revealed that this cryptic dsdA gene was highly conserved in strains of P. aeruginosa, and that most strains of Pseudomonas putida possess putative dsdCAX genes encoding a transcriptional regulator DsdC and a D-serine transporter DsdX as in enteric bacteria. In conclusion, this study supports the presence of a cryptic dsdA gene encoding a functional D-serine dehydratase in P. aeruginosa, and the absence of dsdA expression in response to exogenous D-serine might be due to the loss of regulatory elements for gene activation during evolution. PMID:26957519

  11. The Cryptic dsdA Gene Encodes a Functional D-Serine Dehydratase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-06-01

    D-Serine, an important neurotransmitter, also contributes to bacterial adaptation and virulence in humans. It was reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 can grow on D-serine as the sole nitrogen source, and growth was severely reduced in the dadA mutant devoid of the D-alanine dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. In this study, the dsdA gene (PA3357) encoding a putative D-serine dehydratase was subjected to further characterization. Growth on D-serine as the sole source of nitrogen was retained in the ∆dsdA mutant and was abolished completely in the ∆dadA and ∆dadA-∆dsdA mutants. However, when complemented by dsdA on a plasmid, the double mutant was able to grow on D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, supporting the proposed biochemical function of DsdA in the conversion of D-serine into pyruvate and ammonia. Among D- and L-amino acids tested, only D-serine and D-threonine could serve as the substrates of DsdA, and the Km of DsdA with D-serine was calculated to be 330 μM. Comparative genomics revealed that this cryptic dsdA gene was highly conserved in strains of P. aeruginosa, and that most strains of Pseudomonas putida possess putative dsdCAX genes encoding a transcriptional regulator DsdC and a D-serine transporter DsdX as in enteric bacteria. In conclusion, this study supports the presence of a cryptic dsdA gene encoding a functional D-serine dehydratase in P. aeruginosa, and the absence of dsdA expression in response to exogenous D-serine might be due to the loss of regulatory elements for gene activation during evolution.

  12. The T6SSs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PAO1 and Their Effectors: Beyond Bacterial-Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Thibault G.; Berni, Benjamin; Bleves, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for many diseases such as chronic lung colonization in cystic fibrosis patients and acute infections in hospitals. The capacity of P. aeruginosa to be pathogenic toward several hosts is notably due to different secretion systems. Amongst them, P. aeruginosa encodes three Type Six Secretion Systems (T6SS), named H1- to H3-T6SS, that act against either prokaryotes and/or eukaryotic cells. They are independent from each other and inject diverse toxins that interact with different components in the host cell. Here we summarize the roles of these T6SSs in the PAO1 strain, as well as the toxins injected and their targets. While H1-T6SS is only involved in antiprokaryotic activity through at least seven different toxins, H2-T6SS and H3-T6SS are also able to target prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells. Moreover, recent studies proposed that H2- and H3-T6SS have a role in epithelial cells invasion by injecting at least three different toxins. The diversity of T6SS effectors is astounding and other effectors still remain to be discovered. In this review, we present a table with other putative P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 T6SS-dependent effectors. Altogether, the T6SSs of P. aeruginosa are important systems that help fight other bacteria for their ecological niche, and are important in the pathogenicity process. PMID:27376031

  13. The T6SSs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PAO1 and Their Effectors: Beyond Bacterial-Cell Targeting.

    PubMed

    Sana, Thibault G; Berni, Benjamin; Bleves, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for many diseases such as chronic lung colonization in cystic fibrosis patients and acute infections in hospitals. The capacity of P. aeruginosa to be pathogenic toward several hosts is notably due to different secretion systems. Amongst them, P. aeruginosa encodes three Type Six Secretion Systems (T6SS), named H1- to H3-T6SS, that act against either prokaryotes and/or eukaryotic cells. They are independent from each other and inject diverse toxins that interact with different components in the host cell. Here we summarize the roles of these T6SSs in the PAO1 strain, as well as the toxins injected and their targets. While H1-T6SS is only involved in antiprokaryotic activity through at least seven different toxins, H2-T6SS and H3-T6SS are also able to target prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells. Moreover, recent studies proposed that H2- and H3-T6SS have a role in epithelial cells invasion by injecting at least three different toxins. The diversity of T6SS effectors is astounding and other effectors still remain to be discovered. In this review, we present a table with other putative P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 T6SS-dependent effectors. Altogether, the T6SSs of P. aeruginosa are important systems that help fight other bacteria for their ecological niche, and are important in the pathogenicity process. PMID:27376031

  14. Crystal structure of dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: Insights into the molecular basis of formation of a dimer.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ching-Ting; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-09-23

    Dihydropyrimidinase, a tetrameric metalloenzyme, is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure of P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase reveals a classic (β/α)8-barrel structure core embedding the catalytic dimetal center and a β-sandwich domain, which is commonly found in the architecture of dihydropyrimidinases. In contrast to all dihydropyrimidinases, P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase forms a dimer, rather than a tetramer, both in the crystalline state and in the solution. Basing on sequence analysis and structural comparison of the C-terminal region and the dimer-dimer interface between P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase and Thermus sp. dihydropyrimidinase, we propose a working model to explain why this enzyme cannot be a tetramer.

  15. Crystal structure of dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: Insights into the molecular basis of formation of a dimer.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ching-Ting; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-09-23

    Dihydropyrimidinase, a tetrameric metalloenzyme, is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure of P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase reveals a classic (β/α)8-barrel structure core embedding the catalytic dimetal center and a β-sandwich domain, which is commonly found in the architecture of dihydropyrimidinases. In contrast to all dihydropyrimidinases, P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase forms a dimer, rather than a tetramer, both in the crystalline state and in the solution. Basing on sequence analysis and structural comparison of the C-terminal region and the dimer-dimer interface between P. aeruginosa dihydropyrimidinase and Thermus sp. dihydropyrimidinase, we propose a working model to explain why this enzyme cannot be a tetramer. PMID:27576201

  16. Identification of CtpL as a Chromosomally Encoded Chemoreceptor for 4-Chloroaniline and Catechol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Kazuki; Oku, Shota; Kataoka, Naoya; Nitisakulkan, Tisana; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial chemotaxis influences the ability of bacteria to survive and thrive in most environments, including polluted ones. Despite numerous reports of the phenotypic characterization of chemotactic bacteria, only a few molecular details of chemoreceptors for aromatic pollutants have been described. In this study, the molecular basis of chemotaxis toward an environmentally toxic chlorinated aromatic pollutant, 4-chloroaniline (4CA), was evaluated. Among the three Pseudomonas spp. tested, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exhibited positive chemotaxis both to the nonmetabolizable 4CA, where 4-chloroacetanilide was formed as a dead-end transformation product, and to the metabolizable catechol. Molecular analysis of all 26 mutants with a disrupted methyl-accepting chemotaxis gene revealed that CtpL, a chromosomally encoded chemoreceptor, was responsible for the positive chemotactic response toward 4CA. Since CtpL has previously been described to be a major chemoreceptor for inorganic phosphate at low concentrations in PAO1, this report describes a fortuitous ability of CtpL to function toward aromatic pollutants. In addition, its regulation not only was dependent on the presence of the chemoattractant inducer but also was regulated by conditions of phosphate starvation. These results expand the range of known chemotactic transducers and their function in the environmental bacterium PAO1. PMID:24038698

  17. Influence of O polysaccharides on biofilm development and outer membrane vesicle biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathleen; Park, Amber J; Hao, Youai; Brewer, Dyanne; Lam, Joseph S; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic human pathogen known for its ability to adapt to changes in its environment during the course of infection. These adaptations include changes in the expression of cell surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS), biofilm development, and the production of a protective extracellular exopolysaccharide matrix. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have been identified as an important component of the extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms and are thought to contribute to the development and fitness of these bacterial communities. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between changes in the cell surface expression of LPS O polysaccharides, biofilm development, and OMV biogenesis in P. aeruginosa. We compared wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 with three chromosomal knockouts. These knockouts have deletions in the rmd, wbpM, and wbpL genes that produce changes in the expression of common polysaccharide antigen (CPA), O-specific antigen (OSA), or both. Our results demonstrate that changes in O polysaccharide expression do not significantly influence OMV production but do affect the size and protein content of OMVs derived from both CPA(-) and OSA(-) cells; these mutant cells also exhibited different physical properties from wild-type cells. We further examined biofilm growth of the mutants and determined that CPA(-) cells could not develop into robust biofilms and exhibit changes in cell morphology and biofilm matrix production. Together these results demonstrate the importance of O polysaccharide expression on P. aeruginosa OMV composition and highlight the significance of CPA expression in biofilm development. PMID:24464462

  18. Flagellin FliC Phosphorylation Affects Type 2 Protease Secretion and Biofilm Dispersal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Suriyanarayanan, Tanujaa; Periasamy, Saravanan; Lin, Miao-Hsia; Ishihama, Yasushi; Swarup, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation has a major role in controlling the life-cycle and infection stages of bacteria. Proteome-wide occurrence of S/T/Y phosphorylation has been reported for many prokaryotic systems. Previously, we reported the phosphoproteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. In this study, we show the role of S/T phosphorylation of one motility protein, FliC, in regulating multiple surface-associated phenomena of P. aeruginosa PAO1. This is the first report of occurrence of phosphorylation in the flagellar protein, flagellin FliC in its highly conserved N-terminal NDO domain across several Gram negative bacteria. This phosphorylation is likely a well-regulated phenomenon as it is growth phase dependent in planktonic cells. The absence of phosphorylation in the conserved T27 and S28 residues of FliC, interestingly, did not affect swimming motility, but affected the secretome of type 2 secretion system (T2SS) and biofilm formation of PAO1. FliC phosphomutants had increased levels and activities of type 2 secretome proteins. The secretion efficiency of T2SS machinery is associated with flagellin phosphorylation. FliC phosphomutants also formed reduced biofilms at 24 h under static conditions and had delayed biofilm dispersal under dynamic flow conditions, respectively. The levels of type 2 secretome and biofilm formation under static conditions had an inverse correlation. Hence, increase in type 2 secretome levels was accompanied by reduced biofilm formation in the FliC phosphomutants. As T2SS is involved in nutrient acquisition and biofilm dispersal during survival and spread of P. aeruginosa, we propose that FliC phosphorylation has a role in ecological adaptation of this opportunistic environmental pathogen. Altogether, we found a system of phosphorylation that affects key surface related processes such as proteases secretion by T2SS, biofilm formation and dispersal. PMID:27701473

  19. In silico analysis and molecular modeling of RNA polymerase, sigma S (RpoS) protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mansour; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Pournajaf, Abazar; Emadi, Behzad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Gholami, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sigma factors are proteins that regulate transcription in bacteria. Sigma factors can be activated in response to different environmental conditions. The rpoS (RNA polymerase, sigma S) gene encodes sigma-38 (σ38, or RpoS), a 37.8 kDa protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains. RpoS is a central regulator of the general stress response and operates in both retroactive and proactive manners; not only does it allow the cell to survive environmental challenges; it also prepares the cell for subsequent stresses (cross-protection). Methods: The significance of RpoS for stress resistance and protein expression in stationary-phase P. aeruginosa cells was assessed. The goal of the current study was to characterize RpoS of P. aeruginosa PAO1 using bioinformatics tools. Results: The results showed that RpoS is an unstable protein that belongs to the sigma-70 factor family. Secondary structure analysis predicted that random coil is the predominant structure followed by extended alpha helix. The three-dimensional (3D) structure was modeled using SWISS-MODEL Workspace. Conclusion: Determination of sequence, function, structure, and predicted epitopes of RpoS is important for modeling of inhibitors that will help in the design of new drugs to combat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Such information may aid in the development of new diagnostic tools, drugs, and vaccines for treatment in endemic regions. PMID:26989748

  20. A Quadruple Knockout of lasIR and rhlIR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 That Retains Wild-Type Twitching Motility Has Equivalent Infectivity and Persistence to PAO1 in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lazenby, James J.; Griffin, Phoebe E.; Kyd, Jennelle; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Cooley, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely reported that quorum-sensing incapable strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are less virulent than wild type strains. However, quorum sensing mutants of P. aeruginosa have been shown to develop other spontaneous mutations under prolonged culture conditions, and one of the phenotypes of P. aeruginosa that is frequently affected by this phenomenon is type IV pili-dependent motility, referred to as twitching motility. As twitching motility has been reported to be important for adhesion and colonisation, we aimed to generate a quorum-sensing knockout for which the heritage was recorded and the virulence factor production in areas unrelated to quorum sensing was known to be intact. We created a lasIRrhlIR quadruple knockout in PAO1 using a published technique that allows for the deletion of antibiotic resistance cartridges following mutagenesis, to create an unmarked QS knockout of PAO1, thereby avoiding the need for use of antibiotics in culturing, which can have subtle effects on bacterial phenotype. We phenotyped this mutant demonstrating that it produced reduced levels of protease and elastase, barely detectable levels of pyoverdin and undetectable levels of the quorum sensing signal molecules N-3-oxododecanoly-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl homoserine lactone, but retained full twitching motility. We then used a mouse model of acute lung infection with P. aeruginosa to demonstrate that the lasIRrhlIR knockout strain showed equal persistence to wild type parental PAO1, induced equal or greater neutrophil infiltration to the lungs, and induced similar levels of expression of inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and similar antibody responses, both in terms of magnitude and isotype. Our results suggest, in contrast to previous reports, that lack of quorum sensing alone does not significantly affect the immunogenicity, infectiveness and persistence of P. aeruginosa in a mouse model of acute lung infection. PMID:23593362

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 adapted to 2-phenoxyethanol shows cross-resistance to dissimilar biocides and increased susceptibility to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdel Malek, S M A; Badran, Y R

    2010-11-01

    The growth adaptability to increasing concentration of the biocide 2-phenoxyethanol (PE) was determined in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (P.a.) as part of efforts to understand and control the biocide tolerance and its effect on cross-resistance to other biocides and resistance to antibiotics. After repeated subculturing in media containing increasing sub-minimum-inhibitory PE concentration, P.a. exhibited an adaptive resistance indicated by two-fold increase in MIC at the 10th passage. The resistance was stable and remained after passaging the strain in further 7 successive passages in PE-free growth media. The strain showed cross-resistance towards dissimilar biocides and displayed increased susceptibility to antibiotics, which was not influenced by the presence of the efflux inhibitor 'carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone'. Outer membranes of adapted strain showed altered protein profile when examined by SDS-PAGE.

  2. A Temporal Examination of the Planktonic and Biofilm Proteome of Whole Cell Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Using Quantitative Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Amber J.; Murphy, Kathleen; Krieger, Jonathan R.; Brewer, Dyanne; Taylor, Paul; Habash, Marc; Khursigara, Cezar M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic polymicrobial lung infections are the chief complication in patients with cystic fibrosis. The dominant pathogen in late-stage disease is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which forms recalcitrant, structured communities known as biofilms. Many aspects of biofilm biology are poorly understood; consequently, effective treatment of these infections is limited, and cystic fibrosis remains fatal. Here we combined in-solution protein digestion of triplicate growth-matched samples with a high-performance mass spectrometry platform to provide the most comprehensive proteomic dataset known to date for whole cell P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in biofilm cultures. Our analysis included protein–protein interaction networks and PseudoCAP functional information for unique and significantly modulated proteins at three different time points. Secondary analysis of a subgroup of proteins using extracted ion currents validated the spectral counting data of 1884 high-confidence proteins. In this paper we demonstrate a greater representation of proteins related to metabolism, DNA stability, and molecular activity in planktonically grown P. aeruginosa PAO1. In addition, several virulence-related proteins were increased during planktonic growth, including multiple proteins encoded by the pyoverdine locus, uncharacterized proteins with sequence similarity to mammalian cell entry protein, and a member of the hemagglutinin family of adhesins, HecA. Conversely, biofilm samples contained an uncharacterized protein with sequence similarity to an adhesion protein with self-association characteristics (AidA). Increased levels of several phenazine biosynthetic proteins, an uncharacterized protein with sequence similarity to a metallo-beta-lactamase, and lower levels of the drug target gyrA support the putative characteristics of in situ P. aeruginosa infections, including competitive fitness and antibiotic resistance. This quantitative whole cell approach advances the existing P. aeruginosa

  3. Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady-Devasya

    2014-05-01

    Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents. PMID:24698116

  4. Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady-Devasya

    2014-05-01

    Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents.

  5. Cytotoxicity of Cyclodipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Leads to Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Rivera, Dolores; González, Omar; Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Bucio, José; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Campos-García, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of plants and animals, which produces virulence factors in order to infect or colonize its eukaryotic hosts. Cyclodipeptides (CDPs) produced by P. aeruginosa exhibit cytotoxic properties toward human tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a CDP mix, comprised of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), and cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) that were isolated from P. aeruginosa, on two human cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated that the CDP mix promoted cell death in cultures of the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma and Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.53 and 0.66 mg/mL, for HeLa and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis, using annexin V and propidium iodide as apoptosis and necrosis indicators, respectively, clearly showed that HeLa and Caco-2 cells exhibited apoptotic characteristics when treated with the CDP mix at a concentration <0.001 mg/mL. IC50 values for apoptotic cells in HeLa and Caco-2 cells were 6.5 × 10−5 and 1.8 × 10−4 mg/mL, respectively. Our results indicate that an apoptotic pathway is involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by the P. aeruginosa CDP mix. PMID:25821788

  6. Zingerone inhibit biofilm formation and improve antibiofilm efficacy of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2013-10-01

    Multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces surface-associated communities called biofilms, which protect pathogen by forming a complex permeability barrier for antibiotics and immune cells. Biofilm formation contributes to persistent and chronic infections caused by P.aeruginosa. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has culminated in the emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains. Hence novel strategies are urgently required to address this issue. Since phytochemicals are valuable source of antibacterial agents, these can be explored for antibiofilm activity. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the inhibition of biofilm formation in presence of zingerone alone and its ability to increase the susceptibility of the pathogen to ciprofloxacin. Scanning electron microscopy of catheter surface showed thinner biofilm of P.aeruginosa in presence of zingerone. Evaluation of motility phenotypes indicated significant reduction (p < 0.05) in swimming, swarming and twitching motility. Further, biofilm was inhibited and eradicated in presence of zingerone alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin. Highly significant inhibition (p < 0.001) was observed when phytochemical and antibiotic were used as adjunct therapy. These findings prove zingerone as potential phytotherapeutic agent which in future can be employed to formulate preventive strategies against biofilm associated infections caused by P.aeruginosa. PMID:23831483

  7. Involvement of the lon protease in the SOS response triggered by ciprofloxacin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Breidenstein, Elena B M; Bains, Manjeet; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lon mutants have phenotypes of deficiencies in cell division, swarming, twitching, and biofilm formation as well as a phenotype of ciprofloxacin supersusceptibility. In this study, we demonstrated that a lon mutant was also supersensitive to the DNA-damaging agent UV light. To understand the influence of lon in causing these phenotypes, global gene expression was characterized by performing microarrays on the lon mutant and the PAO1 wild type grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin. This revealed major differences in the expression of genes involved in the SOS response and DNA repair. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that these genes were highly upregulated upon ciprofloxacin exposure in the wild type but were significantly less induced in the lon mutant, indicating that Lon modulates the SOS response and consequentially ciprofloxacin susceptibility. As the known Lon target SulA is a member of the SOS response regulon, the influence of mutating or overexpressing this gene, and the negative regulator of the SOS response, LexA, was examined. Overexpression of lexA had no effect on the Lon-related phenotypes, but sulA overexpression recapitulated certain lon mutant phenotypes, including altered motility and cell division, indicating that Lon regulates these phenotypes through SulA. However, sulA overexpression did not affect ciprofloxacin susceptibility or biofilm formation, indicating that these properties were independently determined. Lon protease was also demonstrated to strongly influence RecA protein accumulation in the presence of ciprofloxacin. A model of DNA repair involving the Lon protease is proposed.

  8. Dictyostelium discoideum as a surrogate host-microbe model for antivirulence screening in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Toncio, Catalina; Álvarez, Javiera A; Campos, Francisca; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena; Cabrera, Ricardo; Lagos, Carlos F; Chávez, Francisco P

    2016-05-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing new antibiotics is decreasing, as established screening systems which identify compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria can no longer be used. Consequently, antimicrobial screening using classical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements is becoming obsolete. The discovery of antimicrobial agents that specifically target a bacterial pathogen without affecting the host and its beneficial bacteria is a promising strategy. However, few host-microbe models are available for in vivo screening of novel antivirulence molecules. Here we designed high-throughput developmental assays in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to measure Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and to screen for novel antivirulence molecules without side effects to the host and its beneficial bacteria Klebsiella aerogenes. Thirty compounds were evaluated that had been previously selected by virtual screening for inhibitors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase 1 (PaPPK1) and diverse compounds with combined PPK1 inhibitory and antivirulence activities were identified. This approach demonstrates that D. discoideum is a suitable surrogate host for preliminary high-throughput screening of antivirulence agents and that PPK1 is a suitable target for developing novel antivirulence compounds that can be further validated in mammalian models. PMID:27066943

  9. Dictyostelium discoideum as a surrogate host-microbe model for antivirulence screening in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Toncio, Catalina; Álvarez, Javiera A; Campos, Francisca; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena; Cabrera, Ricardo; Lagos, Carlos F; Chávez, Francisco P

    2016-05-01

    The interest of the pharmaceutical industry in developing new antibiotics is decreasing, as established screening systems which identify compounds that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria can no longer be used. Consequently, antimicrobial screening using classical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements is becoming obsolete. The discovery of antimicrobial agents that specifically target a bacterial pathogen without affecting the host and its beneficial bacteria is a promising strategy. However, few host-microbe models are available for in vivo screening of novel antivirulence molecules. Here we designed high-throughput developmental assays in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to measure Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and to screen for novel antivirulence molecules without side effects to the host and its beneficial bacteria Klebsiella aerogenes. Thirty compounds were evaluated that had been previously selected by virtual screening for inhibitors of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase 1 (PaPPK1) and diverse compounds with combined PPK1 inhibitory and antivirulence activities were identified. This approach demonstrates that D. discoideum is a suitable surrogate host for preliminary high-throughput screening of antivirulence agents and that PPK1 is a suitable target for developing novel antivirulence compounds that can be further validated in mammalian models.

  10. Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha; Dedania, Samir; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production.

  11. Characterization of a Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Enzyme, PoxB, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Zincke, Diansy; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Silver, Lynn L.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen often associated with severe and life-threatening infections that are highly impervious to treatment. This microbe readily exhibits intrinsic and acquired resistance to varied antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to penicillin-like compounds is commonplace and provided by the chromosomal AmpC β-lactamase. A second, chromosomally encoded β-lactamase, PoxB, has previously been reported in P. aeruginosa. In the present work, the contribution of this class D enzyme was investigated using a series of clean in-frame ampC, poxB, and oprD deletions, as well as complementation by expression under the control of an inducible promoter. While poxB deletions failed to alter β-lactam sensitivities, expression of poxB in ampC-deficient backgrounds decreased susceptibility to both meropenem and doripenem but had no effect on imipenem, penicillin, and cephalosporin MICs. However, when expressed in an ampCpoxB-deficient background, that additionally lacked the outer membrane porin-encoding gene oprD, PoxB significantly increased the imipenem as well as the meropenem and doripenem MICs. Like other class D carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases, PoxB was only poorly inhibited by class A enzyme inhibitors, but a novel non-β-lactam compound, avibactam, was a slightly better inhibitor of PoxB activity. In vitro susceptibility testing with a clinical concentration of avibactam, however, failed to reduce PoxB activity against the carbapenems. In addition, poxB was found to be cotranscribed with an upstream open reading frame, poxA, which itself was shown to encode a 32-kDa protein of yet unknown function. PMID:26621621

  12. GcsR, a TyrR-Like Enhancer-Binding Protein, Regulates Expression of the Glycine Cleavage System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara; Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Grassa, Michael T.; Wang, Michael X.; Gribble, Megan; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycine serves as a major source of single carbon units for biochemical reactions within bacterial cells. Utilization of glycine is tightly regulated and revolves around a key group of proteins known as the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Our lab previously identified the transcriptional regulator GcsR (PA2449) as being required for catabolism of glycine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In an effort to clarify and have an overall better understanding of the role of GcsR in glycine metabolism, a combination of transcriptome sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to identify target genes of this transcriptional regulator. It was found that GcsR binds to an 18-bp consensus sequence (TGTAACG-N4-CGTTCCG) upstream of the gcs2 operon, consisting of the gcvH2, gcvP2, glyA2, sdaA, and gcvT2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes, namely, the GCS (GcvH2-GcvP2-GcvT2), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA2), and serine dehydratase (SdaA), form a metabolic pathway for the conversion of glycine into pyruvate, which can enter the central metabolism. GcsR activates transcription of the gcs2 operon in response to glycine. Interestingly, GcsR belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators known as TyrR-like enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). Until this study, TyrR-like EBPs were only known to function in regulating aromatic amino acid metabolism. GcsR is the founding member of a new class of TyrR-like EBPs that function in the regulation of glycine metabolism. Indeed, homologs of GcsR and its target genes are present in almost all sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonadales order, suggesting that this genetic regulatory mechanism is a common theme for pseudomonads. IMPORTANCE Glycine is required for various cellular functions, including cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. Regulating levels of glycine metabolism allows P. aeruginosa to maintain the metabolic flux

  13. The icmF3 locus is involved in multiple adaptation- and virulence-related characteristics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinshui; Cheng, Juanli; Chen, Keqi; Guo, Chenghao; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Xu; Ding, Wei; Ma, Li; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Three separate T6SSs called H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS have been discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the H1-T6SS that targets prokaryotic cells, H2- and H3-T6SS are involved in interactions with both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, the detailed functions of T6SS components are still uncharacterized. The intracellular multiplication factor (IcmF) protein is conserved in type VI secretion systems (T6SS) of all different bacterial pathogens. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that IcmF3 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is different from other IcmF homologs and may represent a new branch of these proteins with distinct functions. Herein, we have investigated the function of IcmF3 in this strain. We have shown that deletion of the icmF3 gene in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is associated with pleiotropic phenotypes. The icmF3 mutant has variant colony morphology and an hypergrowth phenotype in iron-limiting medium. Surprisingly, this mutant is also defective for the production of pyoverdine, as well as defects in swimming motility and virulence in a C. elegans worm model. The icmF3 mutant exhibits higher conjugation frequency than the wild type and increased biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, expression of two phenazine biosynthetic loci is increased in the icmF3 mutant, leading to the overproduction of pyocyanin. Finally, the mutant exhibits decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides such as tobramycin and gentamicin. And the detected phenotypes can be restored completely or partially by trans complementation of wild type icmF3 gene. The pleiotropic effects observed upon icmF3 deletion demonstrate that icmF3 plays critical roles in both pathogenesis and environmental adaptation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26484316

  14. The icmF3 locus is involved in multiple adaptation- and virulence-related characteristics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinshui; Cheng, Juanli; Chen, Keqi; Guo, Chenghao; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Xu; Ding, Wei; Ma, Li; Wang, Yao; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. Three separate T6SSs called H1-, H2-, and H3-T6SS have been discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Recent studies suggest that, in contrast to the H1-T6SS that targets prokaryotic cells, H2- and H3-T6SS are involved in interactions with both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. However, the detailed functions of T6SS components are still uncharacterized. The intracellular multiplication factor (IcmF) protein is conserved in type VI secretion systems (T6SS) of all different bacterial pathogens. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that IcmF3 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is different from other IcmF homologs and may represent a new branch of these proteins with distinct functions. Herein, we have investigated the function of IcmF3 in this strain. We have shown that deletion of the icmF3 gene in P. aeruginosa PAO1 is associated with pleiotropic phenotypes. The icmF3 mutant has variant colony morphology and an hypergrowth phenotype in iron-limiting medium. Surprisingly, this mutant is also defective for the production of pyoverdine, as well as defects in swimming motility and virulence in a C. elegans worm model. The icmF3 mutant exhibits higher conjugation frequency than the wild type and increased biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, expression of two phenazine biosynthetic loci is increased in the icmF3 mutant, leading to the overproduction of pyocyanin. Finally, the mutant exhibits decreased susceptibility to aminoglycosides such as tobramycin and gentamicin. And the detected phenotypes can be restored completely or partially by trans complementation of wild type icmF3 gene. The pleiotropic effects observed upon icmF3 deletion demonstrate that icmF3 plays critical roles in both pathogenesis and environmental adaptation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26484316

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA gyrase gyrA gene from strain PAO1 and quinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Kureishi, A; Diver, J M; Beckthold, B; Schollaardt, T; Bryan, L E

    1994-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA gyrase gyrA gene was cloned and sequenced from strain PAO1. An open reading frame of 2,769 bp was found; it coded for a protein of 923 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 103 kDa. The derived amino acid sequence shared 67% identity with Escherichia coli GyrA and 54% identity with Bacillus subtilis GyrA, although conserved regions were present throughout the sequences, particularly toward the N terminus. Complementation of an E. coli mutant with a temperature-sensitive gyrA gene with the PAO1 gyrA gene showed that the gene is expressed in E. coli and is able to functionally complement the E. coli DNA gyrase B subunit. Expression of PAO1 gyrA in E. coli or P. aeruginosa with mutationally altered gyrA genes caused a reversion to wild-type quinolone susceptibility, indicating that the intrinsic susceptibility of the PAO1 GyrA to quinolones is comparable to that of the E. coli enzyme. PCR was used to amplify 360 bp of P. aeruginosa gyrA encompassing the so-called quinolone resistance-determining region from ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis. Mutations were found in three of nine isolates tested; these mutations caused the following alterations in the sequence of GyrA: Asp at position 87 (Asp-87) to Asn, Asp-87 to Tyr, and Thr-83 to Ile. The resistance mechanisms in the other six isolates are unknown. The results of the study suggested that mechanisms other than a mutational alteration in gyrA are the most common mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance in P. aeruginosa from the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7811002

  16. Antipathogenic potential of marine Bacillus sp. SS4 on N-acyl-homoserine-lactone-mediated virulence factors production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1).

    PubMed

    Musthafa, K Syed; Saroja, V; Pandian, S Karutha; Ravi, A Veera

    2011-03-01

    Antipathogenic therapy is an outcome of the quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) mechanism, which targets autoinducer-dependent virulent gene expression in bacterial pathogens. N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) acts as a key regulator in the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and violacein pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum. In the present study, the marine bacterial strain SS4 showed potential QSI activity in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5-2 mg/ml) against the AHL-mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (33-86%) and biofilm formation (33-88%), total protease (20-65%), LasA protease (59-68%), LasB elastase (36-68%), pyocyanin (17-86%) and pyoverdin productions in PAO1. The light and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses confirmed the reduction of the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1 when treated with SS4 extract. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential was confirmed through static biofilm ring assay, in which ethyl acetate extract of SS4 showed concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm-forming ability of PAO1. Thus, the result of this study clearly reveals the antipathogenic and antibiofilm properties of the bacterial isolate SS4. Through 16S rDNA analysis, the strain SS4 was identified as Bacillus sp. (GenBank Accession Number: GU471751). PMID:21451248

  17. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced

  18. Proteome Analysis of the Effect of Mucoid Conversion on Global Protein Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PAO1 Shows Induction of the Disulfide Bond Isomerase, DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sonal; Silo-Suh, Laura A.; Mathee, Kalai; Ohman, Dennis E.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that cause chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis patients typically undergo mucoid conversion. The mucoid phenotype indicates alginate overproduction and is often due to defects in MucA, an antisigma factor that controls the activity of sigma-22 (AlgT [also called AlgU]), which is required for the activation of genes for alginate biosynthesis. In this study we hypothesized that mucoid conversion may be part of a larger response that activates genes other than those for alginate synthesis. To address this, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel analysis was employed to compare total proteins in strain PAO1 to those of its mucA22 derivative, PDO300, in order to identify protein levels enhanced by mucoid conversion. Six proteins that were clearly more abundant in the mucoid strain were observed. The amino termini of such proteins were determined and used to identify the gene products in the genomic database. Proteins involved in alginate biosynthesis were expected among these, and two (AlgA and AlgD) were identified. This result verified that the 2-D gel approach could identify gene products under sigma-22 control and upregulated by mucA mutation. Two other protein spots were also clearly upregulated in the mucA22 background, and these were identified as porin F (an outer membrane protein) and a homologue of DsbA (a disulfide bond isomerase). Single-copy gene fusions were constructed to test whether these proteins were enhanced in the mucoid strain due to increased transcription. The oprF-lacZ fusion showed little difference in levels of expression in the two strains. However, the dsbA-lacZ fusion showed two- to threefold higher expression in PDO300 than in PAO1, suggesting that its promoter was upregulated by the deregulation of sigma-22 activity. A dsbA-null mutant was constructed in PAO1 and shown to have defects predicted for a cell with reduced disulfide bond isomerase activity, namely, reduction in periplasmic alkaline phosphatase

  19. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27175902

  20. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa.

  1. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27175902

  2. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen; Li, Kan; Bai, Yuwei; Xu, Yueyang; Jin, Jin; Wang, Yingying; Bartlam, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are important for cell communication and growth in most bacteria, and are responsible for a number of human clinical infections and diseases. TpbA (PA3885) is a dual specific tyrosine phosphatase (DUSP) that negatively regulates biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by converting extracellular quorum sensing signals into internal gene cascade reactions that result in reduced biofilm formation. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal structure of wild-type TpbA from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in the phosphate-bound state and a TpbA (C132S) mutant with phosphotyrosine. Comparison between the phosphate-bound structure and the previously reported ligand-free TpbA structure reveals the extent of conformational changes that occur upon substrate binding. The largest changes occur in the functional loops that define the substrate binding site, including the PTP, general acid and α4-α5 loops. We further show that TpbA efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of two phosphotyrosine peptides derived from the periplasmic domain of TpbB (YfiN, PA1120), with a strong preference for dephosphorylating Tyr48 over Tyr62. This work adds to the small repertoire of DUSP structures in both the ligand-free and ligand-bound states, and provides a starting point for further study of the role of TpbA in biofilm formation. PMID:25909591

  3. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bei; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Linde; Ge, Yihe; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26735915

  4. Cross-Regulation between the phz1 and phz2 Operons Maintain a Balanced Level of Phenazine Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qinna; Lv, Huinan; Qi, Zhuangzhuang; Jiang, Bei; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Linde; Ge, Yihe; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:26735915

  5. Expression of the psl operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms: PslA performs an essential function in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Overhage, Jörg; Schemionek, Mirle; Webb, Jeremy S; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2005-08-01

    The psl gene cluster, comprising 15 cotranscribed genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was recently identified as being involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the psl gene cluster and the function of the first gene in this cluster, the pslA gene. PslA shows strong similarities to UDP-glucose lipid carriers. An isogenic marker-free pslA deletion mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 deficient in attachment and biofilm formation was used for complementation studies. The expression of only the pslA gene, comprising a coding region of 1,437 bp, restored the biofilm-forming phenotype of the wild type, indicating that PslA is required for biofilm formation by nonmucoid P. aeruginosa. The promoter region of the psl gene cluster, which encodes PslA-PslO, was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends. Promoter assays using transcriptional fusions to lacZ and gfp indicated a constitutive expression of the psl cluster in planktonic cells and a highly regulated and localized expression in biofilms, respectively. Expression of the psl cluster in biofilms was almost exclusively found in the centers of microcolonies, as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. These data suggest that constitutive expression of the psl operon enables efficient attachment to surfaces and that regulated localized psl operon expression is required for biofilm differentiation. PMID:16085831

  6. NrsZ: a novel, processed, nitrogen-dependent, small non-coding RNA that regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence.

    PubMed

    Wenner, Nicolas; Maes, Alexandre; Cotado-Sampayo, Marta; Lapouge, Karine

    2014-04-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has a remarkable capacity to adapt to various environments and to survive with limited nutrients. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel small non-coding RNA: NrsZ (nitrogen-regulated sRNA). We show that under nitrogen limitation, NrsZ is induced by the NtrB/C two component system, an important regulator of nitrogen assimilation and P. aeruginosa's swarming motility, in concert with the alternative sigma factor RpoN. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NrsZ modulates P. aeruginosa motility by controlling the production of rhamnolipid surfactants, virulence factors notably needed for swarming motility. This regulation takes place through the post-transcriptional control of rhlA, a gene essential for rhamnolipids synthesis. Interestingly, we also observed that NrsZ is processed in three similar short modules, and that the first short module encompassing the first 60 nucleotides is sufficient for NrsZ regulatory functions.

  7. Loss of the oxidative stress regulator OxyR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 impairs growth under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Vinckx, Tiffany; Matthijs, Sandra; Cornelis, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Pyoverdine is the main siderophore secreted by fluorescent pseudomonads to scavenge iron in the extracellular environment. Iron uptake, however, needs to be tightly regulated, because free iron stimulates the formation of highly toxic oxygen derivatives. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcriptional regulator OxyR plays a key role in the upregulation of defense mechanisms against oxidative stress as it stimulates the expression of the antioxidant genes katB, ahpB and ahpCF after contact with oxidative stress-generating agents. Inactivation of the oxyR gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 and in P. aeruginosa PAO1 impairs pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake. The pyoverdine utilization defect can be restored by complementation with the oxyR gene of P. aeruginosa, as well as by adding catalase. Growth of the oxyR mutant in low- or high-iron media is also impaired at a low, but not at a high inoculum density. Uptake of radioactive (59)Fe pyoverdine is, however, not affected by the oxyR mutation, nor is the transcription of the fpvA gene encoding the ferripyoverdine receptor, suggesting that the defect lies in the inability to remove iron from the ferrisiderophore. PMID:19054085

  8. Structural Analysis of WbpE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: A Nucleotide Sugar Aminotransferase Involved in O-Antigen Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, A.; Olivier, N; Imperiali, B

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major source of hospital-acquired infections. Effective treatment has proven increasingly difficult due to the spread of multidrug resistant strains and thus requires a deeper understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenicity. The central carbohydrate of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 (O5) B-band O-antigen, ManNAc(3NAc)A, has been shown to be critical for virulence and is produced in a stepwise manner by five enzymes in the Wbp pathway (WbpA, WbpB, WbpE, WbpD, and WbpI). Herein, we present the crystal structure of the aminotransferase WbpE from P. aeruginosa PAO1 in complex with the cofactor pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP) and product UDP-GlcNAc(3NH{sub 2})A as the external aldimine at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. We also report the structures of WbpE in complex with PMP alone as well as the PLP internal aldimine and show that the dimeric structure of WbpE observed in the crystal structure is confirmed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Analysis of these structures reveals that the active site of the enzyme is composed of residues from both subunits. In particular, we show that a key residue (Arg229), which has previously been implicated in direct interactions with the {alpha}-carboxylate moiety of {alpha}-ketoglutarate, is also uniquely positioned to bestow specificity for the 6{double_prime}-carboxyl group of GlcNAc(3NH2)A through a salt bridge. This finding is intriguing because while an analogous basic residue is present in WbpE homologues that do not process 6{double_prime}-carboxyl-modified saccharides, recent structural studies reveal that this side chain is retracted to accommodate a neutral C6{double_prime} atom. This work represents the first structural analysis of a nucleotide sugar aminotransferase with a bound product modified at the C2{double_prime}, C3{double_prime}, and C6{double_prime} positions and provides insight into a novel target for treatment of P

  9. Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Klebensberger, Janosch; Rui, Oliver; Fritz, Eva; Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo

    2006-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells to SDS under different conditions. At high energy supply, the cells responded with a decrease in optical density and in viable counts, release of protein and DNA, and formation of macroscopic aggregates. This response was not observed if the energy supply was reduced by inhibiting respiration with KCN, or if cells not induced for SDS degradation were exposed to SDS. Exposure to SDS caused cell lysis without aggregation if cells were completely deprived of energy, either by applying anoxic conditions, by addition of CCCP, or by addition of KCN to a mutant defective in cyanide-insensitive respiration. Aggregated cells showed a more than 100-fold higher survival rate after exposure to SDS plus CCCP than suspended cells. Our results demonstrate that cell aggregation is an energy-dependent response of P. aeruginosa to detergent stress which might serve as a survival strategy during growth with SDS. PMID:16775748

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Two-Component Regulator CarSR Regulates Calcium Homeostasis and Calcium-Induced Virulence Factor Production through Its Regulatory Targets CarO and CarP

    PubMed Central

    Guragain, Manita; King, Michelle M.; Williamson, Kerry S.; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khanam, Sharmily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes severe, life-threatening infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), endocarditis, wounds, or artificial implants. During CF pulmonary infections, P. aeruginosa often encounters environments where the levels of calcium (Ca2+) are elevated. Previously, we showed that P. aeruginosa responds to externally added Ca2+ through enhanced biofilm formation, increased production of several secreted virulence factors, and by developing a transient increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level, followed by its removal to the basal submicromolar level. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating Ca2+-induced virulence factor production and Ca2+ homeostasis are not known. Here, we characterized the genome-wide transcriptional response of P. aeruginosa to elevated [Ca2+] in both planktonic cultures and biofilms. Among the genes induced by CaCl2 in strain PAO1 was an operon containing the two-component regulator PA2656-PA2657 (here called carS and carR), while the closely related two-component regulators phoPQ and pmrAB were repressed by CaCl2 addition. To identify the regulatory targets of CarSR, we constructed a deletion mutant of carR and performed transcriptome analysis of the mutant strain at low and high [Ca2+]. Among the genes regulated by CarSR in response to CaCl2 are the predicted periplasmic OB-fold protein, PA0320 (here called carO), and the inner membrane-anchored five-bladed β-propeller protein, PA0327 (here called carP). Mutations in both carO and carP affected Ca2+ homeostasis, reducing the ability of P. aeruginosa to export excess Ca2+. In addition, a mutation in carP had a pleotropic effect in a Ca2+-dependent manner, altering swarming motility, pyocyanin production, and tobramycin sensitivity. Overall, the results indicate that the two-component system CarSR is responsible for sensing high levels of external Ca2+ and responding through its regulatory targets that

  11. Structures of the PelD Cyclic Diguanylate Effector Involved in Pellicle Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Jui-Hui; Hao, Yue; Nair, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    The second messenger bis-(3′–5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a vital role in the global regulation in bacteria. Here, we describe structural and biochemical characterization of a novel c-di-GMP effector PelD that is critical to the formation of pellicles by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present high-resolution structures of a cytosolic fragment of PelD in apo form and its complex with c-di-GMP. The structure contains a bi-domain architecture composed of a GAF domain (commonly found in cyclic nucleotide receptors) and a GGDEF domain (found in c-di-GMP synthesizing enzymes), with the latter binding to one molecule of c-di-GMP. The GGDEF domain has a degenerate active site but a conserved allosteric site (I-site), which we show binds c-di-GMP with a Kd of 0.5 μm. We identified a series of residues that are crucial for c-di-GMP binding, and confirmed the roles of these residues through biochemical characterization of site-specific variants. The structures of PelD represent a novel class of c-di-GMP effector and expand the knowledge of scaffolds that mediate c-di-GMP recognition. PMID:22810222

  12. The short-chain oxidoreductase Q9HYA2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 contains an atypical catalytic center.

    PubMed

    Huether, Robert; Mao, Qilong; Duax, William L; Umland, Timothy C

    2010-05-01

    The characteristic oxidation or reduction reaction mechanisms of short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) enzymes involve a highly conserved Asp-Ser-Tyr-Lys catalytic tetrad. The SCOR enzyme Q9HYA2 from the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recognized to possess an atypical catalytic tetrad composed of Lys118-Ser146-Thr159-Arg163. Orthologs of Q9HYA2 containing the unusual catalytic tetrad along with conserved substrate and cofactor recognition residues were identified in 27 additional species, the majority of which are bacterial pathogens. However, this atypical catalytic tetrad was not represented within the Protein Data Bank. The crystal structures of unligated and NADPH-complexed Q9HYA2 were determined at 2.3 A resolution. Structural alignment to a polyketide ketoreductase (KR), a typical SCOR, demonstrated that Q9HYA2's Lys118, Ser146, and Arg163 superimposed upon the KR's catalytic Asp114, Ser144, and Lys161, respectively. However, only the backbone of Q9HYA2's Thr159 overlapped KR's catalytic Tyr157. The Thr159 hydroxyl in apo Q9HYA2 is poorly positioned for participating in catalysis. In the Q9HYA2-NADPH complex, the Thr159 side chain was modeled in two alternate rotamers, one of which is positioned to interact with other members of the tetrad and the bound cofactor. A chloride ion is bound at the position normally occupied by the catalytic tyrosine hydroxyl. The putative active site of Q9HYA2 contains a chemical moiety at each catalytically important position of a typical SCOR enzyme. This is the first observation of a SCOR protein with this alternate catalytic center that includes threonine replacing the catalytic tyrosine and an ion replacing the hydroxyl moiety of the catalytic tyrosine.

  13. Enhancement of the Chaperone Activity of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Resulting from a Point-Specific Mutation Confers Heat Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Taek; Lee, Seung Sik; Mondal, Suvendu; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kim, Siu; Lee, Keun Woo; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC). This increased activity may have been associated with the proportionate increase in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction and enhanced hydrophobicity of S78C-PaAhpC. Homology modeling revealed that mutation of Ser78 to Cys78 resulted in a more compact decameric structure than that observed in WT-PaAhpC and decreased the atomic distance between the two neighboring sulfur atoms of Cys78 in the dimer-dimer interface of S78C-PaAhpC, which could be responsible for the enhanced hydrophobic interaction at the dimer-dimer interface. Furthermore, complementation assays showed that S78C-PaAhpC exhibited greatly improved the heat tolerance, resulting in enhanced survival under thermal stress. Thus, addition of Cys at position 78 in PaAhpC modulated the functional shifting of this protein from a peroxidase to a chaperone. PMID:27457208

  14. Enhancement of the Chaperone Activity of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Resulting from a Point-Specific Mutation Confers Heat Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Taek; Lee, Seung Sik; Mondal, Suvendu; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kim, Siu; Lee, Keun Woo; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2016-08-31

    Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC). This increased activity may have been associated with the proportionate increase in the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction and enhanced hydrophobicity of S78C-PaAhpC. Homology modeling revealed that mutation of Ser(78) to Cys(78) resulted in a more compact decameric structure than that observed in WT-PaAhpC and decreased the atomic distance between the two neighboring sulfur atoms of Cys(78) in the dimer-dimer interface of S78C-PaAhpC, which could be responsible for the enhanced hydrophobic interaction at the dimer-dimer interface. Furthermore, complementation assays showed that S78C-PaAhpC exhibited greatly improved the heat tolerance, resulting in enhanced survival under thermal stress. Thus, addition of Cys at position 78 in PaAhpC modulated the functional shifting of this protein from a peroxidase to a chaperone. PMID:27457208

  15. Regulation and characterization of the dadRAX locus for D-amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    He, Weiqing; Li, Congran; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2011-05-01

    D-amino acids are essential components for bacterial peptidoglycan, and these natural compounds are also involved in cell wall remodeling and biofilm disassembling. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the dadAX operon, encoding the D-amino acid dehydrogenase DadA and the amino acid racemase DadX, is essential for D- and L-Ala catabolism, and its expression requires a transcriptional regulator, DadR. In this study, purified recombinant DadA alone was sufficient to demonstrate the proposed enzymatic activity with very broad substrate specificity; it utilizes all D-amino acids tested as substrates except D-Glu and D-Gln. DadA also showed comparable k(cat) and K(m) values on D-Ala and several D-amino acids. dadRAX knockout mutants were constructed and subjected to analysis of their growth phenotypes on amino acids. The results revealed that utilization of L-Ala, L-Trp, D-Ala, and a specific set of D-amino acids as sole nitrogen sources was abolished in the dadA mutant and/or severely hampered in the dadR mutant while growth yield on D-amino acids was surprisingly improved in the dadX mutant. The dadA promoter was induced by several L-amino acids, most strongly by Ala, and only by D-Ala among all tested D-amino acids. Enhanced growth of the dadX mutant on D-amino acids is consistent with the finding that the dadA promoter was constitutively induced in the dadX mutant, where exogenous D-Ala but not L-Ala reduced the expression. Binding of DadR to the dadA regulatory region was demonstrated by electromobility shift assays, and the presence of L-Ala but not D-Ala increased affinity by 3-fold. The presence of multiple DadR-DNA complexes in the dadA regulatory region was demonstrated in vitro, and the formation of these nucleoprotein complexes exerted a complicated impact on promoter activation in vivo. In summary, the results from this study clearly demonstrate DadA to be the enzyme solely responsible for the proposed D-amino acid dehydrogenase activity of broad substrate

  16. Kinetic modeling of the time course of N-butyryl-homoserine lactone concentration during batch cultivations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Quorum sensing affects the regulation of more than 300 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, influencing growth, biofilm formation, and the biosynthesis of several products. The quorum sensing regulation mechanisms are mostly described in a qualitative character. Particularly, in this study, the kinetics of N-butyryl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and rhamnolipid formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 were of interest. In this system, the expression of the rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes rhlAB is directly coupled to the C4-HSL concentration via the rhl system. Batch cultivations in a bioreactor with sunflower oil have been used for these investigations. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3o-C12-HSL) displayed a lipophilic character and accumulated in the hydrophobic phase. Degradation of C4-HSL has been found to occur in the aqueous supernatant of the culture by yet unknown extracellular mechanisms, and production was found to be proportional to biomass concentration rather than by autoinduction mechanisms. Rhamnolipid production rates, as determined experimentally, were shown to correlate linearly with the concentration of autoinducer C4-HSL. These findings were used to derive a simple model, wherein a putative, extracellular protein with C4-HSL degrading activity was assumed (putative C4-HSL acylase). The model is based on data for catalytic efficiency of HSL-acylases extracted from literature (k cat/K m), experimentally determined basal C4-HSL production rates (q C4 - HSL (basal)), and two fitted parameters which describe the formation of the putative acylase and is therefore comparatively simple.

  17. Molecular characterization of PauR and its role in control of putrescine and cadaverine catabolism through the γ-glutamylation pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Chou, Han Ting; Li, Jeng-Yi; Peng, Yu-Chih; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 grows on a variety of polyamines as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Catabolism of polyamines is mediated by the γ-glutamylation pathway, which is complicated by the existence of multiple homologous enzymes with redundant specificities toward different polyamines for a more diverse metabolic capacity in this organism. Through a series of markerless gene knockout mutants and complementation tests, specific combinations of pauABCD (polyamine utilization) genes were deciphered for catabolism of different polyamines. Among six pauA genes, expression of pauA1, pauA2, pauA4, and pauA5 was found to be inducible by diamines putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) but not by diaminopropane. Activation of these promoters was regulated by the PauR repressor, as evidenced by constitutively active promoters in the pauR mutant. The activities of these promoters were further enhanced by exogenous PUT or CAD in the mutant devoid of all six pauA genes. The recombinant PauR protein with a hexahistidine tag at its N terminus was purified, and specific bindings of PauR to the promoter regions of most pau operons were demonstrated by electromobility shift assays. Potential interactions of PUT and CAD with PauR were also suggested by chemical cross-linkage analysis with glutaraldehyde. In comparison, growth on PUT was more proficient than that on CAD, and this observed growth phenotype was reflected in a strong catabolite repression of pauA promoter activation by CAD but was completely absent as reflected by activation by PUT. In summary, this study clearly establishes the function of PauR in control of pau promoters in response to PUT and CAD for their catabolism through the γ-glutamylation pathway.

  18. Mutation of active site serine residue with cysteine displays change in acyl-acceptor preference of β-peptidyl aminopeptidase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Arima, Jiro; Tanaka, Ayumi; Morimoto, Masazumi; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2014-02-01

    A β-peptidyl aminopeptidase, a peptidase belonging to the P1 family, catalyzes aminolysis in accordance with its hydrolytic activity. We specifically examined β-peptidyl aminopeptidase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (BapF) to assess the effects of mutation of catalytic Ser with Cys or Thr on its catalytic ability. Recombinant BapF and its S237C mutant exhibited p-nitroaniline release activity toward β-homo-Gly-p-nitroanilide (βhGly-pNA), but the products of the enzyme reaction differed completely from one another. Wild-type BapF showed βhGly-βhGly-pNA synthetic activity, but the product vanished in a few minutes and converted to free βhGly. In contrast, the product βhGly-βhGly-pNA was synthesized by S237C BapF efficiently without degradation, indicating that because of the mutation, the enzyme came to recognize only the amine group as an acyl acceptor instead of water. Furthermore, a difference in acyl acceptor preference between that of wild type and S237C BapF was observed. When using cysteamine as an acyl acceptor, βhGly-cysteamine was synthesized only in the reaction using S237C BapF. In contrast, S237C BapF was unable to synthesize βhGly-cystamine when using cystamine as an acyl acceptor, although it was synthesized by wild-type BapF. Such a dynamic change in the acyl acceptor by the mutation of catalytic Ser with Cys is regarded as a unique feature of family P1 peptidases.

  19. A novel L-aspartate dehydrogenase from the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: molecular characterization and application for L-aspartate production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Kawakami, Norika; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Ashida, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-06-01

    L-aspartate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.21; L: -AspDH) is a rare member of amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and so far, two thermophilic enzymes have been reported. In our study, an ORF PA3505 encoding for a putative L-AspDH in the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was identified, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The homogeneously purified enzyme (PaeAspDH) was a dimeric protein with a molecular mass of about 28 kDa exhibiting a very high specific activity for L-aspartate (L-Asp) and oxaloacetate (OAA) of 127 and 147 U mg(-1), respectively. The enzyme was capable of utilizing both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. PaeAspDH showed a T (m) value of 48°C for 20 min that was improved to approximately 60°C by the addition of 0.4 M NaCl or 30% glycerol. The apparent K (m) values for OAA, NADH, and ammonia were 2.12, 0.045, and 10.1 mM, respectively; comparable results were observed with NADPH. The L-Asp production system B consisting of PaeAspDH, Bacillus subtilis malate dehydrogenase and E. coli fumarase, achieved a high level of L-Asp production (625 mM) from fumarate in fed-batch process with a molar conversion yield of 89.4%. Furthermore, the fermentative production system C released 33 mM of L-Asp after 50 h by using succinate as carbon source. This study represented an extensive characterization of the mesophilic AspDH and its potential applicability for efficient and attractive production of L-Asp. Our novel production systems are also hopeful for developing the new processes for other compounds production.

  20. Involvement of NarK1 and NarK2 Proteins in Transport of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vandana; Noriega, Chris E.; Rowe, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Two transmembrane proteins were tentatively classified as NarK1 and NarK2 in the Pseudomonas genome project and hypothesized to play an important physiological role in nitrate/nitrite transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The narK1 and narK2 genes are located in a cluster along with the structural genes for the nitrate reductase complex. Our studies indicate that the transcription of all these genes is initiated from a single promoter and that the gene complex narK1K2GHJI constitutes an operon. Utilizing an isogenic narK1 mutant, a narK2 mutant, and a narK1K2 double mutant, we explored their effect on growth under denitrifying conditions. While the ΔnarK1::Gm mutant was only slightly affected in its ability to grow under denitrification conditions, both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants were found to be severely restricted in nitrate-dependent, anaerobic growth. All three strains demonstrated wild-type levels of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate uptake by whole-cell suspensions demonstrated both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants to have very low yet different nitrate uptake rates, while the ΔnarK1::Gm mutant exhibited wild-type levels of nitrate uptake. Finally, Escherichia coli narK rescued both the ΔnarK2::Gm and ΔnarK1K2::Gm mutants with respect to anaerobic respiratory growth. Our results indicate that only the NarK2 protein is required as a nitrate/nitrite transporter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrifying conditions. PMID:16391109

  1. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inner-core phosphates are required for complete LPS synthesis and transport to the outer membrane in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Delucia, Angela M; Six, David A; Caughlan, Ruth E; Gee, Patricia; Hunt, Ian; Lam, Joseph S; Dean, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) integrity is maintained in part by Mg(2+) cross-links between phosphates on lipid A and on core sugars of adjacent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. In contrast to other Gram-negative bacteria, waaP, encoding an inner-core kinase, could not be inactivated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To examine this further, expression of the kinases WaaP or WapP/WapQ/PA5006 was placed under the control of the arabinose-regulated pBAD promoter. Growth of these strains was arabinose dependent, confirming that core phosphorylation is essential in P. aeruginosa. Transmission electron micrographs of kinase-depleted cells revealed marked invaginations of the inner membrane. SDS-PAGE of total LPS from WaaP-depleted cells showed accumulation of a fast-migrating band. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed that LPS from these cells exhibits a unique truncated core consisting of two 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acids (Kdo), two l-glycero-d-manno-heptoses (Hep), and one hexose but completely devoid of phosphates, indicating that phosphorylation by WaaP is necessary for subsequent core phosphorylations. MS analysis of lipid A from WaaP-depleted cells revealed extensive 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose modification. OM prepared from these cells by Sarkosyl extraction of total membranes or by sucrose density gradient centrifugation lacked truncated LPS. Instead, truncated LPS was detected in the inner membrane fractions, consistent with impaired transport/assembly of this species into the OM. IMPORTANCE Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane (OM) comprised of a phospholipid inner leaflet and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer leaflet. The OM protects cells from toxic molecules and is important for survival during infection. The LPS core kinase gene waaP can be deleted in several Gram-negative bacteria but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used a controlled-expression system to deplete WaaP directly in P. aeruginosa cells, which halted growth. WaaP depletion

  2. Identification of a genomic island present in the majority of pathogenic isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liang, X; Pham, X Q; Olson, M V; Lory, S

    2001-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing a wide range of environmental niches and can also cause serious infections in humans. In order to understand the genetic makeup of pathogenic P. aeruginosa strains, a method of differential hybridization of arrayed libraries of cloned DNA fragments was developed. An M13 library of DNA from strain X24509, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was screened using a DNA probe from P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. The genome of PAO1 has been recently sequenced and can be used as a reference for comparisons of genetic organization in different strains. M13 clones that did not react with a DNA probe from PAO1 carried X24509-specific inserts. When a similar array hybridization analysis with DNA probes from different strains was used, a set of M13 clones which carried sequences present in the majority of human P. aeruginosa isolates from a wide range of clinical sources was identified. The inserts of these clones were used to identify cosmids encompassing a contiguous 48.9-kb region of the X24509 chromosome called PAGI-1 (for "P. aeruginosa genomic island 1"). PAGI-1 is incorporated in the X24509 chromosome at a locus that shows a deletion of a 6,729-bp region present in strain PAO1. Survey of the incidence of PAGI-1 revealed that this island is present in 85% of the strains from clinical sources. Approximately half of the PAGI-1-carrying strains show the same deletion as X24509, while the remaining strains contain both the PAGI-1 sequences and the 6,729-bp PAO1 segment. Sequence analysis of PAGI-1 revealed that it contains 51 predicted open reading frames. Several of these genes encoded products with predictable function based on their sequence similarities to known genes, including insertion sequences, determinants of regulatory proteins, a number of dehydrogenase gene homologs, and two for proteins of implicated in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. It is very

  3. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  4. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs. PMID:22666015

  5. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) Bud Extract

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‐hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs. PMID:22666015

  6. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Inner-Core Phosphates Are Required for Complete LPS Synthesis and Transport to the Outer Membrane in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    DeLucia, Angela M.; Six, David A.; Caughlan, Ruth E.; Gee, Patricia; Hunt, Ian; Lam, Joseph S.; Dean, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) integrity is maintained in part by Mg2+ cross-links between phosphates on lipid A and on core sugars of adjacent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. In contrast to other Gram-negative bacteria, waaP, encoding an inner-core kinase, could not be inactivated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To examine this further, expression of the kinases WaaP or WapP/WapQ/PA5006 was placed under the control of the arabinose-regulated pBAD promoter. Growth of these strains was arabinose dependent, confirming that core phosphorylation is essential in P. aeruginosa. Transmission electron micrographs of kinase-depleted cells revealed marked invaginations of the inner membrane. SDS-PAGE of total LPS from WaaP-depleted cells showed accumulation of a fast-migrating band. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed that LPS from these cells exhibits a unique truncated core consisting of two 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acids (Kdo), two l-glycero-d-manno-heptoses (Hep), and one hexose but completely devoid of phosphates, indicating that phosphorylation by WaaP is necessary for subsequent core phosphorylations. MS analysis of lipid A from WaaP-depleted cells revealed extensive 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose modification. OM prepared from these cells by Sarkosyl extraction of total membranes or by sucrose density gradient centrifugation lacked truncated LPS. Instead, truncated LPS was detected in the inner membrane fractions, consistent with impaired transport/assembly of this species into the OM. PMID:21810964

  7. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genomic Structure and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Klockgether, Jens; Cramer, Nina; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Davenport, Colin F.; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome (G + C content 65–67%, size 5.5–7 Mbp) is made up of a single circular chromosome and a variable number of plasmids. Sequencing of complete genomes or blocks of the accessory genome has revealed that the genome encodes a large repertoire of transporters, transcriptional regulators, and two-component regulatory systems which reflects its metabolic diversity to utilize a broad range of nutrients. The conserved core component of the genome is largely collinear among P. aeruginosa strains and exhibits an interclonal sequence diversity of 0.5–0.7%. Only a few loci of the core genome are subject to diversifying selection. Genome diversity is mainly caused by accessory DNA elements located in 79 regions of genome plasticity that are scattered around the genome and show an anomalous usage of mono- to tetradecanucleotides. Genomic islands of the pKLC102/PAGI-2 family that integrate into tRNALys or tRNAGly genes represent hotspots of inter- and intraclonal genomic diversity. The individual islands differ in their repertoire of metabolic genes that make a large contribution to the pangenome. In order to unravel intraclonal diversity of P. aeruginosa, the genomes of two members of the PA14 clonal complex from diverse habitats and geographic origin were compared. The genome sequences differed by less than 0.01% from each other. One hundred ninety-eight of the 231 single nucleotide substitutions (SNPs) were non-randomly distributed in the genome. Non-synonymous SNPs were mainly found in an integrated Pf1-like phage and in genes involved in transcriptional regulation, membrane and extracellular constituents, transport, and secretion. In summary, P. aeruginosa is endowed with a highly conserved core genome of low sequence diversity and a highly variable accessory genome that communicates with other pseudomonads and genera via horizontal gene transfer. PMID:21808635

  9. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A. )

    1990-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Evolution in Patients and under the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Redelberger, David; Chambonnier, Gaël; Rechenmann, François; Elsen, Sylvie; Bordi, Christophe; Jeannot, Katy; Attrée, Ina; Plésiat, Patrick; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative environmental species and an opportunistic microorganism, establishing itself in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF) or those hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU). It has become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and a serious threat to Public Health because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics that have selected highly resistant strains against which very few therapeutic options exist. Herein is illustrated the intraclonal evolution of the genome of sequential isolates collected in a single CF patient from the early phase of pulmonary colonization to the fatal outcome. We also examined at the whole genome scale a pair of genotypically-related strains made of a drug susceptible, environmental isolate recovered from an ICU sink and of its multidrug resistant counterpart found to infect an ICU patient. Multiple genetic changes accumulated in the CF isolates over the disease time course including SNPs, deletion events and reduction of whole genome size. The strain isolated from the ICU patient displayed an increase in the genome size of 4.8% with major genetic rearrangements as compared to the initial environmental strain. The annotated genomes are given in free access in an interactive web application WallGene designed to facilitate large-scale comparative analysis and thus allowing investigators to explore homologies and syntenies between P. aeruginosa strains, here PAO1 and the five clinical strains described. PMID:25437802

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Genome Evolution in Patients and under the Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Redelberger, David; Chambonnier, Gaël; Rechenmann, François; Elsen, Sylvie; Bordi, Christophe; Jeannot, Katy; Attrée, Ina; Plésiat, Patrick; de Bentzmann, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative environmental species and an opportunistic microorganism, establishing itself in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF) or those hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU). It has become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and a serious threat to Public Health because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics that have selected highly resistant strains against which very few therapeutic options exist. Herein is illustrated the intraclonal evolution of the genome of sequential isolates collected in a single CF patient from the early phase of pulmonary colonization to the fatal outcome. We also examined at the whole genome scale a pair of genotypically-related strains made of a drug susceptible, environmental isolate recovered from an ICU sink and of its multidrug resistant counterpart found to infect an ICU patient. Multiple genetic changes accumulated in the CF isolates over the disease time course including SNPs, deletion events and reduction of whole genome size. The strain isolated from the ICU patient displayed an increase in the genome size of 4.8% with major genetic rearrangements as compared to the initial environmental strain. The annotated genomes are given in free access in an interactive web application WallGene  designed to facilitate large-scale comparative analysis and thus allowing investigators to explore homologies and syntenies between P. aeruginosa strains, here PAO1 and the five clinical strains described.

  12. Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Share a Core Proteomic Signature

    PubMed Central

    Penesyan, Anahit; Kumar, Sheemal S.; Kamath, Karthik; Shathili, Abdulrahman M.; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Krisp, Christoph; Packer, Nicolle H.; Molloy, Mark P.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the main colonizers of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have isolated and sequenced several P. aeruginosa isolates from the sputum of CF patients and compared them with each other and with the model strain PAO1. Phenotypic analysis of CF isolates showed significant variability in colonization and virulence-related traits suggesting different strategies for adaptation to the CF lung. Genomic analysis indicated these strains shared a large set of core genes with the standard laboratory strain PAO1, and identified the genetic basis for some of the observed phenotypic differences. Proteomics revealed that in a conventional laboratory medium PAO1 expressed 827 proteins that were absent in the CF isolates while the CF isolates shared a distinctive signature set of 703 proteins not detected in PAO1. PAO1 expressed many transporters for the uptake of organic nutrients and relatively few biosynthetic pathways. Conversely, the CF isolates expressed a narrower range of transporters and a broader set of metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides and polyamines. The proteomic data suggests that in a common laboratory medium PAO1 may transport a diverse set of “ready-made” nutrients from the rich medium, whereas the CF isolates may only utilize a limited number of nutrients from the medium relying mainly on their own metabolism for synthesis of essential nutrients. These variations indicate significant differences between the metabolism and physiology of P. aeruginosa CF isolates and PAO1 that cannot be detected at the genome level alone. The widening gap between the increasing genomic data and the lack of phenotypic data means that researchers are increasingly reliant on extrapolating from genomic comparisons using experimentally characterized model organisms such as PAO1. While comparative genomics can provide valuable information, our data suggests that such

  13. Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Share a Core Proteomic Signature.

    PubMed

    Penesyan, Anahit; Kumar, Sheemal S; Kamath, Karthik; Shathili, Abdulrahman M; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Krisp, Christoph; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the main colonizers of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have isolated and sequenced several P. aeruginosa isolates from the sputum of CF patients and compared them with each other and with the model strain PAO1. Phenotypic analysis of CF isolates showed significant variability in colonization and virulence-related traits suggesting different strategies for adaptation to the CF lung. Genomic analysis indicated these strains shared a large set of core genes with the standard laboratory strain PAO1, and identified the genetic basis for some of the observed phenotypic differences. Proteomics revealed that in a conventional laboratory medium PAO1 expressed 827 proteins that were absent in the CF isolates while the CF isolates shared a distinctive signature set of 703 proteins not detected in PAO1. PAO1 expressed many transporters for the uptake of organic nutrients and relatively few biosynthetic pathways. Conversely, the CF isolates expressed a narrower range of transporters and a broader set of metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides and polyamines. The proteomic data suggests that in a common laboratory medium PAO1 may transport a diverse set of "ready-made" nutrients from the rich medium, whereas the CF isolates may only utilize a limited number of nutrients from the medium relying mainly on their own metabolism for synthesis of essential nutrients. These variations indicate significant differences between the metabolism and physiology of P. aeruginosa CF isolates and PAO1 that cannot be detected at the genome level alone. The widening gap between the increasing genomic data and the lack of phenotypic data means that researchers are increasingly reliant on extrapolating from genomic comparisons using experimentally characterized model organisms such as PAO1. While comparative genomics can provide valuable information, our data suggests that such

  14. Genome Diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Finnan, Shirley; Morrissey, John P.; O'Gara, Fergal; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative rod that is ubiquitous in nature. P. aeruginosa is also the quintessential opportunistic pathogen, causing a wide variety of infections in compromised hosts. In cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa is the leading cause of death. In this study, the evolutionary genetic relationships among 17 P. aeruginosa isolates were examined by comparative sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene encoding malate dehydrogenase and the chaperone groEL. The P. aeruginosa isolates examined included the sequenced strain PAO1, 11 strains recovered from cystic fibrosis patients in Ireland, 4 environmental isolates recovered from a hospital environment, and 1 isolate recovered from a plant rhizosphere. Phylogenetically, clinical and environmental isolates clustered together with one another on the mdh gene tree. At the groEL locus, among the 17 isolates examined, only two polymorphic sites were observed, highlighting the close genetic relationship between isolates from these different environments. Phenotypic analysis of 12 traits among our isolates, however, found that only clinical isolates produced phenazines and elastase. Furthermore, molecular analysis of the distribution of 15 regions associated with virulence showed that two of the environmental isolates examined lacked the majority of regions. Among the clinical isolates examined, the 15 virulence regions were variably present. The distribution of two prophages (Bacto1, Pf1) was also determined, with most isolates encoding both these regions. Of the four genomic islands (the flagellum island and PAGI-1, -2, and -3) examined, only two isolates contained the flagellum island, and PAGI-1, -2, and -3 were absent from all isolates tested. Our data demonstrate the significant role horizontal gene transfer and recombination, together with gene loss, play in the evolution of this important human pathogen. PMID:15583313

  15. The Influence of Maggot Excretions on PAO1 Biofilm Formation on Different Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Bouwman, Lee H.; Bernards, Alexandra T.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in wounds and on biomaterials is increasingly recognized as a problem. It therefore is important to focus on new strategies for eradicating severe biofilm-associated infections. The beneficial effects of maggots (Lucilia sericata) in wounds have been known for centuries. We hypothesized sterile maggot excretions and secretions (ES) could prevent, inhibit, and break down biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) on different biomaterials. Therefore, we investigated biofilm formation on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. Furthermore, we compared the biofilm reduction capacity of Instar-1 and Instar-3 maggot ES and tested the temperature tolerance of ES. After biofilms formed in M63 nutrient medium on comb-forming models of the biomaterials, ES solutions in phosphate-buffered saline or M63 were added in different concentrations. PAO1 biofilms adhered tightly to polyethylene and titanium but weakly to stainless steel. Maggot ES prevent and inhibit PAO1 biofilm formation and even break down existing biofilms. ES still had considerable biofilm reduction properties after storage at room temperature for 1 month. ES from Instar-3 maggots were more effective than ES from Instar-1 maggots. These results may be relevant to patient care as biofilms complicate the treatment of infections associated with orthopaedic implants. PMID:18923881

  16. Genomic Rearrangements and Functional Diversification of lecA and lecB Lectin-Coding Regions Impacting the Efficacy of Glycomimetics Directed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Boukerb, Amine M; Decor, Aude; Ribun, Sébastien; Tabaroni, Rachel; Rousset, Audric; Commin, Loris; Buff, Samuel; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    LecA and LecB tetrameric lectins take part in oligosaccharide-mediated adhesion-processes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Glycomimetics have been designed to block these interactions. The great versatility of P. aeruginosa suggests that the range of application of these glycomimetics could be restricted to genotypes with particular lectin types. The likelihood of having genomic and genetic changes impacting LecA and LecB interactions with glycomimetics such as galactosylated and fucosylated calix[4]arene was investigated over a collection of strains from the main clades of P. aeruginosa. Lectin types were defined, and their ligand specificities were inferred. These analyses showed a loss of lecA among the PA7 clade. Genomic changes impacting lec loci were thus assessed using strains of this clade, and by making comparisons with the PAO1 genome. The lecA regions were found challenged by phage attacks and PAGI-2 (genomic island) integrations. A prophage was linked to the loss of lecA. The lecB regions were found less impacted by such rearrangements but greater lecB than lecA genetic divergences were recorded. Sixteen combinations of LecA and LecB types were observed. Amino acid variations were mapped on PAO1 crystal structures. Most significant changes were observed on LecBPA7, and found close to the fucose binding site. Glycan array analyses were performed with purified LecBPA7. LecBPA7 was found less specific for fucosylated oligosaccharides than LecBPAO1, with a preference for H type 2 rather than type 1, and Lewis(a) rather than Lewis(x). Comparison of the crystal structures of LecBPA7 and LecBPAO1 in complex with Lewis(a) showed these changes in specificity to have resulted from a modification of the water network between the lectin, galactose and GlcNAc residues. Incidence of these modifications on the interactions with calix[4]arene glycomimetics at the cell level was investigated. An aggregation test was used to establish the efficacy of these ligands. Great

  17. Genomic Rearrangements and Functional Diversification of lecA and lecB Lectin-Coding Regions Impacting the Efficacy of Glycomimetics Directed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Boukerb, Amine M.; Decor, Aude; Ribun, Sébastien; Tabaroni, Rachel; Rousset, Audric; Commin, Loris; Buff, Samuel; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Vidal, Sébastien; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    LecA and LecB tetrameric lectins take part in oligosaccharide-mediated adhesion-processes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Glycomimetics have been designed to block these interactions. The great versatility of P. aeruginosa suggests that the range of application of these glycomimetics could be restricted to genotypes with particular lectin types. The likelihood of having genomic and genetic changes impacting LecA and LecB interactions with glycomimetics such as galactosylated and fucosylated calix[4]arene was investigated over a collection of strains from the main clades of P. aeruginosa. Lectin types were defined, and their ligand specificities were inferred. These analyses showed a loss of lecA among the PA7 clade. Genomic changes impacting lec loci were thus assessed using strains of this clade, and by making comparisons with the PAO1 genome. The lecA regions were found challenged by phage attacks and PAGI-2 (genomic island) integrations. A prophage was linked to the loss of lecA. The lecB regions were found less impacted by such rearrangements but greater lecB than lecA genetic divergences were recorded. Sixteen combinations of LecA and LecB types were observed. Amino acid variations were mapped on PAO1 crystal structures. Most significant changes were observed on LecBPA7, and found close to the fucose binding site. Glycan array analyses were performed with purified LecBPA7. LecBPA7 was found less specific for fucosylated oligosaccharides than LecBPAO1, with a preference for H type 2 rather than type 1, and Lewisa rather than Lewisx. Comparison of the crystal structures of LecBPA7 and LecBPAO1 in complex with Lewisa showed these changes in specificity to have resulted from a modification of the water network between the lectin, galactose and GlcNAc residues. Incidence of these modifications on the interactions with calix[4]arene glycomimetics at the cell level was investigated. An aggregation test was used to establish the efficacy of these ligands. Great variations

  18. The Genomic Basis of Evolutionary Innovation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Toll-Riera, Macarena; San Millan, Alvaro; Wagner, Andreas; MacLean, R Craig

    2016-05-01

    Novel traits play a key role in evolution, but their origins remain poorly understood. Here we address this problem by using experimental evolution to study bacterial innovation in real time. We allowed 380 populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adapt to 95 different carbon sources that challenged bacteria with either evolving novel metabolic traits or optimizing existing traits. Whole genome sequencing of more than 80 clones revealed profound differences in the genetic basis of innovation and optimization. Innovation was associated with the rapid acquisition of mutations in genes involved in transcription and metabolism. Mutations in pre-existing duplicate genes in the P. aeruginosa genome were common during innovation, but not optimization. These duplicate genes may have been acquired by P. aeruginosa due to either spontaneous gene amplification or horizontal gene transfer. High throughput phenotype assays revealed that novelty was associated with increased pleiotropic costs that are likely to constrain innovation. However, mutations in duplicate genes with close homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome were associated with low pleiotropic costs compared to mutations in duplicate genes with distant homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome, suggesting that functional redundancy between duplicates facilitates innovation by buffering pleiotropic costs.

  19. The Genomic Basis of Evolutionary Innovation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; MacLean, R. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Novel traits play a key role in evolution, but their origins remain poorly understood. Here we address this problem by using experimental evolution to study bacterial innovation in real time. We allowed 380 populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adapt to 95 different carbon sources that challenged bacteria with either evolving novel metabolic traits or optimizing existing traits. Whole genome sequencing of more than 80 clones revealed profound differences in the genetic basis of innovation and optimization. Innovation was associated with the rapid acquisition of mutations in genes involved in transcription and metabolism. Mutations in pre-existing duplicate genes in the P. aeruginosa genome were common during innovation, but not optimization. These duplicate genes may have been acquired by P. aeruginosa due to either spontaneous gene amplification or horizontal gene transfer. High throughput phenotype assays revealed that novelty was associated with increased pleiotropic costs that are likely to constrain innovation. However, mutations in duplicate genes with close homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome were associated with low pleiotropic costs compared to mutations in duplicate genes with distant homologs in the P. aeruginosa genome, suggesting that functional redundancy between duplicates facilitates innovation by buffering pleiotropic costs. PMID:27149698

  20. Evolutionary genomics of epidemic and nonepidemic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Dettman, Jeremy R.; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Aaron, Shawn D.; Kassen, Rees

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Prolonged infection of the respiratory tract can lead to adaptation of the pathogen to the CF lung environment. To examine the general patterns of adaptation associated with chronic infection, we obtained genome sequences from a collection of P. aeruginosa isolated from airways of patients with CF. Our analyses support a nonclonal epidemic population structure, with a background of unique, recombining genotypes, and the rare occurrence of successful epidemic clones. We present unique genome sequence evidence for the intercontinental spread of an epidemic strain shared between CF clinics in the United Kingdom and North America. Analyses of core and accessory genomes identified candidate genes and important functional pathways associated with adaptive evolution. Many genes of interest were involved in biological functions with obvious roles in this pathosystem, such as biofilm formation, antibiotic metabolism, pathogenesis, transport, reduction/oxidation, and secretion. Key factors driving the adaptive evolution of this pathogen within the host appear to be the presence of oxidative stressors and antibiotics. Regions of the accessory genome unique to the epidemic strain were enriched for genes in transporter families that efflux heavy metals and antibiotics. The epidemic strain was significantly more resistant than nonepidemic strains to three different antibiotics. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that selection imposed by the CF lung environment has a major influence on genomic evolution and the genetic characteristics of P. aeruginosa isolates causing contemporary infection. PMID:24324153

  1. pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and the spread of catabolic traits by horizontal gene transfer in gram-positive soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mihasan, Marius; Brandsch, Roderich

    2013-08-01

    The 165-kb megaplasmid pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans carries two large gene clusters, one involved in nicotine catabolism (nic-gene cluster) and one in carbohydrate utilization (ch-gene cluster). Here, we propose that both gene clusters were acquired by A. nicotinovorans by horizontal gene transfer mediated by pAO1. Protein-protein blast search showed that none of the published Arthrobacter genomes contains nic-genes, but Rhodococcus opacus carries on its chromosome a nic-gene cluster highly similar to that of pAO1. Analysis of the nic-genes in the two species suggested a recombination event between their nic-gene clusters. Apparently, there was a gene exchange between pAO1, or a precursor plasmid, and a nic-gene cluster of an as yet unidentified Arthrobacter specie or other soil bacterium, possibly related to Rhodococcus, leading to the transfer by pAO1 of this catabolic trait to A. nicotinovorans. Analysis of the pAO1 ch-gene cluster revealed a virtually identical counterpart on the chromosome of Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans. Moreover, the sequence analysis of the genes flanking the ch-gene cluster suggested that it was acquired by pAO1 by Xer-related site directed recombination and transferred via the plasmid to A. nicotinovorans. The G+C content, the level of sequence identity, gene co-linearity of nic- and ch-gene clusters as well as the signs of recombination events clearly supports the notion of pAO1 and its precursor plasmids as vehicles in HGT among Gram + soil bacteria.

  2. Characterization of an Endoprotease (PrpL) Encoded by a PvdS-Regulated Gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, Paula J.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Johnson, Zaiga; Wilson, Megan J.; Cunliffe, Heather E.; Lamont, Iain L.; Vasil, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    The expression of many virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent upon environmental conditions, including iron levels, oxygen, temperature, and osmolarity. The virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 is influenced by the iron- and oxygen-regulated gene encoding the alternative sigma factor PvdS, which is regulated through the ferric uptake regulator (Fur). We observed that overexpression of PvdS in strain PAO1 and a ΔpvdS::Gm mutant resulted in increased pyoverdine production and proteolytic activity compared to when PvdS was not overexpressed. To identify additional PvdS-regulated genes, we compared extracellular protein profiles from PAO1 and the ΔpvdS::Gm mutant grown under iron-deficient conditions. A protein present in culture supernatants from PAO1 but not in supernatants from ΔpvdS::Gm was investigated. Amino acid sequence analysis and examination of the genomic database of PAO1 revealed that the N terminus of this 27-kDa protein is identical to that of protease IV of P. aeruginosa strain PA103-29 and is homologous to an endoprotease produced by Lysobacter enzymogenes. In this study, the gene encoding an endoprotease was cloned from PAO1 and designated prpL (PvdS-regulated endoprotease, lysyl class). All (n = 41) but one of the strains of P. aeruginosa, including clinical and environmental isolates, examined carry prpL. Moreover, PrpL production among these strains was highly variable. Analysis of RNase protection assays identified the transcription initiation site of prpL and confirmed that its transcription is iron dependent. In the ΔpvdS::Gm mutant, the level of prpL transcription was iron independent and decreased relative to the level in PAO1. Furthermore, transcription of prpL was independent of PtxR, a PvdS-regulated protein. Finally, PrpL cleaves casein, lactoferrin, transferrin, elastin, and decorin and contributes to PAO1's ability to persist in a rat chronic pulmonary infection model. PMID:11500408

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain RB, a Bacterium Capable of Synthesizing Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Masashi; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RB is a bacterium capable of synthesizing cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and was isolated from a soil sample. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain RB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a draft genome of a CdSe-synthesizing bacterium.

  4. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-02-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ∆sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  5. Network-assisted investigation of virulence and antibiotic-resistance systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Ji, Sun-Gou; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Hanhae; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Ara; Yoon, Sang Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance. Although the genome of PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, has been extensively studied, approximately one-third of the functional genome remains unknown. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic and anti-virulence strategies, which may be facilitated by an approach that explores P. aeruginosa gene function in systems-level models. Here, we present a genome-wide functional network of P. aeruginosa genes, PseudomonasNet, which covers 98% of the coding genome, and a companion web server to generate functional hypotheses using various network-search algorithms. We demonstrate that PseudomonasNet-assisted predictions can effectively identify novel genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, an antibiotic-resistance network based on PseudomonasNet reveals that P. aeruginosa has common modular genetic organisations that confer increased or decreased resistance to diverse antibiotics, which accounts for the pervasiveness of cross-resistance across multiple drugs. The same network also suggests that P. aeruginosa has developed mechanism of trade-off in resistance across drugs by altering genetic interactions. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-scale functional network to investigate pathogenic systems in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27194047

  6. Network-assisted investigation of virulence and antibiotic-resistance systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Ji, Sun-Gou; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Hanhae; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Ara; Yoon, Sang Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance. Although the genome of PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, has been extensively studied, approximately one-third of the functional genome remains unknown. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic and anti-virulence strategies, which may be facilitated by an approach that explores P. aeruginosa gene function in systems-level models. Here, we present a genome-wide functional network of P. aeruginosa genes, PseudomonasNet, which covers 98% of the coding genome, and a companion web server to generate functional hypotheses using various network-search algorithms. We demonstrate that PseudomonasNet-assisted predictions can effectively identify novel genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, an antibiotic-resistance network based on PseudomonasNet reveals that P. aeruginosa has common modular genetic organisations that confer increased or decreased resistance to diverse antibiotics, which accounts for the pervasiveness of cross-resistance across multiple drugs. The same network also suggests that P. aeruginosa has developed mechanism of trade-off in resistance across drugs by altering genetic interactions. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-scale functional network to investigate pathogenic systems in P. aeruginosa.

  7. Network-assisted investigation of virulence and antibiotic-resistance systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Ji, Sun-Gou; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Hanhae; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Ara; Yoon, Sang Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-05-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance. Although the genome of PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, has been extensively studied, approximately one-third of the functional genome remains unknown. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic and anti-virulence strategies, which may be facilitated by an approach that explores P. aeruginosa gene function in systems-level models. Here, we present a genome-wide functional network of P. aeruginosa genes, PseudomonasNet, which covers 98% of the coding genome, and a companion web server to generate functional hypotheses using various network-search algorithms. We demonstrate that PseudomonasNet-assisted predictions can effectively identify novel genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, an antibiotic-resistance network based on PseudomonasNet reveals that P. aeruginosa has common modular genetic organisations that confer increased or decreased resistance to diverse antibiotics, which accounts for the pervasiveness of cross-resistance across multiple drugs. The same network also suggests that P. aeruginosa has developed mechanism of trade-off in resistance across drugs by altering genetic interactions. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-scale functional network to investigate pathogenic systems in P. aeruginosa.

  8. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA41, with Changed Metabolism after Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Juan; Fang, Xiangqun; Zhang, Duchao; Chang, De; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinhua; Dai, Wenkui; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-09

    To explore the effects of space flight on microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was sent into orbit for 398 h on the spacecraft ShenZhou VIII. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA41, determined after space flight.

  9. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA41, with Changed Metabolism after Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Juan; Fang, Xiangqun; Zhang, Duchao; Chang, De; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinhua; Dai, Wenkui

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effects of space flight on microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was sent into orbit for 398 h on the spacecraft ShenZhou VIII. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA41, determined after space flight. PMID:24407638

  10. Characterization and Comparative Genomic Analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaoP5: New Members Assigned to PAK_P1-like Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Gang; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Wei; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan; Lu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    As a potential alternative to antibiotics, phages can be used to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. As such, the biological characteristics of phages should be investigated to utilize them as effective antimicrobial agents. In this study, phage PaoP5, a lytic virus that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, was isolated and genomically characterized. PaoP5 comprises an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 69 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 120 nm. The PaoP5 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 93,464 base pairs (bp) with 49.51% G + C content of 11 tRNA genes and a 1,200 bp terminal redundancy. A total of 176 protein-coding genes were predicted in the PaoP5 genome. Nine PaoP5 structural proteins were identified. Three hypothetical proteins were determined as structural. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that seven new Pseudomonas phages, namely, PaoP5, K8, C11, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab02, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab08, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab10, and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab15, were similar to PAK_P1-like viruses. Phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses suggested that the new phages should be assigned to PAK_P1-like viruses, which possess approximately 100 core genes and 150 accessory genes. This work presents a detailed and comparative analysis of PaoP5 to enhance our understanding of phage biology. PMID:27659070

  11. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  12. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  13. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  14. A Tribute to Disorder in the Genome of the Bloom-Forming Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Jean-François; Barbe, Valérie; Latifi, Amel; Gugger, Muriel; Calteau, Alexandra; Coursin, Therese; Lajus, Aurélie; Castelli, Vanina; Oztas, Sophie; Samson, Gaëlle; Longin, Cyrille; Medigue, Claudine; de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau

    2013-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This species produces numerous secondary metabolites, including microcystins, which are harmful to human health. We sequenced the genomes of ten strains of M. aeruginosa in order to explore the genomic basis of their ability to occupy varied environments and proliferate. Our findings show that M. aeruginosa genomes are characterized by having a large open pangenome, and that each genome contains similar proportions of core and flexible genes. By comparing the GC content of each gene to the mean value of the whole genome, we estimated that in each genome, around 11% of the genes seem to result from recent horizontal gene transfer events. Moreover, several large gene clusters resulting from HGT (up to 19 kb) have been found, illustrating the ability of this species to integrate such large DNA molecules. It appeared also that all M. aeruginosa displays a large genomic plasticity, which is characterized by a high proportion of repeat sequences and by low synteny values between the strains. Finally, we identified 13 secondary metabolite gene clusters, including three new putative clusters. When comparing the genomes of Microcystis and Prochlorococcus, one of the dominant picocyanobacteria living in marine ecosystems, our findings show that they are characterized by having almost opposite evolutionary strategies, both of which have led to ecological success in their respective environments. PMID:23950996

  15. Construction and Analysis of Photolyase Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas syringae: Contribution of Photoreactivation, Nucleotide Excision Repair, and Mutagenic DNA Repair to Cell Survival and Mutability following Exposure to UV-B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae J.; Sundin, George W.

    2001-01-01

    Based on nucleotide sequence homology with the Escherichia coli photolyase gene (phr), the phr sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was identified from the genome sequence, amplified by PCR, cloned, and shown to complement a known phr mutation following expression in Escherichia coli SY2. Stable, insertional phr mutants containing a tetracycline resistance gene cassette were constructed in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. syringae pv. syringae FF5 by homologous recombination and sucrose-mediated counterselection. These mutants showed a decrease in survival compared to the wild type of as much as 19-fold after irradiation at UV-B doses of 1,000 to 1,550 J m−2 followed by a recovery period under photoreactivating conditions. A phr uvrA mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was markedly sensitive to UV-B irradiation exhibiting a decrease in survival of 6 orders of magnitude following a UV-B dose of 250 J m−2. Complementation of the phr mutations in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. syringae pv. syringae FF5 using the cloned phr gene from strain PAO1 resulted in a restoration of survival following UV-B irradiation and recovery under photoreactivating conditions. The UV-B survival of the phr mutants could also be complemented by the P. syringae mutagenic DNA repair determinant rulAB. Assays for increases in the frequency of spontaneous rifampin-resistant mutants in UV-B-irradiated strains containing rulAB indicated that significant UV-B mutability (up to a 51-fold increase compared to a nonirradiated control strain) occurred even in the wild-type PAO1 background in which rulAB only enhanced the UV-B survival by 2-fold under photoreactivating conditions. The frequency of occurrence of spontaneous nalidixic acid-resistant mutants in the PAO1 uvrA and uvrA phr backgrounds complemented with rulAB were 3.8 × 10−5 and 2.1 × 10−3, respectively, following a UV-B dose of 1,550 J m−2. The construction and characterization of phr mutants in the present study will facilitate the

  16. Determination of genome size of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PFGE: analysis of restriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Hector, J S; Johnson, A R

    1990-01-01

    Genomic DNA size was measured in three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 29260 (exotoxin A), ATCC 33467 (type I smooth) and ATCC 33468 (type 2 mucoid) by transverse alternating field electrophoresis of restriction fragments. Because of the high (67%) G + C content of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, restriction enzymes that recognize sequences with at least 4 AT base pairs were expected to be rare cutters. Eight enzymes produced fragments greater than 200 kb in size: Dral (TTT/AAA), Asnl (ATT/AAT), Hpal (GTT/AAC), AfIII (C/TTAAG), Xbal (T/CTAGA), Spel (A/CTAGT), Sspl (AAT/ATT) and Ndel (CA/TATG). All eight enzymes recognized one of three rare tetranucleotide sequences, TTAA, CTAG or ATAT. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 29260 has a genomic DNA size of 5573 kb. Strains 33467 and 33468 have identical restriction patterns and a possible deletion with a genomic size of 5407 kb. Images PMID:1972559

  17. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering.

    PubMed

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as "genomic islands (GIs)." To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, "GEMINI." GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa.

  18. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as “genomic islands (GIs).” To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, “GEMINI.” GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:27536294

  19. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering.

    PubMed

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as "genomic islands (GIs)." To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, "GEMINI." GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:27536294

  20. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic bacteriophage PA1O which resembles temperate bacteriophage D3112.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shukho; Rahman, Marzia; Kim, Jungmin

    2012-03-01

    A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic bacteriophage (phage), PA1Ø, was isolated, and its genome was sequenced completely. This phage is able to lyse not only P. aeruginosa but also Staphylococcus aureus. Genome analysis of PA1Ø showed that it is similar to a P. aeruginosa temperate phage, D3112, with the exception of the absence of a c repressor-encoding gene, which is known to play a critical role in the maintenance of the lysogenic state of D3112 in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22354942

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage-Resistant Variant PA1RG

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Jing; Shen, Wei; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved several defense systems against phage predation. Here, we report the 6,500,439-bp complete genome sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage-resistant variant PA1RG. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 320-fold sequence coverage. PMID:26893434

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Able To Decompose N,N-Dimethyl Formamide

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming; Xu, Lin; Wei, Li; Zhang, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium, which uses a variety of organic chemicals as carbon sources. Here, we report the genome sequence of the Cu1510 isolate from wastewater containing a high concentration of N,N-dimethyl formamide. PMID:26847883

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage-Resistant Variant PA1RG.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Jing; Shen, Wei; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved several defense systems against phage predation. Here, we report the 6,500,439-bp complete genome sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage-resistant variant PA1RG. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 320-fold sequence coverage. PMID:26893434

  4. Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Frangeul, Lionel; Quillardet, Philippe; Castets, Anne-Marie; Humbert, Jean-François; Matthijs, Hans CP; Cortez, Diego; Tolonen, Andrew; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Zilliges, Yvonne; Ziemert, Nadine; Becker, Sven; Talla, Emmanuel; Latifi, Amel; Billault, Alain; Lepelletier, Anthony; Dittmann, Elke; Bouchier, Christiane; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. Results Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 has revealed the high plasticity of its genome: 11.7% DNA repeats containing more than 1,000 bases, 6.8% putative transposases and 21 putative restriction enzymes. Compared to the genomes of other cyanobacterial lineages, strain PCC 7806 contains a large number of atypical genes that may have been acquired by lateral transfers. Metabolic pathways, such as fermentation and a methionine salvage pathway, have been identified, as have genes for programmed cell death that may be related to the rapid disappearance of Microcystis blooms in nature. Analysis of the PCC 7806 genome also reveals striking novel biosynthetic features that might help to elucidate the ecological impact of secondary metabolites and lead to the discovery of novel metabolites for new biotechnological applications. M. aeruginosa and other large cyanobacterial genomes exhibit a rapid loss of synteny in contrast to other microbial genomes. Conclusion Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 appears to have adopted an evolutionary strategy relying on unusual genome plasticity to adapt to eutrophic freshwater ecosystems, a property shared by another strain of M. aeruginosa (NIES-843). Comparisons of the genomes of PCC 7806 and other cyanobacterial strains indicate that a similar strategy may have also been used by the marine strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 to adapt to other ecological niches, such as oligotrophic open oceans. PMID:18534010

  5. Insights into Mechanisms and Proteomic Characterisation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adaptation to a Novel Antimicrobial Substance

    PubMed Central

    Cierniak, Peter; Jübner, Martin; Müller, Stefan; Bender, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has been reported since the introduction of synthetic antibiotics. Bacteria, such as one of the most common nosocomial pathogens P. aeruginosa, adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions, due to their short generation time. Thus microevolutional changes can be monitored in situ. In this study, the microevolutional process of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 resistance against a recently developed novel antibacterial zinc Schiff-base (ZSB) was investigated at the proteome level. After extended exposure to ZSB the passaged strain differed in tolerance against ZSB, with the adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 exhibiting 1.6 times higher minimal inhibitory concentration. Using Two-dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis, the changes in the proteome of ZSB adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 were examined by comparison with the non-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1. The proteome of the adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain differed significantly from the non-adapted in the abundance of two proteins when both strains were grown under stressing conditions. One protein could be identified as the outer membrane protein D that plays a role in uptake of basic amino acids as well as in carbapeneme resistance. The second protein has been identified as alkyl peroxide reductase subunit F. Our data indicated a slight increase in abundance of alkyl peroxide reductase F (AhpF) in the case of ZSB passaged P. aeruginosa PAO1. Higher abundance of Ahp has been discussed in the literature as a promoter of accelerated detoxification of benzene derivatives. The observed up-regulated AhpF thus appears to be connected to an increased tolerance against ZSB. Changes in the abundance of proteins connected to oxidative stress were also found after short-time exposure of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to the ZSB. Furthermore, adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed increased tolerance against hydrogen peroxide and, in addition, showed accelerated degradation of ZSB, as determined by HPLC measurements. PMID:23869205

  6. Intraclonal genome diversity of the major Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones C and PA14

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sebastian; Klockgether, Jens; Morán Losada, Patricia; Chouvarine, Philippe; Cramer, Nina; Davenport, Colin F.; Dethlefsen, Sarah; Dorda, Marie; Goesmann, Alexander; Hilker, Rolf; Mielke, Samira; Schönfelder, Torben; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Türk, Oliver; Woltemate, Sabrina; Wiehlmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial populations differentiate at the subspecies level into clonal complexes. Intraclonal genome diversity was studied in 100 isolates of the two dominant P seudomonas aeruginosa clones C and PA14 collected from the inanimate environment, acute and chronic infections. The core genome was highly conserved among clone members with a median pairwise within‐clone single nucleotide sequence diversity of 8 × 10−6 for clone C and 2 × 10−5 for clone PA14. The composition of the accessory genome was, on the other hand, as variable within the clone as between unrelated clones. Each strain carried a large cargo of unique genes. The two dominant worldwide distributed P. aeruginosa clones combine an almost invariant core with the flexible gain and loss of genetic elements that spread by horizontal transfer. PMID:26711897

  7. Quorum-sensing-regulated virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are toxic to Lucilia sericata maggots

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A. S.; Joergensen, B.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Johansen, H.; Karlsmark, T.; Givskov, M.; Krogfelt, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is widely used for debridement of chronic infected wounds; however, for wounds harbouring specific bacteria limited effect or failure of the treatment has been described. Here we studied the survival of Lucilia sericata maggots encountering Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in a simple assay with emphasis on the quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated virulence. The maggots were challenged with GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa wild-type (WT) PAO1 and a GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa ΔlasR rhlR (ΔRR) QS-deficient mutant in different concentrations. Maggots were killed in the presence of WT PAO1 whereas the challenge with the QS mutant showed a survival reduction of ∼25 % compared to negative controls. Furthermore, bacterial intake by the maggots was lower in the presence of WT PAO1 compared to the PAO1 ΔRR mutant. Maggot excretions/secretions (ES) were assayed for the presence of QS inhibitors; only high doses of ES showed inhibition of QS in P. aeruginosa. Thus P. aeruginosa was shown to be toxic to L. sericata maggots. This, coupled to the preferential feeding by the maggots and reduced ingestion of P. aeruginosa, could explain MDT failure in wounds colonized by P. aeruginosa. Wounds heavily colonized with P. aeruginosa should be a counterindication for MDT unless used in combination with a pre-treatment with other topical therapeutics targeting P. aeruginosa. PMID:19892758

  8. Quorum-sensing-regulated virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are toxic to Lucilia sericata maggots.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A S; Joergensen, B; Bjarnsholt, T; Johansen, H; Karlsmark, T; Givskov, M; Krogfelt, K A

    2010-02-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is widely used for debridement of chronic infected wounds; however, for wounds harbouring specific bacteria limited effect or failure of the treatment has been described. Here we studied the survival of Lucilia sericata maggots encountering Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in a simple assay with emphasis on the quorum-sensing (QS)-regulated virulence. The maggots were challenged with GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa wild-type (WT) PAO1 and a GFP-tagged P. aeruginosa DeltalasR rhlR (DeltaRR) QS-deficient mutant in different concentrations. Maggots were killed in the presence of WT PAO1 whereas the challenge with the QS mutant showed a survival reduction of approximately 25 % compared to negative controls. Furthermore, bacterial intake by the maggots was lower in the presence of WT PAO1 compared to the PAO1 DeltaRR mutant. Maggot excretions/secretions (ES) were assayed for the presence of QS inhibitors; only high doses of ES showed inhibition of QS in P. aeruginosa. Thus P. aeruginosa was shown to be toxic to L. sericata maggots. This, coupled to the preferential feeding by the maggots and reduced ingestion of P. aeruginosa, could explain MDT failure in wounds colonized by P. aeruginosa. Wounds heavily colonized with P. aeruginosa should be a counterindication for MDT unless used in combination with a pre-treatment with other topical therapeutics targeting P. aeruginosa.

  9. Clinical utilization of genomics data produced by the international Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium.

    PubMed

    Freschi, Luca; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Dupont, Marie-Josée; Laroche, Jérôme; Larose, Stéphane; Maaroufi, Halim; Fothergill, Joanne L; Moore, Matthew; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Aaron, Shawn D; Barbeau, Jean; Bell, Scott C; Burns, Jane L; Camara, Miguel; Cantin, André; Charette, Steve J; Dewar, Ken; Déziel, Éric; Grimwood, Keith; Hancock, Robert E W; Harrison, Joe J; Heeb, Stephan; Jelsbak, Lars; Jia, Baofeng; Kenna, Dervla T; Kidd, Timothy J; Klockgether, Jens; Lam, Joseph S; Lamont, Iain L; Lewenza, Shawn; Loman, Nick; Malouin, François; Manos, Jim; McArthur, Andrew G; McKeown, Josie; Milot, Julie; Naghra, Hardeep; Nguyen, Dao; Pereira, Sheldon K; Perron, Gabriel G; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Rainey, Paul B; Rousseau, Simon; Santos, Pedro M; Stephenson, Anne; Taylor, Véronique; Turton, Jane F; Waglechner, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Thrane, Sandra W; Wright, Gerard D; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Tucker, Nicholas P; Tümmler, Burkhard; Winstanley, Craig; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are available through the International Pseudomonas Consortium Database (http://ipcd.ibis.ulaval.ca/). Here, we present our strategy and the results that emerged from the analysis of the first 389 genomes. With as yet unmatched resolution, our results confirm that P. aeruginosa strains can be divided into three major groups that are further divided into subgroups, some not previously reported in the literature. We also provide the first snapshot of P. aeruginosa strain diversity with respect to antibiotic resistance. Our approach will allow us to draw potential links between environmental strains and those implicated in human and animal infections, understand how patients become infected and how the infection evolves over time as well as identify prognostic markers for better evidence-based decisions on patient care. PMID:26483767

  10. Clinical utilization of genomics data produced by the international Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    PubMed Central

    Freschi, Luca; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Dupont, Marie-Josée; Laroche, Jérôme; Larose, Stéphane; Maaroufi, Halim; Fothergill, Joanne L.; Moore, Matthew; Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Aaron, Shawn D.; Barbeau, Jean; Bell, Scott C.; Burns, Jane L.; Camara, Miguel; Cantin, André; Charette, Steve J.; Dewar, Ken; Déziel, Éric; Grimwood, Keith; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Harrison, Joe J.; Heeb, Stephan; Jelsbak, Lars; Jia, Baofeng; Kenna, Dervla T.; Kidd, Timothy J.; Klockgether, Jens; Lam, Joseph S.; Lamont, Iain L.; Lewenza, Shawn; Loman, Nick; Malouin, François; Manos, Jim; McArthur, Andrew G.; McKeown, Josie; Milot, Julie; Naghra, Hardeep; Nguyen, Dao; Pereira, Sheldon K.; Perron, Gabriel G.; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Rainey, Paul B.; Rousseau, Simon; Santos, Pedro M.; Stephenson, Anne; Taylor, Véronique; Turton, Jane F.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Thrane, Sandra W.; Wright, Gerard D.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tucker, Nicholas P.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Winstanley, Craig; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are available through the International Pseudomonas Consortium Database (http://ipcd.ibis.ulaval.ca/). Here, we present our strategy and the results that emerged from the analysis of the first 389 genomes. With as yet unmatched resolution, our results confirm that P. aeruginosa strains can be divided into three major groups that are further divided into subgroups, some not previously reported in the literature. We also provide the first snapshot of P. aeruginosa strain diversity with respect to antibiotic resistance. Our approach will allow us to draw potential links between environmental strains and those implicated in human and animal infections, understand how patients become infected and how the infection evolves over time as well as identify prognostic markers for better evidence-based decisions on patient care. PMID:26483767

  11. Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population with High Frequency of Genomic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Sandner-Miranda, Luisa; Méndez, José L.; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Various genomic islands, PAPI-1, PAPI-2, PAGI-1, PAGI-2, PAGI-3, and PAGI-4, and the element pKLC102 have been characterized in different P. aeruginosa strains from diverse habitats and geographical locations. Chromosomal DNA macroarray of 100 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 85 unrelated patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit was created to assess the occurrence of these genomic islands (GEIs). The macroarray was then hybridized with labeled probes derived from each genomic island. In addition, PFGE patterns with SpeI, frequency of virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of the strains were studied. Our results showed that almost all P. aeruginosa strains presented up to eight virulence genes. By SpeI macrorestriction fragment analysis we were able to identify 49 restriction patterns; 35 patterns correspond to single strains and the remaining 14 to strains subgroup (a–n). Most of the strains showed variation in number or composition of GEIs and a specific antimicrobial pattern indicating that each strain was an unrelated isolate. In terms of the number of genomic islands per strain, 7 GEIs were found in 34% of the strains, 6 in 18%, 5 in 12%, 4 in 14%, 3 in 10%, 2 in 7%, and 1 in 4%; only one isolate did not present any GEI. The genomic islands PAPI-1 and PAPI-2 and the element pKLC102 were the most frequently detected. The analysis of the location of each GEI in the chromosome of two strains show that the islands PAGI-3, PAPI-1, PAPI-2 and pKLC102 are present in the insertion site previously reported, but that PAGI-2 and PAGI-4 are inserted in another chromosome place in a site not characterized yet. In conclusion our data show that P. aeruginosa strains exhibited an epidemic population structure with horizontal transfer of DNA resulting in a high frequency of GEIs. PMID:22662157

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames. PMID:27563032

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage AAT-1.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Aspects of the interaction between phages and animals are of interest and importance for medical applications. Here, we report the genome sequence of the lytic Pseudomonas phage AAT-1, isolated from mammalian serum. AAT-1 is a double-stranded DNA phage, with a genome of 57,599 bp, containing 76 predicted open reading frames. PMID:27563032

  14. Large-insert genome analysis technology detects structural variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Hillary S; Gillett, Will; Saenphimmachak, Channakhone; Lim, Regina; Zhou, Yang; Jacobs, Michael A; Chang, Jean; Rohmer, Laurence; D'Argenio, David A; Palmieri, Anthony; Levy, Ruth; Haugen, Eric; Wong, Gane K S; Brittnacher, Mitch J; Burns, Jane L; Miller, Samuel I; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder

    2008-06-01

    Large-insert genome analysis (LIGAN) is a broadly applicable, high-throughput technology designed to characterize genome-scale structural variation. Fosmid paired-end sequences and DNA fingerprints from a query genome are compared to a reference sequence using the Genomic Variation Analysis (GenVal) suite of software tools to pinpoint locations of insertions, deletions, and rearrangements. Fosmids spanning regions that contain new structural variants can then be sequenced. Clonal pairs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from four cystic fibrosis patients were used to validate the LIGAN technology. Approximately 1.5 Mb of inserted sequences were identified, including 743 kb containing 615 ORFs that are absent from published P. aeruginosa genomes. Six rearrangement breakpoints and 220 kb of deleted sequences were also identified. Our study expands the "genome universe" of P. aeruginosa and validates a technology that complements emerging, short-read sequencing methods that are better suited to characterizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms than structural variation.

  15. Large-insert genome analysis technology detects structural variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Hillary S; Gillett, Will; Saenphimmachak, Channakhone; Lim, Regina; Zhou, Yang; Jacobs, Michael A; Chang, Jean; Rohmer, Laurence; D'Argenio, David A; Palmieri, Anthony; Levy, Ruth; Haugen, Eric; Wong, Gane K S; Brittnacher, Mitch J; Burns, Jane L; Miller, Samuel I; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder

    2008-06-01

    Large-insert genome analysis (LIGAN) is a broadly applicable, high-throughput technology designed to characterize genome-scale structural variation. Fosmid paired-end sequences and DNA fingerprints from a query genome are compared to a reference sequence using the Genomic Variation Analysis (GenVal) suite of software tools to pinpoint locations of insertions, deletions, and rearrangements. Fosmids spanning regions that contain new structural variants can then be sequenced. Clonal pairs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from four cystic fibrosis patients were used to validate the LIGAN technology. Approximately 1.5 Mb of inserted sequences were identified, including 743 kb containing 615 ORFs that are absent from published P. aeruginosa genomes. Six rearrangement breakpoints and 220 kb of deleted sequences were also identified. Our study expands the "genome universe" of P. aeruginosa and validates a technology that complements emerging, short-read sequencing methods that are better suited to characterizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms than structural variation. PMID:18445516

  16. Pseudolysogeny and sequential mutations build multiresistance to virulent bacteriophages in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Hauck, Yolande; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Coevolution between bacteriophages (phages) and their prey is the result of mutualistic interactions. Here, we show that pseudolysogeny is a frequent outcome of infection by virulent phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that selection of resistant bacterial mutants is favoured by continuous production of phages. We investigated the frequency and characteristics of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 variants resisting infection by different combinations of virulent phages belonging to four genera. The frequency of resistant bacteria was 10- 5 for single phage infection and 10- 6 for infections with combinations of two or four phages. The genome of 27 variants was sequenced and the comparison with the genome of the parental PAO1 strain allowed the identification of point mutations or small indels. Four additional variants were characterized by a candidate gene approach. In total, 27 independent mutations were observed affecting 14 genes and a regulatory region. The mutations affected genes involved in biosynthesis of type IV pilus, alginate, LPS and O-antigen. Half of the variants possessed changes in homopolymer tracts responsible for frameshift mutations and these phase variation mutants were shown to be unstable. Eleven double mutants were detected. The presence of free phage DNA was observed in association with exclusion of superinfection in half of the variants and no chromosomal mutation could be found in three of them. Upon further growth of these pseudolysogens, some variants with new chromosomal mutations were recovered, presumably due to continuous evolutionary pressure.

  17. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    PubMed Central

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

  18. Molecular mechanisms of master regulator VqsM mediating quorum-sensing and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Li, Xuefeng; Ye, Yan; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing (QS) systems contribute to bacterial homeostasis and pathogenicity. Although the AraC-family transcription factor VqsM has been characterized to control the production of virulence factors and QS signaling molecules, its detailed regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we report that VqsM directly binds to the lasI promoter region, and thus regulates its expression. To identify additional targets of VqsM in P. aeruginosa PAO1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and detected 48 enriched loci harboring VqsM-binding peaks in the P. aeruginosa genome. The direct regulation of these genes by VqsM has been confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. A VqsM-binding motif was identified by using the MEME suite and verified by footprint assays in vitro. In addition, VqsM directly bound to the promoter regions of the antibiotic resistance regulator NfxB and the master type III secretion system (T3SS) regulator ExsA. Notably, the vqsM mutant displayed more resistance to two types of antibiotics and promoted bacterial survival in a mouse model, compared to wild-type PAO1. Collectively, this work provides new cues to better understand the detailed regulatory networks of QS systems, T3SS, and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25034696

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Broad-Host-Range Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages ΦR18 and ΦS12-1.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Takaaki; Iwano, Hidetomo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Usui, Masaru; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of racehorse keratitis. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by P. aeruginosa We present here the complete genome sequences of two phages, ΦR18 and ΦS12-1, which exhibit infectivity for a broad range of P. aeruginosa isolates.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Broad-Host-Range Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages ΦR18 and ΦS12-1

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Takaaki; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Usui, Masaru; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yokota, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of racehorse keratitis. Bacteriophage therapy has the potential to aid in the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by P. aeruginosa. We present here the complete genome sequences of two phages, ΦR18 and ΦS12-1, which exhibit infectivity for a broad range of P. aeruginosa isolates. PMID:27151780

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of penicillin-binding protein 3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC 10104.

    PubMed

    An, Yan Dong; Du, Qi Zhen; Tong, Li Yan; Yu, Zhao Wu; Gong, Xing Wen

    2015-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary target of β-lactams used to treat pseudomonas infections. Meanwhile, structure change and overproduction of PBP3 play important roles in the drug resistance of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, studies on the gene and structure of PBP3 are urgently needed. P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104 is a type culture strain common used in China. However, there is no report on its genomic and proteomic profiles. In this study, based on ftsI of P. aeruginosa PAO1, the gene encoding PBP3 was cloned from CMCC 10104. A truncated version of the ftsI gene, omitting the bases encoding the hydrophobic leader peptide (amino acids 1-34), was amplified by PCR. The cloned DNA shared 99.76% identity with ftsI from PAO1. Only four bases were different (66 C-A, 1020 T-C, 1233 T-C, and 1527 T-C). However, there were no differences between their deduced amino acid sequences. The recombinant PBP3 (rPBP3), containing a 6-histidine tag, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Ni(2+)-NTA agarose was used for its purification. The purified rPBP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis, and showed a single band at about 60kDa with purity higher than 95%. The penicillin-binding assay indicated that the obtained rPBP3 was functional and not hindered by the presence of the C-terminal His-tag. The protocol described in this study offers a method for obtaining purified recombinant PBP3 from P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104.

  2. Cloning, expression and purification of penicillin-binding protein 3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC 10104.

    PubMed

    An, Yan Dong; Du, Qi Zhen; Tong, Li Yan; Yu, Zhao Wu; Gong, Xing Wen

    2015-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary target of β-lactams used to treat pseudomonas infections. Meanwhile, structure change and overproduction of PBP3 play important roles in the drug resistance of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, studies on the gene and structure of PBP3 are urgently needed. P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104 is a type culture strain common used in China. However, there is no report on its genomic and proteomic profiles. In this study, based on ftsI of P. aeruginosa PAO1, the gene encoding PBP3 was cloned from CMCC 10104. A truncated version of the ftsI gene, omitting the bases encoding the hydrophobic leader peptide (amino acids 1-34), was amplified by PCR. The cloned DNA shared 99.76% identity with ftsI from PAO1. Only four bases were different (66 C-A, 1020 T-C, 1233 T-C, and 1527 T-C). However, there were no differences between their deduced amino acid sequences. The recombinant PBP3 (rPBP3), containing a 6-histidine tag, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Ni(2+)-NTA agarose was used for its purification. The purified rPBP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis, and showed a single band at about 60kDa with purity higher than 95%. The penicillin-binding assay indicated that the obtained rPBP3 was functional and not hindered by the presence of the C-terminal His-tag. The protocol described in this study offers a method for obtaining purified recombinant PBP3 from P. aeruginosa CMCC 10104. PMID:25514204

  3. Functional Characterization of WaaL, a Ligase Associated with Linking O-Antigen Polysaccharide to the Core of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Daniels, Craig; Poon, Karen K. H.; Matewish, Mauricia J.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2005-01-01

    The O antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa B-band lipopolysaccharide is synthesized by assembling O-antigen-repeat units at the cytoplasmic face of the inner membrane by nonprocessive glycosyltransferases, followed by polymerization on the periplasmic face. The completed chains are covalently attached to lipid A core by the O-antigen ligase, WaaL. In P. aeruginosa the process of ligating these O-antigen molecules to lipid A core is not clearly defined, and an O-antigen ligase has not been identified until this study. Using the sequence of waaL from Salmonella enterica as a template in a BLAST search, a putative waaL gene was identified in the P. aeruginosa genome. The candidate gene was amplified and cloned, and a chromosomal knockout of PAO1 waaL was generated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from this mutant is devoid of B-band O-polysaccharides and semirough (SR-LPS, or core-plus-one O-antigen). The mutant PAO1waaL is also deficient in the production of A-band polysaccharide, a homopolymer of d-rhamnose. Complementation of the mutant with pPAJL4 containing waaL restored the production of both A-band and B-band O antigens as well as SR-LPS, indicating that the knockout was nonpolar and waaL is required for the attachment of O-antigen repeat units to the core. Mutation of waaL in PAO1 and PA14, respectively, could be complemented with waaL from either strain to restore wild-type LPS production. The waaL mutation also drastically affected the swimming and twitching motilities of the bacteria. These results demonstrate that waaL in P. aeruginosa encodes a functional O-antigen ligase that is important for cell wall integrity and motility of the bacteria. PMID:15838026

  4. Iron release from transferrin by pyoverdin and elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, C; Hohloch, K; Ocaktan, A; Poole, K; Evans, R W; Rochel, N; Albrecht-Gary, A M; Abdallah, M A; Döring, G

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the siderophores pyoverdin and pyochelin as well as receptors for siderophores in response to iron deprivation. Previously, it has been shown in vitro that at neutral pH purified pyoverdin acquires iron from transferrin only in the presence of P. aeruginosa elastase (LasB), which proteolytically degrades transferrin. We constructed a LasB-negative mutant, PAO1E, by insertional mutagenesis to investigate whether this mutant differs in growth from the parental strain PAO1 in an iron-depleted medium supplemented with transferrin or human serum. PAO1 and PAO1E did not differ in growth with 1.25 microM Fe2-transferrin as the only iron source. Urea gel electrophoresis indicated iron release from intact transferrin during the logarithmic growth phase of PAO1 and PAO1E. A total of 333 microM LasB was synthesized from PAO1 after onset of stationary-phase growth. Quantification of pyoverdin by spectroscopy revealed that up to 900 microM pyroverdin was produced during growth of the strains in medium supplemented with Fe2-transferrin or 10% human serum. Incubation of Fe2-transferrin and purified pyoverdin in concentrations similar to those found in the culture supernatant resulted in release iron from transferrin after 10 h at 37 degrees C. However, LasB significantly enhanced the rate constant for iron acquisition of pyoverdin from transferrin. We conclude that P. aeruginosa can use transferrin as an iron source without further need of LasB or pH changes. This is further supported by experiments with P. aeruginosa K437, which has a defective iron uptake system, and its LasB-negative mutant, K437E. Though K437 and K437E did not differ in growth with Fe2-transferrin as the only iron source, their growth was significantly reduced relative to that of PAO1 and PAO1E. Images PMID:8063422

  5. Seeking the source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in a recently opened hospital: an observational study using whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Joshua; Cumley, Nicola; Wearn, Christopher M; Niebel, Marc; Constantinidou, Chrystala; Thomas, Chris M; Pallen, Mark J; Moiemen, Naiem S; Bamford, Amy; Oppenheim, Beryl; Loman, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen responsible for significant morbidity and mortality internationally. Patients may become colonised or infected with P. aeruginosa after exposure to contaminated sources within the hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can be used to determine the source in a cohort of burns patients at high risk of P. aeruginosa acquisition. Study design An observational prospective cohort study. Setting Burns care ward and critical care ward in the UK. Participants Patients with >7% total burns by surface area were recruited into the study. Methods All patients were screened for P. aeruginosa on admission and samples taken from their immediate environment, including water. Screening patients who subsequently developed a positive P. aeruginosa microbiology result were subject to enhanced environmental surveillance. All isolates of P. aeruginosa were genome sequenced. Sequence analysis looked at similarity and relatedness between isolates. Results WGS for 141 P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained from patients, hospital water and the ward environment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight distinct clades, with a single clade representing the majority of environmental isolates in the burns unit. Isolates from three patients had identical genotypes compared with water isolates from the same room. There was clear clustering of water isolates by room and outlet, allowing the source of acquisitions to be unambiguously identified. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of biofilm DNA extracted from a thermostatic mixer valve revealed this was the source of a P. aeruginosa subpopulation previously detected in water. In the remaining two cases there was no clear link to the hospital environment. Conclusions This study reveals that WGS can be used for source tracking of P. aeruginosa in a hospital setting, and that acquisitions can be traced to a specific source within a

  6. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-10-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  7. Biofilm Formation Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Predicted via Genome-Scale Kinetic Models of Bacterial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vital-Lopez, Francisco G.; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to establish biofilm-based infections that are difficult to eradicate. Biofilms are less susceptible to host inflammatory and immune responses and have higher antibiotic tolerance than free-living planktonic cells. Developing treatments against biofilms requires an understanding of bacterial biofilm-specific physiological traits. Research efforts have started to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underlying biofilm development. However, many aspects of these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we addressed questions regarding biofilm metabolism using a genome-scale kinetic model of the P. aeruginosa metabolic network and gene expression profiles. Specifically, we computed metabolite concentration differences between known mutants with altered biofilm formation and the wild-type strain to predict drug targets against P. aeruginosa biofilms. We also simulated the altered metabolism driven by gene expression changes between biofilm and stationary growth-phase planktonic cultures. Our analysis suggests that the synthesis of important biofilm-related molecules, such as the quorum-sensing molecule Pseudomonas quinolone signal and the exopolysaccharide Psl, is regulated not only through the expression of genes in their own synthesis pathway, but also through the biofilm-specific expression of genes in pathways competing for precursors to these molecules. Finally, we investigated why mutants defective in anthranilate degradation have an impaired ability to form biofilms. Alternative to a previous hypothesis that this biofilm reduction is caused by a decrease in energy production, we proposed that the dysregulation of the synthesis of secondary metabolites derived from anthranilate and chorismate is what impaired the biofilms of these mutants. Notably, these insights generated through our kinetic model-based approach are not accessible from previous constraint-based model analyses of P. aeruginosa biofilm

  8. Different responses of pyoverdine genes to autoinduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the group Pseudomonas fluorescens-Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Leoni, Livia; Visca, Paolo

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the regulation of the psbA and pvdA pyoverdine biosynthesis genes, which encode the L-ornithine N(5)-oxygenase homologues in Pseudomonas strain B10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, respectively. We demonstrate that pyoverdine(B10), as the end product of its biosynthetic pathway, is a key participant of the control circuit regulating its own production in Pseudomonas strain B10. In P. aeruginosa PAO1, however, pyoverdine(PAO1) has no apparent role in the positive regulation of the pvdA gene. PMID:12147517

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, Isolated from a Patient with a Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Li, Gang; Shen, Mengyu; Tan, Yinling; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Jing; Shen, Wei; Guo, Keke; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Junmin; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan

    2015-01-01

    We report the 6,498,072-bp complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from a patient with a respiratory tract infection in Chongqing, People's Republic of China. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology, and de novo assembly revealed a single contig with 396-fold sequence coverage. PMID:26659688

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa generalized transducing phage phiPA3 is a new member of the phiKZ-like group of 'jumbo' phages, and infects model laboratory strains and clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Monson, Rita; Foulds, Ian; Foweraker, Juliet; Welch, Martin; Salmond, George P C

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients, and a model organism for the study of nosocomially acquired infections, biofilms and intrinsic multidrug resistance. In this study we characterize ϕPA3, a new generalized transducing bacteriophage for P. aeruginosa. ϕPA3 transduced chromosomal mutations between PAO1 strains, and infected multiple P. aeruginosa clinical isolates as well as the P. aeruginosa model laboratory strains PAK and PA14. Electron microscopy imaging was used to classify ϕPA3 in the order Caudovirales and the family Myoviridae. The genome of ϕPA3 was sequenced and found to contain 309,208 bp, the second-largest bacteriophage currently deposited in GenBank. The genome contains 378 ORFs and five tRNAs. Many ORF products in the ϕPA3 genome are similar to proteins encoded by P. aeruginosa phage ϕKZ and Pseudomonas chlororaphis phage 201ϕ2-1, and so ϕPA3 was classified genetically as a member of the ϕKZ-like group of phages. This is the first report of a member of this group of phages acting as a generalized transducer. Given its wide host range, high transduction efficiency and large genome size, the 'jumbo' phage ϕPA3 could be a powerful tool in functional genomic analysis of diverse P. aeruginosa strains of fundamental and clinical importance.

  11. Genomic analysis and temperature-dependent transcriptome profiles of the rhizosphere originating strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa M18

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Our previously published reports have described an effective biocontrol agent named Pseudomonas sp. M18 as its 16S rDNA sequence and several regulator genes share homologous sequences with those of P. aeruginosa, but there are several unusual phenotypic features. This study aims to explore its strain specific genomic features and gene expression patterns at different temperatures. Results The complete M18 genome is composed of a single chromosome of 6,327,754 base pairs containing 5684 open reading frames. Seven genomic islands, including two novel prophages and five specific non-phage islands were identified besides the conserved P. aeruginosa core genome. Each prophage contains a putative chitinase coding gene, and the prophage II contains a capB gene encoding a putative cold stress protein. The non-phage genomic islands contain genes responsible for pyoluteorin biosynthesis, environmental substance degradation and type I and III restriction-modification systems. Compared with other P. aeruginosa strains, the fewest number (3) of insertion sequences and the most number (3) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats in M18 genome may contribute to the relative genome stability. Although the M18 genome is most closely related to that of P. aeruginosa strain LESB58, the strain M18 is more susceptible to several antimicrobial agents and easier to be erased in a mouse acute lung infection model than the strain LESB58. The whole M18 transcriptomic analysis indicated that 10.6% of the expressed genes are temperature-dependent, with 22 genes up-regulated at 28°C in three non-phage genomic islands and one prophage but none at 37°C. Conclusions The P. aeruginosa strain M18 has evolved its specific genomic structures and temperature dependent expression patterns to meet the requirement of its fitness and competitiveness under selective pressures imposed on the strain in rhizosphere niche. PMID:21884571

  12. Gene Islands Integrated into tRNAGly Genes Confer Genome Diversity on a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clone

    PubMed Central

    Larbig, Karen D.; Christmann, Andreas; Johann, André; Klockgether, Jens; Hartsch, Thomas; Merkl, Rainer; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Fritz, Hans-Joachim; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    Intraclonal genome diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in one of the most diverse mosaic regions of the P. aeruginosa chromosome. The ca. 110-kb large hypervariable region located near the lipH gene in two members of the predominant P. aeruginosa clone C, strain C and strain SG17M, was sequenced. In both strains the region consists of an individual strain-specific gene island of 111 (strain C) or 106 (SG17M) open reading frames (ORFs) and of a 7-kb stretch of clone C-specific sequence of 9 ORFs. The gene islands are integrated into conserved tRNAGly genes and have a bipartite structure. The first part adjacent to the tRNA gene consists of strain-specific ORFs encoding metabolic functions and transporters, the majority of which have homologs of known function in other eubacteria, such as hemophores, cytochrome c biosynthesis, or mercury resistance. The second part is made up mostly of ORFs of yet-unknown function. Forty-seven of these ORFs are mutual homologs with a pairwise amino acid sequence identity of 35 to 88% and are arranged in the same order in the two gene islands. We hypothesize that this novel type of gene island derives from mobile elements which, upon integration, endow the recipient with strain-specific metabolic properties, thus possibly conferring on it a selective advantage in its specific habitat. PMID:12426355

  13. Analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Regulon Controlled by the Sensor Kinase KinB and Sigma Factor RpoN

    PubMed Central

    Damron, F. Heath; Owings, Joshua P.; Okkotsu, Yuta; Varga, John J.; Schurr, Jill R.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Schurr, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Alginate overproduction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also known as mucoidy, is associated with chronic endobronchial infections in cystic fibrosis. Alginate biosynthesis is initiated by the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor (σ22; AlgU/AlgT). In the wild-type (wt) nonmucoid strains, such as PAO1, AlgU is sequestered to the cytoplasmic membrane by the anti-sigma factor MucA that inhibits alginate production. One mechanism underlying the conversion to mucoidy is mutation of mucA. However, the mucoid conversion can occur in wt mucA strains via the degradation of MucA by activated intramembrane proteases AlgW and/or MucP. Previously, we reported that the deletion of the sensor kinase KinB in PAO1 induces an AlgW-dependent proteolysis of MucA, resulting in alginate overproduction. This type of mucoid induction requires the alternate sigma factor RpoN (σ54). To determine the RpoN-dependent KinB regulon, microarray and proteomic analyses were performed on a mucoid kinB mutant and an isogenic nonmucoid kinB rpoN double mutant. In the kinB mutant of PAO1, RpoN controlled the expression of approximately 20% of the genome. In addition to alginate biosynthetic and regulatory genes, KinB and RpoN also control a large number of genes including those involved in carbohydrate metabolism, quorum sensing, iron regulation, rhamnolipid production, and motility. In an acute pneumonia murine infection model, BALB/c mice exhibited increased survival when challenged with the kinB mutant relative to survival with PAO1 challenge. Together, these data strongly suggest that KinB regulates virulence factors important for the development of acute pneumonia and conversion to mucoidy. PMID:22210761

  14. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BAMCPA07-48, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound.

    PubMed

    Sanjar, Fatemeh; Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; Leung, Kai P

    2016-07-07

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BAMCPA07-48, isolated from a combat injury wound. The closed genome sequence of this isolate is a valuable resource for pathogenome characterization of P. aeruginosa associated with wounds, which will aid in the development of a higher-resolution phylogenomic framework for molecular-guided pathogen-surveillance.

  15. Genome-Scale Identification Method Applied to Find Cryptic Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Struble, Julie M.; Gill, Ryan T.

    2009-01-01

    Background The ability of bacteria to rapidly evolve resistance to antibiotics is a critical public health problem. Resistance leads to increased disease severity and death rates, as well as imposes pressure towards the discovery and development of new antibiotic therapies. Improving understanding of the evolution and genetic basis of resistance is a fundamental goal in the field of microbiology. Results We have applied a new genomic method, Scalar Analysis of Library Enrichments (SCALEs), to identify genomic regions that, given increased copy number, may lead to aminoglycoside resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the genome scale. We report the result of selections on highly representative genomic libraries for three different aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin). At the genome-scale, we show significant (p<0.05) overlap in genes identified for each aminoglycoside evaluated. Among the genomic segments identified, we confirmed increased resistance associated with an increased copy number of several genomic regions, including the ORF of PA5471, recently implicated in MexXY efflux pump related aminoglycoside resistance, PA4943-PA4946 (encoding a probable GTP-binding protein, a predicted host factor I protein, a δ 2-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase, and DNA mismatch repair protein mutL), PA0960–PA0963 (encoding hypothetical proteins, a probable cold shock protein, a probable DNA-binding stress protein, and aspartyl-tRNA synthetase), a segment of PA4967 (encoding a topoisomerase IV subunit B), as well as a chimeric clone containing two inserts including the ORFs PA0547 and PA2326 (encoding a probable transcriptional regulator and a probable hypothetical protein, respectively). Conclusions The studies reported here demonstrate the application of new a genomic method, SCALEs, which can be used to improve understanding of the evolution of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. In our demonstration studies, we identified a

  16. Development and evaluation of a new PCR assay for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa D genotype.

    PubMed

    Lødeng, A G G; Ahlén, C; Lysvand, H; Mandal, L H; Iversen, O J

    2006-08-01

    This report describes a new PCR-based assay for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotype D in occupational saturation diving systems in the North Sea. This genotype has persisted in these systems for 11 years (1993-2003) and represents 18% of isolates from infections analysed during this period. The new PCR assay was based on sequences obtained after randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis of a group of isolates related to diving that had been identified previously by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The primer set for the D genotype targets a gene that codes for a hypothetical class 4 protein in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome. A primer set able to detect P. aeruginosa at the species level was also designed, based on the 23S-5S rDNA spacer region. The two assays produced 382-bp and 192-bp amplicons, respectively. The PCR assay was evaluated by analysing 100 P. aeruginosa isolates related to diving, representing 28 PFGE genotypes, and 38 clinical and community P. aeruginosa isolates and strains from other species. The assay identified all of the genotype D isolates tested. Two additional diving-relevant genotypes (TP2 and TP27) were also identified, as well as three isolates of non-diving origin. It was concluded that the new PCR assay is a useful tool for early detection and prevention of infections with the D genotype. PMID:16842571

  17. Inhibition of a Putative Dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Flavonoids and Substrates of Cyclic Amidohydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. These metalloenzymes possess very similar active sites and may use a similar mechanism for catalysis. However, whether the substrates and inhibitors of other cyclic amidohydrolases can inhibit dihydropyrimidinase remains unclear. This study investigated the inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids and substrates of other cyclic amidohydrolases. Allantoin, dihydroorotate, 5-hydantoin acetic acid, acetohydroxamate, orotic acid, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole could slightly inhibit dihydropyrimidinase, and the IC50 values of these compounds were within the millimolar range. The inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids, such as myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, galangin, dihydromyricetin, and myricitrin, was also investigated. Some of these compounds are known as inhibitors of allantoinase and dihydroorotase. Although the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids on dihydropyrimidinase were substrate-dependent, dihydromyricetin significantly inhibited dihydropyrimidinase with IC50 values of 48 and 40 μM for the substrates dihydrouracil and 5-propyl-hydantoin, respectively. The results from the Lineweaver−Burk plot indicated that dihydromyricetin was a competitive inhibitor. Results from fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that dihydromyricetin could form a stable complex with dihydropyrimidinase with the Kd value of 22.6 μM. A structural study using PatchDock showed that dihydromyricetin was docked in the active site pocket of dihydropyrimidinase, which was consistent with the findings from kinetic and fluorescence studies. This study was the first to demonstrate that naturally occurring product dihydromyricetin inhibited dihydropyrimidinase, even more than the substrate analogs (>3 orders of magnitude). These flavonols, particularly myricetin, may serve as drug leads and dirty drugs (for multiple targets) for designing compounds that target several cyclic amidohydrolases. PMID:25993634

  18. An ordered, nonredundant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 transposon insertion mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liberati, Nicole T.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G.; Drenkard, Eliana; Wu, Gang; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wei, Tao; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2006-01-01

    Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a nonredundant library of PA14 transposon mutants (the PA14NR Set) in which nonessential PA14 genes are represented by a single transposon insertion chosen from a comprehensive library of insertion mutants. The parental library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants was generated by using MAR2xT7, a transposon compatible with transposon-site hybridization and based on mariner. The transposon-site hybridization genetic footprinting feature broadens the utility of the library by allowing pooled MAR2xT7 mutants to be individually tracked under different experimental conditions. A public, internet-accessible database (the PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutant Database, http://ausubellab.mgh.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/pa14/home.cgi) was developed to facilitate construction, distribution, and use of the PA14NR Set. The usefulness of the PA14NR Set in genome-wide scanning for phenotypic mutants was validated in a screen for attachment to abiotic surfaces. Comparison of the genes disrupted in the PA14 transposon insertion library with an independently constructed insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 provides an estimate of the number of P. aeruginosa essential genes. PMID:16477005

  19. An ordered, nonredundant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 transposon insertion mutants.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Nicole T; Urbach, Jonathan M; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G; Drenkard, Eliana; Wu, Gang; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wei, Tao; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2006-02-21

    Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a nonredundant library of PA14 transposon mutants (the PA14NR Set) in which nonessential PA14 genes are represented by a single transposon insertion chosen from a comprehensive library of insertion mutants. The parental library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants was generated by using MAR2xT7, a transposon compatible with transposon-site hybridization and based on mariner. The transposon-site hybridization genetic footprinting feature broadens the utility of the library by allowing pooled MAR2xT7 mutants to be individually tracked under different experimental conditions. A public, internet-accessible database (the PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutant Database, http://ausubellab.mgh.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/pa14/home.cgi) was developed to facilitate construction, distribution, and use of the PA14NR Set. The usefulness of the PA14NR Set in genome-wide scanning for phenotypic mutants was validated in a screen for attachment to abiotic surfaces. Comparison of the genes disrupted in the PA14 transposon insertion library with an independently constructed insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 provides an estimate of the number of P. aeruginosa essential genes.

  20. From the Environment to the Host: Re-Wiring of the Transcriptome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 22°C to 37°C

    PubMed Central

    Bielecki, Piotr; Suárez-Diez, María; Puchałka, Jacek; Albertí, Sebastian; dos Santos, Vitor Martins; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of colonizing multiple ecological niches. This bacterium is responsible for a wide range of both acute and chronic infections in a variety of hosts. The success of this microorganism relies on its ability to adapt to environmental changes and re-program its regulatory and metabolic networks. The study of P. aeruginosa adaptation to temperature is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis upon infection of its mammalian host. We examined the effects of growth temperature on the transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analysis of PAO1 grown in Lysogeny broth at mid-exponential phase at 22°C and 37°C revealed that temperature changes are responsible for the differential transcriptional regulation of 6.4% of the genome. Major alterations were observed in bacterial metabolism, replication, and nutrient acquisition. Quorum-sensing and exoproteins secreted by type I, II, and III secretion systems, involved in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the mammalian host during infection, were up-regulated at 37°C compared to 22°C. Genes encoding arginine degradation enzymes were highly up-regulated at 22°C, together with the genes involved in the synthesis of pyoverdine. However, genes involved in pyochelin biosynthesis were up-regulated at 37°C. We observed that the changes in expression of P. aeruginosa siderophores correlated to an overall increase in Fe2+ extracellular concentration at 37°C and a peak in Fe3+ extracellular concentration at 22°C. This suggests a distinct change in iron acquisition strategies when the bacterium switches from the external environment to the host. Our work identifies global changes in bacterial metabolism and nutrient acquisition induced by growth at different temperatures. Overall, this study identifies factors that are regulated in genome-wide adaptation processes and discusses how this life-threatening pathogen responds to temperature. PMID:24587139

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia in cystic fibrosis: genome evolution, interactions and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Leo; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2004-09-01

    The Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia are opportunistic human pathogens that are responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and are the major pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). The two bacteria not only inhabit the same environmental niches but can also form mixed biofilms in the lungs of CF patients. Hence, it appears very likely that the two organisms are capable of interacting with each other. Work of the past few years has shown that both bacteria utilize quorum-sensing systems, which rely on N-acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules, to control the expression of virulence factors and biofilm development. Most importantly, evidence has been presented that these signal molecules also serve as a universal language for communication between the two organisms. Moreover, analyses of the diversity in P. aeruginosa revealed the presence of genome islands that contain genes that are highly homologous to genes identified in strains of Burkholderia sp. This finding suggests that there is a frequent exchange of genetic material between the two organisms.

  2. Antibiotic and metal resistance in a ST395 Pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental isolate: A genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro; Tacão, Marta; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel

    2016-09-15

    We analyzed the resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa E67, an epiphytic isolate from a metal-contaminated estuary. The aim was to identify genetic determinants of resistance to antibiotics and metals, assessing possible co-selection mechanisms. Identification was based on phylogenetic analysis and average nucleotide identity value calculation. MLST affiliated E67 to ST395, previously described as a high-risk clone. Genome analysis allowed identifying genes probably involved in resistance to antibiotics (e.g. beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol) and metals (e.g. mercury and copper), consistent with resistance phenotypes. Several genes associated with efflux systems, as well as genetic determinants contributing to gene motility, were identified. Pseudomonas aeruginosa E67 possesses an arsenal of resistance determinants, probably contributing to adaptation to a polluted ecosystem. Association to mobile structures highlights the role of these platforms in multi-drug resistance. Physical links between metal and antibiotic resistance genes were not identified, suggesting a predominance of cross-resistance associated with multidrug efflux pumps.

  3. Differential genome analyses of metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for drug target identification.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K

    2007-01-01

    Complete genome sequences of several pathogenic bacteria have been determined, and many more such projects are currently under way. While these data potentially contain all the determinants of host-pathogen interactions and possible drug targets, computational tools for selecting suitable candidates for further experimental analyses are currently limited. Detection of bacterial genes that are non-homologous to human genes, and are essential for the survival of the pathogen represents a promising means of identifying novel drug targets. We used a differential pathway analyses approach (based on KEGG data) to identify essential genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our approach identified 214 unique enzymes in P. aeruginosa that may be potential drug targets and can be considered for rational drug design. About 40% of these putative targets have been reported as essential by transposon mutagenesis data elsewhere. Homology model for one of the proteins (LpxC) is presented as a case study and can be explored for in silico docking with suitable inhibitors. This approach is a step towards facilitating the search for new antibiotics.

  4. The atu and liu clusters are involved in the catabolic pathways for acyclic monoterpenes and leucine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J A; Zavala, A N; Díaz-Pérez, C; Cervantes, C; Díaz-Pérez, A L; Campos-García, J

    2006-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 gnyRDBHAL cluster, which is involved in acyclic isoprenoid degradation (A. L. Díaz-Pérez, N. A. Zavala-Hernández, C. Cervantes, and J. Campos-García, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5102-5110, 2004), corresponds to the liuRABCDE cluster (B. Hoschle, V. Gnau, and D. Jendrossek, Microbiology 151:3649-3656, 2005). A liu (leucine and isovalerate utilization) homolog cluster was found in the PAO1 genome and is related to the catabolism of acyclic monoterpenes of the citronellol family (AMTC); it was named the atu cluster (acyclic terpene utilization), consisting of the atuCDEF genes and lacking the hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) homolog. Mutagenesis of the atu and liu clusters showed that both are involved in AMTC and leucine catabolism by encoding the enzymes related to the geranyl-CoA and the 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA pathways, respectively. Intermediary metabolites of the acyclic monoterpene pathway, citronellic and geranic acids, were accumulated, and leucine degradation rates were affected in both atuF and liuD mutants. The alpha subunit of geranyl-CoA carboxylase and the alpha subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (alpha-MCCase), encoded by the atuF and liuD genes, respectively, were both induced by citronellol, whereas only the alpha-MCCase subunit was induced by leucine. Both citronellol and leucine also induced a LacZ transcriptional fusion at the liuB gene. The liuE gene encodes a probable hydroxy-acyl-CoA lyase (probably HMG-CoA lyase), an enzyme with bifunctional activity that is essential for both AMTC and leucine degradation. P. aeruginosa PAO1 products encoded by the liuABCD cluster showed a higher sequence similarity (77.2 to 79.5%) with the probable products of liu clusters from several Pseudomonas species than with the atuCDEF cluster from PAO1 (41.5%). Phylogenetic studies suggest that the atu cluster from P. aeruginosa could be the result of horizontal transfer

  5. Elastase Deficiency Phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Canine Otitis Externa Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Shana R.; Doetkott, Curt; Rust, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa veterinary isolates were assayed for elastase and total matrix protease activity. The elastase activity of canine ear isolates was much less than that of strain PAO1 and that of all other veterinary isolates (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that canine ear isolates have a distinct elastase phenotype. PMID:11329471

  6. The genomic basis of adaptation to the fitness cost of rifampicin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qin; Toll-Riera, Macarena; Heilbron, Karl; Preston, Gail M; MacLean, R Craig

    2016-01-13

    Antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost that must be overcome in order for resistance to persist over the long term. Compensatory mutations that recover the functional defects associated with resistance mutations have been argued to play a key role in overcoming the cost of resistance, but compensatory mutations are expected to be rare relative to generally beneficial mutations that increase fitness, irrespective of antibiotic resistance. Given this asymmetry, population genetics theory predicts that populations should adapt by compensatory mutations when the cost of resistance is large, whereas generally beneficial mutations should drive adaptation when the cost of resistance is small. We tested this prediction by determining the genomic mechanisms underpinning adaptation to antibiotic-free conditions in populations of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that carry costly antibiotic resistance mutations. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that populations founded by high-cost rifampicin-resistant mutants adapted via compensatory mutations in three genes of the RNA polymerase core enzyme, whereas populations founded by low-cost mutants adapted by generally beneficial mutations, predominantly in the quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator gene lasR. Even though the importance of compensatory evolution in maintaining resistance has been widely recognized, our study shows that the roles of general adaptation in maintaining resistance should not be underestimated and highlights the need to understand how selection at other sites in the genome influences the dynamics of resistance alleles in clinical settings.

  7. The genomic basis of adaptation to the fitness cost of rifampicin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Toll-Riera, Macarena; Heilbron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost that must be overcome in order for resistance to persist over the long term. Compensatory mutations that recover the functional defects associated with resistance mutations have been argued to play a key role in overcoming the cost of resistance, but compensatory mutations are expected to be rare relative to generally beneficial mutations that increase fitness, irrespective of antibiotic resistance. Given this asymmetry, population genetics theory predicts that populations should adapt by compensatory mutations when the cost of resistance is large, whereas generally beneficial mutations should drive adaptation when the cost of resistance is small. We tested this prediction by determining the genomic mechanisms underpinning adaptation to antibiotic-free conditions in populations of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that carry costly antibiotic resistance mutations. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that populations founded by high-cost rifampicin-resistant mutants adapted via compensatory mutations in three genes of the RNA polymerase core enzyme, whereas populations founded by low-cost mutants adapted by generally beneficial mutations, predominantly in the quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator gene lasR. Even though the importance of compensatory evolution in maintaining resistance has been widely recognized, our study shows that the roles of general adaptation in maintaining resistance should not be underestimated and highlights the need to understand how selection at other sites in the genome influences the dynamics of resistance alleles in clinical settings. PMID:26763710

  8. Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain, 12-4-4(59), Isolated from the Blood Culture of a Burn Patient.

    PubMed

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Peacock, Trent J; Abercrombie, Johnathan J; Leung, Kai P

    2016-03-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that frequently infects wounds, significantly impairs wound healing, and causes morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa, 12-4-4(59), isolated from the blood culture of a burn patient.

  9. Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain, 12-4-4(59), Isolated from the Blood Culture of a Burn Patient

    PubMed Central

    Karna, S. L. Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Peacock, Trent J.; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that frequently infects wounds, significantly impairs wound healing, and causes morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Here, we report the genome sequence of a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa, 12-4-4(59), isolated from the blood culture of a burn patient. PMID:26941150

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Extremely Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ST357) Strain CMC_VB_PA_B22862 Isolated from a Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pragasam, Agila Kumari; Yesurajan, Francis; Doss C, George Priya; George, Biju; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Walia, Kamini

    2016-01-01

    Extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains causing severe infections have become a serious concern across the world. Here, we report draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa with an extremely drug-resistant profile isolated from a patient with community-acquired bloodstream infection in India. PMID:27795257

  11. Secretome of transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa AES-1R grown in a cystic fibrosis lung-like environment.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nichollas E; Hare, Nathan J; White, Melanie Y; Manos, Jim; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We examined the secretome of an acute, transmissible CF P. aeruginosa (Australian epidemic strain 1-R; AES-1R) compared with laboratory-adapted PAO1. Culture supernatant proteins from rich (LB) and minimal (M9) media were compared using 2-DE and 2DLC-MS/MS, which revealed elevated abundance of PasP protease and absence of AprA protease in AES-1R. CF lung-like artificial sputum medium (ASMDM) contains serum and mucin that generally preclude proteomics of secreted proteins. ASMDM culture supernatants were subjected to 2DLC-MS/MS, which allowed the identification of 57 P. aeruginosa proteins, and qualitative spectral counting was used to estimate relative abundance. AES-1R-specific AES_7139 and PasP were more abundant in AES-1R ASMDM culture supernatants, while AprA could only be identified in PAO1. Relative quantitation was performed using selected reaction monitoring. Significantly elevated levels of PasP, LasB, chitin-binding protein (CbpD), and PA4495 were identified in AES-1R ASMDM supernatants. Quantitative PCR showed elevated pasP in AES-1R during early (18 h) ASMDM growth, while no evidence of aprA expression could be observed. Genomic screening of CF isolates revealed aes_7139 was present in all AES-1 and one pair of sequential nonepidemic isolates. Secreted proteins may be crucial in aiding CF-associated P. aeruginosa to establish infection and for adaptation to the CF lung. PMID:23991618

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BAMCPA07-48, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound

    PubMed Central

    Sanjar, Fatemeh; Karna, S. L. Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BAMCPA07-48, isolated from a combat injury wound. The closed genome sequence of this isolate is a valuable resource for pathogenome characterization of P. aeruginosa associated with wounds, which will aid in the development of a higher-resolution phylogenomic framework for molecular-guided pathogen-surveillance. PMID:27389262

  13. Genome packaging in EL and Lin68, two giant phiKZ-like bacteriophages of P. aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolova, O.S.; Shaburova, O.V.; Pechnikova, E.V.; Shaytan, A.K.; Krylov, S.V.; Kiselev, N.A.; Krylov, V.N.

    2014-11-15

    A unique feature of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa giant phage phiKZ is its way of genome packaging onto a spool-like protein structure, the inner body. Until recently, no similar structures have been detected in other phages. We have studied DNA packaging in P. aeruginosa phages EL and Lin68 using cryo-electron microscopy and revealed the presence of inner bodies. The shape and positioning of the inner body and the density of the DNA packaging in EL are different from those found in phiKZ and Lin68. This internal organization explains how the shorter EL genome is packed into a large EL capsid, which has the same external dimensions as the capsids of phiKZ and Lin68. The similarity in the structural organization in EL and other phiKZ-like phages indicates that EL is phylogenetically related to other phiKZ-like phages, and, despite the lack of detectable DNA homology, EL, phiKZ, and Lin68 descend from a common ancestor. - Highlights: • We performed a comparative structural study of giant P. aeruginosa phages: EL, Lin68 and phiKZ. • We revealed that the inner body is a common feature in giant phages. • The phage genome size correlates with the overall dimensions of the inner body.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-11

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Arivett, Brock A.; Ream, Dave C.; Fiester, Steven E.; Kidane, Destaalem

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work. PMID:27516516

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work. PMID:27516516

  17. Optimization and comparative characterization of neuraminidase activities from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Hep-2 cell, sheep kidney and rat liver lysosome

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaei, C; Ahmadi, M; Hosseini Jazani, N

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives The properties of neuraminidase produced by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 during growth in a defined medium (BHI) was examined and compared with some neuraminidase features of K. pneumoniae in this investigation. Materials and Methods The enzyme was isolated from concentrated culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa which was used in a sensitive fluorometric assay by using 2′-(4-methylumbelliferyl) α-D-N acetylneuraminic acid as substrate. Results Neuraminidase production in P. aeruginosa PAO1 paralleled bacterial growth in defined medium (BHI) and was maximal in the late logarithmic phase of growth but decreased during the stationary phase, probably owing to protease production or thermal instability. Highest production of P. aeruginosa PAO1 neuraminidase was in BHI culture media. The neuraminidase of P. aeruginosa PAO1 possessed an optimum temperature of activity at 56°C and the activity was maximal at pH 5. Heating the enzyme to 56°C for 45 min., in the presence of bovine serum albumin destroyed 33.1% of it's activity and addition of Ca+2, EDTA and NANA also decreased activity markedly. Conclusion The results revealed that the highest specific activity is for p. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:22347548

  18. Combination of hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin (ALX-109) enhances the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms growing on cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreau-Marquis, Sophie; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chelating iron may be a promising new therapy to eliminate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we investigate whether ALX-109 [a defined combination of an investigational drug containing lactoferrin (an iron-binding glycoprotein) and hypothiocyanite (a bactericidal agent)], alone and in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam, reduces P. aeruginosa biofilms grown on human CF airway epithelial cells. Methods P. aeruginosa (PAO1 and six clinical isolates of Pseudomonas) biofilms grown at the apical surface of confluent monolayers of CF airway epithelial cells were treated with ALX-109, either alone or in combination with tobramycin or aztreonam. Bacterial cfu remaining after treatment were determined by plate counting. Results ALX-109 alone reduced PAO1 biofilm formation, but had no effect on established biofilms. ALX-109 enhanced the ability of tobramycin and aztreonam to inhibit PAO1 biofilm formation and to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. ALX-109 and tobramycin were additive in disrupting established biofilms formed by six clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from the sputum of CF patients. Mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates were most susceptible to the combination of ALX-109 and tobramycin. In addition, ALX-109 also enhanced the ability of aztreonam to reduce established PAO1 biofilms. Conclusions Inhalation therapy combining hypothiocyanite and lactoferrin with TOBI® (tobramycin) or Cayston® (aztreonam) may be beneficial to CF patients by decreasing the airway bacterial burden of P. aeruginosa. PMID:25213272

  19. Precision-engineering the Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome with two-step allelic exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hmelo, Laura R.; Borlee, Bradley R.; Almblad, Henrik; Love, Michelle E.; Randall, Trevor E.; Tseng, Boo Shan; Lin, Chuyang; Irie, Yasuhiko; Storek, Kelly M.; Yang, Jaeun Jane; Siehnel, Richard J.; Howell, P. Lynne; Singh, Pradeep K.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Parsek, Matthew R.; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Harrison, Joe J.

    2016-01-01

    Allelic exchange is an efficient method of bacterial genome engineering. This protocol describes the use of this technique to make gene knockouts and knockins, as well as single nucleotide insertions, deletions and substitutions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unlike other approaches to allelic exchange, this protocol does not require heterologous recombinases to insert or excise selective markers from the target chromosome. Rather, positive and negative selection are enabled solely by suicide vector-encoded functions and host cell proteins. Here, mutant alleles, which are flanked by regions of homology to the recipient chromosome, are synthesized in vitro and then cloned into allelic exchange vectors using standard procedures. These suicide vectors are then introduced into recipient cells by conjugation. Homologous recombination then results in antibiotic resistant single-crossover mutants in which the plasmid has integrated site-specifically into the chromosome. Subsequently, unmarked double-crossover mutants are isolated directly using sucrose-mediated counter-selection. This two-step process yields seamless mutations that are precise to a single base pair of DNA. The entire procedure requires ~2 weeks. PMID:26492139

  20. Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Terminally Redundant Genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaP1: Establishment of Genus PaP1-Like Phages

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuguang; Le, Shuai; Tan, Yinling; Zhu, Junmin; Li, Ming; Rao, Xiancai; Zou, Lingyun; Li, Shu; Wang, Jing; Jin, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangtao; Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Xia; Hu, Fuquan

    2013-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68–70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138–140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:23675441

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence-Related Genes Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Feinbaum, Rhonda L.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Liberati, Nicole T.; Djonovic, Slavica; Adonizio, Allison; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of infecting a wide range of organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used a non-redundant transposon mutant library consisting of 5,850 clones corresponding to 75% of the total and approximately 80% of the non-essential PA14 ORFs to carry out a genome-wide screen for attenuation of PA14 virulence in C. elegans. We defined a functionally diverse 180 mutant set (representing 170 unique genes) necessary for normal levels of virulence that included both known and novel virulence factors. Seven previously uncharacterized virulence genes (ABC transporters PchH and PchI, aminopeptidase PepP, ATPase/molecular chaperone ClpA, cold shock domain protein PA0456, putative enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase PA0745, and putative transcriptional regulator PA14_27700) were characterized with respect to pigment production and motility and all but one of these mutants exhibited pleiotropic defects in addition to their avirulent phenotype. We examined the collection of genes required for normal levels of PA14 virulence with respect to occurrence in P. aeruginosa strain-specific genomic regions, location on putative and known genomic islands, and phylogenetic distribution across prokaryotes. Genes predominantly contributing to virulence in C. elegans showed neither a bias for strain-specific regions of the P. aeruginosa genome nor for putatively horizontally transferred genomic islands. Instead, within the collection of virulence-related PA14 genes, there was an overrepresentation of genes with a broad phylogenetic distribution that also occur with high frequency in many prokaryotic clades, suggesting that in aggregate the genes required for PA14 virulence in C. elegans are biased towards evolutionarily conserved genes. PMID:22911607

  2. Characterization of the Newly Isolated Lytic Bacteriophages KTN6 and KT28 and Their Efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Olszak, Tomasz; Arabski, Michal; Wasik, Slawomir; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Gula, Grzegorz; Briers, Yves; Jang, Ho Bin; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Duda, Katarzyna Anna; Lavigne, Rob; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2015-01-01

    We here describe two novel lytic phages, KT28 and KTN6, infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, in Poland. Both viruses show characteristic features of Pbunalikevirus genus within the Myoviridae family with respect to shape and size of head/tail, as well as LPS host receptor recognition. Genome analysis confirmed the similarity to other PB1-related phages, ranging between 48 and 96%. Pseudomonas phage KT28 has a genome size of 66,381 bp and KTN6 of 65,994 bp. The latent period, burst size, stability and host range was determined for both viruses under standard laboratory conditions. Biofilm eradication efficacy was tested on peg-lid plate assay and PET membrane surface. Significant reduction of colony forming units was observed (70-90%) in 24 h to 72 h old Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm cultures for both phages. Furthermore, a pyocyanin and pyoverdin reduction tests reveal that tested phages lowers the amount of both secreted dyes in 48-72 h old biofilms. Diffusion and goniometry experiments revealed the increase of diffusion rate through the biofilm matrix after phage application. These characteristics indicate these phages could be used to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and biofilm formation. It was also shown, that PB1-related phage treatment of biofilm caused the emergence of stable phage-resistant mutants growing as small colony variants. PMID:25996839

  3. Characterization of the Newly Isolated Lytic Bacteriophages KTN6 and KT28 and Their Efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Olszak, Tomasz; Arabski, Michal; Wasik, Slawomir; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Gula, Grzegorz; Briers, Yves; Jang, Ho Bin; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Duda, Katarzyna Anna; Lavigne, Rob; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2015-01-01

    We here describe two novel lytic phages, KT28 and KTN6, infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, in Poland. Both viruses show characteristic features of Pbunalikevirus genus within the Myoviridae family with respect to shape and size of head/tail, as well as LPS host receptor recognition. Genome analysis confirmed the similarity to other PB1-related phages, ranging between 48 and 96%. Pseudomonas phage KT28 has a genome size of 66,381 bp and KTN6 of 65,994 bp. The latent period, burst size, stability and host range was determined for both viruses under standard laboratory conditions. Biofilm eradication efficacy was tested on peg-lid plate assay and PET membrane surface. Significant reduction of colony forming units was observed (70-90%) in 24 h to 72 h old Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm cultures for both phages. Furthermore, a pyocyanin and pyoverdin reduction tests reveal that tested phages lowers the amount of both secreted dyes in 48-72 h old biofilms. Diffusion and goniometry experiments revealed the increase of diffusion rate through the biofilm matrix after phage application. These characteristics indicate these phages could be used to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and biofilm formation. It was also shown, that PB1-related phage treatment of biofilm caused the emergence of stable phage-resistant mutants growing as small colony variants. PMID:25996839

  4. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation.

  5. Glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Scoffield, Jessica; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes persistent infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphotidylcholine, a major component of host cell membranes. Phosphotidylcholine can be degraded by P. aeruginosa to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of glycerol in the CF lung. In this study, we explored the role that glycerol metabolism plays in biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. We report that glycerol metabolism promotes biofilm formation by both a chronic CF isolate (FRD1) and a wound isolate (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, loss of the GlpR regulator, which represses the expression of genes involved in glycerol metabolism, enhances biofilm formation in FRD1 through the upregulation of Pel polysaccharide. Taken together, our results suggest that glycerol metabolism may be a key factor that contributes to P. aeruginosa persistence by promoting biofilm formation. PMID:27392247

  6. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by N-Acyl Cyclopentylamides▿

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Takenori; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Kuroda, Akio; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    N-Octanoyl cyclopentylamide (C8-CPA) was found to moderately inhibit quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. To obtain more powerful inhibitors, a series of structural analogs of C8-CPA were synthesized and examined for their ability to inhibit quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa PAO1. The lasB-lacZ and rhlA-lacZ reporter assays revealed that the chain length and the ring structure were critical for C8-CPA analogs to inhibit quorum sensing. N-Decanoyl cyclopentylamide (C10-CPA) was found to be the strongest inhibitor, and its concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition for lasB-lacZ and rhlA-lacZ expression were 80 and 90 μM, respectively. C10-CPA also inhibited production of virulence factors, including elastase, pyocyanin, and rhamnolipid, and biofilm formation without affecting growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1. C10-CPA inhibited induction of both lasI-lacZ by N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (PAI1) and rhlA-lacZ by N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (PAI2) in the lasI rhlI mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1, indicating that C10-CPA interferes with the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems via inhibiting interaction between their response regulators (LasR and RhlR) and autoinducers. PMID:17369333

  7. A novel siderophore system is essential for the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in airway mucus

    PubMed Central

    Gi, Mia; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Yoon, Sang Sun; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes airway infections in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Here, we investigate the molecular interactions between P. aeruginosa and airway mucus secretions (AMS) derived from the primary cultures of normal human tracheal epithelial (NHTE) cells. PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, was capable of proliferating during incubation with AMS, while all other tested bacterial species perished. A PAO1 mutant lacking PA4834 gene became susceptible to AMS treatment. The ΔPA4834 mutant was grown in AMS supplemented with 100 μM ferric iron, suggesting that the PA4834 gene product is involved in iron metabolism. Consistently, intracellular iron content was decreased in the mutant, but not in PAO1 after the AMS treatment. Importantly, a PAO1 mutant unable to produce both pyoverdine and pyochelin remained viable, suggesting that these two major siderophore molecules are dispensable for maintaining viability during incubation with AMS. The ΔPA4834 mutant was regrown in AMS amended with 100 μM nicotianamine, a phytosiderophore whose production is predicted to be mediated by the PA4836 gene. Infectivity of the ΔPA4834 mutant was also significantly compromised in vivo. Together, our results identify a genetic element encoding a novel iron acquisition system that plays a previously undiscovered role in P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:26446565

  8. A novel siderophore system is essential for the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in airway mucus.

    PubMed

    Gi, Mia; Lee, Kang-Mu; Kim, Sang Cheol; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Yoon, Sang Sun; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes airway infections in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Here, we investigate the molecular interactions between P. aeruginosa and airway mucus secretions (AMS) derived from the primary cultures of normal human tracheal epithelial (NHTE) cells. PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, was capable of proliferating during incubation with AMS, while all other tested bacterial species perished. A PAO1 mutant lacking PA4834 gene became susceptible to AMS treatment. The ΔPA4834 mutant was grown in AMS supplemented with 100 μM ferric iron, suggesting that the PA4834 gene product is involved in iron metabolism. Consistently, intracellular iron content was decreased in the mutant, but not in PAO1 after the AMS treatment. Importantly, a PAO1 mutant unable to produce both pyoverdine and pyochelin remained viable, suggesting that these two major siderophore molecules are dispensable for maintaining viability during incubation with AMS. The ΔPA4834 mutant was regrown in AMS amended with 100 μM nicotianamine, a phytosiderophore whose production is predicted to be mediated by the PA4836 gene. Infectivity of the ΔPA4834 mutant was also significantly compromised in vivo. Together, our results identify a genetic element encoding a novel iron acquisition system that plays a previously undiscovered role in P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:26446565

  9. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    PubMed

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. PMID:26578582

  10. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database

    PubMed Central

    Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Griffiths, Emma J.; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Shay, Julie A.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. PMID:26578582

  11. Recombination is a key driver of genomic and phenotypic diversity in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population during cystic fibrosis infection.

    PubMed

    Darch, Sophie E; McNally, Alan; Harrison, Freya; Corander, Jukka; Barr, Helen L; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Holden, Stephen; Fogarty, Andrew; Crusz, Shanika A; Diggle, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung harbors a complex, polymicrobial ecosystem, in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of sustaining chronic infections, which are highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Here, we investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of 44 morphologically identical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from a single CF patient sputum sample. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of isolates revealed large variances and trade-offs in growth, virulence factors and quorum sensing (QS) signals. Whole genome analysis of 22 isolates revealed high levels of intra-isolate diversity ranging from 5 to 64 SNPs and that recombination and not spontaneous mutation was the dominant driver of diversity in this population. Furthermore, phenotypic differences between isolates were not linked to mutations in known genes but were statistically associated with distinct recombination events. We also assessed antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates. Resistance to antibiotics significantly increased when multiple isolates were mixed together. Our results highlight the significant role of recombination in generating phenotypic and genetic diversification during in vivo chronic CF infection. We also discuss (i) how these findings could influence how patient-to-patient transmission studies are performed using whole genome sequencing, and (ii) the need to refine antibiotic susceptibility testing in sputum samples taken from patients with CF. PMID:25578031

  12. Genetic Evidence for O-Specific Antigen as Receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage K8 and Its Genomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuewei; Cui, Xiaoli; Zhang, Fenjiao; He, Yang; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Hongjiang

    2016-01-01

    Phage therapy requires the comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the host-phage interactions. In this work, to identify the genes related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage K8 receptor synthesis, 16 phage-resistant mutants were selected from a Tn5G transposon mutant library of strain PAK. The disrupted genetic loci were identified and they were related to O-specific antigen (OSA) synthesis, including gene wbpR, ssg, wbpV, wbpO, and Y880_RS05480, which encoded a putative O-antigen polymerase Wzy. The Lipopolysaccharide profile of the Y880_RS05480 mutant was analyzed and shown to lack the O-antigen. Therefore, the data from characterization of Y880_RS05480 by TMHMM and SDS-PAGE silver staining analysis suggest that this locus might encode Wzy. The complete phage K8 genome was characterized as 93879 bp in length and contained identical 1188-bp terminal direct repeats. Comparative genomic analysis showed that phage K8 was highly homologous to members of the genus PaP1-like phages. On the basis of our genetic findings, OSA of P. aeruginosa PAK is proven to be the receptor of phage K8. The highly conserved structural proteins among the genetic closely related phages suggest that they may recognize the same receptor. PMID:26973628

  13. Evidence for different pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake systems among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, P; Hohnadel, D; Meyer, J M

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and 12 clinical isolates) were checked for the production of pyoverdine and for pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake. Under iron restriction, two isolates produced undetectable amounts of pyoverdine, but all the other strains produced a compound with physicochemical properties identical or close to those of the pyoverdine of P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (strain PAO1). The pyoverdines were purified and tested for their growth-promoting activity and for their ability to facilitate 59Fe uptake in homologous experiments involving each pyoverdine and its producing strain, as well as in heterologous systems involving all the other strains. The results of both types of experiments suggested the existence of three specificity groups. This was confirmed by analysis of the amino acid composition of the pyoverdines, which differed for each group. A partially purified polyclonal antiserum raised against a major 80-kilodalton (kDa) iron-regulated outer membrane protein (IROMP) of P. aeruginosa PAO1 recognized the 80-kDa IROMPs from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and the clinical isolates belonging to the same group, whereas the IROMPs from the strains belonging to the two other groups were not detected. A second antiserum raised against the P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 80-kDa IROMP gave similar results by reacting specifically with the 80-kDa IROMP from the strains belonging to this group. Thus, together with the already known pyoverdine from P. aeruginosa PAO1, two new types of pyoverdines produced by strains belonging to this species were characterized. Images PMID:2509364

  14. Chlorinated phenol-induced physiological antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Muller, Jocelyn Fraga; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Ikuma, Kaoru; Stevens, Ann M; Love, Nancy G

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous environmental bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to rapidly develop multidrug resistance under selective pressure. Previous work demonstrated that upon exposure to the environmental contaminant pentachlorophenol (PCP), P. aeruginosa PAO1 increases expression of multiple multidrug efflux pumps, including the MexAB-OprM pump. The current study describes increases in the antibiotic resistance of PAO1 upon exposure to PCP and other chlorinated organics, including triclosan. Only exposure to chlorinated phenols induced the mexAB-oprM-mediated antibiotic-resistant phenotype. Thus, chlorinated phenols have the potential to contribute to transient phenotypic increases of antibiotic resistance that are relevant when both compounds are present in the environment.

  15. A Drug-Repositioning Screening Identifies Pentetic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Suppressing the Elastase-Mediated Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gi, Mia; Jeong, Junhui; Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Toyofuku, Masanori; Yong, Dong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance, produces elastase as a predominant exoprotease. Here, we screened a library of chemical compounds currently used for human medication and identified diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA, pentetic acid) as an agent that suppresses the production of elastase. Elastase activity found in the prototype P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was significantly decreased when grown with a concentration as low as 20 μM DTPA. Supplementation with Zn2+ or Mn2+ ions restored the suppressive effect of DTPA, suggesting that the DTPA-mediated decrease in elastase activity is associated with ion-chelating activity. In DTPA-treated PAO1 cells, transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene and levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a molecule that mediates P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), were significantly downregulated, reflecting the potential involvement of the PQS QS system in DTPA-mediated elastase suppression. Biofilm formation was also decreased by DTPA treatment. When A549 alveolar type II-like adenocarcinoma cells were infected with PAO1 cells in the presence of DTPA, A549 cell viability was substantially increased. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of DTPA to PAO1-infected mice alleviated the pathogenic effects of PAO1 cells in the animals. Together, our results revealed a novel function for a known molecule that may help treat P. aeruginosa airway infection. PMID:25246397

  16. Genomic islands 1 and 2 play key roles in the evolution of extensively drug-resistant ST235 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Martin; Worden, Paul; Huntington, Peter; Hudson, Bernard; Karagiannis, Thomas; Charles, Ian G.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa are noscomially acquired, opportunistic pathogens that pose a major threat to the health of burns patients and the immunocompromised. We sequenced the genomes of P. aeruginosa isolates RNS_PA1, RNS_PA46 and RNS_PAE05, which displayed resistance to almost all frontline antibiotics, including gentamicin, piperacillin, timentin, meropenem, ceftazidime and colistin. We provide evidence that the isolates are representatives of P. aeruginosa sequence type (ST) 235 and carry Tn6162 and Tn6163 in genomic islands 1 (GI1) and 2 (GI2), respectively. GI1 disrupts the endA gene at precisely the same chromosomal location as in P. aeruginosa strain VR-143/97, of unknown ST, creating an identical CA direct repeat. The class 1 integron associated with Tn6163 in GI2 carries a blaGES-5–aacA4–gcuE15–aphA15 cassette array conferring resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. GI2 is flanked by a 12 nt direct repeat motif, abuts a tRNA-gly gene, and encodes proteins with putative roles in integration, conjugative transfer as well as integrative conjugative element-specific proteins. This suggests that GI2 may have evolved from a novel integrative conjugative element. Our data provide further support to the hypothesis that genomic islands play an important role in de novo evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26962050

  17. Identification, cloning and expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ps-x putative urate oxidase gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hesham M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Berekaa, Mahmoud M; Gohar, Yousry M; Elbaz, Mohamed A

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study we reported for the first time the isolation and characterization ofurate oxidase enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work we isolated and cloned a 1.350 kilobase DNA fragment that encode a putative urate oxidase gene from the genomic library of P. aeruginosa Ps-x. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA insert revealed an open reading frame that encodes a protein of a molecular weight of 54.0 kDa. The cloned DNA fragment showed an uricolytic activity when expressed in E. coli DH5alpha. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence of the cloned gene showed more than 99% identity to the gene encoding hypothetical protein of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Moreover, the sequence of the cloned gene was closely similar to the corresponding uricase gene of Cellulomonas flavigena (44% similarity), but showed lower similarity values to that of Bacillus sp. BT-90 (24% similarity), Candida utilis (24% similarity). Interestingly, the isolated uricase gene showed closer similarity to uricase from yeast-like symbiotic fungi Beauveria bassiana (35%), Tolypocladium inflatum (29%), Paecilomyces tenuipes (27%) and Cerataphis fransseni (24%).

  18. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases reveals a role for bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic-GMP in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kulesekara, Hemantha; Lee, Vincent; Brencic, Anja; Liberati, Nicole; Urbach, Jonathan; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G.; Neely, Alice N.; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Lory, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals and chronic respiratory disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. Cyclic nucleotides are known to play a variety of roles in the regulation of virulence-related factors in pathogenic bacteria. A set of P. aeruginosa genes, encoding proteins that contain putative domains characteristic of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that are responsible for the maintenance of cellular levels of the second messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) was identified in the annotated genomes of P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA14. Although the majority of these genes are components of the P. aeruginosa core genome, several are located on presumptive horizontally acquired genomic islands. A comprehensive analysis of P. aeruginosa genes encoding the enzymes of c-di-GMP metabolism (DGC- and PDE-encoding genes) was carried out to analyze the function of c-di-GMP in two disease-related phenomena, cytotoxicity and biofilm formation. Analysis of the phenotypes of DGC and PDE mutants and overexpressing clones revealed that certain virulence-associated traits are controlled by multiple DGCs and PDEs through alterations in c-di-GMP levels. A set of mutants in selected DGC- and PDE-encoding genes exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse infection model. Given that insertions in different DGC and PDE genes result in distinct phenotypes, it seems likely that the formation or degradation of c-di-GMP by these enzymes is in highly localized and intimately linked to particular targets of c-di-GMP action. PMID:16477007

  19. The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277) that is prevalent in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Melise; Albano, Rodolpho; Asensi, Marise; Assef, Ana Paula Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs. PMID:25466623

  20. Involvement of Fe uptake systems and AmpC β-lactamase in susceptibility to the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    van Delden, Christian; Page, Malcolm G P; Köhler, Thilo

    2013-05-01

    BAL30072 is a monosulfactam conjugated with an iron-chelating dihydroxypyridone moiety. It is active against Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We selected mutants with decreased susceptibilities to BAL30072 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 under a variety of conditions. Under iron-deficient conditions, mutants with overexpression of AmpC β-lactamase predominated. These mutants were cross-resistant to aztreonam and ceftazidime. Similar mutants were obtained after selection at >16× the MIC in iron-sufficient conditions. At 4× to 8× the MIC, mutants with elevated MIC for BAL30072 but unchanged MICs for aztreonam or ciprofloxacin were selected. The expression of ampC and the major efflux pump genes were also unchanged. These BAL30072-specific mutants were characterized by transcriptome analysis, which revealed upregulation of the Fe-dicitrate operon, FecIRA. Whole-genome sequencing showed that this resulted from a single nucleotide change in the Fur-box of the fecI promoter. Overexpression of either the FecI ECF sigma factor or the FecA receptor increased BAL30072 MICs 8- to 16-fold. A fecI mutant and a fecA mutant of PAO1 were hypersusceptible to BAL30072 (MICs < 0.06 μg/ml). The most downregulated gene belonged to the pyochelin synthesis operon, although mutants in pyochelin receptor or synthesis genes had unchanged MICs. The piuC gene, coding for a Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase located next to the piuA iron receptor gene, was also downregulated. The MICs of BAL30072 for piuC and piuA transposon mutants were increased 8- and 16-fold, respectively. We conclude that the upregulation of the Fe-dicitrate system impacts the expression of other TonB-dependent iron transporters and that PiuA and PiuC contribute to the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to BAL30072. PMID:23422914

  1. From the environment to the host: re-wiring of the transcriptome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 22°C to 37°C.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath; Bielecki, Piotr; Suárez-Diez, María; Puchałka, Jacek; Albertí, Sebastian; Dos Santos, Vitor Martins; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of colonizing multiple ecological niches. This bacterium is responsible for a wide range of both acute and chronic infections in a variety of hosts. The success of this microorganism relies on its ability to adapt to environmental changes and re-program its regulatory and metabolic networks. The study of P. aeruginosa adaptation to temperature is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis upon infection of its mammalian host. We examined the effects of growth temperature on the transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analysis of PAO1 grown in Lysogeny broth at mid-exponential phase at 22°C and 37°C revealed that temperature changes are responsible for the differential transcriptional regulation of 6.4% of the genome. Major alterations were observed in bacterial metabolism, replication, and nutrient acquisition. Quorum-sensing and exoproteins secreted by type I, II, and III secretion systems, involved in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the mammalian host during infection, were up-regulated at 37°C compared to 22°C. Genes encoding arginine degradation enzymes were highly up-regulated at 22°C, together with the genes involved in the synthesis of pyoverdine. However, genes involved in pyochelin biosynthesis were up-regulated at 37°C. We observed that the changes in expression of P. aeruginosa siderophores correlated to an overall increase in Fe²⁺ extracellular concentration at 37°C and a peak in Fe³⁺ extracellular concentration at 22°C. This suggests a distinct change in iron acquisition strategies when the bacterium switches from the external environment to the host. Our work identifies global changes in bacterial metabolism and nutrient acquisition induced by growth at different temperatures. Overall, this study identifies factors that are regulated in genome-wide adaptation processes and discusses how this life-threatening pathogen responds to temperature. PMID

  2. Truncation of type IV pilin induces mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO579

    PubMed Central

    Ryan Withers, T; Heath Damron, F; Yin, Yeshi; Yu, Hongwei D

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram negative, opportunistic pathogen that uses the overproduction of alginate, a surface polysaccharide, to form biofilms in vivo. Overproduction of alginate, also known as mucoidy, affords the bacterium protection from the host's defenses and facilitates the establishment of chronic lung infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Expression of the alginate biosynthetic operon is primarily controlled by the alternative sigma factor AlgU (AlgT/σ22). In a nonmucoid strain, AlgU is sequestered by the transmembrane antisigma factor MucA to the cytoplasmic membrane. AlgU can be released from MucA via regulated intramembrane proteolysis by proteases AlgW and MucP causing the conversion to mucoidy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO579, a derivative of the nonmucoid strain PAO1, is mucoid due to an unidentified mutation (muc-23). Using whole genome sequencing, we identified 16 nonsynonymous and 15 synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). We then identified three tandem single point mutations in the pilA gene (PA4525), as the cause of mucoidy in PAO579. These tandem mutations generate a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated version of PilA (PilA108), with a C-terminal motif of phenylalanine-threonine-phenylalanine (FTF). Inactivation of pilA108 confirmed it was required for mucoidy. Additionally, algW and algU were also required for mucoidy of PAO579. Western blot analysis indicated that MucA was less stable in PAO579 than nonmucoid PAO1 or PAO381. The mucoid phenotype and high PalgU and PalgD promoter activities of PAO579 require pilA108, algW, algU, and rpoN encoding the alternative sigma factor σ54. We also observed that RpoN regulates expression of algW and pilA in PAO579. Together, these results suggest that truncation in type IV pilin in P. aeruginosa strain PAO579 can induce mucoidy through an AlgW/AlgU-dependent pathway. PMID:23533140

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a high-affinity phosphate-binding protein endowed with phosphatase activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Djeghader, Ahmed; Gotthard, Guillaume; Suh, Andrew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Scott, Ken; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    In prokaryotes, phosphate starvation induces the expression of numerous phosphate-responsive genes, such as the pst operon including the high-affinity phosphate-binding protein (PBP or pstS) and alkaline phosphatases such as PhoA. This response increases the cellular inorganic phosphate import efficiency. Notably, some Pseudomonas species secrete, via a type-2 secretion system, a phosphate-binding protein dubbed LapA endowed with phosphatase activity. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray data collection at 0.87 Å resolution of LapA are described. Combined with biochemical and enzymatic characterization, the structure of this intriguing phosphate-binding protein will help to elucidate the molecular origin of its phosphatase activity and to decipher its putative role in phosphate uptake.

  4. Comparison of the outer membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide profiles of mucoid and nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, N M; MacDonald, M H; Martin, N; Nicas, T; Hancock, R E

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory-derived mucoid variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected by plating the standard PAO1 laboratory strain with bacteriophage. These mucoid variants formed two distinct groups of strains on the basis of phage typing. The first group had the same phage-typing pattern as the parent PAO1 strain, while the second group had a distinctly different phage-typing pattern. One strain from each group was assessed along with the parent PAO1 strain for its outer membrane protein (OMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis followed by appropriate staining. The mucoid derivatives were found to differ from the parent PAO1 nonmucoid strain in having lost a high-molecular-weight LPS species. Furthermore, the reversion of the mucoid strains to the nonmucoid phenotype was accompanied by a return of the missing high-molecular-weight LPS species. No observable difference between the mucoid derivatives and the parent nonmucoid strain was noted in the OMP profiles. The opposite was found in the case of four isolates of mucoid P. aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis. Two OMP bands (of approximately 55 and 25 kilodaltons) were present in the mucoid isolates but missing in their sister nonmucoid strains. In the case of the cystic fibrosis isolates, no difference in the LPS profiles within mucoid-nonmucoid pairs was noted. Images PMID:2121789

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, a Marine Algal Epibiont That Produces a Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Compound Active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, J. E.; Costa, S. K.; Bitzer, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cellulophaga is composed of obligate aerobic Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in association with marine algae. We report the approximately 4.42-Mbp draft genome sequence of Cellulophaga sp. E6, which inhibits N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL)–mediated quorum sensing (QS), lasB transcription, and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25676769

  6. Reduction of PCN biosynthesis by NO in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Zhang, Yuying; Wang, Yan; Qiao, Xinhua; Zi, Jing; Chen, Chang; Wan, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Pyocyanin (PCN), a virulence factor synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, plays an important role during clinical infections. There is no study of the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on PCN biosynthesis. Here, the effect of NO on PCN levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1, a common reference strain, was tested. The results showed that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can significantly reduce PCN levels (82.5% reduction at 60μM SNP). Furthermore, the effect of endogenous NO on PCN was tested by constructing PAO1 nor (NO reductase gene) knockout mutants. Compared to the wild-type strain, the Δnor strain had a lower PCN (86% reduction in Δnor). To examine whether the results were universal with other P. aeruginosa strains, we collected 4 clinical strains from a hospital, tested their PCN levels after SNP treatment, and obtained similar results, i.e., PCN biosynthesis was inhibited by NO. These results suggest that NO treatment may be a new strategy to inhibit PCN biosynthesis and could provide novel insights into eliminating P. aeruginosa virulence as a clinical goal.

  7. Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Containing blaVIM-2 and Elements of Salmonella Genomic Island 2: a New Genetic Resistance Determinant in Northeast Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Hujer, Andrea M.; Marshall, Steven H.; Ray, Amy J.; Rather, Philip N.; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Dumford, Donald; O'Shea, Patrick; Domitrovic, T. Nicholas J.; Salata, Robert A.; Chavda, Kalyan D.; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Vila, Alejandro J.; Haussler, Susanne; Jacobs, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenems are a mainstay of treatment for infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carbapenem resistance mediated by metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) remains uncommon in the United States, despite the worldwide emergence of this group of enzymes. Between March 2012 and May 2013, we detected MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in a university-affiliated health care system in northeast Ohio. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients, defined the resistance determinants and structure of the genetic element harboring the blaMBL gene through genome sequencing, and typed MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seven patients were affected that were hospitalized at three community hospitals, a long-term-care facility, and a tertiary care center; one of the patients died as a result of infection. Isolates belonged to sequence type 233 (ST233) and were extensively drug resistant (XDR), including resistance to all fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams; two isolates were nonsusceptible to colistin. The blaMBL gene was identified as blaVIM-2 contained within a class 1 integron (In559), similar to the cassette array previously detected in isolates from Norway, Russia, Taiwan, and Chicago, IL. Genomic sequencing and assembly revealed that In559 was part of a novel 35-kb region that also included a Tn501-like transposon and Salmonella genomic island 2 (SGI2)-homologous sequences. This analysis of XDR strains producing VIM-2 from northeast Ohio revealed a novel recombination event between Salmonella and P. aeruginosa, heralding a new antibiotic resistance threat in this region's health care system. PMID:25070102

  8. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants blocked in the synthesis of pyoverdin.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Serino, L; Orsi, N

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized by chemical and enzymatic analyses three distinct types of pyoverdin-defective (pvd) mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The pvd-1 mutant is an L-N5-hydroxyornithine (L-N5-OH-Orn) auxotroph unable to hydroxylate L-ornithine (L-Orn) in a cell-free system and requiring L-N5-OH-Orn for pyoverdin production. The other two types of mutants appear to be blocked in further steps of the biosynthetic pathway leading to pyoverdin, namely, the acylation of L-N5-OH-Orn (pvd-2) and chromophore synthesis (pvd-3). The different pvd mutations were all found to be located in the catA1 region at 47 min of the genetic map of P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:1512205

  9. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene encoding the pyoverdin biosynthetic enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N

    1994-01-01

    A gene was expressed in P. aeruginosa under the control of the T7 promoter. Induction of the T7 RNA polymerase system resulted in parallel increases of the L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity and of the amount of a 47.7-kDa polypeptide. We also constructed a site-specific pvdA mutant by insertion of a tetracycline-resistance cassette in the chromosomal pvdA gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Similarly to strain PALS124, the pvdA mutant obtained by gene disruption also disclosed no pyoverdin synthesis, lacked L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity, was complemented by the cloned pvdA gene, and produced pyoverdin at wild-type levels when fed with the biosynthetic precursor L-N5-OH-Orn. Southern blot analysis indicated that genes homologous to pvdA could be located within a 1.7-kb DNA fragment from SphI-digested genomic DNA of different hydroxamate-producing Pseudomonas spp. Our results suggest that omega-amino acid oxygenases have been conserved over a wide evolutionary range and probably evolved from a common ancestor. Images PMID:8106324

  10. Drosophila melanogaster as an Animal Model for the Study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Heidi; Sibley, Christopher D.; Surette, Michael G.; Lewenza, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3) demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo. PMID:21998591

  11. Comparative Genome Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Genes Within Newly Identified High Variability Regions Associated With Drug Resistance Development

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hsun-Cheng; Khatun, Jainab; Kanavy, Dona M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming rise of ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported in several clinical studies. Though the mutation of resistance genes and their role in drug resistance has been researched, the process by which the bacterium acquires high-level resistance is still not well understood. How does the genomic evolution of P. aeruginosa affect resistance development? Could the exposure of antibiotics to the bacteria enrich genomic variants that lead to the development of resistance, and if so, how are these variants distributed through the genome? To answer these questions, we performed 454 pyrosequencing and a whole genome analysis both before and after exposure to ciprofloxacin. The comparative sequence data revealed 93 unique resistance strain variation sites, which included a mutation in the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. We generated variation-distribution maps comparing the wild and resistant types, and isolated 19 candidates from three discrete resistance-associated high variability regions that had available transposon mutants, to perform a ciprofloxacin exposure assay. Of these region candidates with transposon disruptions, 79% (15/19) showed a reduction in the ability to gain high-level resistance, suggesting that genes within these high variability regions might enrich for certain functions associated with resistance development. PMID:23808957

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular secondary metabolite, Paerucumarin, chelates iron and is not localized to extracellular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Qaisar, Uzma; Kruczek, Cassandra J; Azeem, Muhammed; Javaid, Nasir; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2016-08-01

    Proteins encoded by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pvcA-D operon synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin termed paerucumarin. The pvcA-D operon enhances the expression of the P. aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup) genes and this effect is mediated through paerucumarin. Whether pvcA-D and/or paerucumarin affect the expression of other P. aeruginosa genes is not known. In this study, we examined the effect of a mutation in pvcA-D operon the global transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1-UW. The mutation reduced the expression of several ironcontrolled genes including pvdS, which is essential for the expression of the pyoverdine genes. Additional transcriptional studies showed that the pvcA-D operon is not regulated by iron. Exogenously added paerucumarin enhanced pyoverdine production and pvdS expression in PAO1-UW. Iron-chelation experiments revealed that purified paerucumarin chelates iron. However, exogenously added paerucumarin significantly reduced the growth of a P. aeruginosa mutant defective in pyoverdine and pyochelin production. In contrast to other secondary metabolite, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), paerucumarin is not localized to the P. aeruginosa membrane vesicles. These results suggest that paerucumarin enhances the expression of iron-controlled genes by chelating iron within the P. aeruginosa extracellular environment. Although paerucumarin chelates iron, it does not function as a siderophore. Unlike PQS, paerucumarin is not associated with the P. aeruginosa cell envelope. PMID:27480638

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

  14. Contribution of cell elongation to the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi Young; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO(2) (-)) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process.

  15. Superhydrophobic, nanotextured polyvinyl chloride films for delaying Pseudomonas aeruginosa attachment to intubation tubes and medical plastics.

    PubMed

    Loo, Ching-Yee; Young, Paul M; Lee, Wing-Hin; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial attachment onto the surface of polymers in medical devices such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the polymer, including its surface hydrophobicity and roughness. In this study, to prevent biofilm formation onto PVC devices, the PVC surface was modified using a combination of solvent (tetrahydrofuran) and non-solvents (i.e. ethanol and methanol). The surface of unmodified PVC was smooth and relatively hydrophobic (water contact angle (CA)=80°). Ethanol-treated PVCs revealed the presence of micron-sized particulates and porous structures as the concentration of ethanol was increased. Surface hydrophobicity (measured in terms of CA) increased from 73° to 150° as the ethanol concentration increased from 15% to 35% (v/v). In general, methanol-treated PVCs were more hydrophilic compared to those treated with ethanol. The colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 onto unmodified PVC surface was rapid, and individual bacterial cells could be seen after 6h incubation. On the surface of treated PVC, the secretion of extracellular matrix layers was evident at 18 h and P. aeruginosa PAO1 start to form microcolonies at 24h of incubation. The initial attachment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was delayed to 18 and 24h, respectively in the PVCs treated with 25% (v/v) and 35% (v/v) ethanol. It can be concluded that the treatment used in this study to prepare superhydrophobic PVC surface prevented the colonization of bacteria up to 24h after culture.

  16. Marine-derived quorum-sensing inhibitory activities enhance the antibacterial efficacy of tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P; Maggs, Christine A; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (-63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (-33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (-89%) and a 2-log reduction (-99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

  17. Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P.; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (−63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (−33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (−89%) and a 2-log reduction (−99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

  18. Pleiotropic effects of temperature-regulated 2-OH-lauroytransferase (PA0011) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, virulence and type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bobo; Li, Bo; Liang, Ying; Li, Jing; Gao, Lang; Chen, Lin; Duan, Kangmin; Shen, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen which adapts to changing environment, such as temperature variations and entering host by regulating their gene expression. Here, we report that gene PA0011 in P. aeruginosa PAO1, which encodes a 2-OH-lauroytransferase participating in lipid A biosynthesis, is involved in carbapenem resistance and virulence in a temperature-regulated manner in PAO1. The expression of PA0011 was higher at an environment temperature (21 °C) than that at a body temperature (37 °C). The inactivation of PA0011 rendered increased antibiotic susceptibility and decreased virulence both in vivo and in vitro. The impaired integrity and the decreased stability of the outer membrane were the cause of the increased susceptibility of PAO1(Δ0011) to carbapenem and many other common antibiotics. The reduced endotoxic activity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributed to the decreased virulence both at 21 °C and 37 °C in PAO1 (Δ0011). In addition, we have found that PA0011 repressed the expression of TTSS virulence factors both at transcriptional and translational levels, similar to the effect of O antigen of LPS but unlike any effect of its homologue reported in other bacteria. The effect of PA0011 on resistance to many antibiotics including carbapenem and virulence in P. aeruginosa makes it a target for novel antimicrobial therapies.

  19. Whole genome and transcriptome analyses of environmental antibiotic sensitive and multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exposed to waste water and tap water.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Thomas; Armant, Olivier; Bretschneider, Nancy; Hahn, Alexander; Kirchen, Silke; Seifert, Martin; Dötsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The fitness of sensitive and resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different aquatic environments depends on genetic capacities and transcriptional regulation. Therefore, an antibiotic-sensitive isolate PA30 and a multi-resistant isolate PA49 originating from waste waters were compared via whole genome and transcriptome Illumina sequencing after exposure to municipal waste water and tap water. A number of different genomic islands (e.g. PAGIs, PAPIs) were identified in the two environmental isolates beside the highly conserved core genome. Exposure to tap water and waste water exhibited similar transcriptional impacts on several gene clusters (antibiotic and metal resistance, genetic mobile elements, efflux pumps) in both environmental P. aeruginosa isolates. The MexCD-OprJ efflux pump was overexpressed in PA49 in response to waste water. The expression of resistance genes, genetic mobile elements in PA49 was independent from the water matrix. Consistently, the antibiotic sensitive strain PA30 did not show any difference in expression of the intrinsic resistance determinants and genetic mobile elements. Thus, the exposure of both isolates to polluted waste water and oligotrophic tap water resulted in similar expression profiles of mentioned genes. However, changes in environmental milieus resulted in rather unspecific transcriptional responses than selected and stimuli-specific gene regulation.

  20. A Novel Insight into Dehydroleucodine Mediated Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, S.; Veisaga, M. L.; López, L. A.; Barbieri, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to conventional treatments demands the search for novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia (A.) douglasiana, was screened against several pathogenic virulence effectors of P. aeruginosa. In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration of DhL was determined against P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA103, PA14, and multidrug resistant clinical strain, CDN118. Results showed that DhL was active against each strain where PAO1 and PA103 showed higher susceptibility (MIC 0.48 mg/mL) as compared to PA14 (MIC 0.96 mg/mL) and CDN118 (MIC 0.98 mg/mL). Also, when PAO1 strain was grown in the presence of DhL (MIC50, 0.12 mg/mL), a delay in the generation time was noticed along with significant inhibition of secretory protease and elastase activities, interruption in biofilm attachment phase in a stationary culture, and a significant decline in Type III effector ExoS. At MIC50, DhL treatment increased the sensitivity of P. aeruginosa towards potent antibiotics. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa with DhL prevented toxin-induced apoptosis in macrophages. These observations suggest that DhL activity was at the bacterial transcriptional level. Hence, antimicrobial activity of DhL may serve as leads in the development of new anti-Pseudomonas pharmaceuticals. PMID:26640783

  1. Chemotaxis and Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Scratch-Wounded Human Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal imaging was used to characterize interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA, expressing GFP or labeled with Syto 11) with CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o-, grown as confluent monolayers with unknown polarity on coverglasses) in control conditions and following scratch wounding. Epithelia and PAO1-GFP or PAK-GFP (2 MOI) were incubated with Ringer containing typical extracellular salts, pH and glucose and propidium iodide (PI, to identify dead cells). PAO1 and PAK swam randomly over and did not bind to nonwounded CFBE41o- cells. PA migrated rapidly (began within 20 sec, maximum by 5 mins) and massively (10-80 fold increase, termed "swarming"), but transiently (random swimming after 15 mins), to wounds, particularly near cells that took up PI. Some PA remained immobilized on cells near the wound. PA swam randomly over intact CFBE41o- monolayers and wounded monolayers that had been incubated with medium for 1 hr. Expression of CFTR and altered pH of the media did not affect PA interactions with CFBE41o- wounds. In contrast, PAO1 swarming and immobilization along wounds was abolished in PAO1 (PAO1ΔcheYZABW, no expression of chemotaxis regulatory components cheY, cheZ, cheA, cheB and cheW) and greatly reduced in PAO1 that did not express amino acid receptors pctA, B and C (PAO1ΔpctABC) and in PAO1 incubated in Ringer containing a high concentration of mixed amino acids. Non-piliated PAKΔpilA swarmed normally towards wounded areas but bound infrequently to CFBE41o- cells. In contrast, both swarming and binding of PA to CFBE41o- cells near wounds were prevented in non-flagellated PAKΔfliC. Data are consistent with the idea that (i) PA use amino acid sensor-driven chemotaxis and flagella-driven swimming to swarm to CF airway epithelial cells near wounds and (ii) PA use pili to bind to epithelial cells near wounds. PMID:27031335

  2. Mitogenic effects of purified outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y H; Hancock, R E; Mishell, R I

    1980-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were purified and tested for their ability to stimulate resting murine lymphocytes to proliferate. It was demonstrated that picomole amounts of all three proteins were mitogenic for both intact and T-lymphocyte-depleted populations of spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice. In contrast, they had no activity against either mature or immature thymocytes. Since the strain of mice used is unable to respond to lipopolysaccharide, we condlude that the three proteins are B-cell mitogens. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6769818

  3. A Novel Metagenomic Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bijtenhoorn, Patrick; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Müller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Utpatel, Christian; Schipper, Christina; Hornung, Claudia; Szesny, Matthias; Grond, Stephanie; Thürmer, Andrea; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Daniel, Rolf; Dierking, Katja; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Streit, Wolfgang R.

    2011-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the expression of a number of virulence factors, as well as biofilm formation, are controlled by quorum sensing (QS). N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are an important class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial QS and in many pathogenic bacteria infection and host colonization are AHL-dependent. The AHL signaling molecules are subject to inactivation mainly by hydrolases (Enzyme Commission class number EC 3) (i.e. N-acyl-homoserine lactonases and N-acyl-homoserine-lactone acylases). Only little is known on quorum quenching mechanisms of oxidoreductases (EC 1). Here we report on the identification and structural characterization of the first NADP-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) involved in inactivation of N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and derived from a metagenome library. The corresponding gene was isolated from a soil metagenome and designated bpiB09. Heterologous expression and crystallographic studies established BpiB09 as an NADP-dependent reductase. Although AHLs are probably not the native substrate of this metagenome-derived enzyme, its expression in P. aeruginosa PAO1 resulted in significantly reduced pyocyanin production, decreased motility, poor biofilm formation and absent paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, a genome-wide transcriptome study suggested that the level of lasI and rhlI transcription together with 36 well known QS regulated genes was significantly (≥10-fold) affected in P. aeruginosa strains expressing the bpiB09 gene in pBBR1MCS-5. Thus AHL oxidoreductases could be considered as potent tools for the development of quorum quenching strategies. PMID:22046268

  4. New possibility for providing protection against urinary tract infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-adjuvanted flagellin 'b' induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we demonstrated a novel protective role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 flagellin 'b' in prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI). P. aeruginosa is motile via single polar flagellum made up of polymerized flagellin proteins. It is a serious nosocomial pathogen causing UTIs. Predisposing factors include instrumentation and catheterization which enhance colonization with P. aeruginosa, leading to ascending infection. Hence for a newer, safer and effective approach, the present study focussed on the prophylaxis using bacterial flagellin, isolated and purified (PCR sequencing and MALDI-TOF) from P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain, which triggers immune response [both non-specific and specific (active and passive)] as defense against infection. Administration of flagellin 'b' via intraperitoneal route enhanced the clearance of homologous as well as heterologous bacteria (P. aeruginosa uroisolate carrying flagellin 'a') in renal tissue, decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reverted structural integrity of renal tissue to near normal in female LACA mice. Immunization suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] and activated humoral immune response. Anti-flagellin antibodies (quantified by ELISA) helped in the clearance of bacterial load by opsonophagocytosis. Adoptive transfer of antisera also protected mice from PAO1 challenge, indicating protective role of antibodies. In conclusion, this is the first report that describes flagellin as a potential prophylactic agent which downregulates inflammation and curbs UTIs.

  5. New possibility for providing protection against urinary tract infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-adjuvanted flagellin 'b' induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we demonstrated a novel protective role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 flagellin 'b' in prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI). P. aeruginosa is motile via single polar flagellum made up of polymerized flagellin proteins. It is a serious nosocomial pathogen causing UTIs. Predisposing factors include instrumentation and catheterization which enhance colonization with P. aeruginosa, leading to ascending infection. Hence for a newer, safer and effective approach, the present study focussed on the prophylaxis using bacterial flagellin, isolated and purified (PCR sequencing and MALDI-TOF) from P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain, which triggers immune response [both non-specific and specific (active and passive)] as defense against infection. Administration of flagellin 'b' via intraperitoneal route enhanced the clearance of homologous as well as heterologous bacteria (P. aeruginosa uroisolate carrying flagellin 'a') in renal tissue, decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reverted structural integrity of renal tissue to near normal in female LACA mice. Immunization suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] and activated humoral immune response. Anti-flagellin antibodies (quantified by ELISA) helped in the clearance of bacterial load by opsonophagocytosis. Adoptive transfer of antisera also protected mice from PAO1 challenge, indicating protective role of antibodies. In conclusion, this is the first report that describes flagellin as a potential prophylactic agent which downregulates inflammation and curbs UTIs. PMID:25455605

  6. Diversity of biofilms produced by quorum-sensing-deficient clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schaber, J Andy; Hammond, Adrienne; Carty, Nancy L; Williams, Simon C; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Burrowes, Ben H; Dhevan, Vijian; Griswold, John A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2007-06-01

    The quorum-sensing (QS) systems control several virulence attributes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five QS-deficient P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (CI) that were obtained from wound (CI-1), tracheal (CI-2, CI-3, CI-4) and urinary tract (CI-5) infections had previously been characterized. In this study, a flow-through continuous-culture system was utilized to examine in detail the biofilms formed by these isolates in comparison with the P. aeruginosa prototrophic strain PAO1. Analysis of the biofilms by confocal laser scanning microscopy and COMSTAT image analysis at 1 and 7 days post-inoculation showed that the isolates produced diverse biofilms. In comparison with PAO1, the CI produced biofilms that scarcely or partially covered the surface at day 1, although CI-1 produced larger microcolonies. At day 7, CI-2 and CI-4 produced mature biofilms denser than that produced by PAO1, while the biofilm formed by CI-1 changed very little from day 1. CI-1 was defective in both swarming and twitching motilities, and immunoblotting analysis confirmed that it produced a reduced level of PilA protein. The twitching-motility defect of CI-1 was not complemented by a plasmid carrying intact pilA. In the 48 h colony biofilm assay, the CI varied in susceptibility to imipenem, gentamicin and piperacillin/tazobactam. These results suggest that: (1) the isolates produced biofilms with different structures and densities from that of PAO1; (2) biofilm formation by the isolates was not influenced by either the isolation site or the QS deficiencies of the isolates; (3) the behaviour of CI-1 in the different biofilm systems may be due to its lack of swarming motility and type IV pilus-related twitching motility.

  7. The Regulatory Repertoire of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC ß-Lactamase Regulator AmpR Includes Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Schneper, Lisa; Merighi, Massimo; Smith, Roger; Narasimhan, Giri; Lory, Stephen; Mathee, Kalai

    2012-01-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the transcriptional regulator AmpR, a member of the LysR family, regulates the expression of a chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. The regulatory repertoire of AmpR is broader in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen responsible for numerous acute and chronic infections including cystic fibrosis. In addition to regulating ampC, P. aeruginosa AmpR regulates the sigma factor AlgT/U and production of some quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors. In order to better understand the ampR regulon, we compared the transcriptional profile generated using DNA microarrays of the prototypic P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain with its isogenic ampR deletion mutant, PAOΔampR. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that the AmpR regulon is much more extensive than previously thought, with the deletion of ampR influencing the differential expression of over 500 genes. In addition to regulating resistance to β-lactam antibiotics via AmpC, AmpR also regulates non-β-lactam antibiotic resistance by modulating the MexEF-OprN efflux pump. Other virulence mechanisms including biofilm formation and QS-regulated acute virulence factors are AmpR-regulated. Real-time PCR and phenotypic assays confirmed the microarray data. Further, using a Caenorhabditis elegans model, we demonstrate that a functional AmpR is required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. AmpR, a member of the core genome, also regulates genes in the regions of genome plasticity that are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Further, we show differential regulation of other transcriptional regulators and sigma factors by AmpR, accounting for the extensive AmpR regulon. The data demonstrates that AmpR functions as a global regulator in P. aeruginosa and is a positive regulator of acute virulence while negatively regulating biofilm formation, a chronic infection phenotype. Unraveling this complex regulatory circuit will provide a better understanding of the bacterial response to antibiotics and how the

  8. Influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil nanoparticles on aspects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Comin, Vanessa M; Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Quatrin, Priscilla M; de Souza, Márcia E; Bonez, Pauline C; Pintos, Francieli G; Raffin, Renata P; Vaucher, Rodrigo de A; Martinez, Diego S T; Santos, Roberto C V

    2016-04-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus and frequent cause of infection. This microorganism is resistant intrinsically to various drugs. The P. aeruginosa is associated with the biofilm formation, which causes worsen the prognosis and difficulty the treatment. The influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil or "tree of tee" oil (TTO) and TTO nanoparticles on adhesion of P. aeruginosa in buccal epithelial cells was investigated. Also was determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against this microorganism. The TTO nanoparticles were produced by deposition of preformed polymer and the physic-chemical properties of nanoparticles were measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The characterization of nanoparticle showed acceptable values for diameter and zeta potential. The evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 was performed by microdilution indicating the minimal inhibitory concentration, and the potential antibiofilm. It was verified the action on virulence factors such the motility, besides the influence on adhesion in buccal epithelial cells. Both oil and nanoparticles showed a decrease in adhesion of microorganisms to buccal cells, decrease of biofilm and interfering on P. aeruginosa PAO1 motility. The nanostructuration of TTO, shows be a viable alternative against formed biofilm microorganisms. PMID:26821356

  9. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  10. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  11. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. PMID:20580207

  12. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices.

  13. Essential O2-responsive genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their network revealed by integrating dynamic data from inverted conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Feng Q; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Ping; Sudhakar, Padhmanand; Sun, Jibin; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Identification of the gene network through which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PA) adapts to altered oxygen-availability environments is essential for a better understanding of stress responses and pathogenicity of PA. We performed high-time-resolution (HTR) transcriptome analyses of PA in a continuous cultivation system during the transition from high oxygen tension to low oxygen tension (HLOT) and the reversed transition from low to high oxygen tension (LHOT). From those genes responsive to both transient conditions, we identified 85 essential oxygen-availability responsive genes (EORGs), including the expected ones (arcDABC) encoding enzymes for arginine fermentation. We then constructed the regulatory network for the EORGs of PA by integrating information from binding motif searching, literature and HTR data. Notably, our results show that only the sub-networks controlled by the well-known oxygen-responsive transcription factors show a very high consistency between the inferred network and literature knowledge, e.g. 87.5% and 83.3% of the obtained sub-network controlled by the anaerobic regulator (ANR) and a quorum sensing regulator RhIR, respectively. These results not only reveal stringent EORGs of PA and their transcription regulatory network, but also highlight that achieving a high accuracy of the inferred regulatory network might be feasible only for the apparently affected regulators under the given conditions but not for all the expressed regulators on a genome scale.

  14. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  15. The Psl economy in early P. aeruginosa biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Tseng, Boo Shan; Jin, Fan; Gibiansky, Max; Harrison, Joe; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Psl from P. aeruginosa (PAO1) is a mannose- and galactose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS). It has been shown that Psl plays an important role in bacterial surface adhesion. Here, we examine role of Psl in controlling motility and microcolony formation during early biofilm development, by translating video microscopy movies into searchable databases of bacterial trajectories. We use a massively-parallel cell tracking algorithm to extract the full motility history of every cell in a large community. We find that at early stages of growth, P. aeruginosa motility is guided by Psl and self-organize in a manner analogous to a capitalist economic system, resulting in a power law bacterial distribution where a small number of bacteria are extremely ``rich'' in communally produced Psl. By comparing overproducers and underproducers of Psl, we find that local Psl levels determine post-division cell fates: High local Psl levels drive the formation of sessile microcolonies that grow exponentially.

  16. The soluble pyocins S2 and S4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bind to the same FpvAI receptor.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Wei, Qing; Cornelis, Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Soluble (S-type) pyocins are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriocins that kill nonimmune P. aeruginosa cells by gaining entry via a specific receptor, which, in the case of pyocin S2, is the siderophore pyoverdine receptor FpvAI, and in the case of pyocin S3, FpvAII. The nucleic acid sequence at the positions 4327697-4327359 of P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome was not annotated, but it was predicted to encode the immunity gene of the flanking pyocin S4 gene (PA3866) based on our analysis of the genome sequence. Using RT-PCR, the expression of the immunity gene was detected, confirming the existence of an immunity gene overlapping the S4 pyocin gene. The PA3866 coding for pyocin S4 and the downstream gene coding for the immunity protein were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the His-tagged S4 pyocin was obtained in pure form. Forty-three P. aeruginosa strains were typed via PCR to identify their ferripyoverdine receptor gene (fpvAI-III) and were tested for their sensitivity to pyocin S4. All S4-sensitive strains had the type I ferripyoverdine receptor fpvA gene. Some S4-resistant type I fpvA-positive strains were detected, but all of them had the S4 immunity gene, and, following the deletion of the immunity gene, became S4-sensitive. The fpvAI receptor gene was deleted in a S4-sensitive strain, and, as expected, the mutant became resistant to S4. The N-terminal receptor binding domain (RBD) of pyocin S2, which also uses the FpvAI receptor to enter the cell, was cloned in the pET-15b vector, and expressed in E. coli. When the purified RBD was mixed with pyocin S4 at different ratios, an inhibition of killing was observed, indicating that S2 RBD competes with the pyocin S4 for the binding to the FpvAI receptor. The S2 RBD was also shown to enhance the expression of the pvdA pyoverdine gene, suggesting that it, like pyoverdine, works via the known siderophore-mediated signalization pathway.

  17. Contribution of quorum sensing to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pressure ulcer infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Ohta, Yasunori; Sagara, Hiroshi; Huang, Lijuan; Nagase, Takashi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    The impact of quorum sensing (QS) in in vivo models of infection has been widely investigated, but there are no descriptions for ischemic wound infection. To explore the role of QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the establishment of ischemic wound infection, we challenged a pressure ulcer model in rats with the PAO-1, PAO-1 derivatives ΔlasIΔrhlI and ΔlasRΔrhlR strains, which cannot induce the virulence factor under QS control, thus the reduced tissue destruction was expended in these mutant strains. However unexpectedly, on postwounding day 3, the inflammatory responses in the three groups were similarly severe and the numbers of bacteria in tissue samples did not differ among the three strains. Biofilm formation was immature in QS-deficient strains, defined by the absence of dense bacterial aggregates and extracellular polymeric substance, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS signal, acylated homoserine lactone, was only quantified from wound samples in the PAO-1 group. The swimming and twitching motilities were significantly enhanced in the ΔlasRΔrhlR group compared with the PAO-1 group in vitro. A significantly larger wound area was correlated with the bacterial motility. The inflammation in the early phase of bacterial challenge to wounds with immature biofilm formation in the QS-deficient strains indicated that the role of QS was more crucial for the chronic phase than for the acute phase of infection. The present findings indicate a difference in the importance of QS in ischemic wound infections compared with other infection models.

  18. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø

    2016-02-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH ˙ on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we propose that production of OH ˙ may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (ΔkatA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts, and the OH⋅ formation was measured by 3(')-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogen peroxide treatment. OH⋅ formation was undetectable in aerobic PAO1 biofilms during 3 h of colistin treatment. Interestingly, we demonstrate increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms towards colistin during anaerobic conditions. In fact, the maximum enhancement of killing by anaerobic conditions exceeded 2 logs using 4 mg L(-1) of colistin compared to killing at aerobic conditions.

  19. Iron-binding compounds impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, especially under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    O'May, Che Y; Sanderson, Kevin; Roddam, Louise F; Kirov, Sylvia M; Reid, David W

    2009-06-01

    The success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic infections is largely attributed to its ability to grow in antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. This study investigated the effects of limiting iron levels as a strategy for preventing/disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. A range of synthetic and naturally occurring iron-chelating agents were examined. Biofilm development by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and CF sputum isolates from chronically infected individuals was significantly decreased by iron removal under aerobic atmospheres. CF strains formed poor biofilms under anaerobic conditions. Strain PAO1 was also tested under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation by this model strain was almost totally prevented by several of the chelators tested. The ability of synthetic chelators to impair biofilm formation could be reversed by iron addition to cultures, providing evidence that these effective chelating compounds functioned by directly reducing availability of iron to P. aeruginosa. In contrast, the biological chelator lactoferrin demonstrated enhanced anti-biofilm effects as iron supplementation increased. Hence biofilm inhibition by lactoferrin appeared to occur through more complex mechanisms to those of the synthetic chelators. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of iron availability to biofilms and that iron chelators have potential as adjunct therapies for preventing biofilm development, especially under low oxygen conditions such as encountered in the chronically infected CF lung. PMID:19429753

  20. Prospective Survey of β-Lactamases Produced by Ceftazidime- Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated in a French Hospital in 2000

    PubMed Central

    De Champs, Christophe; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnet, Richard; Sirot, Danielle; Chanal, Catherine; Sirot, Jacques; Nordmann, Patrice

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, at the Université d'Auvergne teaching hospital in Clermont-Ferrand, France, 44 (6.2%) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to be resistant to ceftazidime. After genotyping, 34 strains were selected. Nine had an additional β-lactamase: OXA-21 (n = 6), PSE-1 (CARB-2) (n = 2), or PER-1 (n = 1). Ceftazidime resistance was related solely to the overproduction of the cephalosporinase in 30 strains. Sequencing of five blaAmpC genes encoding cephalosporinases with different pIs showed 99% identity with the ampC gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:12183264

  1. A plasmid-encoded UmuD homologue regulates expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SOS genes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Magaña, Amada; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Chávez-Moctezuma, Martha P; López-Meza, Joel E; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Cervantes, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 contains the umuDC operon that encodes proteins similar to error-prone repair DNA polymerase V. The umuC gene appears to be truncated and its product is probably not functional. The umuD gene, renamed umuDpR, possesses an SOS box overlapped with a Sigma factor 70 type promoter; accordingly, transcriptional fusions revealed that the umuDpR gene promoter is activated by mitomycin C. The predicted sequence of the UmuDpR protein displays 23 % identity with the Ps. aeruginosa SOS-response LexA repressor. The umuDpR gene caused increased MMC sensitivity when transferred to the Ps. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. As expected, PAO1-derived knockout lexA-  mutant PW6037 showed resistance to MMC; however, when the umuDpR gene was transferred to PW6037, MMC resistance level was reduced. These data suggested that UmuDpR represses the expression of SOS genes, as LexA does. To test whether UmuDpR exerts regulatory functions, expression of PAO1 SOS genes was evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative PCR assays in the lexA-  mutant with or without the pUC_umuD recombinant plasmid. Expression of lexA, imuA and recA genes increased 3.4-5.3 times in the lexA-  mutant, relative to transcription of the corresponding genes in the lexA+ strain, but decreased significantly in the lexA- /umuDpR transformant. These results confirmed that the UmuDpR protein is a repressor of Ps. aeruginosa SOS genes controlled by LexA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, however, did not show binding of UmuDpR to 5' regions of SOS genes, suggesting an indirect mechanism of regulation.

  2. Comparative genome analysis reveals the molecular basis of nicotine degradation and survival capacities of Arthrobacter

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuxiang; Tang, Hongzhi; Su, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter is one of the most prevalent genera of nicotine-degrading bacteria; however, studies of nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter species remain at the plasmid level (plasmid pAO1). Here, we report the bioinformatic analysis of a nicotine-degrading Arthrobacter aurescens M2012083, and show that the moeB and mogA genes that are essential for nicotine degradation in Arthrobacter are absent from plasmid pAO1. Homologues of all the nicotine degradation-related genes of plasmid pAO1 were found to be located on a 68,622-bp DNA segment (nic segment-1) in the M2012083 genome, showing 98.1% nucleotide acid sequence identity to the 69,252-bp nic segment of plasmid pAO1. However, the rest sequence of plasmid pAO1 other than the nic segment shows no significant similarity to the genome sequence of strain M2012083. Taken together, our data suggest that the nicotine degradation-related genes of strain M2012083 are located on the chromosome or a plasmid other than pAO1. Based on the genomic sequence comparison of strain M2012083 and six other Arthrobacter strains, we have identified 17 σ70 transcription factors reported to be involved in stress responses and 109 genes involved in environmental adaptability of strain M2012083. These results reveal the molecular basis of nicotine degradation and survival capacities of Arthrobacter species. PMID:25721465

  3. MrkD1P from Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IA565 allows for coexistence with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and protection from protease-mediated biofilm detachment.

    PubMed

    Childers, Brandon M; Van Laar, Tricia A; You, Tao; Clegg, Steven; Leung, Kai P

    2013-11-01

    Biofilm formation and persistence are essential components for the continued survival of pathogens inside the host and constitute a major contributor to the development of chronic wounds with resistance to antimicrobial compounds. Understanding these processes is crucial for control of biofilm-mediated disease. Though chronic wound infections are often polymicrobial in nature, much of the research on chronic wound-related microbes has focused on single-species models. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are microbes that are often found together in wound isolates and are able to form stable in vitro biofilms, despite the antagonistic nature of P. aeruginosa with other organisms. Mutants of the K. pneumoniae strain IA565 lacking the plasmid-borne mrkD1P gene were less competitive than the wild type in an in vitro dual-species biofilm model with P. aeruginosa (PAO1). PAO1 spent medium inhibited the formation of biofilm of mrkD1P-deficient mutants and disrupted preestablished biofilms, with no effect on IA565 and no effect on the growth of the wild type or mutants. A screen using a two-allele PAO1 transposon library identified the LasB elastase as the secreted effector involved in biofilm disruption, and a purified version of the protein produced results similar to those with PAO1 spent medium. Various other proteases had a similar effect, suggesting that the disruption of the mrkD1P gene causes sensitivity to general proteolytic effects and indicating a role for MrkD1P in protection against host antibiofilm effectors. Our results suggest that MrkD1P allows for competition of K. pneumoniae with P. aeruginosa in a mixed-species biofilm and provides defense against microbial and host-derived proteases.

  4. Use of a purified outer membrane protein F (porin) preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a protective vaccine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilleland, H E; Parker, M G; Matthews, J M; Berg, R D

    1984-01-01

    The outer membrane protein F (porin) from the PAO1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified by two different methods. One procedure involved separation by column chromatography of proteins extracted from isolated outer membranes, whereas the other involved extraction from gels after slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from cell envelopes. Both procedures yielded protein F preparations which successfully immunized mice from subsequent challenge with the PAO1 strain. The protein F preparations contained small quantities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This level of LPS contamination protected immunized mice from challenge with the homologous LPS serotype strain. However, immunization of mice with protein F preparations from the PAO1 strain also afforded protection against challenge with two different LPS serotype strains. This protective ability was lost when the protein F preparation was treated with papain before use as a vaccine. These observations support the conclusion that protein F has protective ability, which is not due to LPS contamination, when given as a vaccine. After immunization with the protein F preparation, mice showed an increase in antibody titer to the purified protein F preparation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mice were protected passively by administration of rabbit antisera raised to the protein F preparation. These results indicate that the protein F preparation elicits a specific humoral antibody response in immunized animals. Our results suggest that purified protein F has potential as an effective vaccine for P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:6323316

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium aurantiacum, an opportunistic fungal pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jashanpreet; Pethani, Bhavin P.; Kumar, Sheemal; Kim, Minkyoung; Sunna, Anwar; Kautto, Liisa; Penesyan, Anahit; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens isolated from lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa has been known to suppress the growth of a number of CF related fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum have not been investigated in depth. Hence we assessed the effect of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 and two clinical isolates PASS1 and PASS2 on the growth of two clinical S. aurantiacum isolates WM 06.482 and WM 08.202 using solid plate assays and liquid cultures, in a synthetic medium mimicking the nutrient condition in the CF sputum. Solid plate assays showed a clear inhibition of growth of both S. aurantiacum strains when cultured with P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In addition to using chemical fluorescent stains, strains tagged with yfp (P. aeruginosa PASS1) and mCherry (S. aurantiacum WM 06.482) were created to facilitate detailed microscopic observations on strain interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing successful genetic transformation of S. aurantiacum. Inhibition of growth was observed only in co-cultures of P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum; the cell fractions obtained from independent bacterial monocultures failed to initiate a response against the fungus. In the liquid co-cultures, biofilm forming P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1 displayed higher inhibition of fungal growth when compared to PASS2. No change was observed in the inhibition pattern when direct cell contact between the bacterial and fungal strains was prevented using a separation membrane suggesting the involvement of extracellular metabolites in the fungal inhibition. However, one of the most commonly described bacterial virulence factors, pyocyanin, had no effect against either of the S

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Persistence, along with the Production of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence Factors, Are Disrupted by a Triterpenoid Coumarate Ester Isolated from Dalbergia trichocarpa, a Tropical Legume

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Laurent; Huet, Joelle; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extracts of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark have been shown to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which are key regulators of virulence factor expression and implicated in biofilm formation. One of the active compounds has been isolated and identified as oleanolic aldehyde coumarate (OALC), a novel bioactive compound that inhibits the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and its maintenance as well as the expression of the las and rhl QS systems. Consequently, the production of QS-controlled virulence factors including, rhamnolipids, pyocyanin, elastase and extracellular polysaccharides as well as twitching and swarming motilities is reduced. Native acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) production is inhibited by OALC but exogenous supply of AHLs does not restore the production of virulence factors by OALC-treated cultures, indicating that OALC exerts its effect beyond AHLs synthesis in the QS pathways. Further experiments provided a significant inhibition of the global virulence factor activator gacA by OALC. OALC disorganizes established biofilm structure and improves the bactericidal activity of tobramycin against biofilm-encapsulated PAO1 cells. Finally, a significant reduction of Caenorhabditis elegans paralysis was recorded when the worms were infected with OALC-pre-treated P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these results show that triterpenoid coumarate esters are suitable chemical backbones to target P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. PMID:26186595

  7. Catalytic mechanism of cyclic di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase: a study of the EAL domain-containing RocR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rao, Feng; Yang, Ye; Qi, Yaning; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2008-05-01

    EAL domain proteins are the major phosphodiesterases for maintaining the cellular concentration of second-messenger cyclic di-GMP in bacteria. Given the pivotal roles of EAL domains in the regulation of many bacterial behaviors, the elucidation of their catalytic and regulatory mechanisms would contribute to the effort of deciphering the cyclic di-GMP signaling network. Here, we present data to show that RocR, an EAL domain protein that regulates the expression of virulence genes and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic di-GMP by using a general base-catalyzed mechanism with the assistance of Mg(2+) ion. In addition to the five essential residues involved in Mg(2+) binding, we propose that the essential residue E(352) functions as a general base catalyst assisting the deprotonation of Mg(2+)-coordinated water to generate the nucleophilic hydroxide ion. The mutation of other conserved residues caused various degree of changes in the k(cat) or K(m), leading us to propose their roles in residue positioning and substrate binding. With functions assigned to the conserved groups in the active site, we discuss the molecular basis for the lack of activity of some characterized EAL domain proteins and the possibility of predicting the phosphodiesterase activities for the vast number of EAL domains in bacterial genomes in light of the catalytic mechanism.

  8. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic, kojic and picolinic acids

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Kübra; Ulusoy, Seyhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The inhibitory effects of iron chelators, and FeCl3 chelation on biofilm formation and swarming motility were investigated against an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activity of 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic acid, kojic acid and picolinic acid on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and three clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAK01, P. aeruginosa PAK02 and P. aeruginosa PAK03) were investigated, based on crystal violet assay, and swarming motility test. Results: The kojic, lipoic and picolinic acid inhibited biofilm formation by 5-33% in all tested P. aeruginosa isolates. When chelated iron was added, biofilm inhibition rates were determined to be 39-57%. Among the tested chelators against P. aeruginosa, lipoic acid (84%) and kojic acid (68%) presented the highest inhibition of swarming motility. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: It is considered that lipoic and picolinic acids can serve as alternatives for the treatment of the P. aeruginosa infections by inhibiting biofilm formation. PMID:26557964

  9. Neurotrophic and neuroimmune responses to early-life Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Silvia; Scuri, Mario; Samsell, Lennie; Ducatman, Barbara; Bejarano, Pablo; Auais, Alexander; Doud, Melissa; Mathee, Kalai; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Early-life respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in children with cystic fibrosis or immune deficits. Although many of its clinical manifestations involve neural reflexes, little information is available on the peripheral nervous system of infected airways. This study sought to determine whether early-life infection triggers a neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory response, the mechanisms of this response, and its relationship with other immunoinflammatory pathways. Weanling and adult rats were inoculated with suspensions containing P. aeruginosa (PAO1) coated on alginate microspheres suspended in Tris-CaCl(2) buffer. Five days after infection, rats were injected with capsaicin to stimulate nociceptive nerves in the airway mucosa, and microvascular permeability was measured using Evans blue as a tracer. PAO1 increased neurogenic inflammation in the extra- and intrapulmonary compartments of weanlings but not in adults. The mechanism involves selective overexpression of NGF, which is critical for the local increase in microvascular permeability and for the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into infected lung parenchyma. These effects are mediated in part by induction of downstream inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, especially IL-1beta, IL-18, and leptin. Our data suggest that neurogenic-mediated immunoinflammatory mechanisms play important roles in airway inflammation and hyperreactivity associated with P. aeruginosa when infection occurs early in life. PMID:20543002

  10. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling. PMID:26903981

  11. Effects of Chlorine Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Analysis of Related Gene Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Özge; Gökalsın, Barış; Karaltı, İskender; Kayhan, Figen Esin; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine is deployed worldwide to clean waters and prevent water-originated illnesses. However, chlorine has a limited disinfection capacity against biofilms. Microorganisms form biofilms to protect themselves from biological threats such as disinfectant chemicals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and its biofilm form attaches to surfaces, living buried into exopolysaccharides, can be present in all watery environments including tap water and drinking water. This research aimed to study the biofilm trigger mechanism of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain, which is known to form biofilm in water supply systems and human body, under chlorine stress levels. In addition to biofilm staining, certain genes that are relevant to the stress condition were selected for gene expression analysis. The bacteria cultures were grown under chlorine stress with concentrations of 0.5, 0.7 and 1 mg/l. Six gene regions were determined related to biofilm and stress response: rpoS, bifA, migA, katB, soxR, and algC. Biofilm formation was analyzed by basic fuchsin staining, and gene expressions were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. According to the results, highest biofilm production was observed in P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild strain under no stress conditions. Higher biofilm amounts were observed for bacteria under 0.5 and 0.7 mg/l chlorine stress compared to 1 mg/l chlorine stress.

  12. BEEP: An assay to detect bio-energetic and envelope permeability alterations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang-Jin; Shuman, Jon; Carroll, Leslie P; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2016-06-01

    We developed an effective and rapid assay to detect both bio-energetic and envelope permeability (BEEP) alterations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The assay is based on quantification of extracellular ATP in bacterial cultures using luciferase as a reporter. To demonstrate the validity of our assay we conducted a biased screen of a transposon insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in order to expedite the isolation of mutants with defects in bioenergetic pathways. We successfully isolated insertion mutants that were reduced for extracellular ATP accumulation and identified the corresponding mutations that caused the phenotype. Most of the genes identified from this analysis were associated with energy metabolism and several appeared to be potentially novel bioenergetic targets. In addition, we show that treatment of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 with antibiotics that disrupt the bacterial cell envelope leads to greater extracellular ATP accumulation. In summary, increases in extracellular ATP accumulation above wild type levels indicated a perturbation of membrane permeability while decreases in extracellular ATP accumulation indicated defects in bioenergetics. PMID:27089860

  13. Effects of Chlorine Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Analysis of Related Gene Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kekeç, Özge; Gökalsın, Barış; Karaltı, İskender; Kayhan, Figen Esin; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine is deployed worldwide to clean waters and prevent water-originated illnesses. However, chlorine has a limited disinfection capacity against biofilms. Microorganisms form biofilms to protect themselves from biological threats such as disinfectant chemicals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and its biofilm form attaches to surfaces, living buried into exopolysaccharides, can be present in all watery environments including tap water and drinking water. This research aimed to study the biofilm trigger mechanism of the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain, which is known to form biofilm in water supply systems and human body, under chlorine stress levels. In addition to biofilm staining, certain genes that are relevant to the stress condition were selected for gene expression analysis. The bacteria cultures were grown under chlorine stress with concentrations of 0.5, 0.7 and 1 mg/l. Six gene regions were determined related to biofilm and stress response: rpoS, bifA, migA, katB, soxR, and algC. Biofilm formation was analyzed by basic fuchsin staining, and gene expressions were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. According to the results, highest biofilm production was observed in P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild strain under no stress conditions. Higher biofilm amounts were observed for bacteria under 0.5 and 0.7 mg/l chlorine stress compared to 1 mg/l chlorine stress. PMID:27146505

  14. Antibiofilm and Anti-Infection of a Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Jin, Weihua; Xiu, Pengyuan; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors, thus leading to major problems in many fields, such as clinical infection, food contamination, and marine biofouling. In this study, we report the purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide EPS273 from the culture supernatant of marine bacterium P. stutzeri 273. The exopolysaccharide EPS273 not only effectively inhibits biofilm formation but also disperses preformed biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1. High performance liquid chromatography traces of the hydrolyzed polysaccharides shows that EPS273 primarily consists of glucosamine, rhamnose, glucose and mannose. Further investigation demonstrates that EPS273 reduces the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, exoprotease, and rhamnolipid, and the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to human lung cells A549 and zebrafish embryos is also obviously attenuated by EPS273. In addition, EPS273 also greatly reduces the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and extracellular DNA (eDNA), which are important factors for biofilm formation. Furthermore, EPS273 exhibits strong antioxidant potential by quenching hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Notably, the antibiofouling activity of EPS273 is observed in the marine environment up to 2 weeks according to the amounts of bacteria and diatoms in the glass slides submerged in the ocean. Taken together, the properties of EPS273 indicate that it has a promising prospect in combating bacterial biofilm-associated infection, food-processing contamination and marine biofouling. PMID:26903981

  15. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  16. Direct measurement of efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an environment-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to quantify AcrB-mediated efflux and measured the ability of antibiotics and other efflux pump substrates to compete with efflux of Nile Red, independent of antibacterial activity. Here, we extend this method to P. aeruginosa and describe a novel application that permits the comparison and rank-ordering of bacterial strains by their inherent efflux potential. We show that glucose and l-malate re-energize Nile Red efflux in P. aeruginosa, and we highlight differences in the glucose dependence and kinetics of efflux between P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We quantify the differences in efflux among a set of P. aeruginosa laboratory strains, which include PAO1, the hyper-sensitive strain ATCC 35151 and its parent, ATCC 12055. Efflux of Nile Red in P. aeruginosa is mediated by MexAB-OprM and is slower than in E. coli. In conclusion, we describe an efflux measurement tool for use in antibacterial drug discovery and basic research on P. aeruginosa efflux pumps.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm aggravates skin inflammatory response in BALB/c mice in a novel chronic wound model.

    PubMed

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars J; Hougen, Hans P; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Ø; Kirkby, Nikolai; Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds are presumed to persist in the inflammatory state, preventing healing. Emerging evidence indicates a clinical impact of bacterial biofilms in soft tissues, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilms. To further investigate this, we developed a chronic PA biofilm wound infection model in C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. The chronic wound was established by an injection of seaweed alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa PAO1 beneath a third-degree thermal lesion providing full thickness skin necrosis, as in human chronic wounds. Cultures revealed growth of PA, and both alginate with or without PAO1 generated a polymorphonuclear-dominated inflammation early after infection. However, both at days 4 and 7, there were a more acute polymorphonuclear-dominated and higher degree of inflammation in the PAO1 containing group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, PNA-FISH and supplemented DAPI staining showed bacteria organized in clusters, resembling biofilms, and inflammation located adjacent to the PA. The chronic wound infection showed a higher number of PAO1 in the BALB/c mice at day 4 after infection as compared to C3H/HeN mice (p < 0.006). In addition, a higher concentration of interleukin-1beta in the chronic wounds of BALB/c mice was observed at day 7 (p < 0.02), despite a similar number of bacteria in the two mouse strains. The present study succeeded in establishing a chronic PA biofilm infection in mice. The results showed an aggravating impact of local inflammation induced by PA biofilms. In conclusion, our findings indicate that improved infection control of chronic wounds reduces the inflammatory response and may improve healing.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Membrane Protein Expression from Phenotypically Diverse Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Demonstrates Host-Specific Adaptations.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Karthik Shantharam; Pascovici, Dana; Penesyan, Anahit; Goel, Apurv; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Paulsen, Ian T; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, nosocomial, highly adaptable opportunistic pathogen especially prevalent in immuno-compromised cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The bacterial cell surface proteins are important contributors to virulence, yet the membrane subproteomes of phenotypically diverse P. aeruginosa strains are poorly characterized. We carried out mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis of the membrane proteins of three novel P. aeruginosa strains isolated from the sputum of CF patients and compared protein expression to the widely used laboratory strain, PAO1. Microbes were grown in planktonic growth condition using minimal M9 media, and a defined synthetic lung nutrient mimicking medium (SCFM) limited passaging. Two-dimensional LC-MS/MS using iTRAQ labeling enabled quantitative comparisons among 3171 and 2442 proteins from the minimal M9 medium and in the SCFM, respectively. The CF isolates showed marked differences in membrane protein expression in comparison with PAO1 including up-regulation of drug resistance proteins (MexY, MexB, MexC) and down-regulation of chemotaxis and aerotaxis proteins (PA1561, PctA, PctB) and motility and adhesion proteins (FliK, FlgE, FliD, PilJ). Phenotypic analysis using adhesion, motility, and drug susceptibility assays confirmed the proteomics findings. These results provide evidence of host-specific microevolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung and shed light on the adaptation strategies used by CF pathogens. PMID:27246823

  19. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin, and Characterization of the Elicited Anti-Flagellin Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Bahador; Amirmozafari, Nour; Khoramabadi, Nima; Bahroudi, Mahboobeh; Legaee, Parisa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. The single polar flagellum is an important factor in both virulence and colonization. Objectives As flagellin is the major component of the flagellar filament, the main aims of the present study are to identify, clone, express, and purify the recombinant type B flagellin (r-B-flagellin) of P. aeruginosa, as well as to evaluate the functional activity of the rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this r-B-flagellin. Materials and Methods In the current experimental study, the r-B-flagellin gene was isolated from the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain by PCR. It was cloned into the pET-28a vector and then transformed into the E. coli BL21 strain. Next, r-B-flagellin was overexpressed and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose-affinity chromatography, followed by on-column resolubilization. Polyclonal antisera against the recombinant flagellin were raised in rabbits, and the functional activity of the anti-r-B-flagellin antibody was determined by in vitro assays. Results The polyclonal antibodies raised against this r-B-flagellin inhibited the motility of the homologous PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, which significantly decreased the invasion of the PAO1 strain into the A549 cells and also enhanced the opsonophagocytosis of this strain. However, our polyclonal antibody showed little effect on the heterologous PAK strain. Conclusions The r-B-flagellin carried antigenic epitopes just like the native flagellin, while the polyclonal antibody raised against it exhibited functional activity. PMID:27621933

  20. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin, and Characterization of the Elicited Anti-Flagellin Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Bahador; Amirmozafari, Nour; Khoramabadi, Nima; Bahroudi, Mahboobeh; Legaee, Parisa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. The single polar flagellum is an important factor in both virulence and colonization. Objectives As flagellin is the major component of the flagellar filament, the main aims of the present study are to identify, clone, express, and purify the recombinant type B flagellin (r-B-flagellin) of P. aeruginosa, as well as to evaluate the functional activity of the rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this r-B-flagellin. Materials and Methods In the current experimental study, the r-B-flagellin gene was isolated from the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain by PCR. It was cloned into the pET-28a vector and then transformed into the E. coli BL21 strain. Next, r-B-flagellin was overexpressed and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose-affinity chromatography, followed by on-column resolubilization. Polyclonal antisera against the recombinant flagellin were raised in rabbits, and the functional activity of the anti-r-B-flagellin antibody was determined by in vitro assays. Results The polyclonal antibodies raised against this r-B-flagellin inhibited the motility of the homologous PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, which significantly decreased the invasion of the PAO1 strain into the A549 cells and also enhanced the opsonophagocytosis of this strain. However, our polyclonal antibody showed little effect on the heterologous PAK strain. Conclusions The r-B-flagellin carried antigenic epitopes just like the native flagellin, while the polyclonal antibody raised against it exhibited functional activity.

  1. Gene Expression and Physiological Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases during Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Romsang, Adisak; Atichartpongkul, Sopapan; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 has two differentially expressed methionine sulfoxide reductase genes: msrA (PA5018) and msrB (PA2827). The msrA gene is expressed constitutively at a high level throughout all growth phases, whereas msrB expression is highly induced by oxidative stress, such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) treatment. Inactivation of either msrA or msrB or both genes (msrA msrB mutant) rendered the mutants less resistant than the parental PAO1 strain to oxidants such as NaOCl and H2O2. Unexpectedly, msr mutants have disparate resistance patterns when exposed to paraquat, a superoxide generator. The msrA mutant had a higher paraquat resistance level than the msrB mutant, which had a lower paraquat resistance level than the PAO1 strain. The expression levels of msrA showed an inverse correlation with the paraquat resistance level, and this atypical paraquat resistance pattern was not observed with msrB. Virulence testing using a Drosophila melanogaster model revealed that the msrA, msrB, and, to a greater extent, msrA msrB double mutants had an attenuated virulence phenotype. The data indicate that msrA and msrB are essential genes for oxidative stress protection and bacterial virulence. The pattern of expression and mutant phenotypes of P. aeruginosa msrA and msrB differ from previously characterized msr genes from other bacteria. Thus, as highly conserved genes, the msrA and msrB have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles that depend on the environmental niche where the bacteria thrive. PMID:23687271

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 ABC Transporter NppA1A2BCD Is Required for Uptake of Peptidyl Nucleoside Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Yvonne; Dubiley, Svetlana; Lafon, Corinne; Köhler, Thilo; Page, Malcolm G. P.; Mourez, Michael; Severinov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of the genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 revealed the presence of an operon encoding an ABC-type transporter (NppA1A2BCD) showing homology to the Yej transporter of Escherichia coli. The Yej transporter is involved in the uptake of the peptide-nucleotide antibiotic microcin C, a translation inhibitor that targets the enzyme aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Furthermore, it was recently shown that the Opp transporter from P. aeruginosa PAO1, which is identical to Npp, is required for uptake of the uridyl peptide antibiotic pacidamycin, which targets the enzyme translocase I (MraY), which is involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. We used several approaches to further explore the substrate specificity of the Npp transporter. Assays of growth in defined minimal medium containing peptides of various lengths and amino acid compositions as sole nitrogen sources, as well as Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays, showed that the Npp transporter is not required for di-, tri-, and oligopeptide uptake. Overexpression of the npp operon increased susceptibility not just to pacidamycin but also to nickel chloride and the peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic blasticidin S. Furthermore, heterologous expression of the npp operon in a yej-deficient mutant of E. coli resulted in increased susceptibility to albomycin, a naturally occurring sideromycin with a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic. Additionally, heterologous expression showed that microcin C is recognized by the P. aeruginosa Npp system. Overall, these results suggest that the NppA1A2BCD transporter is involved in the uptake of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics by P. aeruginosa PA14. IMPORTANCE One of the world's most serious health problems is the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is a desperate need to find novel antibiotic therapeutics that either act on new biological targets or are able to bypass known resistance mechanisms. Bacterial ABC transporters play an important role in nutrient uptake from the

  3. High-Resolution Analysis by Whole-Genome Sequencing of an International Lineage (Sequence Type 111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Metallo-Carbapenemases in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Laura; Underwood, Anthony; Witney, Adam A.; Chan, Yuen-Ting; Al-Shahib, Ali; Arnold, Catherine; Doumith, Michel; Patel, Bharat; Planche, Timothy D.; Green, Jonathan; Holliman, Richard; Woodford, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 87 isolates of sequence type 111 (ST-111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected between 2005 and 2014 from 65 patients and 12 environmental isolates from 24 hospital laboratories across the United Kingdom on an Illumina HiSeq instrument. Most isolates (73) carried VIM-2, but others carried IMP-1 or IMP-13 (5) or NDM-1 (1); one isolate had VIM-2 and IMP-18, and 7 carried no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis divided the isolates into distinct clusters; the NDM-1 isolate was an outlier, and the IMP isolates and 6/7 MBL-negative isolates clustered separately from the main set of 73 VIM-2 isolates. Within the VIM-2 set, there were at least 3 distinct clusters, including a tightly clustered set of isolates from 3 hospital laboratories consistent with an outbreak from a single introduction that was quickly brought under control and a much broader set dominated by isolates from a long-running outbreak in a London hospital likely seeded from an environmental source, requiring different control measures; isolates from 7 other hospital laboratories in London and southeast England were also included. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated that all the isolates shared a common ancestor dating back ∼50 years (1960s), with the main VIM-2 set separating approximately 20 to 30 years ago. Accessory gene profiling revealed blocks of genes associated with particular clusters, with some having high similarity (≥95%) to bacteriophage genes. WGS of widely found international lineages such as ST-111 provides the necessary resolution to inform epidemiological investigations and intervention policies. PMID:26041902

  4. High-Resolution Analysis by Whole-Genome Sequencing of an International Lineage (Sequence Type 111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Metallo-Carbapenemases in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Wright, Laura; Underwood, Anthony; Witney, Adam A; Chan, Yuen-Ting; Al-Shahib, Ali; Arnold, Catherine; Doumith, Michel; Patel, Bharat; Planche, Timothy D; Green, Jonathan; Holliman, Richard; Woodford, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 87 isolates of sequence type 111 (ST-111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected between 2005 and 2014 from 65 patients and 12 environmental isolates from 24 hospital laboratories across the United Kingdom on an Illumina HiSeq instrument. Most isolates (73) carried VIM-2, but others carried IMP-1 or IMP-13 (5) or NDM-1 (1); one isolate had VIM-2 and IMP-18, and 7 carried no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis divided the isolates into distinct clusters; the NDM-1 isolate was an outlier, and the IMP isolates and 6/7 MBL-negative isolates clustered separately from the main set of 73 VIM-2 isolates. Within the VIM-2 set, there were at least 3 distinct clusters, including a tightly clustered set of isolates from 3 hospital laboratories consistent with an outbreak from a single introduction that was quickly brought under control and a much broader set dominated by isolates from a long-running outbreak in a London hospital likely seeded from an environmental source, requiring different control measures; isolates from 7 other hospital laboratories in London and southeast England were also included. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated that all the isolates shared a common ancestor dating back ∼50 years (1960s), with the main VIM-2 set separating approximately 20 to 30 years ago. Accessory gene profiling revealed blocks of genes associated with particular clusters, with some having high similarity (≥95%) to bacteriophage genes. WGS of widely found international lineages such as ST-111 provides the necessary resolution to inform epidemiological investigations and intervention policies.

  5. High-Resolution Analysis by Whole-Genome Sequencing of an International Lineage (Sequence Type 111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Metallo-Carbapenemases in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Turton, Jane F; Wright, Laura; Underwood, Anthony; Witney, Adam A; Chan, Yuen-Ting; Al-Shahib, Ali; Arnold, Catherine; Doumith, Michel; Patel, Bharat; Planche, Timothy D; Green, Jonathan; Holliman, Richard; Woodford, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on 87 isolates of sequence type 111 (ST-111) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected between 2005 and 2014 from 65 patients and 12 environmental isolates from 24 hospital laboratories across the United Kingdom on an Illumina HiSeq instrument. Most isolates (73) carried VIM-2, but others carried IMP-1 or IMP-13 (5) or NDM-1 (1); one isolate had VIM-2 and IMP-18, and 7 carried no metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis divided the isolates into distinct clusters; the NDM-1 isolate was an outlier, and the IMP isolates and 6/7 MBL-negative isolates clustered separately from the main set of 73 VIM-2 isolates. Within the VIM-2 set, there were at least 3 distinct clusters, including a tightly clustered set of isolates from 3 hospital laboratories consistent with an outbreak from a single introduction that was quickly brought under control and a much broader set dominated by isolates from a long-running outbreak in a London hospital likely seeded from an environmental source, requiring different control measures; isolates from 7 other hospital laboratories in London and southeast England were also included. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated that all the isolates shared a common ancestor dating back ∼50 years (1960s), with the main VIM-2 set separating approximately 20 to 30 years ago. Accessory gene profiling revealed blocks of genes associated with particular clusters, with some having high similarity (≥95%) to bacteriophage genes. WGS of widely found international lineages such as ST-111 provides the necessary resolution to inform epidemiological investigations and intervention policies. PMID:26041902

  6. Indole and 7‐hydroxyindole diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jintae; Attila, Can; Cirillo, Suat L. G.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Wood, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Indole is an extracellular biofilm signal for Escherichia coli, and many bacterial oxygenases readily convert indole to various oxidized compounds including 7‐hydroxyindole (7HI). Here we investigate the impact of indole and 7HI on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence and quorum sensing (QS)‐regulated phenotypes; this strain does not synthesize these compounds but degrades them rapidly. Indole and 7HI both altered extensively gene expression in a manner opposite that of acylhomoserine lactones; the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI‐opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS‐regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2‐heptyl‐3‐hydroxy‐4(1H)‐quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). Corroborating these microarray results, indole and 7HI decreased production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, PQS and pyoverdine and enhanced antibiotic resistance. In addition, indole affected the utilization of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 7HI abolished swarming motility. Furthermore, 7HI reduced pulmonary colonization of P. aeruginosa in guinea pigs and increased clearance in lungs. Hence, indole‐related compounds have potential as a novel antivirulence approach for the recalcitrant pathogen P. aeruginosa. PMID:21261883

  7. Indole and 7-hydroxyindole diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jintae; Attila, Can; Cirillo, Suat L G; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Wood, Thomas K

    2009-01-01

    Indole is an extracellular biofilm signal for Escherichia coli, and many bacterial oxygenases readily convert indole to various oxidized compounds including 7-hydroxyindole (7HI). Here we investigate the impact of indole and 7HI on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence and quorum sensing (QS)-regulated phenotypes; this strain does not synthesize these compounds but degrades them rapidly. Indole and 7HI both altered extensively gene expression in a manner opposite that of acylhomoserine lactones; the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI-opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS-regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). Corroborating these microarray results, indole and 7HI decreased production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, PQS and pyoverdine and enhanced antibiotic resistance. In addition, indole affected the utilization of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 7HI abolished swarming motility. Furthermore, 7HI reduced pulmonary colonization of P. aeruginosa in guinea pigs and increased clearance in lungs. Hence, indole-related compounds have potential as a novel antivirulence approach for the recalcitrant pathogen P. aeruginosa. PMID:21261883

  8. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, H; Feil, W S; Chain, P; Larimer, F; DiBartolo, G; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, S; Nolan, M; Goltsman, E; Thiel, J; Malfatti, S; Loper, J E; Lapidus, A; Detter, J C; Land, M; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, N C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, S E

    2005-07-14

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae B728a (Pss B728a), has been determined and is compared with that of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. While a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences (REPs) unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands vary, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin (SP), syringomycin (SR), indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  9. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Larimer, Frank W; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti, Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Detter, J C; Lapidus, Alla L.; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (Pss B728a) has been determined and is compared with that of A syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 Mb) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands varies, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin, syringomycin, indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to the epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  10. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Manmohit; Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Deepmala; Pandey, Himanshu; Narvi, Shahid Suhail; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of stimuli and responses in bacterial cells governed by their population density, through which they regulate genes that control virulence factors and biofilm formation. Despite considerable research on QS and the discovery of new antibiotics, QS-controlled biofilm formation by microorganisms in clinical settings has remained a problem because of nascent drug resistance, which requires screening of diverse compounds for anti-QS activities. Cinnamon is a dietary phytochemical that is traditionally used to remedy digestive problems and assorted contagions, which suggests that cinnamon might contain chemicals that can hinder the QS process. To test this hypothesis, the anti-QS activity of cinnamon oil against P. aeruginosa was tested, measured by the inhibition of biofilm formation and other QS-associated phenomena, including virulence factors such as pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, protease, alginate production, and swarming activity. To this end, multiple microscopy analyses, including light, scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed the ability of cinnamon oil to inhibit P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and their accompanying extracellular polymeric substances. This work is the first to demonstrate that cinnamon oil can influence various QS-based phenomena in P. aeruginosa PAO1, including biofilm formation.

  11. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Manmohit; Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Deepmala; Pandey, Himanshu; Narvi, Shahid Suhail; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of stimuli and responses in bacterial cells governed by their population density, through which they regulate genes that control virulence factors and biofilm formation. Despite considerable research on QS and the discovery of new antibiotics, QS-controlled biofilm formation by microorganisms in clinical settings has remained a problem because of nascent drug resistance, which requires screening of diverse compounds for anti-QS activities. Cinnamon is a dietary phytochemical that is traditionally used to remedy digestive problems and assorted contagions, which suggests that cinnamon might contain chemicals that can hinder the QS process. To test this hypothesis, the anti-QS activity of cinnamon oil against P. aeruginosa was tested, measured by the inhibition of biofilm formation and other QS-associated phenomena, including virulence factors such as pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, protease, alginate production, and swarming activity. To this end, multiple microscopy analyses, including light, scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed the ability of cinnamon oil to inhibit P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and their accompanying extracellular polymeric substances. This work is the first to demonstrate that cinnamon oil can influence various QS-based phenomena in P. aeruginosa PAO1, including biofilm formation. PMID:26263486

  12. C-di-GMP regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa stress response to tellurite during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Song Lin; Sivakumar, Krishnakumar; Rybtke, Morten; Yuan, Mingjun; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Cao, Bin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Stress response plays an important role on microbial adaptation under hostile environmental conditions. It is generally unclear how the signaling transduction pathway mediates a stress response in planktonic and biofilm modes of microbial communities simultaneously. Here, we showed that metalloid tellurite (TeO32–) exposure induced the intracellular content of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), SadC and SiaD, were responsible for the increased intracellular content of c-di-GMP. Enhanced c-di-GMP levels by TeO32– further increased P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and resistance to TeO32–. P. aeruginosa ΔsadCΔsiaD and PAO1/plac-yhjH mutants with low intracellular c-di-GMP content were more sensitive to TeO32– exposure and had low relative fitness compared to the wild-type PAO1 planktonic and biofilm cultures exposed to TeO32–. Our study provided evidence that c-di-GMP level can play an important role in mediating stress response in microbial communities during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. PMID:25992876

  13. C-di-GMP regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa stress response to tellurite during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth.

    PubMed

    Chua, Song Lin; Sivakumar, Krishnakumar; Rybtke, Morten; Yuan, Mingjun; Andersen, Jens Bo; Nielsen, Thomas E; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Cao, Bin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Stress response plays an important role on microbial adaptation under hostile environmental conditions. It is generally unclear how the signaling transduction pathway mediates a stress response in planktonic and biofilm modes of microbial communities simultaneously. Here, we showed that metalloid tellurite (TeO3(2-)) exposure induced the intracellular content of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), SadC and SiaD, were responsible for the increased intracellular content of c-di-GMP. Enhanced c-di-GMP levels by TeO3(2-) further increased P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and resistance to TeO3(2-). P. aeruginosa ΔsadCΔsiaD and PAO1/p(lac)-yhjH mutants with low intracellular c-di-GMP content were more sensitive to TeO3(2-) exposure and had low relative fitness compared to the wild-type PAO1 planktonic and biofilm cultures exposed to TeO3(2-). Our study provided evidence that c-di-GMP level can play an important role in mediating stress response in microbial communities during both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth.

  14. Zingerone silences quorum sensing and attenuates virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajnish; Kumar, Manoj; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an imperative role in virulence factor, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Blocking quorum sensing pathways are viewed as viable anti-virulent therapy in association with traditional antimicrobial therapy. Anti-quorum sensing dietary phytochemicals with may prove to be a safe and viable choice as anti-virulent drug candidates. Previously, our lab proved zingerone as potent anti-biofilm agent hence; further its anti-virulent and anti-quorum activities were evaluated. Zingerone, besides decreasing swimming, swarming and twitching phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1, reduced biofilm forming capacity and production of virulence factors including rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, cell free and cell bound hemolysin (p<0.001) indicating anti-virulent property attributing towards attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa. Further zingerone not only had marked effect on the production of quorum sensing signal molecules by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa but also showed significant interference with the activation of QS reporter strains. To study the mechanism of blocking quorum sensing cascade, in silico analysis was carried out. Anti-QS activity was attributed to interference with the ligand receptor interaction of zingerone with QS receptors (TraR, LasR, RhlR and PqsR). Zingerone showed a good comparative docking score to respective autoinducer molecules which was even higher than that of vanillin, a proven anti-quorum sensing phytochemical. The results of the present study revealed the anti-quorum sensing activity of zingerone targeting ligand-receptor interaction, hence proposing zingerone as a suitable anti-virulent drug candidate against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25704369

  15. Zingerone silences quorum sensing and attenuates virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajnish; Kumar, Manoj; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an imperative role in virulence factor, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Blocking quorum sensing pathways are viewed as viable anti-virulent therapy in association with traditional antimicrobial therapy. Anti-quorum sensing dietary phytochemicals with may prove to be a safe and viable choice as anti-virulent drug candidates. Previously, our lab proved zingerone as potent anti-biofilm agent hence; further its anti-virulent and anti-quorum activities were evaluated. Zingerone, besides decreasing swimming, swarming and twitching phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1, reduced biofilm forming capacity and production of virulence factors including rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, cell free and cell bound hemolysin (p<0.001) indicating anti-virulent property attributing towards attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa. Further zingerone not only had marked effect on the production of quorum sensing signal molecules by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa but also showed significant interference with the activation of QS reporter strains. To study the mechanism of blocking quorum sensing cascade, in silico analysis was carried out. Anti-QS activity was attributed to interference with the ligand receptor interaction of zingerone with QS receptors (TraR, LasR, RhlR and PqsR). Zingerone showed a good comparative docking score to respective autoinducer molecules which was even higher than that of vanillin, a proven anti-quorum sensing phytochemical. The results of the present study revealed the anti-quorum sensing activity of zingerone targeting ligand-receptor interaction, hence proposing zingerone as a suitable anti-virulent drug candidate against P. aeruginosa infections.

  16. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F.; Brandt, Sarah; Mousavi, Nabi; Kragh, Kasper N.; Aydogan, Sevtap; Uppal, Haleema A.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance towards antibiotics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is recognized as a major cause of therapeutic failure of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This lung infection is characterized by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in mucus with zones of O2 depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leukocytic activity. In contrast to the main types of bactericidal antibiotics, it has not been possible to establish an association between the bactericidal effects of colistin and the production of detectable levels of OH ˙ on several strains of planktonic P. aeruginosa. Therefore, we propose that production of OH ˙ may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (ΔkatA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates in normoxic- or anoxic atmosphere with 1 mM nitrate. The killing of bacteria during colistin treatment was measured by CFU counts, and the OH⋅ formation was measured by 3′-(p-hydroxylphenyl fluorescein) fluorescein (HPF) fluorescence. Validation of the assay was done by hydrogen peroxide treatment. OH⋅ formation was undetectable in aerobic PAO1 biofilms during 3 h of colistin treatment. Interestingly, we demonstrate increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa biofilms towards colistin during anaerobic conditions. In fact, the maximum enhancement of killing by anaerobic conditions exceeded 2 logs using 4 mg L−1 of colistin compared to killing at aerobic conditions. PMID:26458402

  17. Inhaled Lactonase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Mortality in Rat Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, John; Lepidi, Hubert; Papazian, Laurent; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Elias, Mikael; Silby, Mark W.; Bzdrenga, Janek; Bregeon, Fabienne; Chabriere, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The effectiveness of antibiotic molecules in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is reduced as a result of the dissemination of bacterial resistance. The existence of bacterial communication systems, such as quorum sensing, has provided new opportunities of treatment. Lactonases efficiently quench acyl-homoserine lactone-based bacterial quorum sensing, implicating these enzymes as potential new anti-Pseudomonas drugs that might be evaluated in pneumonia. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a lactonase called SsoPox-I to reduce the mortality of a rat P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Methods To assess SsoPox-I-mediated quorum quenching, we first measured the activity of the virulence gene lasB, the synthesis of pyocianin, the proteolytic activity of a bacterial suspension and the formation of biofilm of a PAO1 strain grown in the presence of lactonase. In an acute lethal model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in rats, we evaluated the effects of an early or deferred intra-tracheal treatment with SsoPox-I on the mortality, lung bacterial count and lung damage. Measurements and Primary Results SsoPox-I decreased PAO1 lasB virulence gene activity, pyocianin synthesis, proteolytic activity and biofilm formation. The early use of SsoPox-I reduced the mortality of rats with acute pneumonia from 75% to 20%. Histological lung damage was significantly reduced but the lung bacterial count was not modified by the treatment. A delayed treatment was associated with a non-significant reduction of mortality. Conclusion These results demonstrate the protective effects of lactonase SsoPox-I in P. aeruginosa pneumonia and open the way for a future therapeutic use. PMID:25350373

  18. Robustness and Plasticity of Metabolic Pathway Flux among Uropathogenic Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Antje; Dohnt, Katrin; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human pathogen that frequently causes urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Here, using 13C-metabolic flux analysis, we conducted quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes in the model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and 17 clinical isolates. All P. aeruginosa strains catabolized glucose through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with fully respiratory metabolism and no overflow. Together with other NADPH supplying reactions, this high-flux pathway provided by far more NADPH than needed for anabolism: a benefit for the pathogen to counteract oxidative stress imposed by the host. P. aeruginosa recruited the pentose phosphate pathway exclusively for biosynthesis. In contrast to glycolytic metabolism, which was conserved among all isolates, the flux through pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glyoxylate shunt was highly variable, likely caused by adaptive processes in individual strains during infection. This aspect of metabolism was niche-specific with respect to the corresponding flux because strains isolated from the urinary tract clustered separately from those originating from catheter-associated infections. Interestingly, most glucose-grown strains exhibited significant flux through the glyoxylate shunt. Projection into the theoretical flux space, which was computed using elementary flux-mode analysis, indicated that P. aeruginosa metabolism is optimized for efficient growth and exhibits significant potential for increasing NADPH supply to drive oxidative stress response. PMID:24709961

  19. Analysis of the swimming activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using photonic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Han; Chang, Bo-Jui; Huang, Ying-Jung; Fan, Chia-Chieh; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long

    2005-08-01

    Swimming activity of flagella is a main factor of the motility of bacteria. Flagella expressed on the surface of bacterial species serve as a primary means of motility including swimming. We propose to use optical tweezers to analyze the swimming activity of bacteria. The sample bacteria in the work is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and it is a gram-negative bacterium and often causes leading to burn wound infections, urinary-tract infections, and pneumonia. The single polar flagellum of P. aeruginosa has been demonstrated to be important virulence and colonization factor of this opportunistic pathogen. We demonstrate a gene to regulate the bacterial swimming activity in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by biological method. However, the change of flagellar morphology was not observed by electron microscopy analysis, suggesting that the gene regulates the flagellar rotation that could not be detected by biological method. PFM exhibits a spatial resolution of a few nanometers to detect the relative position of the probe at an acquisition rate over 1 MHz. By binding a probe such as a bead or a quantum dot on the flagella, we expect the rotation of the probe due to the flagella could be detected. It is expected that the study of the swimming activity of P. aeruginosa provide potent method for the pathogenic role of the flagella in P. aeruginosa.

  20. The ferrichrome receptor A as a new target for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keehoon; Lee, Kang-Mu; Go, Junhyeok; Ryu, Jae-Chan; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, known to develop robust biofilms. Its biofilm development increases when antibiotics are presented at subminimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for reasons that remain unclear. In order to identify genes that affect biofilm development under such a sublethal antibiotic stress condition, we screened a transposon (Tn) mutant library of PAO1, a prototype P. aeruginosa strain. Among ∼5000 mutants, a fiuA gene mutant was verified to form very defective biofilms in the presence of sub-MIC carbenicillin. The fiuA gene encodes ferrichrome receptor A, involved in the iron acquisition process. Of note, biofilm formation was not decreased in the ΔpchΔpvd mutant defective in the production of pyochelin and pyoverdine, two well-characterized P. aeruginosa siderophore molecules. Moreover, ΔfiuA, a non-polar fiuA deletion mutant, produced a significantly decreased level of elastase, a major virulence determinant. Mouse airway infection experiments revealed that the mutant expressed significantly less pathogenicity. Our results suggest that the fiuA gene has pleiotropic functions that affect P. aeruginosa biofilm development and virulence. The targeting of FiuA could enable the attenuation of P. aeruginosa virulence and may be suitable for the development of a drug that specifically controls the virulence of this important pathogen. PMID:27190289

  1. Chelation of Membrane-Bound Cations by Extracellular DNA Activates the Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Tang, Le; Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Parkins, Michael D; Lewenza, Shawn; Dong, Tao G

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a highly effective and tightly regulated weapon to deliver toxic molecules to target cells. T6SS-secreted proteins of P. aeruginosa can be detected in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who typically present a chronic and polymicrobial lung infection. However, the mechanism of T6SS activation in the CF lung is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that extracellular DNA (eDNA), abundant within the CF airways, stimulates the dynamics of the H1-T6SS cluster apparatus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Addition of Mg(2+) or DNase with eDNA abolished such activation, while treatment with EDTA mimicked the eDNA effect, suggesting that the eDNA-mediated effect is due to chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. DNA-activated H1-T6SS enables P. aeruginosa to nonselectively attack neighboring species regardless of whether or not it was provoked. Because of the importance of the T6SS in interspecies interactions and the prevalence of eDNA in the environments that P. aeruginosa inhabits, our report reveals an important adaptation strategy that likely contributes to the competitive fitness of P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial communities.

  2. Chelation of Membrane-Bound Cations by Extracellular DNA Activates the Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Mike; Wong, Megan J Q; Tang, Le; Liang, Xiaoye; Moore, Richard; Parkins, Michael D; Lewenza, Shawn; Dong, Tao G

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs its type VI secretion system (T6SS) as a highly effective and tightly regulated weapon to deliver toxic molecules to target cells. T6SS-secreted proteins of P. aeruginosa can be detected in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, who typically present a chronic and polymicrobial lung infection. However, the mechanism of T6SS activation in the CF lung is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that extracellular DNA (eDNA), abundant within the CF airways, stimulates the dynamics of the H1-T6SS cluster apparatus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Addition of Mg(2+) or DNase with eDNA abolished such activation, while treatment with EDTA mimicked the eDNA effect, suggesting that the eDNA-mediated effect is due to chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. DNA-activated H1-T6SS enables P. aeruginosa to nonselectively attack neighboring species regardless of whether or not it was provoked. Because of the importance of the T6SS in interspecies interactions and the prevalence of eDNA in the environments that P. aeruginosa inhabits, our report reveals an important adaptation strategy that likely contributes to the competitive fitness of P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial communities. PMID:27271742

  3. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Wu, Hong; Andersen, Jens Bo; Riedel, Kathrin; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bagge, Niels; Kumar, Naresh; Schembri, Mark A.; Song, Zhijun; Kristoffersen, Peter; Manefield, Mike; Costerton, John W.; Molin, Søren; Eberl, Leo; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering with growth. Compounds that can override communication signals have been found in the marine environment. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as an example of an opportunistic human pathogen, we show that a synthetic derivate of natural furanone compounds can act as a potent antagonist of bacterial quorum sensing. We employed GeneChip® microarray technology to identify furanone target genes and to map the quorum sensing regulon. The transcriptome analysis showed that the furanone drug specifically targeted quorum sensing systems and inhibited virulence factor expression. Application of the drug to P.aeruginosa biofilms increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin and SDS. In a mouse pulmonary infection model, the drug inhibited quorum sensing of the infecting bacteria and promoted their clearance by the mouse immune response. PMID:12881415

  4. Mechanical Properties of Type IV Pili in P. Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shun; Touhami, Ahmed; Scheurwater, Edie; Harvey, Hanjeong; Burrows, Lori; Dutcher, John

    2009-03-01

    Type IV pili (Tfp) are thin flexible protein filaments that extend from the cell membrane of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The mechanical properties of Tfp are of great importance since they allow bacteria to interact with and colonize various surfaces. In the present study, we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for both imaging and pulling on Tfp from P. aeruginosa (PAO1) and from its PilA, PilT, and FliC mutants. A single pilus filament was mechanically stretched and the resulting force-extension profiles were fitted using the worm-like-chain (WLC) model. The statistical distributions obtained for contour length, persistence length, and number of pili per bacteria pole, were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of a single pilus and the biogenesis functions of different proteins (PilA, PilT) involved in its assembly and disassembly. Importantly, the persistence length value of ˜ 1 μm measured in the present study, which is consistent with the curvature of the pili observed in our AFM images, is significantly lower than the value of 5 μm reported earlier by Skerker et al. (1). Our results shed new light on the role of mechanical forces that mediate bacteria-surface interactions and biofilm formation. 1- J.M. Skerker and H.C. Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 6901-6904 (2001).

  5. Development of a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based drug accumulation assay in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongliang; Rose, Kelly; Liang, Lan-Hsin; Dunham, Steve; Stover, Charles

    2009-02-15

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy remains a worldwide problem. In Pseudomonasaeruginosa, rates of efflux confer inherent resistance to many antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, due to a high level of expression and a relatively high turnover number of the efflux pumps in gram-negative bacteria. To understand the roles of efflux pumps in both the influx and efflux of compounds in P. aeruginosa and to aid the chemistry compound design by bridging in vitro enzymatic binding data (IC(50) values) with whole cell results (MIC numbers), a collaborative effort was put forward to validate a series of bacterial penetration/accumulation assays for assessment of intracellular drug concentration. Initially, using 2-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-ethylpyridinium cation (DMP) as the tracer, a 96-well fluorescence assay was established to measure the time-dependent accumulation of DMP in wild-type (PAO1), MexABOprM deletion (PAO200), and MexABOprM-MexCDOprJ-MexJKL:FRT deletion mutants (PAO314). At steady state, the order of DMP accumulation was PAO314>PAO200>PAO1. Subsequently, the established assay conditions were applied to a radiolabeled assay format using (3)H-labeled ciprofloxacin. At the concentration tested, the accumulation of [(3)H]ciprofloxacin approached a plateau after 15 min and the amount of accumulation in PAO314 was higher (~2- to 10-fold) than that in PAO1. Finally, with an additional step of cell lysis, a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based assay was established with ciprofloxacin with (i) superior sensitivity (the detection limit can be as low as 0.24 ng/ml for ciprofloxacin) and (ii) the ability to monitor cold or nonfluorescent compounds in a drug discovery setting. PMID:19032927

  6. The D3 bacteriophage α-polymerase inhibitor (Iap) peptide disrupts O-antigen biosynthesis through mimicry of the chain length regulator Wzz in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Véronique L; Udaskin, Molly L; Islam, Salim T; Lam, Joseph S

    2013-10-01

    Lysogenic bacteriophage D3 causes seroconversion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 from serotype O5 to O16 by inverting the linkage between O-specific antigen (OSA) repeat units from α to β. The OSA units are polymerized by Wzy to modal lengths regulated by Wzz1 and Wzz2. A key component of the D3 seroconversion machinery is the inhibitor of α-polymerase (Iap) peptide, which is able to solely suppress α-linked long-chain OSA production in P. aeruginosa PAO1. To establish the target specificity of Iap for Wzyα, changes in OSA phenotypes were examined via Western immunoblotting for wzz1 and wzz2 single-knockout strains, as well as a wzz1 wzz2 double knockout, following the expression of iap from a tuneable vector. Increased induction of Iap expression completely abrogated OSA production in the wzz1 wzz2 double mutant, while background levels of OSA production were still observed in either of the single mutants. Therefore, Iap inhibition of OSA biosynthesis was most effective in the absence of both Wzz proteins. Sequence alignment analyses revealed a high degree of similarity between Iap and the first transmembrane segment (TMS) of either Wzz1 or Wzz2. Various topology prediction analyses of the Iap sequence consistently predicted the presence of a single TMS, suggesting a propensity for Iap to insert itself into the inner membrane (IM). The compromised ability of Iap to abrogate Wzyα function in the presence of Wzz1 or Wzz2 provides compelling evidence that inhibition occurs after Wzyα inserts itself into the IM and is achieved through mimicry of the first TMS from the Wzz proteins of P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:23955007

  7. Grazing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms depends on type of protective mechanism, developmental stage and protozoan feeding mode.

    PubMed

    Weitere, Markus; Bergfeld, Tanja; Rice, Scott A; Matz, Carsten; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2005-10-01

    In a previous study we identified microcolony formation and inhibitor production as the major protective mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms against flagellate grazing. Here we compared the efficacy of these two key protective mechanisms by exposing biofilms of the non-toxic alginate overproducing strain PDO300 and the wild-type toxic strain PAO1 to a range of feeding types commonly found in the succession of protozoans associated with natural biofilms. Alginate-mediated microcolony formation conferred effective protection for strain PDO300 against the suspension feeding flagellate Bodo saltans and, as reported earlier, the surface feeding flagellate Rhynchomonas nasuta, both of which are considered as early biofilm colonizers. However, microcolonies of mature PDO300 biofilms were highly susceptible to late biofilm colonizers, the surface-feeding amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and the planktonic ciliate Tetrahymena sp., resulting in a significant reduction of biofilm biomass. Mature biofilms of strain PAO1 inhibited growth of flagellates and A. polyphaga while the grazing activity of Tetrahymena sp. remained unaffected. Our findings suggest that inhibitor production of mature P. aeruginosa biofilms is effective against a wider range of biofilm-feeding predators while microcolony-mediated protection is only beneficial in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  8. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  9. Role of Iron Uptake Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence and Airway Infection.

    PubMed

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Visaggio, Daniela; Facchini, Marcella; Pasquali, Paolo; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Visca, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Iron is essential for bacterial growth, and P. aeruginosa expresses multiple iron uptake systems, whose role in lung infection deserves further investigation. P. aeruginosa Fe(3+) uptake systems include the pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores and two systems for heme uptake, all of which are dependent on the TonB energy transducer. P. aeruginosa also has the FeoB transporter for Fe(2+) acquisition. To assess the roles of individual iron uptake systems in P. aeruginosa lung infection, single and double deletion mutants were generated in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and characterized in vitro, using iron-poor media and human serum, and in vivo, using a mouse model of lung infection. The iron uptake-null mutant (tonB1 feoB) and the Fe(3+) transport mutant (tonB1) did not grow aerobically under low-iron conditions and were avirulent in the mouse model. Conversely, the wild type and the feoB, hasR phuR (heme uptake), and pchD (pyochelin) mutants grew in vitro and caused 60 to 90% mortality in mice. The pyoverdine mutant (pvdA) and the siderophore-null mutant (pvdA pchD) grew aerobically in iron-poor media but not in human serum, and they caused low mortality in mice (10 to 20%). To differentiate the roles of pyoverdine in iron uptake and virulence regulation, a pvdA fpvR double mutant defective in pyoverdine production but expressing wild-type levels of pyoverdine-regulated virulence factors was generated. Deletion of fpvR in the pvdA background partially restored the lethal phenotype, indicating that pyoverdine contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa lung infection by combining iron transport and virulence-inducing capabilities. PMID:27271740

  10. Role of Iron Uptake Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence and Airway Infection.

    PubMed

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Imperi, Francesco; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Visaggio, Daniela; Facchini, Marcella; Pasquali, Paolo; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Visca, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia and chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Iron is essential for bacterial growth, and P. aeruginosa expresses multiple iron uptake systems, whose role in lung infection deserves further investigation. P. aeruginosa Fe(3+) uptake systems include the pyoverdine and pyochelin siderophores and two systems for heme uptake, all of which are dependent on the TonB energy transducer. P. aeruginosa also has the FeoB transporter for Fe(2+) acquisition. To assess the roles of individual iron uptake systems in P. aeruginosa lung infection, single and double deletion mutants were generated in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and characterized in vitro, using iron-poor media and human serum, and in vivo, using a mouse model of lung infection. The iron uptake-null mutant (tonB1 feoB) and the Fe(3+) transport mutant (tonB1) did not grow aerobically under low-iron conditions and were avirulent in the mouse model. Conversely, the wild type and the feoB, hasR phuR (heme uptake), and pchD (pyochelin) mutants grew in vitro and caused 60 to 90% mortality in mice. The pyoverdine mutant (pvdA) and the siderophore-null mutant (pvdA pchD) grew aerobically in iron-poor media but not in human serum, and they caused low mortality in mice (10 to 20%). To differentiate the roles of pyoverdine in iron uptake and virulence regulation, a pvdA fpvR double mutant defective in pyoverdine production but expressing wild-type levels of pyoverdine-regulated virulence factors was generated. Deletion of fpvR in the pvdA background partially restored the lethal phenotype, indicating that pyoverdine contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa lung infection by combining iron transport and virulence-inducing capabilities.

  11. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy. PMID:26785289

  12. Characterization of chromosomal mediated cadmium resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BC15.

    PubMed

    Raja, Chellaiah Edward; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been used extensively in metal plating, mining, paints and plastic generation etc. In this study, Cd resistance (cadR) gene was characterized from the environmental isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa BC15. The cadR sequences showed high homology with P. aeruginosa FLH033011 (100%), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (99%), and P. aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 (98%) respectively. Homology modeling of cadR was carried out by using swiss-prot server. Crystal structures of E. coli CueR for Cu (1q05) and ZntR (1q08) for Zn have been used as a template. The sequence identity of P. aeruginosa cadR shares 34% for CueR and 43% for ZntR. Fold recognition of P. aeruginosa cadR was created by using PHYRE web server. Transcriptional regulator CueR (1q06a) from E. coli was chosen as the template. CadR has 31% identity and the estimated precision was 100%. The cadR gene was cloned in pET30b and transformed into E. coli BL21. The molecular weight protein of cadR was estimated to be 25 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant E. coli cadR efficiently grow in the Cd supplemented LB medium and agar plate. The order of the resistance of E. coli cadR was Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn. These findings can lead to the use of P. aeruginosa BC15 for the remediation of Cd and other heavy metals present in the polluted environment.

  13. Functional analysis of the interaction between the mismatch repair protein MutS and the replication processivity factor β clamp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Monti, Mariela R; Miguel, Virginia; Borgogno, Maria V; Argaraña, Carlos E

    2012-05-01

    Interaction between MutS and the replication factor β clamp has been extensively studied in a Mismatch Repair context; however, its functional consequences are not well understood. We have analyzed the role of the MutS-β clamp interaction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by characterizing a β clamp binding motif mutant, denominated MutSβ, which does not interact with the replication factor. A detailed characterization of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 harboring a chromosomal mutSβ allele demonstrated that this mutant strain exhibited mutation rates to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin resistance comparable to that of the parental strain. mutSβ PAO1 was as proficient as the parental strain for DNA repair under highly mutagenic conditions imposed by the adenine base analog 2-aminopurine. In addition, using a tetracycline resistance reversion assay to assess the repair of a frameshift mutation, we determined that the parental and mutSβ strains exhibited similar reversion rates. Our results clearly indicate that the MutS-β clamp interaction does not have a central role in the methylation-independent Mismatch Repair of P. aeruginosa.

  14. Rhamnolipid-dependent spreading growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on a high-agar medium: marked enhancement under CO2-rich anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Takashi; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Chihiro; Ando, Yumi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Nakagawa, Yoji; Matsuyama, Tohey

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobiosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in infected organs is now gaining attention as a unique physiological feature. After anaerobic cultivation of P. aeruginosa wild type strain PAO1 T, we noticed an unexpectedly expanding colony on a 1.5% agar medium. The basic factors involved in this spreading growth were investigated by growing the PAO1 T strain and its isogenic mutants on a Davis high-agar minimal synthetic medium under various experimental conditions. The most promotive environment for this spreading growth was an O(2)-depleted 8% CO(2) condition. From mutational analysis of this spreading growth, flagella and type IV pili were shown to be ancillary factors for this bacterial activity. On the other hand, a rhamnolipid-deficient rhlA mutant TR failed to exhibit spreading growth on a high-agar medium. Complementation of the gene defect of the mutant TR with a plasmid carrying the rhlAB operon resulted in the restoration of the spreading growth. In addition, an external supply of rhamnolipid or other surfactants (surfactin from Bacillus subtilis or artificial product Tween 80) also restored the spreading growth of the mutant TR. Such activity of surfactants on bacterial spreading on a hard-agar medium was unique to P. aeruginosa under CO(2)-rich anaerobic conditions.

  15. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  16. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  17. Protective role of extracellular catalase (KatA) against UVA radiation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    One of the more stressful factors that Pseudomonas aeruginosa must face in nature is solar UVA radiation. In this study, the protective role of KatA catalase in both planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa against UVA radiation was determined by using the wild-type (PAO1) and an isogenic catalase deficient strain (katA). The katA strain was more sensitive than the wild-type, especially in the case of biofilms. Moreover, the wild-type biofilm was more resistant than its planktonic counterpart, but this was not observed in the katA strain. Striking KatA activity was detected in the matrix of katA(+) strains, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of this activity in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Provision of bovine catalase or KatA to the matrix of a katA biofilm significantly increased its UVA tolerance, demonstrating that extracellular KatA is essential to optimal defense against UVA in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Efficiency of photocatalytic treatments using TiO2 and UVA was lower in biofilms than in planktonic cells, but KatA and KatB catalases seem not to be responsible for the higher resistance of the sessile cells to this treatment. PMID:24491420

  18. A novel bacteriophage cocktail reduces and disperses Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms under static and flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Alves, Diana R; Perez-Esteban, P; Kot, W; Bean, J E; Arnot, T; Hansen, L H; Enright, Mark C; Jenkins, A Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that forms highly stable communities - biofilms, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of infections. The biofilm state and intrinsic/acquired bacterial resistance mechanisms contribute to resistance/tolerance to antibiotics that is frequently observed in P. aeruginosa isolates. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of six novel lytic bacteriophages: viruses that infect bacteria, which together efficiently infect and kill a wide range of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. The phages were used to formulate a cocktail with the potential to eliminate P. aeruginosa PAO1 planktonic cultures. Two biofilm models were studied, one static and one dynamic, and the phage cocktail was assessed for its ability to reduce and disperse the biofilm biomass. For the static model, after 4 h of contact with the phage suspension (MOI 10) more than 95% of biofilm biomass was eliminated. In the flow biofilm model, a slower rate of activity by the phage was observed, but 48 h after addition of the phage cocktail the biofilm was dispersed, with most cells eliminated (> 4 logs) comparing with the control. This cocktail has the potential for development as a therapeutic to control P. aeruginosa infections, which are predominantly biofilm centred. PMID:26347362

  19. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack ethanol extract modulates quorum sensing-controlled pathogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of new mechanism to control microbial pathogenicity by quorum sensing modulation has generated the search for quorum sensing inhibitor from natural resources. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract to antagonize cell-to cell communication. Pulverized H. formicarum tuber was macerated in ethyl alcohol 96% and evaporated to yield ethanol extract. A dillution technique using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium was used to observe the capability of the extract to reduce the violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum. Samples in two-fold dilution were prepared to obtain 2 - 0.0625 mg/mL concentration. The effects on swimming, swarming and twitching motility as well as the formation of biofilm towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were recorded over control. All experiments were done in triplicate. The architecture of Ps. aeruginosa biofilm treated with samples was examined by CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) . Our results suggested that the ethanol extract of H. formicarum caused violacein production inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of Ps. aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation were recorded to be significant over control in a concentration dependent manner. H. formicarum serves as a potential source for new QS-based antibacterial drugs towards Ps. aeruginosa. PMID:26408889

  20. The phenotypic evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations changes in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Tina; Meinike Jørgensen, Karin; Ivanyshyn, Karolina; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Khademi, S M Hossein; Jelsbak, Lars; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2016-05-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a widely used antibiotic, in the class of quinolones, for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The immediate response of P. aeruginosa to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin has been investigated previously. However, the long-term phenotypic adaptation, which identifies the fitted phenotypes that have been selected during evolution with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, has not been studied. We chose an experimental evolution approach to investigate how exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin changes the evolution of P. aeruginosa populations compared to unexposed populations. Three replicate populations of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its hypermutable mutant ΔmutS were cultured aerobically for approximately 940 generations by daily passages in LB medium with and without subinhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin and aliquots of the bacterial populations were regularly sampled and kept at  - 80 °C for further investigations. We investigate here phenotypic changes between the ancestor (50 colonies) and evolved populations (120 colonies/strain). Decreased protease activity and swimming motility, higher levels of quorum-sensing signal molecules and occurrence of mutator subpopulations were observed in the ciprofloxacin-exposed populations compared to the ancestor and control populations. Transcriptomic analysis showed downregulation of the type III secretion system in evolved populations compared to the ancestor population and upregulation of denitrification genes in ciprofloxacin-evolved populations. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotics at subinhibitory concentration in the environment affects bacterial evolution and further studies are needed to obtain insight into the dynamics of the phenotypes and the mechanisms involved.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in disease.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Isabella, Vincent M; Lewis, Kim

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that is the focus of intense research because of its prominent role in disease. Due to its relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capabilities, this organism exploits numerous environmental niches. It is an opportunistic pathogen that sets upon the human host when the normal immune defenses are disabled. Its deadliness is most apparent in cystic fibrosis patients, but it also is a major problem in burn wounds, chronic wounds, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, surface growth on implanted biomaterials, and within hospital surface and water supplies, where it poses a host of threats to vulnerable patients (Peleg and Hooper, N Engl J Med 362:1804-1813, 2010; Breathnach et al., J Hosp Infect 82:19-24, 2012). Once established in the patient, P. aeruginosa can be especially difficult to treat. The genome encodes a host of resistance genes, including multidrug efflux pumps (Poole, J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 3:255-264, 2001) and enzymes conferring resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibotics (Vahdani et al., Annal Burns Fire Disast 25:78-81, 2012), making therapy against this gram-negative pathogen particularly challenging due to the lack of novel antimicrobial therapeutics (Lewis, Nature 485: 439-440, 2012). This challenge is compounded by the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in a biofilm, which may enhance its ability to cause infections by protecting bacteria from host defenses and chemotherapy. Here, we review recent studies of P. aeruginosa biofilms with a focus on how this unique mode of growth contributes to its ability to cause recalcitrant infections.

  2. Lactonase-expressing Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 attenuates the virulence factors of multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in co-culturing environment.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sudha; Kaur, Amanjot; Sharma, Prince; Harjai, Kusum; Capalash, Neena

    2014-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an arcade of both cell-associated and extracellular cytotoxic virulence factors which are regulated by a multi-component quorum sensing system. Many research studies report success of lactonase in combating the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa but delivery of lactonase remains a challenge. The present study aims at developing a delivery vehicle for lactonase. Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 was used as host for aiiA (Bacillus thuringiensis 4A3 lactonase gene) using pSIP409 expression vector. pSIP409: aiiA construct was stably maintained in L. plantarum NC8. Co-culturing of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and PAO1 with recombinant L. plantarum NC8 led to significant reduction (p < 0.001) in extracellular virulence factors like pyocyanin, protease, elastase and rhamnolipids in P. aeruginosa and also showed significant reduction in adhesion of P. aeruginosa strains to uroepithelial cells in vitro. This study shows the heterologous expression of AiiA lactonase in L. plantarum NC8. Co-culturing of lactonase expressing L. plantarum NC8 with MDR P. aeruginosa strains led to attenuation of their virulence significantly. These results underscore the potential application of recombinant L. plantarum NC8 with anti-quorum sensing properties to control infections caused by multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa.

  3. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloendopeptidase, Mep72, a member of the Vfr regulon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vfr (the virulence factor regulator) enhances P. aeruginosa virulence by positively regulating the expression of numerous virulence genes. A previous microarray analysis identified numerous genes positively regulated by Vfr in strain PAK, including the yet uncharacterized PA2782 and PA2783. Results In this study, we report the detailed characterization of PA2783 in the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that PA2782-PA2783 constitute an operon. A mutation in vfr significantly reduced the expression of both genes. The predicted protein encoded by PA2783 contains a typical leader peptide at its amino terminus end as well as metalloendopeptidase and carbohydrate binding motifs at its amino terminus and carboxy terminus regions, respectively. An in-frame PA2783::phoA fusion encoded a hybrid protein that was exported to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa. In PAO1, the proteolytic activity of the PA2783-encoded protein was masked by other P. aeruginosa extracellular proteases but an E. coli strain carrying a PA2783 recombinant plasmid produced considerable proteolytic activity. The outer membrane fraction of an E. coli strain in which PA2783 was overexpressed contained specific endopeptidase activity. In the presence of cAMP, purified recombinant Vfr (rVfr) bound to a 98-bp fragment within the PA2782-PA2783 upstream region that carries a putative Vfr consensus sequence. Through a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we localized rVfr binding to a 33-bp fragment that contains part of the Vfr consensus sequence and a 5-bp imperfect (3/5) inverted repeat at its 3′ and 5′ ends (TGGCG-N22-CGCTG). Deletion of either repeat eliminated Vfr binding. Conclusions PA2782 and PA2783 constitute an operon whose transcription is positively regulated by Vfr. The expression of PA2783 throughout the growth cycle of P. aeruginosa follows a unique pattern. PA2783 codes for a secreted

  4. Evolution of metabolic divergence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during long-term infection facilitates a proto-cooperative interspecies interaction

    PubMed Central

    Frydenlund Michelsen, Charlotte; Hossein Khademi, Seyed Mohammad; Krogh Johansen, Helle; Ingmer, Hanne; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jelsbak, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The effect of polymicrobial interactions on pathogen physiology and how it can act either to limit pathogen colonization or to potentiate pathogen expansion and virulence are not well understood. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens commonly found together in polymicrobial human infections. However, we have previously shown that the interactions between these two bacterial species are strain dependent. Whereas P. aeruginosa PAO1, a commonly used laboratory strain, effectively suppressed S. aureus growth, we observed a commensal-like interaction between the human host-adapted strain, DK2-P2M24-2003, and S. aureus. In this study, characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and mass spectral (MS) molecular networking revealed a significant metabolic divergence between P. aeruginosa PAO1 and DK2-P2M24-2003, which comprised several virulence factors and signaling 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (HAQ) molecules. Strikingly, a further modulation of the HAQ profile was observed in DK2-P2M24-2003 during interaction with S. aureus, resulting in an area with thickened colony morphology at the P. aeruginosa–S. aureus interface. In addition, we found an HAQ-mediated protection of S. aureus by DK2-P2M24-2003 from the killing effect of tobramycin. Our findings suggest a model where the metabolic divergence manifested in human host-adapted P. aeruginosa is further modulated during interaction with S. aureus and facilitate a proto-cooperative P. aeruginosa–S. aureus relationship. PMID:26684729

  5. Dynamics of mutator and antibiotic-resistant populations in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm treatment.

    PubMed

    Macià, María D; Pérez, José L; Molin, Soeren; Oliver, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Biofilm growth, antibiotic resistance, and mutator phenotypes are key components of chronic respiratory infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. We examined the dynamics of mutator and antibiotic-resistant populations in P. aeruginosa flow-cell biofilms, using fluorescently tagged PAO1 and PAOMS (mutator [mutS] derivative) strains. Two-day-old biofilms were treated with ciprofloxacin (CIP) for 4 days (t4) at 2 μg/ml, which correlated with the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and provided an AUC/MIC ratio of 384 that should predict therapeutic success. Biofilms were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the numbers of viable cells and resistant mutants (4- and 16-fold MICs) were determined. Despite optimized pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters, CIP treatment did not suppress resistance development in P. aeruginosa biofilms. One-step resistant mutants (MexCD-OprJ or MexEF-OprN overexpression) were selected for both strains, while two-step resistant mutants (additional GyrA or GyrB mutation) were readily selected only from the mutator strain. CLSM analysis of competition experiments revealed that PAOMS, even when inoculated at a 0.01 proportion, took over the whole biofilm after only 2 days of CIP treatment outnumbering PAO1 by 3 log at t4. Our results show that mutational mechanisms play a major role in biofilm antibiotic resistance and that theoretically optimized PK/PD parameters fail to suppress resistance development, suggesting that the increased antibiotic tolerance driven by the special biofilm physiology and architecture may raise the effective MPC, favoring gradual mutational resistance development, especially in mutator strains. Moreover, the amplification of mutator populations under antibiotic treatment by coselection with resistance mutations is for the first time demonstrated in situ for P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  6. A Bacteriophage-Acquired O-Antigen Polymerase (Wzyβ) from P. aeruginosa Serotype O16 Performs a Varied Mechanism Compared to Its Cognate Wzyα

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Véronique L.; Hoage, Jesse F. J.; Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Huszczynski, Steven M.; Jelsbak, Lars; Lam, Joseph S.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces highly varied lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures. The O antigen (O-Ag) in the LPS is synthesized through the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway where lipid-linked O-Ag repeats are polymerized by Wzy. Horizontal-gene transfer has been associated with O-Ag diversity. The O-Ag present on the surface of serotypes O5 and O16, differ in the intra-molecular bonds, α and β, respectively; the latter arose from the action of three genes in a serotype converting unit acquired from bacteriophage D3, including a β-polymerase (Wzyβ). To further our understanding of O-polymerases, the inner membrane (IM) topology of Wzyβ was determined using a dual phoA-lacZα reporter system wherein random 3′ gene truncations were localized to specific loci with respect to the IM by normalized reporter activities as determined through the ratio of alkaline phosphatase activity to β-galactosidase activity. The topology of Wzyβ developed through this approach was shown to contain two predominant periplasmic loops, PL3 (containing an RX10G motif) and PL4 (having an O-Ag ligase superfamily motif), associated with inverting glycosyltransferase reaction. Through site-directed mutagenesis and complementation assays, residues Arg254, Arg270, Arg272, and His300 were found to be essential for Wzyβ function. Additionally, like-charge substitutions, R254K and R270K, could not complement the wzyβ knockout, highlighting the essential guanidium side group of Arg residues. The O-Ag ligase domain is conserved among heterologous Wzy proteins that produce β-linked O-Ag repeat units. Taking advantage of the recently obtained whole-genome sequence of serotype O16 a candidate promoter was identified. Wzyβ under its native promoter was integrated in the PAO1 genome, which resulted in simultaneous production of α- and β-linked O-Ag. These observations established that members of Wzy-like family consistently exhibit a dual-periplasmic loops

  7. A Bacteriophage-Acquired O-Antigen Polymerase (Wzyβ) from P. aeruginosa Serotype O16 Performs a Varied Mechanism Compared to Its Cognate Wzyα.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Véronique L; Hoage, Jesse F J; Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Huszczynski, Steven M; Jelsbak, Lars; Lam, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that produces highly varied lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structures. The O antigen (O-Ag) in the LPS is synthesized through the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway where lipid-linked O-Ag repeats are polymerized by Wzy. Horizontal-gene transfer has been associated with O-Ag diversity. The O-Ag present on the surface of serotypes O5 and O16, differ in the intra-molecular bonds, α and β, respectively; the latter arose from the action of three genes in a serotype converting unit acquired from bacteriophage D3, including a β-polymerase (Wzyβ). To further our understanding of O-polymerases, the inner membrane (IM) topology of Wzyβ was determined using a dual phoA-lacZα reporter system wherein random 3' gene truncations were localized to specific loci with respect to the IM by normalized reporter activities as determined through the ratio of alkaline phosphatase activity to β-galactosidase activity. The topology of Wzyβ developed through this approach was shown to contain two predominant periplasmic loops, PL3 (containing an RX10G motif) and PL4 (having an O-Ag ligase superfamily motif), associated with inverting glycosyltransferase reaction. Through site-directed mutagenesis and complementation assays, residues Arg(254), Arg(270), Arg(272), and His(300) were found to be essential for Wzyβ function. Additionally, like-charge substitutions, R254K and R270K, could not complement the wzy β knockout, highlighting the essential guanidium side group of Arg residues. The O-Ag ligase domain is conserved among heterologous Wzy proteins that produce β-linked O-Ag repeat units. Taking advantage of the recently obtained whole-genome sequence of serotype O16 a candidate promoter was identified. Wzy β under its native promoter was integrated in the PAO1 genome, which resulted in simultaneous production of α- and β-linked O-Ag. These observations established that members of Wzy-like family consistently exhibit a dual-periplasmic loops

  8. Influence of Hydrodynamics and Cell Signaling on the Structure and Behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Purevdorj, B.; Costerton, J. W.; Stoodley, P.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilms were grown from wild-type (WT) Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and the cell signaling lasI mutant PAO1-JP1 under laminar and turbulent flows to investigate the relative contributions of hydrodynamics and cell signaling for biofilm formation. Various biofilm morphological parameters were quantified using Image Structure Analyzer software. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that both cell signaling and hydrodynamics significantly (P < 0.000) influenced biofilm structure. In turbulent flow, both biofilms formed streamlined patches, which in some cases developed ripple-like wave structures which flowed downstream along the surface of the flow cell. In laminar flow, both biofilms formed monolayers interspersed with small circular microcolonies. Ripple-like structures also formed in four out of six WT biofilms, although their velocity was approximately 10 times less than that of those that formed in the turbulent flow cells. The movement of biofilm cell clusters over solid surfaces may have important clinical implications for the dissemination of biofilm subject to fluid shear, such as that found in catheters. The ability of the cell signaling mutant to form biofilms in high shear flow demonstrates that signaling mechanisms are not required for the formation of strongly adhered biofilms. Similarity between biofilm morphologies in WT and mutant biofilms suggests that the dilution of signal molecules by mass transfer effects in faster flowing systems mollifies the dramatic influence of signal molecules on biofilm structure reported in previous studies. PMID:12200300

  9. Surface characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in a chamber implant model in mice and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, N M; Bell, A; Hancock, R E

    1989-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was grown in vivo in chambers implanted into the peritoneums of mice and rats. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts of bacterial cells taken from the chambers and washed to remove loosely bound host proteins revealed the presence of the major outer membrane proteins D2, E, F, G, and H2. Western immunoblotting with specific antisera confirmed the presence of porin protein F and lipoprotein H2. However, there was no apparent induction of the phosphate starvation-inducible porin P or the divalent cation starvation-inducible protein H1. Small amounts of proteins with molecular weights similar to those of the iron-regulated outer membrane proteins were found in cells grown in vivo; however, their presence could not be confirmed immunologically. The presence of pili and flagella on the cells grown in vivo was demonstrated by electron microscopy and Western immunoblotting. A consistent alteration in the lipopolysaccharide banding pattern was observed after growth in vivo. Compared with cells of strain PAO1 grown in vitro, cells grown in vivo appeared to lack a series of high-molecular-weight O-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide bands and gained a new series of lower-molecular-weight lipopolysaccharide bands. This alteration in the lipopolysaccharide after growth in vivo did not affect the O-antigen serotype or the resistance of the bacteria to serum. Images PMID:2492257

  10. An investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth on novel nanocellulose fibre dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lydia C; Khan, Saira; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Wright, Chris J; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2016-02-10

    Nanocellulose from wood is a novel biomaterial, which is highly fibrillated at the nanoscale. This affords the material a number of advantages, including self-assembly, biodegradability and the ability to absorb and retain moisture, which highlights its potential usefulness in clinical wound-dressing applications. In these in vitro studies, the wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to assess the ability of two nanocellulose materials to impair bacterial growth (<48 h). The two nanocelluloses had a relatively small fraction of residual fibres (<4%) and thus a large fraction of nanofibrils (widths <20 nm). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging demonstrated impaired biofilm growth on the nanocellulose films and increased cell death when compared to a commercial control wound dressing, Aquacel(®). Nanocellulose suspensions inhibited bacterial growth, whilst UV-vis spectrophotometry and laser profilometry also revealed the ability of nanocellulose to form smooth, translucent films. Atomic force microscopy studies of the surface properties of nanocellulose demonstrated that PAO1 exhibited markedly contrasting morphology when grown on the nanocellulose film surfaces compared to an Aquacel(®) control dressing (p<0.05). This study highlights the potential utility of these biodegradable materials, from a renewable source, for wound dressing applications in the prevention and treatment of biofilm development. PMID:26686120

  11. An investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth on novel nanocellulose fibre dressings.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lydia C; Khan, Saira; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Wright, Chris J; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W

    2016-02-10

    Nanocellulose from wood is a novel biomaterial, which is highly fibrillated at the nanoscale. This affords the material a number of advantages, including self-assembly, biodegradability and the ability to absorb and retain moisture, which highlights its potential usefulness in clinical wound-dressing applications. In these in vitro studies, the wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to assess the ability of two nanocellulose materials to impair bacterial growth (<48 h). The two nanocelluloses had a relatively small fraction of residual fibres (<4%) and thus a large fraction of nanofibrils (widths <20 nm). Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging demonstrated impaired biofilm growth on the nanocellulose films and increased cell death when compared to a commercial control wound dressing, Aquacel(®). Nanocellulose suspensions inhibited bacterial growth, whilst UV-vis spectrophotometry and laser profilometry also revealed the ability of nanocellulose to form smooth, translucent films. Atomic force microscopy studies of the surface properties of nanocellulose demonstrated that PAO1 exhibited markedly contrasting morphology when grown on the nanocellulose film surfaces compared to an Aquacel(®) control dressing (p<0.05). This study highlights the potential utility of these biodegradable materials, from a renewable source, for wound dressing applications in the prevention and treatment of biofilm development.

  12. Accumulation of Pyrimidine Intermediate Orotate Decreases Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Niazy, Abdurahman; Hughes, Lee E

    2015-08-01

    The impact of orotate accumulation in the medically important bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied by deleting pyrE, the gene encoding orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and responsible for converting orotate into orotate monophosphate within the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. The pyrE mutant accumulated orotate and exhibited decreased production of hemolysin, casein protease, and elastase. Feeding orotate at a concentration of 51.25 μM to the wild type, PAO1, likewise decreased production of these factors except for hemolysin, which was not affected. A significant increase in the pigments pyocyanin and pyoverdin was also observed. Pyocyanin increase in the pyrE mutant was heightened when the mutant was supplemented with orotate. Although pyoverdin production in the wild-type PAO1 was unaffected by orotate supplementation, a decrease in the mutant's production was observed when supplemented with orotate. These results indicate a significant reduction in virulence factor production in the pyrE mutant and reduction in some virulence factors in the wild type when supplemented with orotate. PMID:25917504

  13. Neutrophil enhancement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development: human F-actin and DNA as targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Parks, Quinn M; Young, Robert L; Poch, Katie R; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Vasil, Michael L; Nick, Jerry A

    2009-04-01

    In the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa results from biofilm formation in a neutrophil-rich environment. We tested the capacity of human neutrophils to modify early biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, and an isogenic CF strain isolated early and years later in infection. In a static reactor, P. aeruginosa biofilm density of all strains was enhanced at 24 h in the presence of neutrophils, with the greatest relative increase associated with the lowest inoculum of P. aeruginosa tested. Previously, neutrophil-induced biofilm enhancement was shown to largely result from the incorporation of F-actin and DNA polymers into the bacterial biofilm. This finding was advanced by the comparison of biofilm enhancement from intact unstimulated neutrophils and from lysed or apoptotic neutrophils. Apoptotic neutrophils, with an intact cell membrane, were unable to contribute to biofilm enhancement, while lysed neutrophils evoked a similar response to that of intact cells. Using F-actin and DNA as targets, the capacity of negatively charged poly(amino acids) to disrupt, or prevent, early biofilm formation was tested. Anionic poly(aspartic acid) effectively prevented or disrupted biofilm formation. Combination of poly(aspartic acid) with DNase resulted in a synergistic increase in biofilm disruption. These results demonstrate that the presence of dying neutrophils can facilitate the initial stages of biofilm development by low inocula of P. aeruginosa. Neutrophil F-actin represents a potential new therapeutic target for disruption of pathogenic biofilms.

  14. Agaricus blazei hot water extract shows anti quorum sensing activity in the nosocomial human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Soković, Marina; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Nikolić, Miloš; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2014-04-03

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  15. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. for the prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that significantly increases morbidity and mortality in nosocomial infections and cystic fibrosis patients. Its pathogenicity especially relies on the production of virulence factors or resistances to many antibiotics. Since multiplication of antibiotic resistance can lead to therapeutic impasses, it becomes necessary to develop new tools for fighting P. aeruginosa infections. The use of probiotics is one of the ways currently being explored. Probiotics are microorganisms that exert a positive effect on the host’s health and some of them are known to possess antibacterial activities. Since most of their effects have been shown in the digestive tract, experimental data compatible with the respiratory environment are strongly needed. The main goal of this study was then to test the capacity of lactobacilli to inhibit major virulence factors (elastolytic activity and biofilm formation) associated with P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. Results Sixty-seven lactobacilli were isolated from the oral cavities of healthy volunteers. These isolates together with 20 lactobacilli isolated from raw milks, were tested for their capacity to decrease biofilm formation and activity of the elastase produced by P. aeruginosa PAO1. Ten isolates, particularly efficient, were accurately identified using a polyphasic approach (API 50 CHL, mass-spectrometry and 16S/rpoA/pheS genes sequencing) and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 8 remaining strains belonging to the L. fermentum (6), L. zeae (1) and L. paracasei (1) species were sensitive to all antibiotics tested with the exception of the intrinsic resistance to vancomycin. The strains were all able to grow in artificial saliva. Conclusion Eight strains belonging to L. fermentum, L. zeae and L. paracasei species harbouring anti-elastase and anti-biofilm properties are potential probiotics for fighting P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections. However, further

  16. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomarkers in biological fluids using surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yiping; Zughaier, Susu M.

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major infection not only in Cystic Fibrosis patients but also in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in critically ill patients in intensive care units. Successful antibiotic treatment of the infection relies on accurate and rapid identification of the infectious agents. Conventional microbiological detection methods usually take more than 3 days to obtain accurate results. We have developed a rapid diagnostic technique based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering to directly identify PA from biological fluids. P. aeruginosa strains, PAO1 and PA14, are cultured in lysogeny broth, and the SERS spectra of the broth show the signature Raman peaks from pyocyanin and pyoverdine, two major biomarkers that P. aeruginosa secretes during its growth, as well as lipopolysaccharides. This provides the evidence that the presence of these biomarkers can be used to indicate P. aeruginosa infection. A total of 22 clinical exhaled breath condensates (EBC) samples were obtained from subjects with CF disease and from non-CF healthy donors. SERS spectra of these EBC samples were obtained and further analyzed by both principle component analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA can discriminate the samples with P. aeruginosa infection and the ones without P. aeruginosa infection at 99.3% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In addition, this technique can also discriminate samples from subject with CF disease and healthy donor with 97.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results demonstrate the potential of using SERS of EBC samples as a rapid diagnostic tool to detect PA infection.

  17. The Lon protease is essential for full virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Breidenstein, Elena B M; Janot, Laure; Strehmel, Janine; Fernandez, Lucia; Taylor, Patrick K; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Gellatly, Shaan L; Levesque, Roger C; Overhage, Joerg; Hancock, Robert E W

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lon mutants are supersusceptible to ciprofloxacin, and exhibit a defect in cell division and in virulence-related properties, such as swarming, twitching and biofilm formation, despite the fact that the Lon protease is not a traditional regulator. Here we set out to investigate the influence of a lon mutation in a series of infection models. It was demonstrated that the lon mutant had a defect in cytotoxicity towards epithelial cells, was less virulent in an amoeba model as well as a mouse acute lung infection model, and impacted on in vivo survival in a rat model of chronic infection. Using qRT-PCR it was demonstrated that the lon mutation led to a down-regulation of Type III secretion genes. The Lon protease also influenced motility and biofilm formation in a mucin-rich environment. Thus alterations in several virulence-related processes in vitro in a lon mutant were reflected by defective virulence in vivo.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgL.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Francis; Arora, Kritica; Robinson, Howard; Neculai, Ana Mirela; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P Lynne

    2012-05-01

    The periplasmic alginate lyase AlgL is essential for the synthesis and export of the exopolysaccharide alginate in Pseudomonas sp. and also plays a role in its depolymerization. P. aeruginosa PAO1 AlgL has been overexpressed and purified and diffraction-quality crystals were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew as thin plates, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.4, b = 59.6, c = 102.1 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The AlgL crystals exhibited the symmetry of space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and diffracted to a minimum d-spacing of 1.64 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.20 Å(3) Da(-1)), one molecule is estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit.

  19. The effects of nickel(II) complexes with imidazole derivatives on pyocyanin and pyoverdine production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gałczyńska, Katarzyna; Kurdziel, Krystyna; Adamus-Białek, Wioletta; Wąsik, Sławomir; Szary, Karol; Drabik, Marcin; Węgierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lankoff, Anna; Arabski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is problematic in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa secretes a diversity of pigments, such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of complexes of nickel(II) ([Ni(iaa)2(H2O)2]·H2O (iaa = imidazole-4-acetate anion), [Ni(1-allim)6](NO3)2 (1-allim = 1-allylimidazole) and NiCl2 on pyocyanin and pyoverdine production by 23 strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis under growth conditions specific for the CF respiratory system. The antibacterial effects and biophysical properties of the tested substances were measured by spectrofluorometric techniques, as well as by laser interferometry, confocal and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxic properties of all compounds were measured by Annexin/IP assay against A549 cells. All tested compounds have no effect on pyocyanin production and decrease the pyoverdine secretion in about 40% of tested P. aeruginosa strains at non-cytotoxic range of concentrations. Imidazole-4-acetate anion and 1-allylimidazole have good diffusion properties in the mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. In conclusion, the tested nickel(II) complexes do not have clinical implications in P. aeruginosa eradication in cystic fibrosis. The diffusion properties of 1-allylimidazole and imidazole-4-acetate and their lack of effect on A549 cells suggest that they might be considered for chemical synthesis with other transition metals. PMID:26645324

  20. Role of ppGpp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pulmonary infection and virulence regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Di; Xiong, Junzhi; Qiu, Jing; Xin, Rong; He, Xiaomei; Sheng, Halei; Cai, Wenqiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Kebin; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    During infection, bacteria might generate adaptive responses to facilitate their survival and colonization in the host environment. The alarmone guanosine 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), the levels of which are regulated by the RelA and SpoT enzymes, plays a critical role in mediating bacterial adaptive responses and virulence. However, the mechanism by which ppGpp regulates virulence-associated traits in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly understood. To investigate the regulatory role of ppGpp, the ppGpp-deficient strain ΔRS (relA and spoT gene double mutant) and the complemented strain ΔRS(++) (complemented with relA and spoT genes) were constructed. Herein, we reported that the ΔRS strain showed decreased cytotoxicity towards A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell lines and led to reduced mortality, lung edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in a mouse model of acute pneumonia compared to wild-type PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the ΔRS strain displayed reduced T3SS expression, decreased levels of elastase activity, pyocyanin, pyoverdin and alginate, and inhibited swarming and biofilm formation compared to PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). In addition, the results demonstrate that ppGpp-mediated regulation of T3SS, virulence factor production, and swarming occurs in a quinolone quorum-sensing system-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ppGpp is required for virulence regulation in P. aeruginosa, providing new clues for the development of interference strategies against bacterial infection. PMID:27664726

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated homoserine lactone C12 rapidly activates apoptosis in airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fu, Zhu; Patanwala, Maria; Hum, Lauren; Lopez-Guzman, Mirielle; Illek, Beate; Kong, Weidong; Lynch, Susan V.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) forms biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis CF) patients, a process regulated by quorum sensing molecules including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, C12. C12 (10–100 μM) rapidly triggered events commonly associated with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in JME (CFΔF508CFTR, nasal surface) epithelial cells: depolarization of mitochondrial (mito) membrane potential (Δψmito) and release of cytochrome C (cytoC) from mitos into cytosol and activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9. C12 also had novel effects on the endoplasmic reticulum (release of both Ca2+ and ER-targeted GFP and oxidized contents into the cytosol). Effects began within 5 minutes and were complete in 1–2 hrs. C12 caused similar activation of caspases and release of cytoC from mitos in Calu-3 (wtCFTR, bronchial gland) cells, showing that C12-triggered responses occurred similarly in different airway epithelial types. C12 had nearly identical effects on three key aspects of the apoptosis response (caspase 3/7, depolarization of Δψmito and reduction of redox potential in the ER) in JME and CFTR-corrected JME cells (adenoviral expression), showing that CFTR was likely not an important regulator of C12-triggered apoptosis in airway epithelia. Exposure of airway cultures to biofilms from PAO1wt caused depolarization of Δψmito and increases in Cacyto like 10–50 μM C12. In contrast, biofilms from PAO1ΔlasI (C12 deficient) had no effect, suggesting that C12 from P. aeruginosa biofilms may contribute to accumulation of apoptotic cells that cannot be cleared from CF lungs. A model to explain the effects of C12 is proposed. PMID:22233488

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated homoserine lactone C12 rapidly activates apoptosis in airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fu, Zhu; Patanwala, Maria; Hum, Lauren; Lopez-Guzman, Mirielle; Illek, Beate; Kong, Weidong; Lynch, Susan V; Machen, Terry E

    2012-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) forms biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, a process regulated by quorum-sensing molecules including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C12). C12 (10-100 µM) rapidly triggered events commonly associated with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in JME (CF ΔF508CFTR, nasal surface) epithelial cells: depolarization of mitochondrial (mito) membrane potential (Δψ(mito)) and release of cytochrome C (cytoC) from mitos into cytosol and activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9. C12 also had novel effects on the endoplasmic reticulum (release of both Ca(2+) and ER-targeted GFP and oxidized contents into the cytosol). Effects began within 5 min and were complete in 1-2 h. C12 caused similar activation of caspases and release of cytoC from mitos in Calu-3 (wtCFTR, bronchial gland) cells, showing that C12-triggered responses occurred similarly in different airway epithelial types. C12 had nearly identical effects on three key aspects of the apoptosis response (caspase 3/7, depolarization of Δψ(mito) and reduction of redox potential in the ER) in JME and CFTR-corrected JME cells (adenoviral expression), showing that CFTR was likely not an important regulator of C12-triggered apoptosis in airway epithelia. Exposure of airway cultures to biofilms from PAO1wt caused depolarization of Δψ(mito) and increases in Ca(cyto) like 10-50 µM C12. In contrast, biofilms from PAO1ΔlasI (C12 deficient) had no effect, suggesting that C12 from P. aeruginosa biofilms may contribute to accumulation of apoptotic cells that cannot be cleared from CF lungs. A model to explain the effects of C12 is proposed.

  3. Role of ppGpp in Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute pulmonary infection and virulence regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Di; Xiong, Junzhi; Qiu, Jing; Xin, Rong; He, Xiaomei; Sheng, Halei; Cai, Wenqiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Kebin; Hu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    During infection, bacteria might generate adaptive responses to facilitate their survival and colonization in the host environment. The alarmone guanosine 5'-triphosphate-3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), the levels of which are regulated by the RelA and SpoT enzymes, plays a critical role in mediating bacterial adaptive responses and virulence. However, the mechanism by which ppGpp regulates virulence-associated traits in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is poorly understood. To investigate the regulatory role of ppGpp, the ppGpp-deficient strain ΔRS (relA and spoT gene double mutant) and the complemented strain ΔRS(++) (complemented with relA and spoT genes) were constructed. Herein, we reported that the ΔRS strain showed decreased cytotoxicity towards A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell lines and led to reduced mortality, lung edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in a mouse model of acute pneumonia compared to wild-type PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the ΔRS strain displayed reduced T3SS expression, decreased levels of elastase activity, pyocyanin, pyoverdin and alginate, and inhibited swarming and biofilm formation compared to PAO1 and the complemented strain ΔRS(++). In addition, the results demonstrate that ppGpp-mediated regulation of T3SS, virulence factor production, and swarming occurs in a quinolone quorum-sensing system-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that ppGpp is required for virulence regulation in P. aeruginosa, providing new clues for the development of interference strategies against bacterial infection.

  4. Proteome Profiles of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Extracellular Matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Couto, Narciso; Schooling, Sarah R; Dutcher, John R; Barber, Jill

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, two different proteomic platforms, gel-based and gel-free, were used to map the matrix and outer membrane vesicle exoproteomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. These two proteomic strategies allowed us a confident identification of 207 and 327 proteins from enriched outer membrane vesicles and whole matrix isolated from biofilms. Because of the physicochemical characteristics of these subproteomes, the two strategies showed complementarity, and thus, the most comprehensive analysis of P. aeruginosa exoproteome to date was achieved. Under our conditions, outer membrane vesicles contribute approximately 20% of the whole matrix proteome, demonstrating that membrane vesicles are an important component of the matrix. The proteomic profiles were analyzed in terms of their biological context, namely, a biofilm. Accordingly relevant metabolic processes involved in cellular adaptation to the biofilm lifestyle as well as those related to P. aeruginosa virulence capabilities were a key feature of the analyses. The diversity of the matrix proteome corroborates the idea of high heterogeneity within the biofilm; cells can display different levels of metabolism and can adapt to local microenvironments making this proteomic analysis challenging. In addition to analyzing our own primary data, we extend the analysis to published data by other groups in order to deepen our understanding of the complexity inherent within biofilm populations. PMID:26303878

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Sliding Motility in the Absence of Type IV Pili and Flagella▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas S.; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits swarming motility on 0.5 to 1% agar plates in the presence of specific carbon and nitrogen sources. We have found that PAO1 double mutants expressing neither flagella nor type IV pili (fliC pilA) display sliding motility under the same conditions. Sliding motility was inhibited when type IV pilus expression was restored; like swarming motility, it also decreased in the absence of rhamnolipid surfactant production. Transposon insertions in gacA and gacS increased sliding motility and restored tendril formation to spreading colonies, while transposon insertions in retS abolished motility. These changes in motility were not accompanied by detectable changes in rhamnolipid surfactant production or by the appearance of bacterial surface structures that might power sliding motility. We propose that P. aeruginosa requires flagella during swarming to overcome adhesive interactions mediated by type IV pili. The apparent dependence of sliding motility on environmental cues and regulatory pathways that also affect swarming motility suggests that both forms of motility are influenced by similar cohesive factors that restrict translocation, as well as by dispersive factors that facilitate spreading. Studies of sliding motility may be particularly well-suited for identifying factors other than pili and flagella that affect community behaviors of P. aeruginosa. PMID:18065549

  6. Methylthioinosine Phosphorylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Structure and Annotation of a Novel Enzyme in Quorum Sensing†

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    The PA3004 gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was originally annotated as a 5’-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). However, the PA3004 encoded protein uses 5’-methylthioinosine (MTI) as a preferred substrate and represents the only known example of a specific MTI phosphorylase (MTIP). MTIP does not utilize 5’-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Inosine is a weak substrate with a kcat/Km value 290-fold less than MTI and is the second best substrate identified. The crystal structure of P. aeruginosa MTIP (PaMTIP) in complex with hypoxanthine was determined to 2.8 Å resolution and revealed a three-fold symmetric homotrimer. The methylthioribose and phosphate binding regions of PaMTIP are similar to MTAPs, and the purine binding region is similar to that of purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs). The catabolism of MTA in P. aeruginosa involves deamination to MTI and phosphorolysis to hypoxanthine (MTA → MTI → hypoxanthine). This pathway also exists in Plasmodium falciparum, where the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP) acts on both inosine and MTI. Three tight-binding transition state analogue inhibitors of PaMTIP are identified with dissociation constants in the picomolar range. Inhibitor specificity suggests an early dissociative transition state for PaMTIP. Quorum sensing molecules are associated with MTA metabolism in bacterial pathogens suggesting PaMTIP as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21197954

  7. Multiple roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 PilY1 in motility, transport and infection

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Yu-Sing Tammy; Brandes, Gudrun; Rakhimova, Elza; Horatzek, Sonja; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Munder, Antje; van Barneveld, Andrea; Jordan, Doris; Bredenbruch, Florian; Häußler, Susanne; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Hoiby, Niels; Tümmler, Burkhard; Wiehlmann, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important mammalian host defence cells against infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Screening of a signature tagged mutagenesis library of the non-piliated P. aeruginosa strain TBCF10839 uncovered that transposon inactivation of its pilY1 gene rendered the bacterium more resistant against killing by neutrophils than the wild type and any other of the more than 3000 tested mutants. Inactivation of pilY1 led to the loss of twitching motility in twitching-proficient wild-type PA14 and PAO1 strains, predisposed to autolysis and impaired the secretion of quinolones and pyocyanin, but on the other hand promoted growth in stationary phase and bacterial survival in murine airway infection models. The PilY1 population consisted of a major full-length and a minor shorter PilY1* isoform. PilY1* was detectable in small extracellular quinolone-positive aggregates, but not in the pilus. P. aeruginosa PilY1 is not an adhesin on the pilus tip, but assists in pilus biogenesis, twitching motility, secretion of secondary metabolites and in the control of cell density in the bacterial population. PMID:19054330

  8. Physiological levels of nitrate support anoxic growth by denitrification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at growth rates reported in cystic fibrosis lungs and sputum.

    PubMed

    Line, Laura; Alhede, Morten; Kolpen, Mette; Kühl, Michael; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Ø

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The infection is characterized by the formation of biofilm surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and strong O2 depletion in the endobronchial mucus. We have reported that O2 is mainly consumed by the activated PMNs, while O2 consumption by aerobic respiration is diminutive and nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced in infected CF sputum. This suggests that the reported growth rates of P. aeruginosa in lungs and sputum may result from anaerobic respiration using denitrification. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa achieved by denitrification at physiological levels (~400 μM) of nitrate (NO(-) 3) is however, not known. Therefore, we have measured growth rates of anoxic cultures of PAO1 and clinical isolates (n = 12) in LB media supplemented with NO(-) 3 and found a significant increase of growth when supplementing PAO1 and clinical isolates with ≥150 μM NO(-) 3 and 100 μM NO(-) 3, respectively. An essential contribution to growth by denitrification was demonstrated by the inability to establish a significantly increased growth rate by a denitrification deficient ΔnirS-N mutant at <1 mM of NO(-) 3. Activation of denitrification could be achieved by supplementation with as little as 62.5 μM of NO(-) 3 according to the significant production of N2O by the nitrous oxide reductase deficient ΔnosZ mutant. Studies of the promoter activity, gene transcripts, and enzyme activity of the four N-oxide reductases in PAO1 (Nar, Nir, Nor, Nos) further verified the engagement of denitrification, showing a transient increase in activation and expression and rapid consumption of NO(-) 3 followed by a transient increase of NO(-) 2. Growth rates obtained by denitrification in this study were comparable to our reported growth rates in the majority of P. aeruginosa cells in CF lungs and sputum. Thus, we have demonstrated that denitrification is required

  9. Carbapenem resistance in cystic fibrosis strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a result of amino acid substitutions in porin OprD.

    PubMed

    Richardot, Charlotte; Plésiat, Patrick; Fournier, Damien; Monlezun, Laura; Broutin, Isabelle; Llanes, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of single amino acid substitutions occurring in specific porin OprD on carbapenem resistance of cystic fibrosis (CF) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A PAO1ΔoprD mutant was complemented with the oprD genes from five carbapenem-resistant CF strains exhibiting very low amounts of mutated OprD porins in their outer membrane despite wild-type levels of oprD transcripts. Compared with wild-type porin from strain PAO1, single amino acid substitutions S403P (in periplasmic loop 8), Y242H, S278P and L345P (in β-sheets 10, 12 and 14, respectively) were found to result in reduced amounts of OprD in the outer membrane, increased carbapenem resistance, and slower growth in minimal medium containing gluconate, an OprD substrate, as the sole source of carbon and energy. This indicates that in CF strains of P. aeruginosa, loss of porin OprD may not only result from mutations downregulating the expression of or disrupting the oprD gene, but also from mutations generating deleterious amino acid substitutions in the porin structure.

  10. EprS, an autotransporter serine protease, plays an important role in various pathogenic phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kida, Y; Taira, J; Kuwano, K

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an arsenal of both cell-associated (flagella, pili, alginate, etc.) and extracellular (exotoxin A, proteases, type III secretion effectors, etc.) virulence factors. Among them, secreted proteases that damage host tissues are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. We previously reported that EprS, an autotransporter protease of P. aeruginosa, induces host inflammatory responses through protease-activated receptors. However, little is known about the role of EprS as a virulence factor of P. aeruginosa. In this study, to investigate whether EprS participates in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa, we characterized various pathogenic phenotypes of the wild-type PAO1 strain and its eprS-disrupted mutant. The growth assays demonstrated that the growth of the eprS mutant was somewhat lower than that of the wild-type strain in a minimal medium containing BSA as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Thus, these results indicate that eprS would have a role in the growth of P. aeruginosa in the presence of limited nutrients, such as a medium containing proteinaceous materials as a sole nutrient source. Furthermore, disruption of eprS resulted in a decreased production of elastase, pigments, autoinducers and surfactants, and a reduction of swimming and swarming motilities. In addition, the eprS mutant exhibited a reduction in the ability to associate with A549 cells and an attenuation of virulence in leucopenic mice as compared with the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggest that EprS exerts pleiotropic effects on various pathogenic phenotypes of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26678838

  11. The effects of D-Tyrosine combined with amikacin on the biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    She, Pengfei; Chen, Lihua; Liu, Hongbo; Zou, Yaru; Luo, Zhen; Koronfel, Asmaa; Wu, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The biofilm formation of microorganisms causes persistent tissue infections resistant to treatment with antimicrobial agents. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly isolated from the airways of patients with chronic fibrosis (CF) and often forms biofilms, which are extremely hard to eradicate and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Recent studies have shown that D-amino acids (D-AAs) inhibited and disrupted biofilm formation by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, the effects of D-AAs combined with common antibiotics on biofilms have rarely been studied. The current study first determined whether D-AAs disrupted the biofilms of PAO1 and the clinical airway isolates of P. aeruginosa. It was then determined whether combinations of D-Tyr (the most effective one) and the antibiotic amikacin (AMK) enhanced the activity against these biofilms. The results of the current study showed that D-Tyr is the most effective among those that disassemble the D-amino acids (D-leucine, D-methionine, D-Tyrptophan, and D-tryptophan), and D-Tyr at concentrations higher than 5 mM significantly reduced the biofilm biomass of P. aeruginosa (p < 0.05) without influencing bacterial growth. It was also revealed that D-Tyr improved the efficacy of AMK to combat P. aeruginosa biofilms, as indicated by a reduction in the minimal biofilm-inhibiting concentration (MBIC50 and MBIC90) without a change in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic bacteria. Thus, the findings indicated that D-Tyr supplementation overcame the resistance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to AMK, which might be helpful for preventing AMK overuse when this specific D-Tyr is recommended for combatting these biofilms. Also, toxicity of the liver and kidney from AMK could be potentially mitigated by co-delivery with D-Tyr. PMID:26188263

  12. Effect of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Dingemans, Jozef; Monsieurs, Pieter; Yu, Sung-Huan; Crabbé, Aurélie; Förstner, Konrad U.; Malfroot, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms. In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes associated with the growth of a highly adapted, transmissible P. aeruginosa CF strain in artificial sputum medium under LS conditions. Robust self-aggregating biofilms were observed only under LS conditions. Growth under LS conditions resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in stress response, alginate biosynthesis, denitrification, glycine betaine biosynthesis, glycerol metabolism, and cell shape maintenance, while genes involved in phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion, and multidrug efflux were downregulated. In addition, a number of small RNAs appeared to be involved in the response to shear stress. Finally, quorum sensing was found to be slightly but significantly affected by shear stress, resulting in higher production of autoinducer molecules during growth under high fluid shear (HS) conditions. In summary, our study revealed a way to modulate the behavior of a highly adapted P. aeruginosa CF strain by means of introducing shear stress, driving it from a biofilm lifestyle to a more planktonic lifestyle. PMID:27486191

  13. Tetrahydrodipicolinate N-Succinyltransferase and Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Structure Analysis and Gene Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Robert; Oehlmann, Wulf; Sandalova, Tatyana; Braun, Yvonne; Huck, Carmen; Maringer, Marko; Singh, Mahavir; Schneider, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    The diaminopimelic acid pathway of lysine biosynthesis has been suggested to provide attractive targets for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Here we report the characterization of two enzymes from this pathway in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilizing structural biology, biochemistry and genetics. We show that tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase (DapD) from P. aeruginosa is specific for the L-stereoisomer of the amino substrate L-2-aminopimelate, and its D-enantiomer acts as a weak inhibitor. The crystal structures of this enzyme with L-2-aminopimelate and D-2-aminopimelate, respectively, reveal that both compounds bind at the same site of the enzyme. Comparison of the binding interactions of these ligands in the enzyme active site suggests misalignment of the amino group of D-2-aminopimelate for nucleophilic attack on the succinate moiety of the co-substrate succinyl-CoA as the structural basis of specificity and inhibition. P. aeruginosa mutants where the dapA gene had been deleted were viable and able to grow in a mouse lung infection model, suggesting that DapA is not an optimal target for drug development against this organism. Structure-based sequence alignments, based on the DapA crystal structure determined to 1.6 Å resolution revealed the presence of two homologues, PA0223 and PA4188, in P. aeruginosa that could substitute for DapA in the P. aeruginosa PAO1ΔdapA mutant. In vitro experiments using recombinant PA0223 protein could however not detect any DapA activity. PMID:22359568

  14. Iron-Regulated Expression of Alginate Production, Mucoid Phenotype, and Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Jacinta R.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Schurr, Michael J.; Vasil, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) origin do not produce significant amounts of extracellular alginate and are nonmucoid. In CF, such isolates can become mucoid through mutation of one of the genes (mucA, mucB, mucC, or mucD) that produce regulatory factors that sequester AlgU, required for increased expression of alginate genes. Mutation of the muc genes in the nonmucoid PAO1, PA14, PAKS-1, and Ps388 strains led to increased levels of extracellular alginate and an obvious mucoid phenotype, but only under iron-limiting growth conditions (≤5 µM), not under iron-replete conditions (≥10 µM). In contrast, >50% of P. aeruginosa isolates from chronic CF pulmonary infections expressed increased levels of alginate and mucoidy both under iron-limiting and iron-replete conditions (i.e., iron-constitutive phenotype). No single iron regulatory factor (e.g., Fur, PvdS) was associated with this loss of iron-regulated alginate expression and mucoidy in these CF isolates. However, the loss of only pyoverdine production, or its uptake, abrogated the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce a robust biofilm that represents the Psl-type of biofilm. In contrast, we show that mutation of the pyoverdine and pyochelin biosynthesis genes and the pyoverdine receptor (FpvA) lead to iron-constitutive expression of the key alginate biosynthesis gene, algD, and an explicitly mucoid phenotype in both iron-limiting and iron-replete conditions. These data indicate that alginate production and mucoidy, in contrast to other types of biofilms produced by P. aeruginosa, are substantially enhanced under iron limitation. These results also have compelling implications in relation to the use of iron chelators in the treatment of P. aeruginosa CF infections. PMID:24496793

  15. The effects of D-Tyrosine combined with amikacin on the biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    She, Pengfei; Chen, Lihua; Liu, Hongbo; Zou, Yaru; Luo, Zhen; Koronfel, Asmaa; Wu, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The biofilm formation of microorganisms causes persistent tissue infections resistant to treatment with antimicrobial agents. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is commonly isolated from the airways of patients with chronic fibrosis (CF) and often forms biofilms, which are extremely hard to eradicate and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Recent studies have shown that D-amino acids (D-AAs) inhibited and disrupted biofilm formation by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, the effects of D-AAs combined with common antibiotics on biofilms have rarely been studied. The current study first determined whether D-AAs disrupted the biofilms of PAO1 and the clinical airway isolates of P. aeruginosa. It was then determined whether combinations of D-Tyr (the most effective one) and the antibiotic amikacin (AMK) enhanced the activity against these biofilms. The results of the current study showed that D-Tyr is the most effective among those that disassemble the D-amino acids (D-leucine, D-methionine, D-Tyrptophan, and D-tryptophan), and D-Tyr at concentrations higher than 5 mM significantly reduced the biofilm biomass of P. aeruginosa (p < 0.05) without influencing bacterial growth. It was also revealed that D-Tyr improved the efficacy of AMK to combat P. aeruginosa biofilms, as indicated by a reduction in the minimal biofilm-inhibiting concentration (MBIC50 and MBIC90) without a change in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of planktonic bacteria. Thus, the findings indicated that D-Tyr supplementation overcame the resistance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to AMK, which might be helpful for preventing AMK overuse when this specific D-Tyr is recommended for combatting these biofilms. Also, toxicity of the liver and kidney from AMK could be potentially mitigated by co-delivery with D-Tyr.

  16. The pilG gene product, required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus production and twitching motility, is homologous to the enteric, single-domain response regulator CheY.

    PubMed Central

    Darzins, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilG gene, encoding a protein which is involved in pilus production, was cloned by phenotypic complementation of a unique, pilus-defective mutant of strain PAO1. This mutant, designated FA2, although resistant to the pilus-specific phage D3112 was sensitive to the pilus-specific phages B3 and F116L. In spite of the unusual phage sensitivity pattern, FA2 lacked the ability to produce functional polar pili (pil) and was incapable of twitching motility (twt). Genetic analysis revealed that the FA2 pil mutation, designated pilG1, mapped near the met-28 marker located at 20 min and was distinct from the previously described pilT mutation. This map location was confirmed by localization of a 6.2-kb EcoRI fragment that complemented FA2 on the SpeI and DpnI physical map of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 chromosome. A 700-bp region encompassing the pilG gene was sequenced, and a 405-bp open reading frame, with characteristic P. aeruginosa codon bias, was identified. The molecular weight of the protein predicted from the amino acid sequence of PilG, which was determined to be 14,717, corresponded very closely to that of a polypeptide with the apparent molecular weight of 15,000 detected after expression of pilG from the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli. Moreover, the predicted amino acid sequence of PilG showed significant homology to that of the enteric CheY protein, a single-domain response regulator. A chromosomal pilG insertion mutant, constructed by allele replacement of the wild-type gene, was not capable of pilus production or twitching motility but displayed normal flagellum-mediated motility. These results, therefore, suggest that PilG may be an important part of the signal transduction system involved in the elaboration of P. aeruginosa pili. Images PMID:8104179

  17. A type III secretion negative clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a two-partner secreted exolysin to induce hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Elsen, Sylvie; Huber, Philippe; Bouillot, Stéphanie; Couté, Yohann; Fournier, Pierre; Dubois, Yohann; Timsit, Jean-François; Maurin, Max; Attrée, Ina

    2014-02-12

    Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is typically attributed to its type III secretion system (T3SS). A taxonomic outlier, the P. aeruginosa PA7 strain, lacks a T3SS locus, and no virulence phenotype is attributed to PA7. We characterized a PA7-related, T3SS-negative P. aeruginosa strain, CLJ1, isolated from a patient with fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia. CLJ1 is highly virulent in mice, leading to lung hemorrhage and septicemia. CLJ1-infected primary endothelial cells display characteristics of membrane damage and permeabilization. Proteomic analysis of CLJ1 culture supernatants identified a hemolysin/hemagglutinin family pore-forming toxin, Exolysin (ExlA), that is exported via ExlB, representing a putative two-partner secretion system. A recombinant P. aeruginosa PAO1ΔpscD::exlBA strain, deficient for T3SS but engineered to express ExlA, gained lytic capacity on endothelial cells and full virulence in mice, demonstrating that ExlA is necessary and sufficient for pathogenicity. This highlights clinically relevant T3SS-independent hypervirulence, isolates, and points to a broader P. aeruginosa pathogenic repertoire.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PS3 and Citrobacter freundii Strain SA79 Obtained from a Wound Dressing-Associated Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sirwan; Rout, Simon P; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates, one from the genus Pseudomonas and the second from Citrobacter, were isolated from a wound dressing-associated biofilm. Following whole-genome sequencing, the two isolates presented genes encoding for resistance to antibiotics and those involved in exopolysaccharide production.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical and environmental isolates constitute a single population with high phenotypic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with a high incidence of hospital infections that represents a threat to immune compromised patients. Genomic studies have shown that, in contrast to other pathogenic bacteria, clinical and environmental isolates do not show particular genomic differences. In addition, genetic variability of all the P. aeruginosa strains whose genomes have been sequenced is extremely low. This low genomic variability might be explained if clinical strains constitute a subpopulation of this bacterial species present in environments that are close to human populations, which preferentially produce virulence associated traits. Results In this work, we sequenced the genomes and performed phenotypic descriptions for four non-human P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a plant, the ocean, a water-spring, and from dolphin stomach. We show that the four strains are phenotypically diverse and that this is not reflected in genomic variability, since their genomes are almost identical. Furthermore, we performed a detailed comparative genomic analysis of the four strains studied in this work with the thirteen previously reported P. aeruginosa genomes by means of describing their core and pan-genomes. Conclusions Contrary to what has been described for other bacteria we have found that the P. aeruginosa core genome is constituted by a high proportion of genes and that its pan-genome is thus relatively small. Considering the high degree of genomic conservation between isolates of P. aeruginosa from diverse environments, including human tissues, some implications for the treatment of infections are discussed. This work also represents a methodological contribution for the genomic study of P. aeruginosa, since we provide a database of the comparison of all the proteins encoded by the seventeen strains analyzed. PMID:24773920

  20. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation, Quorum Sensing and Infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Natural Products-Inspired Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Nathaniel C.; McKean, Kurt A.; Behnke, Jason; Kubec, Roman; Mosier, Aaron P.; Kasper, Stephen H.; Burz, David S.; Musah, Rabi A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO) (1 mM). Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control), and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed. PMID:22715388

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the genome of Pf3, an IncP-1 plasmid-specific filamentous bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Luiten, R G; Putterman, D G; Schoenmakers, J G; Konings, R N; Day, L A

    1985-01-01

    The circular, single-stranded DNA genome of the Pf3 bacteriophage was sequenced in its entirety by each of two methods, the M13-dideoxy chain termination method and the chemical degradation method. It consists of 5,833 nucleotides. With respect to both the DNA and the protein sequences, there is virtually no homology between Pf3 and the phages Ff (M13, f1, and fd) and IKe. However, similarities between these phages were noted with respect to their overall genome organizations. The gene for the single-stranded DNA-binding protein is followed by the gene for the major coat protein and then by a transcription termination signal. Open reading frames for seven other proteins were predicted, and their sizes and order show a fair correspondence to the sizes and order of the genes of the Ff phages and IKe. In addition, several regions have the potential to form stem and loop structures similar to those in the intergenic region of the Ff phage genome, but in Pf3 some are within open reading frames. Evolutionary relationships between Pf3 and the Ff phages and IKe are thus apparent through the correspondence of overall gene order rather than through primary sequence homologies. PMID:3928901

  2. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenicity Island PAPI-1 is transferred via a novel Type IV pilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients or in individuals with cystic fibrosis. The notable ability of P. aeruginosa to inhabit a broad range of environments including humans is in part due to its large and diverse genomic repertoi...

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa d-Arabinofuranose Biosynthetic Pathway and Its Role in Type IV Pilus Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Hanjeong; Kus, Julianne V.; Tessier, Luc; Kelly, John; Burrows, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains PA7 and Pa5196 glycosylate their type IVa pilins with α1,5-linked d-arabinofuranose (d-Araf), a rare sugar configuration identical to that found in cell wall polymers of the Corynebacterineae. Despite this chemical identity, the pathway for biosynthesis of α1,5-d-Araf in Gram-negative bacteria is unknown. Bioinformatics analyses pointed to a cluster of seven P. aeruginosa genes, including homologues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes Rv3806c, Rv3790, and Rv3791, required for synthesis of a polyprenyl-linked d-ribose precursor and its epimerization to d-Araf. Pa5196 mutants lacking the orthologues of those genes had non-arabinosylated pilins, poor twitching motility, and significantly fewer surface pili than the wild type even in a retraction-deficient (pilT) background. The Pa5196 pilus system assembled heterologous non-glycosylated pilins efficiently, demonstrating that it does not require post-translationally modified subunits. Together the data suggest that pilins of group IV strains need to be glycosylated for productive subunit-subunit interactions. A recombinant P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain co-expressing the genes for d-Araf biosynthesis, the pilin modification enzyme TfpW, and the acceptor PilAIV produced arabinosylated pili, confirming that the Pa5196 genes identified are both necessary and sufficient. A P. aeruginosa epimerase knock-out could be complemented with the corresponding Mycobacterium smegmatis gene, demonstrating conservation between the systems of the Corynebacterineae and Pseudomonas. This work describes a novel Gram-negative pathway for biosynthesis of d-Araf, a key therapeutic target in Corynebacterineae. PMID:21676874

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa D-arabinofuranose biosynthetic pathway and its role in type IV pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Hanjeong; Kus, Julianne V; Tessier, Luc; Kelly, John; Burrows, Lori L

    2011-08-12

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains PA7 and Pa5196 glycosylate their type IVa pilins with α1,5-linked D-arabinofuranose (d-Araf), a rare sugar configuration identical to that found in cell wall polymers of the Corynebacterineae. Despite this chemical identity, the pathway for biosynthesis of α1,5-D-Araf in Gram-negative bacteria is unknown. Bioinformatics analyses pointed to a cluster of seven P. aeruginosa genes, including homologues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes Rv3806c, Rv3790, and Rv3791, required for synthesis of a polyprenyl-linked d-ribose precursor and its epimerization to D-Araf. Pa5196 mutants lacking the orthologues of those genes had non-arabinosylated pilins, poor twitching motility, and significantly fewer surface pili than the wild type even in a retraction-deficient (pilT) background. The Pa5196 pilus system assembled heterologous non-glycosylated pilins efficiently, demonstrating that it does not require post-translationally modified subunits. Together the data suggest that pilins of group IV strains need to be glycosylated for productive subunit-subunit interactions. A recombinant P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain co-expressing the genes for d-Araf biosynthesis, the pilin modification enzyme TfpW, and the acceptor PilA(IV) produced arabinosylated pili, confirming that the Pa5196 genes identified are both necessary and sufficient. A P. aeruginosa epimerase knock-out could be complemented with the corresponding Mycobacterium smegmatis gene, demonstrating conservation between the systems of the Corynebacterineae and Pseudomonas. This work describes a novel Gram-negative pathway for biosynthesis of d-Araf, a key therapeutic target in Corynebacterineae.

  5. Optimization of Polymyxin B in Combination with Doripenem To Combat Mutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ly, Neang S; Bulman, Zackery P; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Baron, Christopher; Rao, Gauri G; Holden, Patricia N; Li, Jian; Sutton, Mark D; Tsuji, Brian T

    2016-05-01

    Development of spontaneous mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been associated with antibiotic failure, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B combinations against rapidly evolving P. aeruginosa mutator strains and to characterize the time course of bacterial killing and resistance via mechanism-based mathematical models. Polymyxin B or doripenem alone and in combination were evaluated against six P. aeruginosa strains: wild-type PAO1, mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (mutS and mutL) strains, and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanosine system (GO) base excision repair (BER)-deficient (mutM, mutT, and mutY) strains over 48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using S-ADAPT and facilitated by SADAPT-TRAN. Mutator strains displayed higher mutation frequencies than the wild type (>600-fold). Exposure to monotherapy was followed by regrowth, even at high polymyxin B concentrations of up to 16 mg/liter. Polymyxin B and doripenem combinations displayed enhanced killing activity against all strains where complete eradication was achieved for polymyxin B concentrations of >4 mg/liter and doripenem concentrations of 8 mg/liter. Modeling suggested that the proportion of preexisting polymyxin B-resistant subpopulations influenced the pharmacodynamic profiles for each strain uniquely (fraction of resistance values are -8.81 log10 for the wild type, -4.71 for the mutS mutant, and -7.40 log10 for the mutM mutant). Our findings provide insight into the optimization of polymyxin B and doripenem combinations against P. aeruginosa mutator strains.

  6. Optimization of Polymyxin B in Combination with Doripenem To Combat Mutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bulman, Zackery P.; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Baron, Christopher; Rao, Gauri G.; Holden, Patricia N.; Li, Jian; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Development of spontaneous mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been associated with antibiotic failure, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B combinations against rapidly evolving P. aeruginosa mutator strains and to characterize the time course of bacterial killing and resistance via mechanism-based mathematical models. Polymyxin B or doripenem alone and in combination were evaluated against six P. aeruginosa strains: wild-type PAO1, mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (mutS and mutL) strains, and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanosine system (GO) base excision repair (BER)-deficient (mutM, mutT, and mutY) strains over 48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using S-ADAPT and facilitated by SADAPT-TRAN. Mutator strains displayed higher mutation frequencies than the wild type (>600-fold). Exposure to monotherapy was followed by regrowth, even at high polymyxin B concentrations of up to 16 mg/liter. Polymyxin B and doripenem combinations displayed enhanced killing activity against all strains where complete eradication was achieved for polymyxin B concentrations of >4 mg/liter and doripenem concentrations of 8 mg/liter. Modeling suggested that the proportion of preexisting polymyxin B-resistant subpopulations influenced the pharmacodynamic profiles for each strain uniquely (fraction of resistance values are −8.81 log10 for the wild type, −4.71 for the mutS mutant, and −7.40 log10 for the mutM mutant). Our findings provide insight into the optimization of polymyxin B and doripenem combinations against P. aeruginosa mutator strains. PMID:26926641

  7. Functional analysis of PvdS, an iron starvation sigma factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Leoni, L; Orsi, N; de Lorenzo, V; Visca, P

    2000-03-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, iron modulates gene expression through a cascade of negative and positive regulatory proteins. The master regulator Fur is involved in iron-dependent repression of several genes. One of these genes, pvdS, was predicted to encode a putative sigma factor responsible for the transcription of a subset of genes of the Fur regulon. PvdS appears to belong to a structurally and functionally distinct subgroup of the extracytoplasmic function family of alternative sigma factors. Members of this subgroup, also including PbrA from Pseudomonas fluorescens, PfrI and PupI from Pseudomonas putida, and FecI from Escherichia coli, are controlled by the Fur repressor, and they activate transcription of genes for the biosynthesis or the uptake of siderophores. Evidence is provided that the PvdS protein of P. aeruginosa is endowed with biochemical properties of eubacterial sigma factors, as it spontaneously forms 1:1 complexes with the core fraction of RNA polymerase (RNAP, alpha(2)betabeta' subunits), thereby promoting in vitro binding of the PvdS-RNAP holoenzyme to the promoter region of the pvdA gene. These functional features of PvdS are consistent with the presence of structural domains predicted to be involved in core RNAP binding, promoter recognition, and open complex formation. The activity of pyoverdin biosynthetic (pvd) promoters was significantly lower in E. coli overexpressing the multicopy pvdS gene than in wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 carrying the single gene copy, and pvd::lacZ transcriptional fusions were silent in both pfrI (the pvdS homologue) and pfrA (a positive regulator of pseudobactin biosynthetic genes) mutants of P. putida WCS358, while they are expressed at PAO1 levels in wild-type WCS358. Moreover, the PvdS-RNAP holoenzyme purified from E. coli lacked the ability to generate in vitro transcripts from the pvdA promoter. These observations suggest that at least one additional positive regulator could be required for full activity of

  8. Catalase (KatA) plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Su, Shengchang; Panmanee, Warunya; Wilson, Jeffrey J; Mahtani, Harry K; Li, Qian; Vanderwielen, Bradley D; Makris, Thomas M; Rogers, Melanie; McDaniel, Cameron; Lipscomb, John D; Irvin, Randall T; Schurr, Michael J; Lancaster, Jack R; Kovall, Rhett A; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of

  9. Impact of higher alginate expression on deposition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in radial stagnation point flow and reverse osmosis systems.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Moshe; Rezene, Tesfalem Zere; Ziemba, Christopher; Gillor, Osnat; Mathee, Kalai

    2009-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have major impact on biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. On one hand, EPS can reduce membrane permeability and on the other, EPS production by the primary colonizers may influence their deposition and attachment rate and subsequently affect the biofouling propensity of the membrane. The role of bacterial exopolysaccharides in bacterial deposition followed by the biofouling potential of an RO membrane was evaluated using an alginate overproducing (mucoid) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mucoid P. aeruginosa PAOmucA22 was compared with its isogenic nonmucoid prototypic parent PAO1 microscopically in a radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) system for their bacterial deposition characteristics. Then, biofouling potential of PAO1 and PAOmucA22 was determined in a crossflow rectangular plate-and-frame membrane cell, in which the strains were cultivated on a thin-film composite, polyamide, flat RO membrane coupon (LFC-1) under laminar flow conditions. In the RSPF system, the observed deposition rate of the mucoid strain was between 5- and 10-fold lower than of the wild type using either synthetic wastewater medium (with ionic strength of 14.7 mM and pH 7.4) or 15 mM KCl solution (pH of 6.2). The slower deposition rate of the mucoid strain is explained by 5- to 25-fold increased hydrophilicity of the mucoid strain as compared to the isogenic wild type, PAO1. Corroborating with these results, a significant delay in the onset of biofouling of the RO membrane was observed when the mucoid strain was used as the membrane colonizer, in which the observed time for the induced permeate flux decline was delayed (ca. 2-fold). In conclusion, the lower initial cell attachment of the mucoid strain decelerated biofouling of the RO membrane. Bacterial deposition and attachment is a critical step in biofilm formation and governed by intimate interactions between outer membrane proteins of the bacteria and the surface. Shielding these

  10. Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2015-01-01

    One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

  11. Pel promotes symmetric, short-ranged surface attachment in P. aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, B. J.; Thatcher, Travis; Hashmi, Sara; L'Her, Guillaume; Touhami, Ahmed; Provenzano, Daniele; Gordon, Vernita

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are surface mounted, multicellular communities of interacting bacteria that are often associated with chronic infections that resist antibiotics and damage host tissue. Bacteria in a biofilm are bound in a matrix of polymeric materials that adhere the bacteria to the surface, give the system spatial structure, and cluster the bacteria near each other. The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is widely studied as a model biofilm-forming organism. The polymeric matrix of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 biofilms is dominated by two bacteria-produced extracellular polymers, Pel and Psl. We use both optical and atomic force microscopy to examine the roles of these polymers in very early biofilm development, in the hours after initial surface attachment. In agreement with other researchers, we find that Psl mediates strong attachment to a glass surface. Unexpectedly, we find that Pel promotes symmetric attachment, in the form of the rod-shaped bacteria lying flat on the surface, independently of permanent attachment to the surface. Further, the presence of Pel makes adhesion forces more short-ranged than they are with Psl alone. We suggest that these effects may result through synergistic interactions of Pel and Psl in the polymeric matrix.

  12. Cellular organization of siderophore biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Evidence for siderosomes.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Véronique; Guillon, Laurent; Cunrath, Olivier; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2015-07-01

    Pyoverdine I (PVDI) and pyochelin (PCH) are the two major siderophores produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to import iron. The biochemistry of the biosynthesis of these two siderophores has been described in detail in the literature over recent years. PVDI assembly requires the coordinated action of seven cytoplasmic enzymes and is followed by a periplasmic maturation before secretion of the siderophore into the extracellular medium by the efflux system PvdRT-OpmQ. PCH biosynthesis also involves seven cytoplasmic enzymes but no periplasmic maturation. Recent findings indicate that the cytoplasmic enzymes involved in each of these two siderophore biosynthesis pathways can form siderophore-specific multi-enzymatic complexes called siderosomes associated with the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. This organization may optimize the transfer of the siderophore precursors between the various participating enzymes and avoid the diffusion of siderophore precursors, able to chelate metals, throughout the cytoplasm. Here, we describe these recently published findings and discuss the existence of these siderosomes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:25697961

  13. X-ray Irradiated Vaccine Confers protection against Pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Zhenling; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Jianying; Peng, Bin; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium and one of the leading causes of nosocomial infection worldwide, however, no effective vaccine is currently available in the market. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of the bacteria by X-ray irradiation inhibits its replication capability but retained antigenic expression functionally thus allowing its use as a potential vaccine. Mice immunized by this vaccine were challenged by the parental strain, the O-antigen-homologous strain PAO-1 (O2/O5) and heterologous strain PAO-6 (O6) in an acute pneumonia model. We further measured the protective effect of the vaccine, as well as host innate and cellular immunity responses. We found immunized mice could protect against both strains. Notably, the antiserum only had significant protective role against similar bacteria, while adoptive transfer of lymphocytes significantly controlled the spread of the virulent heterologous serogroup PAO-6 infection, and the protective role could be reversed by CD4 rather than CD8 antibody. We further revealed that vaccinated mice could rapidly recruit neutrophils to the airways early after intranasal challenge by PAO-6, and the irradiated vaccine was proved to be protective by the generated CD4+ IL-17+ Th17 cells. In conclusion, the generation of inactivated but metabolically active microbes is a promising strategy for safely vaccinating against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26879055

  14. Iminoguanidines as Allosteric Inhibitors of the Iron-Regulated Heme Oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Heinzl, Geoffrey A; Huang, Weiliang; Yu, Wenbo; Giardina, Bennett J; Zhou, Yue; MacKerell, Alexander D; Wilks, Angela; Xue, Fengtian

    2016-07-28

    New therapeutic targets are required to combat multidrug resistant infections, such as the iron-regulated heme oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to links between iron and virulence and dependence on heme as an iron source during infection. Herein we report the synthesis and activity of a series of iminoguanidine-based inhibitors of HemO. Compound 23 showed a binding affinity of 5.7 μM and an MIC50 of 52.3 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa PAO1. An in cellulo activity assay was developed by coupling HemO activity to a biliverdin-IXα-dependent infrared fluorescent protein, in which compound 23 showed an EC50 of 11.3 μM. The compounds showed increased activity against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, further confirming the target pathway. This class of inhibitors acts by binding to an allosteric site; the novel binding site is proposed in silico and supported by saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR as well as by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HXMS). PMID:27353344

  15. Co-Cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Roseobacter denitrificans Reveal Shifts in Gene Expression Levels Compared to Solo Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Crystal A.; Esiobu, Nwadiuto; Lopez, Jose V.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent biosynthesis of desired secondary metabolites (SMs) from pure microbial cultures is often unreliable. In a proof-of-principle study to induce SM gene expression and production, we describe mixed “co-culturing” conditions and monitoring of messages via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Gene expression of model bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Roseobacter denitrificans Och114) was analyzed in pure solo and mixed cocultures to infer the effects of interspecies interactions on gene expression in vitro, Two P. aeruginosa genes (PhzH coding for portions of the phenazine antibiotic pathway leading to pyocyanin (PCN) and the RhdA gene for thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase (Rhodanese)) and two R. denitrificans genes (BetaLact for metallo-beta-lactamase and the DMSP gene for dimethylpropiothetin dethiomethylase) were assessed for differential expression. Results showed that R. denitrificans DMSP and BetaLact gene expression became elevated in a mixed culture. In contrast, P. aeruginosa co-cultures with R. denitrificans or a third species did not increase target gene expression above control levels. This paper provides insight for better control of target SM gene expression in vitro and bypass complex genetic engineering manipulations. PMID:22566756

  16. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, C; Ohtake, H; Chu, L; Misra, T K; Silver, S

    1990-01-01

    The chromate resistance determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasmid pUM505 was cloned into broad-host-range vector pSUP104. The hybrid plasmid containing an 11.1-kilobase insert conferred chromate resistance and reduced uptake of chromate in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Resistance to chromate was not expressed in Escherichia coli. Contiguous 1.6- and 6.3-kilobase HindIII fragments from this plasmid hybridized to pUM505 but not to P. aeruginosa chromosomal DNA and only weakly to chromate resistance plasmids pLHB1 and pMG6. Further subcloning produced a plasmid with an insert of 2,145 base pairs, which was sequenced. Analysis of deletions revealed that a single open reading frame was sufficient to determine chromate resistance. This open reading frame encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide, ChrA, of 416 amino acid residues that appeared to be expressed in E. coli under control of the T7 promoter. No significant homology was found between ChrA and proteins in the amino acid sequence libraries, but 29% amino acid identity was found with the ChrA amino acid sequence for another chromate resistance determinant sequenced in this laboratory from an Alcaligenes eutrophus plasmid (A. Nies, D. Nies, and S. Silver, submitted for publication). Images FIG. 3 FIG. 5 PMID:2152903

  17. Evidence that WapB Is a 1,2-Glucosyltransferase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Involved in Lipopolysaccharide Outer Core Biosynthesis▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kocíncová, Dana; Hao, Youai; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Lam, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen infecting debilitated individuals. One of the major virulence factors expressed by P. aeruginosa is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is composed of lipid A, core oligosaccharide (OS), and O-antigen polysaccharide. The core OS is divided into inner and outer regions. Although the structure of the outer core OS has been elucidated, the functions and mechanisms of the glycosyltransferases involved in core OS biogenesis are currently unknown. Here, we show that a previously uncharacterized gene, pa1014, is involved in outer core biosynthesis, and we propose to rename this gene wapB. We constructed a chromosomal mutant, wapB::Gm, in a PAO1 (O5 serotype) strain background. Characterization of the LPS from the mutant by Western immunoblotting showed a lack of reactivity to PAO1 outer core-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5c-101. The chemical structure of the core OS of the wapB mutant was elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry techniques and revealed that the core OS of the wapB mutant lacked the terminal β-1,2-linked-d-glucose residue. Complementation of the mutant with wapB in trans restored the core structure to one that is identical to that of the wild type. Eleven of the 20 P. aeruginosa International Antigenic Typing Scheme (IATS) serotypes produce LPSs that lack the terminal d-glucose residue (GlcIV). Interestingly, expressing wapB in each of these 11 serotypes modifies each of their outer core OS structures, which became reactive to MAb 5c-101 in Western immunoblotting, suggesting the presence of a terminal d-glucose in these core OS structures. Our results strongly suggested that wapB encodes a 1,2-glucosyltransferase. PMID:21441506

  18. In vitro approach to study the synergistic effects of tobramycin and clarithromycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using prokaryotic or eukaryotic culture media.

    PubMed

    Thellin, Olivier; Zorzi, Willy; Jolois, Olivier; Elmoualij, Benaïssa; Duysens, Guérin; Cahay, Bernard; Streel, Bruno; Charif, Mounia; Bastin, Renaud; Heinen, Ernst; Quatresooz, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections involving biofilm formation are frequent in cystic fibrosis, aggravating the respiratory distress. Co-administration of clarithromycin and classical tobramycin could improve the health status of patients. Antibiotic toxicity was assessed on epithelial (CFBE41o(-)) and macrophagic (THP-1) cell lines. Non-toxic concentrations of antibiotics alone or in combination were applied twice daily for 12 days on mature (12-day-old) biofilms of three P. aeruginosa strains, developed either in prokaryotic culture broth [tryptic soy broth (TSB)] or in a eukaryotic cell culture medium (RPMI-FCS) more similar to an in vivo environment. The antibiofilm and bactericidal effects of antibiotics were assessed. No toxicity of tobramycin was observed on eukaryotic cell lines at concentrations up to 500μg/mL, whilst 100μg/mL was selected as the clarithromycin upper safe limit. The amount of biofilm was strongly reduced by 100μg/mL and 500μg/mL tobramycin for each strain in both media, whilst clarithromycin was only effective in RPMI-FBS, with synergistic (PAO1 strain) and additive (PYO2 strain) effects detected when combining tobramycin 4μg/mL and clarithromycin 100μg/mL. Finally, tobramycin at ≥100μg/mL exerted strong bactericidal effects on each strain in both media. Clarithromycin also exerted bactericidal effects on each strain in both media; its effect was weaker than tobramycin in TSB but was similar in RPMI-FBS. Synergistic effects were observed on PAO1 and MUCO biofilms, e.g. when combining tobramycin 4μg/mL and clarithromycin 100μg/mL. These in vitro data show that co-administration of clarithromycin and tobramycin acts synergistically against in vitro P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  19. Links between Anr and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Dolben, Emily F.; Smith, T. Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently

  20. Development of a Novel Method for Analyzing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Twitching Motility and Its Application to Define the AmrZ Regulon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Binjie; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Twitching motility is an important migration mechanism for the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the commonly used subsurface twitching assay, the sub-population of P. aeruginosa with active twitching motility is difficult to harvest for high-throughput studies. Here we describe the development of a novel method that allows efficient isolation of bacterial sub-populations conducting highly active twitching motility. The transcription factor AmrZ regulates multiple P. aeruginosa virulence factors including twitching motility, yet the mechanism of this activation remains unclear. We therefore set out to understand this mechanism by defining the AmrZ regulon using DNA microarrays in combination with the newly developed twitching motility method. We discovered 112 genes in the AmrZ regulon and many encode virulence factors. One gene of interest and the subsequent focus was lecB, which encodes a fucose-binding lectin. DNA binding assays revealed that AmrZ activates lecB transcription by directly binding to its promoter. The lecB gene was previously shown to be required for twitching motility in P. aeruginosa strain PAK; however, our lecB deletion had no effect on twitching motility in strain PAO1. Collectively, in this study a novel condition was developed for quantitative studies of twitching motility, under which the AmrZ regulon was defined. PMID:26309248

  1. Cryptic transposable phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, V.N.; Mit`kina, L.N.; Pleteneva, E.A.; Aleshin, V.V.

    1995-11-01

    Frequencies of nucleotide sequences homologous to phage transposons (PT) of two species, D3112 and B3, were assessed in genomes of natural Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by the dot-blot hybridization method. These strains were incapable of liberating viable phages on a lawn of the PA01 standard indicator strain of P. aeruginosa. It was shown that the homologies detected belong to two groups, high and intermediate, with respect to homology level. Homology patterns were classified as high when they provided signals comparable to those for hybridization in a positive control; patterns were classified as intermediate when the hybridization level was higher than the background level, but lower than in the positive control. Homologous PT sequences were designated as cryptic PT. Intact cryptic PT prophages were shown to exist in genomes of particular natural strains manifesting a higher level of hybridization. However, the growth of these phages was limited by the restriction system of strain PA01. It is possible to isolate strains maintaining the growth of some cryptic PT. These strains differed from P. aeruginosa with respect to the specificity of the restriction and modification system. Nevertheless, in most cases, the attempt to identify a novel host capable of maintaining growth of a cryptic PT failed. Natural strains often carry cryptic PT related to both known PT species, D3112 and B3. The frequency of cryptic PT is extremely high, reaching 30% in strains with a high level of homology only and up to 50% in all strains exhibiting homology. This high PT frequency is assumed to be associated with the considerable variation of P. aeruginosa. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Vesicles Triggered by Human Mucosal Fluid and Lysozyme Can Prime Host Tissue Surfaces for Bacterial Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Metruccio, Matteo M. E.; Evans, David J.; Gabriel, Manal M.; Kadurugamuwa, Jagath L.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality that often targets epithelial surfaces. Host immunocompromise, or the presence of indwelling medical devices, including contact lenses, can predispose to infection. While medical devices are known to accumulate bacterial biofilms, it is not well understood why resistant epithelial surfaces become susceptible to P. aeruginosa. Many bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) in response to stress that can fuse with host cells to alter their function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mucosal fluid can trigger OMV release to compromise an epithelial barrier. This was tested using tear fluid and corneal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. After 1 h both human tear fluid, and the tear component lysozyme, greatly enhanced OMV release from P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS) controls (∼100-fold). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SDS-PAGE showed tear fluid and lysozyme-induced OMVs were similar in size and protein composition, but differed from biofilm-harvested OMVs, the latter smaller with fewer proteins. Lysozyme-induced OMVs were cytotoxic to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro and murine corneal epithelium in vivo. OMV exposure in vivo enhanced Ly6G/C expression at the corneal surface, suggesting myeloid cell recruitment, and primed the cornea for bacterial adhesion (∼4-fold, P < 0.01). Sonication disrupted OMVs retained cytotoxic activity, but did not promote adhesion, suggesting the latter required OMV-mediated events beyond cell killing. These data suggest that mucosal fluid induced P. aeruginosa OMVs could contribute to loss of epithelial barrier function during medical device-related infections. PMID:27375592

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DesB Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Growth Inhibition in Coculture by Controlling the Synthesis of HAQs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that can cause serious infections and usually coexists with other pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Virulence factors are important for maintaining a presence of the organisms in these multispecies environments, and DesB plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DesB on S. aureus reduction under competitive situation. Liquid cultures of P. aeruginosa wild type (WT) and its desB mutant were spotted on agar plates containing S. aureus, and the size of the clear zones was compared. In addition, interbacterial competition between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was observed over time during planktonic coculture. The transcriptional profiles of the WT and desB mutant were compared by qRT-PCR and microarray to determine the role of DesB in S. aureus reduction at the molecular level. As a result, the clear zone was smaller for the desB mutant than for P. aeruginosa PAO1 (WT), and in planktonic coculture, the number of S. aureus cells was reduced in the desB mutant. qRT-PCR and microarray revealed that the expression of MvfR-controlled pqsA-E and phnAB operons was significantly decreased, but the mexEF-oprN operon was highly expressed. The results indicate that intracellular levels of 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), a ligand of MvfR, are reduced due to MexEF-OprN-mediated efflux in desB mutant, resulting in the decrease of MvfR binding to pqsA-E promoter and the reduction of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) synthesis. Overexpression of mexEF-oprN operon in desB mutant was phenotypically confirmed by observing significantly increased resistance to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, these results suggest that DesB plays a role in the inhibition of S. aureus growth by controlling HAQ synthesis. PMID:26230088

  4. Pore-forming pyocin S5 utilizes the FptA ferripyochelin receptor to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Dingemans, Jozef; Ye, Lumeng; Hassan, Ahmed Amir; Craggs, Michael; Reimmann, Cornelia; Thomas, Mark S; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyocins are toxic proteins produced by some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are lethal for related strains of the same species. Some soluble pyocins (S2, S3 and S4) were previously shown to use the pyoverdine siderophore receptors to enter the cell. The P. aeruginosa PAO1 pore-forming pyocin S5 encoding gene (PAO985) was cloned into the expression vector pET15b, and the affinity-purified protein product tested for its killing activity against different P. aeruginosa strains. The results, however, did not show any correlation with a specific ferripyoverdine receptor. To further identify the S5 receptor, transposon mutants were generated. Pooled mutants were exposed to pyocin S5 and the resistant colonies growing in the killing zone were selected. The majority of S5-resistant mutants had an insertion in the fptA gene encoding the receptor for the siderophore pyochelin. Complementation of an fptA transposon mutant with the P. aeruginosa fptA gene in trans restored the sensitivity to S5. In order to define the receptor-binding domain of pyocin S5, two hybrid pyocins were constructed containing different regions from pyocin S5 fused to the C-terminal translocation and DNase killing domains of pyocin S2. Only the protein containing amino acid residues 151 to 300 from S5 showed toxicity, indicating that the pyocin S5 receptor-binding domain is not at the N-terminus of the protein as in other S-type pyocins. Pyocin S5 was, however, unable to kill Burkholderia cenocepacia strains producing a ferripyochelin FptA receptor, nor was the B. cenocepacia fptA gene able to restore the sensitivity of the resistant fptA mutant P. aeruginosa strain.

  5. Pore-forming pyocin S5 utilizes the FptA ferripyochelin receptor to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Elfarash, Ameer; Dingemans, Jozef; Ye, Lumeng; Hassan, Ahmed Amir; Craggs, Michael; Reimmann, Cornelia; Thomas, Mark S; Cornelis, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Pyocins are toxic proteins produced by some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are lethal for related strains of the same species. Some soluble pyocins (S2, S3 and S4) were previously shown to use the pyoverdine siderophore receptors to enter the cell. The P. aeruginosa PAO1 pore-forming pyocin S5 encoding gene (PAO985) was cloned into the expression vector pET15b, and the affinity-purified protein product tested for its killing activity against different P. aeruginosa strains. The results, however, did not show any correlation with a specific ferripyoverdine receptor. To further identify the S5 receptor, transposon mutants were generated. Pooled mutants were exposed to pyocin S5 and the resistant colonies growing in the killing zone were selected. The majority of S5-resistant mutants had an insertion in the fptA gene encoding the receptor for the siderophore pyochelin. Complementation of an fptA transposon mutant with the P. aeruginosa fptA gene in trans restored the sensitivity to S5. In order to define the receptor-binding domain of pyocin S5, two hybrid pyocins were constructed containing different regions from pyocin S5 fused to the C-terminal translocation and DNase killing domains of pyocin S2. Only the protein containing amino acid residues 151 to 300 from S5 showed toxicity, indicating that the pyocin S5 receptor-binding domain is not at the N-terminus of the protein as in other S-type pyocins. Pyocin S5 was, however, unable to kill Burkholderia cenocepacia strains producing a ferripyochelin FptA receptor, nor was the B. cenocepacia fptA gene able to restore the sensitivity of the resistant fptA mutant P. aeruginosa strain. PMID:24217175

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcriptional Landscape Is Shaped by Environmental Heterogeneity and Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schniederjans, Monika; Khaledi, Ariane; Hornischer, Klaus; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Pohl, Sarah; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phenotypic variability among bacteria depends on gene expression in response to different environments, and it also reflects differences in genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) profiles of 151 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates under standard laboratory conditions and of one P. aeruginosa type strain under 14 different environmental conditions. Our approach allowed dissection of the impact of the genetic background versus environmental cues on P. aeruginosa gene expression profiles and revealed that phenotypic variation was larger in response to changing environments than between genomically different isolates. We demonstrate that mutations within the global regulator LasR affect more than one trait (pleiotropy) and that the interaction between mutations (epistasis) shapes the P. aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity landscape. Because of pleiotropic and epistatic effects, average genotype and phenotype measures appeared to be uncorrelated in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26126853

  7. Transcriptional Analysis of MexAB-OprM Efflux Pumps System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Its Role in Carbapenem Resistance in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance presents severe threat to the treatment of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. The study was undertaken to investigate the role of efflux pumps in conferring meropenem resistance and effect of single dose exposure of meropenem on transcription level of mexA gene in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. Further, in this investigation an effort was made to assess whether different components of MexAB-OprM operon expresses in the same manner and the extent of contributions of those components in meropenem resistance in its natural host (P. aeruginosa) and in a heterologous host (E. coli). Out of 83 meropenem nonsusceptible isolates, 22 isolates were found to possess efflux pump activity phenotypically. Modified hodge test and multiplex PCR confirmed the absence of carbapenemase genes in those isolates. All of them were of multidrug resistant phenotype and were resistant to all the carbepenem drug tested. MexAB-OprM efflux pump was found to be overexpressed in all the study isolates. It could be observed that single dose exposure meropenem could give rise to trivial increase in transcription of mexA gene. Different constructs of MexAB-OprM (mexR-mexA-mexB-OprM; mexA-mexB-OprM; mexA-mexB) could be expressed in both its natural (P. aeruginosa PAO1) and heterologous host (E. coli JM107) but transcription level of mexA gene varied in both the hosts before and after single dose exposure of meropenem. Different components of the operon failed to enhance meropenem resistance in E. coli JM107 and P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study could prove that MexAB-OprM efflux pump can significantly contribute to meropenem resistance in hospital isolates of P. aeruginosa where an acquired resistant mechanism is absent. Thus, equal importance should be given for diagnosis of intrinsic resistance mechanism so as to minimize treatment failure. As meropenem could not enhance mexA transcriptions significantly, there

  8. Phylogenetic Distribution of CRISPR-Cas Systems in Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, Alex; Soriaga, Leah B.; LaFave, Matthew C.; Akella, Srividya; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Barbu, E. Magda; Shortridge, Dee; Blanc, Bernadette; Hannum, Gregory; Zambardi, Gilles; Miller, Kristofer; Enright, Mark C.; Mugnier, Nathalie; Brami, Daniel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Felderman, Martina; Schwartz, Ariel S.; Richardson, Toby H.; Peterson, Todd C.; Hubby, Bolyn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an antibiotic-refractory pathogen with a large genome and extensive genotypic diversity. Historically, P. aeruginosa has been a major model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying type I clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas)-based bacterial immune system function. However, little information on the phylogenetic distribution and potential role of these CRISPR-Cas systems in molding the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and antibiotic resistance elements is known. Computational approaches were used to identify and characterize CRISPR-Cas systems within 672 genomes, and in the process, we identified a previously unreported and putatively mobile type I-C P. aeruginosa CRISPR-Cas system. Furthermore, genomes harboring noninhibited type I-F and I-E CRISPR-Cas systems were on average ~300 kb smaller than those without a CRISPR-Cas system. In silico analysis demonstrated that the accessory genome (n = 22,036 genes) harbored the majority of identified CRISPR-Cas targets. We also assembled a global spacer library that aided the identification of difficult-to-characterize mobile genetic elements within next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and allowed CRISPR typing of a majority of P. aeruginosa strains. In summary, our analysis demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas systems play an important role in shaping the accessory genomes of globally distributed P. aeruginosa isolates. PMID:26604259

  9. ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq Reveal an AmrZ-Mediated Mechanism for Cyclic di-GMP Synthesis and Biofilm Development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher J.; Newsom, David; Kelly, Benjamin; Irie, Yasuhiko; Jennings, Laura K.; Xu, Binjie; Limoli, Dominique H.; Harrison, Joe J.; Parsek, Matthew R.; White, Peter; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor AmrZ regulates genes important for P. aeruginosa virulence, including type IV pili, extracellular polysaccharides, and the flagellum; however, the global effect of AmrZ on gene expression remains unknown, and therefore, AmrZ may directly regulate many additional genes that are crucial for infection. Compared to the wild type strain, a ΔamrZ mutant exhibits a rugose colony phenotype, which is commonly observed in variants that accumulate the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Cyclic di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that AmrZ limits the intracellular accumulation of c-di-GMP through transcriptional repression of gene(s) encoding a DGC. In support of this, we observed elevated c-di-GMP in the ΔamrZ mutant compared to the wild type strain. Consistent with other strains that accumulate c-di-GMP, when grown as a biofilm, the ΔamrZ mutant formed larger microcolonies than the wild-type strain. This enhanced biofilm formation was abrogated by expression of a PDE. To identify potential target DGCs, a ChIP-Seq was performed and identified regions of the genome that are bound by AmrZ. RNA-Seq experiments revealed the entire AmrZ regulon, and characterized AmrZ as an activator or repressor at each binding site. We identified an AmrZ-repressed DGC-encoding gene (PA4843) from this cohort, which we named AmrZ dependent cyclase A (adcA). PAO1 overexpressing adcA accumulates 29-fold more c-di-GMP than the wild type strain, confirming the cyclase activity of AdcA. In biofilm reactors, a ΔamrZ ΔadcA double mutant formed smaller microcolonies than the single ΔamrZ mutant, indicating adcA is responsible for the hyper biofilm phenotype of the ΔamrZ mutant. This study combined the techniques of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to define the comprehensive regulon of a bifunctional transcriptional regulator. Moreover, we identified a c-di-GMP mediated mechanism for Amr

  10. Characterizing the optimal flux space of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions through modified latin-hypercube sampling.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neha; Tøndel, Kristin; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; dos Santos, Vítor A P Martins; Puchałka, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstructions (GSMRs), along with optimization-based methods, predominantly Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and its derivatives, are widely applied for assessing and predicting the behavior of metabolic networks upon perturbation, thereby enabling identification of potential novel drug targets and biotechnologically relevant pathways. The abundance of alternate flux profiles has led to the evolution of methods to explore the complete solution space aiming to increase the accuracy of predictions. Herein we present a novel, generic algorithm to characterize the entire flux space of GSMR upon application of FBA, leading to the optimal value of the objective (the optimal flux space). Our method employs Modified Latin-Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to effectively border the optimal space, followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify and explain the major sources of variability within it. The approach was validated with the elementary mode analysis of a smaller network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied to the GSMR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (iMO1086). It is shown to surpass the commonly used Monte Carlo Sampling (MCS) in providing a more uniform coverage for a much larger network in less number of samples. Results show that although many fluxes are identified as variable upon fixing the objective value, majority of the variability can be reduced to several main patterns arising from a few alternative pathways. In iMO1086, initial variability of 211 reactions could almost entirely be explained by 7 alternative pathway groups. These findings imply that the possibilities to reroute greater portions of flux may be limited within metabolic networks of bacteria. Furthermore, the optimal flux space is subject to change with environmental conditions. Our method may be a useful device to validate the predictions made by FBA-based tools, by describing the optimal flux space associated with these predictions, thus to improve them.

  11. Characterizing the optimal flux space of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions through modified latin-hypercube sampling.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Neha; Tøndel, Kristin; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; dos Santos, Vítor A P Martins; Puchałka, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstructions (GSMRs), along with optimization-based methods, predominantly Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and its derivatives, are widely applied for assessing and predicting the behavior of metabolic networks upon perturbation, thereby enabling identification of potential novel drug targets and biotechnologically relevant pathways. The abundance of alternate flux profiles has led to the evolution of methods to explore the complete solution space aiming to increase the accuracy of predictions. Herein we present a novel, generic algorithm to characterize the entire flux space of GSMR upon application of FBA, leading to the optimal value of the objective (the optimal flux space). Our method employs Modified Latin-Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to effectively border the optimal space, followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify and explain the major sources of variability within it. The approach was validated with the elementary mode analysis of a smaller network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and applied to the GSMR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (iMO1086). It is shown to surpass the commonly used Monte Carlo Sampling (MCS) in providing a more uniform coverage for a much larger network in less number of samples. Results show that although many fluxes are identified as variable upon fixing the objective value, majority of the variability can be reduced to several main patterns arising from a few alternative pathways. In iMO1086, initial variability of 211 reactions could almost entirely be explained by 7 alternative pathway groups. These findings imply that the possibilities to reroute greater portions of flux may be limited within metabolic networks of bacteria. Furthermore, the optimal flux space is subject to change with environmental conditions. Our method may be a useful device to validate the predictions made by FBA-based tools, by describing the optimal flux space associated with these predictions, thus to improve them. PMID

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa directly shunts β-oxidation degradation intermediates into de novo fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanqiu; Leeds, Jennifer A; Meredith, Timothy C

    2012-10-01

    We identified the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) initiation enzyme in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as FabY, a β-ketoacyl synthase KASI/II domain-containing enzyme that condenses acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to make the FAS primer β-acetoacetyl-ACP in the accompanying article (Y. Yuan, M. Sachdeva, J. A. Leeds, and T. C. Meredith, J. Bacteriol. 194:5171-5184, 2012). Herein, we show that growth defects stemming from deletion of fabY can be suppressed by supplementation of the growth media with exogenous decanoate fatty acid, suggesting a compensatory mechanism. Fatty acids eight carbons or longer rescue growth by generating acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioester β-oxidation degradation intermediates that are shunted into FAS downstream of FabY. Using a set of perdeuterated fatty acid feeding experiments, we show that the open reading frame PA3286 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 intercepts C(8)-CoA by condensation with malonyl-ACP to make the FAS intermediate β-keto decanoyl-ACP. This key intermediate can then be extended to supply all of the cellular fatty acid needs, including both unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, along with the 3-hydroxyl fatty acid acyl groups of lipopolysaccharide. Heterologous PA3286 expression in Escherichia coli likewise established the fatty acid shunt, and characterization of recombinant β-keto acyl synthase enzyme activity confirmed in vitro substrate specificity for medium-chain-length acyl CoA thioester acceptors. The potential for the PA3286 shunt in P. aeruginosa to curtail the efficacy of inhibitors targeting FabY, an enzyme required for FAS initiation in the absence of exogenous fatty acids, is discussed.

  13. Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a Galleria mellonella infection model.

    PubMed

    Beeton, M L; Alves, D R; Enright, M C; Jenkins, A T A

    2015-08-01

    The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to assess the in vivo efficacy of phage therapy against laboratory and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a first series of experiments, Galleria were infected with the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and were treated with varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) of phages either 2h post-infection (treatment) or 2h pre-infection (prevention) via injection into the haemolymph. To address the kinetics of infection, larvae were bled over a period of 24h for quantification of bacteria and phages. Survival rates at 24h when infected with 10 cells/larvae were greater in the prevention versus treatment model (47% vs. 40%, MOI=10; 47% vs. 20%, MOI=1; and 33% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). This pattern held true when 100 cells/larvae were used (87% vs. 20%, MOI=10; 53% vs. 13%, MOI=1; 67% vs. 7%, MOI=0.1). By 24h post-infection, phages kept bacterial cell numbers in the haemolymph 1000-fold lower than in the non-treated group. In a second series of experiments using clinical strains to further validate the prevention model, phages protected Galleria when infected with both a bacteraemia (0% vs. 85%) and a cystic fibrosis (80% vs. 100%) isolate. Therefore, this study validates the use of G. mellonella as a simple, robust and cost-effective model for initial in vivo examination of P. aeruginosa-targeted phage therapy, which may be applied to other pathogens with similarly low infective doses. PMID:26100212

  14. The role of alginate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa EPS adherence, viscoelastic properties and cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Orgad, Oded; Oren, Yoram; Walker, Sharon L; Herzberg, Moshe

    2011-08-01

    Among various functions, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) provide microbial biofilms with mechanical stability and affect initial cell attachment, the first stage in the biofilm formation process. The role of alginate, an abundant polysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, in the viscoelastic properties and adhesion kinetics of EPS was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technology. EPS was extracted from two P. aeruginosa biofilms, a wild type strain, PAO1, and a mucoid strain, PAOmucA22 that over-expresses alginate production. The higher alginate content in the EPS originating from the mucoid biofilms was clearly shown to increase both the rate and the extent of attachment of the EPS, as well as the layer's thickness. Also, the presence of calcium and elevated ionic strength increased the thickness of the EPS layer. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the presence of calcium and elevated ionic strength induced intermolecular attractive interactions in the mucoid EPS molecules. For the wild type EPS, in the presence of calcium, an elevated shift in the distribution of the diffusion coefficients was observed with DLS due to a more compacted conformation of the EPS molecules. Moreover, the alginate over-expression effect on EPS adherence was compared to the effect of alginate over-expression on P. aeruginosa cell attachment. In a parallel plate flow cell, under similar hydraulic and aquatic conditions as those applied for the EPS adsorption tests in the QCM-D flow cell, reduced adherence of the mucoid strain was clearly observed compared to the wild type isogenic bacteria. The results suggest that alginate contributes to steric hindrance and shielding of cell surface features and adhesins that are known to promote cell attachment.

  15. Synergistic effect of membrane-active peptides polymyxin B and gramicidin S on multidrug-resistant strains and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Berditsch, Marina; Jäger, Thomas; Strempel, Nikola; Schwartz, Thomas; Overhage, Jörg; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of severe hospital-acquired infections. Currently, polymyxin B (PMB) is a last-resort antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, despite its undesirable side effects. The delivery of drug combinations has been shown to reduce the required therapeutic doses of antibacterial agents and thereby their toxicity if a synergistic effect is present. In this study, we investigated the synergy between two cyclic antimicrobial peptides, PMB and gramicidin S (GS), against different P. aeruginosa isolates, using a quantitative checkerboard assay with resazurin as a growth indicator. Among the 28 strains that we studied, 20 strains showed a distinct synergistic effect, represented by a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5. Remarkably, several clinical P. aeruginosa isolates that grew as small-colony variants revealed a nonsynergistic effect, as indicated by FICIs between >0.5 and ≤0.70. In addition to inhibiting the growth of planktonic bacteria, the peptide combinations significantly decreased static biofilm growth compared with treatment with the individual peptides. There was also a faster and more prolonged effect when the combination of PMB and GS was used compared with single-peptide treatments on the metabolic activity of pregrown biofilms. The results of the present study define a synergistic interaction between two cyclic membrane-active peptides toward 17 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and biofilms of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. Thus, the application of PMB and GS in combination is a promising option for a topical medication and in the prevention of acute and chronic infections caused by multidrug-resistant or biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa. PMID:26077259

  16. Synergistic Effect of Membrane-Active Peptides Polymyxin B and Gramicidin S on Multidrug-Resistant Strains and Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Berditsch, Marina; Jäger, Thomas; Strempel, Nikola; Schwartz, Thomas; Overhage, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of severe hospital-acquired infections. Currently, polymyxin B (PMB) is a last-resort antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, despite its undesirable side effects. The delivery of drug combinations has been shown to reduce the required therapeutic doses of antibacterial agents and thereby their toxicity if a synergistic effect is present. In this study, we investigated the synergy between two cyclic antimicrobial peptides, PMB and gramicidin S (GS), against different P. aeruginosa isolates, using a quantitative checkerboard assay with resazurin as a growth indicator. Among the 28 strains that we studied, 20 strains showed a distinct synergistic effect, represented by a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5. Remarkably, several clinical P. aeruginosa isolates that grew as small-colony variants revealed a nonsynergistic effect, as indicated by FICIs between >0.5 and ≤0.70. In addition to inhibiting the growth of planktonic bacteria, the peptide combinations significantly decreased static biofilm growth compared with treatment with the individual peptides. There was also a faster and more prolonged effect when the combination of PMB and GS was used compared with single-peptide treatments on the metabolic activity of pregrown biofilms. The results of the present study define a synergistic interaction between two cyclic membrane-active peptides toward 17 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and biofilms of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. Thus, the application of PMB and GS in combination is a promising option for a topical medication and in the prevention of acute and chronic infections caused by multidrug-resistant or biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa. PMID:26077259

  17. Synergistic effect of membrane-active peptides polymyxin B and gramicidin S on multidrug-resistant strains and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Berditsch, Marina; Jäger, Thomas; Strempel, Nikola; Schwartz, Thomas; Overhage, Jörg; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of severe hospital-acquired infections. Currently, polymyxin B (PMB) is a last-resort antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, despite its undesirable side effects. The delivery of drug combinations has been shown to reduce the required therapeutic doses of antibacterial agents and thereby their toxicity if a synergistic effect is present. In this study, we investigated the synergy between two cyclic antimicrobial peptides, PMB and gramicidin S (GS), against different P. aeruginosa isolates, using a quantitative checkerboard assay with resazurin as a growth indicator. Among the 28 strains that we studied, 20 strains showed a distinct synergistic effect, represented by a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of ≤0.5. Remarkably, several clinical P. aeruginosa isolates that grew as small-colony variants revealed a nonsynergistic effect, as indicated by FICIs between >0.5 and ≤0.70. In addition to inhibiting the growth of planktonic bacteria, the peptide combinations significantly decreased static biofilm growth compared with treatment with the individual peptides. There was also a faster and more prolonged effect when the combination of PMB and GS was used compared with single-peptide treatments on the metabolic activity of pregrown biofilms. The results of the present study define a synergistic interaction between two cyclic membrane-active peptides toward 17 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and biofilms of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. Thus, the application of PMB and GS in combination is a promising option for a topical medication and in the prevention of acute and chronic infections caused by multidrug-resistant or biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa.

  18. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Investigation of Colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using an In Vitro Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Phillip J.; Bulitta, Jurgen B.; Forrest, Alan; Tsuji, Brian T.; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Colistin plays a key role in treatment of serious infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aims of this study were to (i) identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index (i.e., the area under the unbound concentration-time curve to MIC ratio [ƒAUC/MIC], the unbound maximal concentration to MIC ratio [ƒCmax/MIC], or the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that unbound concentrations exceed the MIC [ƒT>MIC]) that best predicts colistin efficacy and (ii) determine the values for the predictive PK/PD index required to achieve various magnitudes of killing effect. Studies were conducted in a one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model for 24 h using P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, PAO1, and the multidrug-resistant mucoid clinical isolate 19056 muc. Six intermittent dosing intervals, with a range of ƒCmax colistin concentrations, and two continuous infusion regimens were examined. PK/PD indices varied from 0.06 to 18 for targeted ƒCmax/MIC, 0.36 to 312 for ƒAUC/MIC, and 0 to 100% for ƒT>MIC. A Hill-type model was fit to killing effect data, which were expressed as the log10 ratio of the area under the CFU/ml curve for treated regimens versus control. With ƒCmax values equal to or above the MIC, rapid killing was observed following the first dose; substantial regrowth occurred by 24 h with most regimens. The overall killing effect was best correlated with ƒAUC/MIC (R2 = 0.931) compared to ƒCmax/MIC (R2 = 0.868) and ƒT>MIC (R2 = 0.785). The magnitudes of ƒAUC/MIC required for 1- and 2-log10 reductions in the area under the CFU/ml curve relative to growth control were 22.6 and 30.4, 27.1 and 35.7, and 5.04 and 6.81 for ATCC 27853, PAO1, and 19056 muc, respectively. The PK/PD targets identified will assist in designing optimal dosing strategies for colistin. PMID:20585118

  19. A simple alfalfa seedling infection model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains associated with cystic fibrosis shows AlgT (sigma-22) and RhlR contribute to pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silo-Suh, Laura; Suh, Sang-Jin; Sokol, Pamela A.; Ohman, Dennis E.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive plant infection model was developed to identify virulence factors in nontypeable, alginate overproducing (mucoid) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Nontypeable strains with defects in lipopolysaccharide O-side chains are common to CF and often exhibit low virulence in animal models of infection. However, 1,000 such bacteria were enough to show disease symptoms in the alfalfa infection. A typical mucoid CF isolate, FRD1, and its isogenic mutants were tested for alfalfa seedling infection. Although defects in the global regulators Vfr, RpoS, PvdS, or LasR had no discernable effect on virulence, a defect in RhlR reduced the infection frequency by >50%. A defect in alginate biosynthesis resulted in plant disease with >3-fold more bacteria per plant, suggesting that alginate overproduction attenuated bacterial growth in planta. FRD1 derivatives lacking AlgT, a sigma factor required for alginate production, were reduced >50% in the frequency of infection. Thus, AlgT apparently regulates factors in FRD1, besides alginate, important for pathogenesis. In contrast, in a non-CF strain, PAO1, an algT mutation did not affect its virulence on alfalfa. Conversely, PAO1 virulence was reduced in a mucA mutant that overproduced alginate. These observations suggested that mucoid conversion in CF may be driven by a selection for organisms with attenuated virulence or growth in the lung, which promotes a chronic infection. These studies also demonstrated that the wounded alfalfa seedling infection model is a useful tool to identify factors contributing to the persistence of P. aeruginosa in CF. PMID:12426404

  20. Proteomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1) cultured under conditions mimicking the cystic fibrosis lung reveals increased iron acquisition via the siderophore pyochelin.

    PubMed

    Hare, Nathan J; Soe, Cho Zin; Rose, Barbara; Harbour, Colin; Codd, Rachel; Manos, Jim; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2012-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-to-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide, and the molecular basis for transmissibility remains poorly understood. We undertook a complementary proteomics approach to characterize protein profiles from a transmissible, acute isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R), the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1 when grown in an artificial medium that mimics the CF lung environment compared to growth in standard laboratory medium. Proteins elevated in abundance in AES-1R included those involved in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis and in the synthesis of phenazines. Proteomic data were validated by measuring culture supernatant levels of the virulence factor pyocyanin, which is the final product of the phenazine pathway. AES-1R and PAO1 released higher extracellular levels of pyocyanin compared to PA14 when grown in conditions that mimic the CF lung. Proteins associated with biosynthesis of the iron-scavenging siderophore pyochelin (PchDEFGH and FptA) were also present at elevated abundance in AES-1R and at much higher levels than in PAO1, whereas they were reduced in PA14. These protein changes resulted phenotypically in increased extracellular iron acquisition potential and, specifically, elevated pyochelin levels in AES-1R culture supernatants as detected by chrome azurol-S assay and fluorometry, respectively. Transcript analysis of pyochelin genes (pchDFG and fptA) showed they were highly expressed during the early stage of growth in artificial sputum medium (18 h) but returned to basal levels following the establishment of microcolony growth (72 h) consistent with that observed in the CF lung. This provides further

  1. Modular Approach to Select Bacteriophages Targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Their Application to Children Suffering With Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Krylov, Victor; Shaburova, Olga; Pleteneva, Elena; Bourkaltseva, Maria; Krylov, Sergey; Kaplan, Alla; Chesnokova, Elena; Kulakov, Leonid; Magill, Damian; Polygach, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the potential application of bacterial viruses (phage therapy) toward the eradication of antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this regard, several potential relationships between bacteria and their bacteriophages are considered. The most important aspect that must be addressed with respect to phage therapy of bacterial infections in the lungs of CF patients is in ensuring the continuity of treatment in light of the continual occurrence of resistant bacteria. This depends on the ability to rapidly select phages exhibiting an enhanced spectrum of lytic activity among several well-studied phage groups of proven safety. We propose a modular based approach, utilizing both mono-species and hetero-species phage mixtures. With an approach involving the visual recognition of characteristics exhibited by phages of well-studied phage groups on lawns of the standard P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain, the simple and rapid enhancement of the lytic spectrum of cocktails is permitted, allowing the development of tailored preparations for patients capable of circumventing problems associated with phage resistant bacterial mutants. PMID:27790211

  2. Unorthodox expression of an enzyme: evidence for an untranslated region within carA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S C; Abdelal, A T

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding carbamoylphosphate synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were cloned in Escherichia coli. Deletion and transposition analysis determined the locations of carA, encoding the small subunit, and carB, encoding the large subunit, on the chromosomal insert. The nucleotide sequence of carA and the flanking regions was determined. The derived amino acid sequence for the small subunit of carbamoylphosphate synthetase from P. aeruginosa exhibited 68% homology with its counterparts in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The derived sequences in the three organisms were essentially identical in the three polypeptide segments that are conserved in glutamine amidotransferases but showed low homology at the amino- and carboxy-terminal regions. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences were determined for the large and small subunits. The first 15 amino acids of the large subunit were identical to those derived from the carB sequence. However, comparison of the derived sequence for carA with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence for the small subunit suggested that codons 5 to 8 are not translated. The DNA sequence for the region encompassing these four codons was confirmed by direct sequencing of chromosomal DNA after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA sequence was also deduced by in vitro synthesis of cDNA, enzymatic amplification, and sequencing, confirming that 12 nucleotides in the 5' terminal of carA are transcribed but are not translated. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:2153657

  3. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa liuE gene encodes the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A lyase, involved in leucine and acyclic terpene catabolism.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Avilés, Mauricio; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Reyes-de la Cruz, Homero; Campos-García, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    The enzymes involved in the catabolism of leucine are encoded by the liu gene cluster in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. A mutant in the liuE gene (ORF PA2011) of P. aeruginosa was unable to utilize both leucine/isovalerate and acyclic terpenes as the carbon source. The liuE mutant grown in culture medium with citronellol accumulated metabolites of the acyclic terpene pathway, suggesting an involvement of liuE in both leucine/isovalerate and acyclic terpene catabolic pathways. The LiuE protein was expressed as a His-tagged recombinant polypeptide purified by affinity chromatography in Escherichia coli. LiuE showed a mass of 33 kDa under denaturing and 79 kDa under nondenaturing conditions. Protein sequence alignment and fingerprint sequencing suggested that liuE encodes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase (HMG-CoA lyase), which catalyzes the cleavage of HMG-CoA to acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate. LiuE showed HMG-CoA lyase optimal activity at a pH of 7.0 and 37 degrees C, an apparent K(m) of 100 microM for HMG-CoA and a V(max) of 21 micromol min(-1) mg(-1). These results demonstrate that the liuE gene of P. aeruginosa encodes for the HMG-CoA lyase, an essential enzyme for growth in both leucine and acyclic terpenes.

  4. Contribution of the platelet activating factor signaling pathway to cerebral microcirculatory dysfunction during experimental sepsis by ExoU producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Plotkowski, Maria Cristina; Estato, Vanessa; Santos, Sabrina Alves; da Silva, Mauricio Costa Alves; Miranda, Aline Silva; de Miranda, Pedro Elias; Pinho, Vanessa; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Morandi, Verônica; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Vianna, Albanita; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy was used to assess the involvement of ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, in dysfunction of cerebral microcirculation during experimental pneumosepsis. Cortical vessels from mice intratracheally infected with low density of the ExoU-producing PA103 P. aeruginosa strain exhibited increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion to venule endothelium, decreased capillar density and impaired arteriolar response to vasoactive acetylcholine. These phenomena were mediated by the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) pathway because they were reversed in mice treated with a PAFR antagonist prior to infection. Brains from PA103-infected animals exhibited a perivascular inflammatory infiltration that was not detected in animals infected with an exoU deficient mutant or in mice treated with the PAFR antagonist and infected with the wild type bacteria. No effect on brain capillary density was detected in mice infected with the PAO1 P. aeruginosa strain, which do not produce ExoU. Finally, after PA103 infection, mice with a targeted deletion of the PAFR gene exhibited higher brain capillary density and lower leukocyte adhesion to venule endothelium, as well as lower increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines, when compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, our results establish a role for PAFR in mediating ExoU-induced cerebral microvascular failure in a murine model of sepsis. PMID:26187894

  5. Three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with different protease profiles.

    PubMed

    Andrejko, Mariola; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Janczarek, Monika; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The proteolytic activity of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, ATCC 27853 - a reference strain, and two clinical isolates was tested. The activity was examined after culturing the bacteria in two different growth media: the minimal M9 medium and rich Luria-Bertani broth (LB). Based on zymograms and protease activity specific assays, it was concluded that the reference strain produced three proteolytic enzymes in the LB medium: protease IV, elastase B and elastase A, while alkaline protease was only produced in the M9 medium. The clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa produced elastase B and alkaline protease when grown in the LB medium and the minimal M9 medium, respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of both the lasB gene encoding elastase B and aprA coding for alkaline protease in the genomes of the three P. aeruginosa strains analyzed. The expression of these genes coding for two important P. aeruginosa virulence factors was dependent on the growth conditions in all the strains studied. The contribution of the extracellular proteinases to the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains used in this study was investigated using an insect model, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella.

  6. The OpdQ porin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated by environmental signals associated with cystic fibrosis including nitrate-induced regulation involving the NarXL two-component system.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Randal C; Hanson, Nancy D

    2015-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Multiple porins modulate outer membrane permeability under various environmental conditions. The lung environment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is unique with changes occurring in nutrient availability, osmolarity, and oxygen content. Although P. aeruginosa gene expression is modified under these conditions, little is known about how they influence porin regulation. In this study, we evaluated the regulation of the outer membrane porin OpdQ, a member of the OprD family of porins, with regard to oxygen, nitrate, and/or NaCl levels. We demonstrated using promoter::fusion clones of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and clinical strains collected from CF patients that OpdQ was transcriptionally repressed under low oxygen but increased in the presence of nitrate. The nitrate-induced regulation of OpdQ was found to be dependent on the transcription factor NarL via the NarXL two-component system. In addition, NaCl-induced osmotic stress increased OpdQ production among most of the clinical strains evaluated. In conclusion, these data identify for the first time that specific environmental cues associated with the CF microenvironment influence porin regulation, and that the nitrate-induced regulation of OpdQ is associated with nitrate metabolism via the NarXL two-component system of P. aeruginosa.

  7. The ferrichrome uptake pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves an iron release mechanism with acylation of the siderophore and recycling of the modified desferrichrome.

    PubMed

    Hannauer, Mélissa; Barda, Yaniv; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Shanzer, Abraham; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2010-03-01

    The uptake of iron into Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by two major siderophores produced by the bacterium, pyoverdine and pyochelin. The bacterium is also able of utilize several heterologous siderophores of bacterial or fungal origin. In this work, we have investigated the iron uptake in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by the heterologous ferrichrome siderophore. (55)Fe uptake assays showed that ferrichrome is transported across the outer membrane primarily (80%) by the FiuA receptor and to a lesser extent (20%) by a secondary transporter. Moreover, we demonstrate that like in the uptake of ferripyoverdine and ferripyochelin, the energy required for both pathways of ferrichrome uptake is provided by the inner membrane protein TonB1. Desferrichrome-(55)Fe uptake in P. aeruginosa was also dependent on the expression of the permease FiuB, suggesting that this protein is the inner membrane transporter of the ferrisiderophore. A biomimetic fluorescent analogue of ferrichrome, RL1194, was used in vivo to monitor the kinetics of iron release from ferrichrome in P. aeruginosa in real time. This dissociation involves acylation of ferrichrome and its biomimetic analogue RL1194 and recycling of both modified siderophores into the extracellular medium. FiuC, an N-acetyltransferase, is certainly involved in this mechanism of iron release, since its mutation abolished desferrichrome-(55)Fe uptake. The acetylated derivative reacts with iron in the extracellular medium and is able to be taken up again by the cells. All these observations are discussed in light of the current knowledge concerning ferrichrome uptake in P. aeruginosa and in Escherichia coli. PMID:20047910

  8. The Lon Protease Is Essential for Full Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Breidenstein, Elena B. M.; Janot, Laure; Strehmel, Janine; Fernandez, Lucia; Taylor, Patrick K.; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Gellatly, Shaan L.; Levesque, Roger C.; Overhage, Joerg; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 lon mutants are supersusceptible to ciprofloxacin, and exhibit a defect in cell division and in virulence-related properties, such as swarming, twitching and biofilm formation, despite the fact that the Lon protease is not a traditional regulator. Here we set out to investigate the influence of a lon mutation in a series of infection models. It was demonstrated that the lon mutant had a defect in cytotoxicity towards epithelial cells, was less virulent in an amoeba model as well as a mouse acute lung infection model, and impacted on in vivo survival in a rat model of chronic infection. Using qRT-PCR it was demonstrated that the lon mutation led to a down-regulation of Type III secretion genes. The Lon protease also influenced motility and biofilm formation in a mucin-rich environment. Thus alterations in several virulence-related processes in vitro in a lon mutant were reflected by defective virulence in vivo. PMID:23145092

  9. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  10. Phages can constrain protist predation-driven attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in multienemy communities

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Buckling, Angus

    2014-01-01

    The coincidental theory of virulence predicts that bacterial pathogenicity could be a by-product of selection by natural enemies in environmental reservoirs. However, current results are ambiguous and the simultaneous impact of multiple ubiquitous enemies, protists and phages on virulence evolution has not been investigated previously. Here we tested experimentally how Tetrahymena thermophila protist predation and PNM phage parasitism (bacteria-specific virus) alone and together affect the evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence, measured in wax moth larvae. Protist predation selected for small colony types, both in the absence and presence of phage, which showed decreased edibility to protists, reduced growth in the absence of enemies and attenuated virulence. Although phage selection alone did not affect the bacterial phenotype, it weakened protist-driven antipredatory defence (biofilm formation), its associated pleiotropic growth cost and the correlated reduction in virulence. These results suggest that protist selection can be a strong coincidental driver of attenuated bacterial virulence, and that phages can constrain this effect owing to effects on population dynamics and conflicting selection pressures. Attempting to define causal links such as these might help us to predict the cold and hot spots of coincidental virulence evolution on the basis of microbial community composition of environmental reservoirs. PMID:24671085

  11. Substrate Specificity of the Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase PvdD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, David F.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Lamont, Iain L.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 secretes a siderophore, pyoverdinePAO, which contains a short peptide attached to a dihydroxyquinoline moiety. Synthesis of this peptide is thought to be catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases, one of which is encoded by the pvdD gene. The first module of pvdD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein product was purified. l-Threonine, one of the amino acid residues in pyoverdinePAO, was an effective substrate for the recombinant protein in ATP-PPi exchange assays, showing that PvdD has peptide synthetase activity. Other amino acids, including d-threonine, l-serine, and l-allo-threonine, were not effective substrates, indicating that PvdD has a high degree of substrate specificity. A three-dimensional modeling approach enabled us to identify amino acids that are likely to be critical in determining the substrate specificity of PvdD and to explore the likely basis of the high substrate selectivity. The approach described here may be useful for analysis of other peptide synthetases. PMID:12700264

  12. Phages can constrain protist predation-driven attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in multienemy communities.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Buckling, Angus

    2014-09-01

    The coincidental theory of virulence predicts that bacterial pathogenicity could be a by-product of selection by natural enemies in environmental reservoirs. However, current results are ambiguous and the simultaneous impact of multiple ubiquitous enemies, protists and phages on virulence evolution has not been investigated previously. Here we tested experimentally how Tetrahymena thermophila protist predation and PNM phage parasitism (bacteria-specific virus) alone and together affect the evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence, measured in wax moth larvae. Protist predation selected for small colony types, both in the absence and presence of phage, which showed decreased edibility to protists, reduced growth in the absence of enemies and attenuated virulence. Although phage selection alone did not affect the bacterial phenotype, it weakened protist-driven antipredatory defence (biofilm formation), its associated pleiotropic growth cost and the correlated reduction in virulence. These results suggest that protist selection can be a strong coincidental driver of attenuated bacterial virulence, and that phages can constrain this effect owing to effects on population dynamics and conflicting selection pressures. Attempting to define causal links such as these might help us to predict the cold and hot spots of coincidental virulence evolution on the basis of microbial community composition of environmental reservoirs.

  13. Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins in AmpC expression, β-lactam resistance, and peptidoglycan structure.

    PubMed

    Ropy, Alaa; Cabot, Gabriel; Sánchez-Diener, Irina; Aguilera, Cristian; Moya, Bartolome; Ayala, Juan A; Oliver, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to characterize the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs), namely, PBP4 (DacB), PBP5 (DacC), and PBP7 (PbpG), in peptidoglycan composition, β-lactam resistance, and ampC regulation. For this purpose, we constructed all single and multiple mutants of dacB, dacC, pbpG, and ampC from the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Peptidoglycan composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ampC expression by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), PBP patterns by a Bocillin FL-binding test, and antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC testing for a panel of β-lactams. Microscopy and growth rate analyses revealed no apparent major morphological changes for any of the mutants compared to the wild-type PAO1 strain. Of the single mutants, only dacC mutation led to significantly increased pentapeptide levels, showing that PBP5 is the major dd-carboxypeptidase in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, our results indicate that PBP4 and PBP7 play a significant role as dd-carboxypeptidase only if PBP5 is absent, and their dd-endopeptidase activity is also inferred. As expected, the inactivation of PBP4 led to a significant increase in ampC expression (around 50-fold), but, remarkably, the sequential inactivation of the three LMM PBPs produced a much greater increase (1,000-fold), which correlated with peptidoglycan pentapeptide levels. Finally, the β-lactam susceptibility profiles of the LMM PBP mutants correlated well with the ampC expression data. However, the inactivation of ampC in these mutants also evidenced a role of LMM PBPs, especially PBP5, in intrinsic β-lactam resistance. In summary, in addition to assessing the effect of P. aeruginosa LMM PBPs on peptidoglycan structure for the first time, we obtained results that represent a step forward in understanding the impact of these PBPs on β-lactam resistance, apparently driven by the interplay between their roles in AmpC induction,

  14. Anr and its activation by PlcH activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa host colonization and virulence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Angelyca A; Gross, Maegan J; Daniels, Emily F; Hampton, Thomas H; Hammond, John H; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Dove, Simon L; Stanton, Bruce A; Hogan, Deborah A

    2013-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) degrades phosphatidylcholine (PC), an abundant lipid in cell membranes and lung surfactant. A ΔplcHR mutant, known to be defective in virulence in animal models, was less able to colonize epithelial cell monolayers and was defective in biofilm formation on plastic when grown in lung surfactant. Microarray analyses found that strains defective in PlcH production had lower levels of Anr-regulated transcripts than the wild type. PC degradation stimulated the Anr regulon in an Anr-dependent manner under conditions where Anr activity was submaximal because of the presence of oxygen. Two PC catabolites, choline and glycine betaine (GB), were sufficient to stimulate Anr activity, and their catabolism was required for Anr activation. The addition of choline or GB to glucose-containing medium did not alter Anr protein levels, growth rates, or respiratory activity, and Anr activation could not be attributed to the osmoprotectant functions of GB. The Δanr mutant was defective in virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Several lines of evidence indicate that Anr is important for the colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces in both P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 and that increases in Anr activity resulted in enhanced biofilm formation. Our data suggest that PlcH activity promotes Anr activity in oxic environments and that Anr activity contributes to virulence, even in the acute infection phase, where low oxygen tensions are not expected. This finding highlights the relationships among in vivo bacterial metabolism, the activity of the oxygen-sensitive regulator Anr, and virulence.

  15. Activation of human pro-urokinase by unrelated proteases secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Beaufort, Nathalie; Seweryn, Paulina; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Tang, Aihua; Kellermann, Josef; Grebenchtchikov, Nicolai; Schmitt, Manfred; Sommerhoff, Christian P; Pidard, Dominique; Magdolen, Viktor

    2010-06-15

    Pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, interact with and engage the host plasminogen (Plg) activation system, which encompasses the urokinase (uPA)-type Plg activator, and is involved in extracellular proteolysis, including matrilysis and fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that secreted bacterial proteases might contribute to the activation of this major extracellular proteolytic system, thereby participating in bacterial dissemination. We report that LasB, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease secreted by Ps. aeruginosa, converts the human uPA zymogen into its active form (kcat=4.9 s-1, Km=8.9 microM). Accordingly, whereas the extracellular secretome from the LasB-expressing pseudomonal strain PAO1 efficiently activates pro-uPA, the secretome from the isogenic LasB-deficient strain PDO240 is markedly less potent in pro-uPA activation. Still, both secretomes induce some metalloprotease-independent activation of the human zymogen. The latter involves a serine protease, which we identified via both recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli and purification from pseudomonal cultures as protease IV (PIV; kcat=0.73 s-1, Km=6.2 microM). In contrast, neither secretomes nor the pure proteases activate Plg. Along with this, LasB converts Plg into mini-Plg and angiostatin, whereas, as reported previously, it processes the uPA receptor, inactivates the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and activates pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2. PIV does not target these factors at all. To conclude, LasB and PIV, although belonging to different protease families and displaying quite different substrate specificities, both activate the urokinase-type precursor of the Plg activation cascade. Direct pro-uPA activation, as also reported for other bacterial proteases, might be a frequent phenomenon that contributes to bacterial virulence.

  16. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyochelin-iron uptake pathway and its metal specificity.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Hannauer, Mélissa; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2009-06-01

    Pyochelin (Pch) is one of the two major siderophores produced and secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to assimilate iron. It chelates iron in the extracellular medium and transports it into the cell via a specific outer membrane transporter, FptA. We used the fluorescent properties of Pch to show that this siderophore chelates, in addition to Fe(3+) albeit with substantially lower affinities, Ag(+), Al(3+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cr(2+), Cu(2+), Eu(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), Tb(3+), Tl(+), and Zn(2+). Surprisingly, the Pch complexes with all these metals bound to FptA with affinities in the range of 10 nM to 4.8 microM (the affinity of Pch-Fe is 10 nM) and were able to inhibit, with various efficiencies, Pch-(55)Fe uptake in vivo. We used inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry to follow metal uptake by P. aeruginosa. Energy-dependent metal uptake, in the presence of Pch, was efficient only for Fe(3+). Co(2+), Ga(3+), and Ni(2+) were also transported, but the uptake rates were 23- to 35-fold lower than that for Fe(3+). No uptake was seen for all the other metals. Thus, cell surface FptA has broad metal specificity at the binding stage but is much more selective for the metal uptake process. This uptake pathway does not appear to efficiently assimilate any metal other than Fe(3+). PMID:19329644

  17. Antimicrobial targets localize to the extracellular vesicle-associated proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Park, Amber J; Surette, Matthew D; Khursigara, Cezar M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are particularly resistant to antimicrobial therapies. These surface-attached communities are protected against host defenses and pharmacotherapy by a self-produced matrix that surrounds and fortifies them. Recent proteomic evidence also suggests that some bacteria, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, undergo modifications within a biofilm that make them uniquely resistant compared to their planktonic (free-living) counterparts. This study examines 50 proteins in the resistance subproteome of both surface-associated and free-living P. aeruginosa PAO1 over three time points. Proteins were grouped into categories based on their roles in antimicrobial: (i) binding, (ii) efflux, (iii) resistance, and (iv) susceptibility. In addition, the extracellular outer membrane vesicle-associated proteome is examined and compared between the two growth modes. We show that in whole cells between 12-24% of the proteins are present at significantly different abundance levels over time, with some proteins being unique to a specific growth mode; however, the total abundance levels in the four categories remain consistent. In contrast, marked differences are seen in the protein content of the outer membrane vesicles, which contain a greater number of drug-binding proteins in vesicles purified from late-stage biofilms. These results show how the method of analysis can impact the interpretation of proteomic data (i.e., individual proteins vs. systems), and highlight the advantage of using protein-based methods to identify potential antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in extracellular sample components. Furthermore, this information has the potential to inform the development of specific antipseudomonal therapies that quench possible drug-sequestering vesicle proteins. This strategy could serve as a novel approach for combating the high-level of antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  18. Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induce Both the Unfolded Protein and Integrated Stress Responses in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Wout, Emily F. A.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; van Boxtel, Ria; Dalton, Lucy E.; Clarke, Hanna J.; Tommassen, Jan; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection can be disastrous in chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Its toxic effects are largely mediated by secreted virulence factors including pyocyanin, elastase and alkaline protease (AprA). Efficient functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for cell survival and appropriate immune responses, while an excess of unfolded proteins within the ER leads to “ER stress” and activation of the “unfolded protein response” (UPR). Bacterial infection and Toll-like receptor activation trigger the UPR most likely due to the increased demand for protein folding of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we show that cell-free conditioned medium of the PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, containing secreted virulence factors, induces ER stress in primary bronchial epithelial cells as evidenced by splicing of XBP1 mRNA and induction of CHOP, GRP78 and GADD34 expression. Most aspects of the ER stress response were dependent on TAK1 and p38 MAPK, except for the induction of GADD34 mRNA. Using various mutant strains and purified virulence factors, we identified pyocyanin and AprA as inducers of ER stress. However, the induction of GADD34 was mediated by an ER stress-independent integrated stress response (ISR) which was at least partly dependent on the iron-sensing eIF2α kinase HRI. Our data strongly suggest that this increased GADD34 expression served to protect against Pseudomonas-induced, iron-sensitive cell cytotoxicity. In summary, virulence factors from P. aeruginosa induce ER stress in airway epithelial cells and also trigger the ISR to improve cell survival of the host. PMID:26083346

  19. Identification of Five Structurally Unrelated Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Natural-Derivative Database

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Chua, Song-Lin; Chen, Yicai; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria communicate by means of small signal molecules in a process termed quorum sensing (QS). QS enables bacteria to organize their activities at the population level, including the coordinated secretion of virulence factors. Certain small-molecule compounds, known as quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs), have been shown to effectively block QS and subsequently attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as increasing its susceptibility to both antibiotics and the immune system. In this study, a structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) approach was used for the discovery of novel QSI candidates. Three-dimensional structures of 3,040 natural compounds and their derivatives were obtained, after which molecular docking was performed using the QS receptor LasR as a target. Based on docking scores and molecular masses, 22 compounds were purchased to determine their efficacies as quorum-sensing inhibitors. Using a live reporter assay for quorum sensing, 5 compounds were found to be able to inhibit QS-regulated gene expression in P. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent manner. The most promising compound, G1, was evaluated by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis, and it was found to significantly affect the abundance of 46 proteins (19 were upregulated; 27 were downregulated) in P. aeruginosa PAO1. It specifically reduced the expression of several quorum-sensing-regulated virulence factors, such as protease IV, chitinase, and pyoverdine synthetases. G1 was also able to reduce extracellular DNA release and inhibited the secretion of the virulence factor, elastase, whose expression is regulated by LasR. These results demonstrate the utility of SB-VS for the discovery of target-specific QSIs. PMID:24002091

  20. Divergence of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during an outbreak of ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elli A; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Trappetti, Claudia; Liciardi, Manuele; Orru, Germano; Viti, Carlo; Bronowski, Christina; Hall, Amanda J; Darby, Alistair C; Oggioni, Marco R; Winstanley, Craig

    2015-01-30

    Bacterial infections causing mastitis in sheep can result in severe economic losses for farmers. A large survey of milk samples from ewes with mastitis in Sardinia, Italy, indicated an increasing prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It has been shown previously that during chronic, biofilm-associated infections P. aeruginosa populations diversify. We report the phenotypic and genomic characterisation of two clonal P. aeruginosa isolates (PSE305 and PSE306) from a mastitis infection outbreak, representing distinct colony morphology variants. In addition to pigment production, PSE305 and PSE306 differed in phenotypic characteristics including biofilm formation, utilisation of various carbon and nitrogen sources, twitching motility. We found higher levels of expression of genes associated with biofilm formation (pelB) and twitching motility (flgD) in PSE305, compared to the biofilm and twitching-defective PSE306. Comparative genomics analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and minor insertion/deletion variations between PSE305 and PSE306, including a SNP mutation in the pilP gene of PSE306. By introducing a wild-type pilP gene we were able to partially complement the defective twitching motility of PSE306. There were also three larger regions of difference between the two genomes, indicating genomic instability. Hence, we have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa population divergence can occur during an outbreak of mastitis, leading to significant variations in phenotype and genotype, and resembling the behaviour of P. aeruginosa during chronic biofilm-associated infections.

  1. Isolation and characterization of two genes, waaC (rfaC) and waaF (rfaF), involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O5 inner-core biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    de Kievit, T R; Lam, J S

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence to implicate involvement of the core oligosaccharide region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in adherence to host tissues. To better understand the role played by LPS in the virulence of this organism, the aim of the present study was to clone and characterize genes involved in core biosynthesis. The inner-core regions of P. aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are structurally very similar; both contain two main chain residues of heptose linked to lipid A-Kdo2 (Kdo is 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid). By electrotransforming a P. aeruginosa PAO1 library into Salmonella waaC and waaF (formerly known as rfaC and rfaF, respectively) mutants, we were able to isolate the homologous heptosyltransferase I and II genes of P. aeruginosa. Two plasmids, pCOREc1 and pCOREc2, which restored smooth LPS production in the waaC mutant, were isolated. Similarly, plasmid pCOREf1 was able to complement the Salmonella waaF mutant. Sequence analysis of the DNA insert of pCOREc2 revealed one open reading frame (ORF) which could code for a protein of 39.8 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the deduced protein exhibited 53% identity with the sequence of the WaaC protein of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. pCOREf1 contained one ORF capable of encoding a 38.4-kDa protein. The sequence of the predicted protein was 49% identical to the sequence of the Salmonella WaaF protein. Protein expression by the Maxicell system confirmed that a 40-kDa protein was encoded by pCOREc2 and a 38-kDa protein was encoded by pCOREf1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine the map locations of the cloned waaC and waaF genes, which were found to lie between 0.9 and 6.6 min on the PAO1 chromosome. Using a gene-replacement strategy, we attempted to generate P. aeruginosa waaC and waaF null mutants. Despite multiple attempts to isolate true knockout mutants, all transconjugants were identified as merodiploids. PMID:9171387

  2. The ADP-ribosylation domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS is required for membrane bleb niche formation and bacterial survival within epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Angus, Annette A; Evans, David J; Barbieri, Joseph T; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2010-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish a niche within the plasma membrane of epithelial cells (bleb niches) within which bacteria can survive, replicate, and swim at speeds detectable by real-time phase-contrast imaging. This novel virulence strategy is dependent on the bacterial type three secretion system (T3SS), since mutants lacking the T3SS needle or known T3SS effectors localize to perinuclear vacuoles and fail to replicate. Here, we determined which of the three effectors (ExoS, ExoT, or ExoY) were required for bleb niche formation and intracellular replication. PAO1 strains with mutations in exoS, exoT, exoY, or combinations thereof were compared to wild-type and complemented strains. P. aeruginosa exoS mutants, but not exoT or exoY mutants, lost the capacity for bleb niche formation and intracellular replication. Complementation with exoS rescued both phenotypes, either in the background of an exoS mutant or in a mutant lacking all three known effectors. Complementation with activity domain mutants of exoS revealed that the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADP-r) activity of ExoS, but not the Rho-GAP activity nor the membrane localization domain (MLD) of ExoS, was required to elicit this phenotype. Membrane bleb niches that contained P. aeruginosa also bound annexin V-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), a marker of early apoptosis. These data show that P. aeruginosa bleb niches and intracellular survival involve ExoS ADP-r activity and implicate a connection between bleb niche formation and the known role(s) of ExoS-mediated apoptosis and/or Rab GTPase inactivation.

  3. A long-chain flavodoxin protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa from oxidative stress and host bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Alejandro J; Tobares, Romina A; Rizzi, Yanina S; Krapp, Adriana R; Mondotte, Juan A; Bocco, José L; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Carrillo, Néstor; Smania, Andrea M

    2014-02-01

    Long-chain flavodoxins, ubiquitous electron shuttles containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as prosthetic group, play an important protective role against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which frequently has to face ROS toxicity in the environment as well as within the host. We identified a single ORF, hereafter referred to as fldP (for fl avo d oxin from P . aeruginosa), displaying the highest similarity in length, sequence identity and predicted secondary structure with typical long-chain flavodoxins. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant product (FldP) could bind FMN and exhibited flavodoxin activity in vitro. Expression of fldP in P. aeruginosa was induced by oxidative stress conditions through an OxyR-independent mechanism, and an fldP-null mutant accumulated higher intracellular ROS levels and exhibited decreased tolerance to H2O2 toxicity compared to wild-type siblings. The mutant phenotype could be complemented by expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin. Overexpression of FldP in a mutT-deficient P. aeruginosa strain decreased H2O2-induced cell death and the hypermutability caused by DNA oxidative damage. FldP contributed to the survival of P. aeruginosa within cultured mammalian macrophages and in infected Drosophila melanogaster, which led in turn to accelerated death of the flies. Interestingly, the fldP gene is present in some but not all P. aeruginosa strains, constituting a component of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome. It is located in a genomic island as part of a self-regulated polycistronic operon containing a suite of stress-associated genes. The collected results indicate that the fldP gene encodes a long-chain flavodoxin, which protects the cell from oxidative stress, thereby expanding the capabilities of P. aeruginosa to thrive in hostile environments. PMID:24550745

  4. Detection of elastase production in Escherichia coli with the elastase structural gene from several non-elastase-producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, E; Kawamoto, S; Fukushima, J; Hamajima, K; Onishi, H; Miyagi, Y; Inami, S; Morihara, K; Okuda, K

    1991-01-01

    The elastase structural gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 has been cloned and sequenced. Using this gene as a probe, we cloned the DNA fragments (pEL3080R, pEL10, and pEL103R) of the elastase gene from non-elastase-producing strains (P. aeruginosa IFO 3080, N-10, and PA103 respectively). These three Pseudomonas strains showed no detectable levels of elastase antigenicity by Western blotting (immunoblotting) or by elastase activity. When elastase structural genes about 8 kb in length were cloned into pUC18, an Escherichia coli expression vector, we were able to detect both elastase antigenicity and elastolytic activity in two bacterial clones (E. coli pEL10 and E. coli pEL103R). However, neither elastolytic activity nor elastase antigenicity was detected in the E. coli pEL3080R clone, although elastase mRNA was observed. The partial restriction map determined with several restriction enzymes of these three structural genes corresponded to that of P. aeruginosa IFO 3455. We sequenced the three DNA segments of the elastase gene from non-elastase-producing strains and compared the sequences with those from the elastase-producing P. aeruginosa strains IFO 3455 and PAO1. In P. aeruginosa N-10 and PA103, the sequences were almost identical to those from elastase-producing strains, except for several nucleotide differences. These minor differences may reflect a microheterogeneity of the elastase gene. These results suggest that two of the non-elastase-producing strains have the normal elastase structural gene and that elastase production is repressed by regulation of this gene expression in P. aeruginosa. Possible reasons for the lack of expression in these two strains are offered in this paper. In P. aeruginosa IFO 3080, the sequence had a 1-base deletion in the coding region, which should have caused a frameshift variation in the amino acid sequence. At present, we have no explanation for the abnormal posttransciptional behavior of this strain. Images PMID

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa IscR-Regulated Ferredoxin NADP(+) Reductase Gene (fprB) Functions in Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis and Multiple Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Romsang, Adisak; Duang-Nkern, Jintana; Wirathorn, Wilaiwan; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2015-01-01

    P. aeruginosa (PAO1) has two putative genes encoding ferredoxin NADP(+) reductases, denoted fprA and fprB. Here, the regulation of fprB expression and the protein's physiological roles in [4Fe-4S] cluster biogenesis and stress protection are characterized. The fprB mutant has defects in [4Fe-4S] cluster biogenesis, as shown by reduced activities of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing enzymes. Inactivation of the gene resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidative, thiol, osmotic and metal stresses compared with the PAO1 wild type. The increased sensitivity could be partially or completely suppressed by high expression of genes from the isc operon, which are involved in [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis, indicating that stress sensitivity in the fprB mutant is partially caused by a reduction in levels of [4Fe-4S] clusters. The pattern and regulation of fprB expression are in agreement with the gene physiological roles; fprB expression was highly induced by redox cycling drugs and diamide and was moderately induced by peroxides, an iron chelator and salt stress. The stress-induced expression of fprB was abolished by a deletion of the iscR gene. An IscR DNA-binding site close to fprB promoter elements was identified and confirmed by specific binding of purified IscR. Analysis of the regulation of fprB expression supports the role of IscR in directly regulating fprB transcription as a transcription activator. The combination of IscR-regulated expression of fprB and the fprB roles in response to multiple stressors emphasizes the importance of [Fe-S] cluster homeostasis in both gene regulation and stress protection.

  6. Derivatives of Plant Phenolic Compound Affect the Type III Secretion System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via a GacS-GacA Two-Component Signal Transduction System

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Akihiro; Li, Jin; Zeng, Quan; Khokhani, Devanshi; Hutchins, William C.; Yost, Angela C.; Biddle, Eulandria; Toone, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is the most commonly used strategy to control pathogenic infections; however, it has contributed to the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To circumvent this emerging problem, we are searching for compounds that target bacterial virulence factors rather than their viability. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS) as one of the major virulence factors by which it secretes and translocates T3 effector proteins into human host cells. The fact that this human pathogen also is able to infect several plant species led us to screen a library of phenolic compounds involved in plant defense signaling and their derivatives for novel T3 inhibitors. Promoter activity screening of exoS, which encodes a T3-secreted toxin, identified two T3 inhibitors and two T3 inducers of P. aeruginosa PAO1. These compounds alter exoS transcription by affecting the expression levels of the regulatory small RNAs RsmY and RsmZ. These two small RNAs are known to control the activity of carbon storage regulator RsmA, which is responsible for the regulation of the key T3SS regulator ExsA. As RsmY and RsmZ are the only targets directly regulated by GacA, our results suggest that these phenolic compounds affect the expression of exoS through the GacSA-RsmYZ-RsmA-ExsA regulatory pathway. PMID:21968370

  7. A Geobacter sulfurreducens Strain Expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pili Localizes OmcS on Pili but Is Deficient in Fe(III) Oxide Reduction and Current Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity. PMID:24296506

  8. Transcription of Quorum-Sensing System Genes in Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cabrol, Ségolène; Olliver, Anne; Pier, Gerald B.; Andremont, Antoine; Ruimy, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS)-based transcriptional responses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been defined on the basis of increases in transcript levels of QS-controlled genes such as lasB and aprA following the hierarchical transcriptional increases of central controllers such as the lasR gene. These increases occur at high bacterial concentrations such as early-stationary-phase growth in vitro. However, the extent to which the increases occur in a variety of clinical and environmental isolates has not been determined nor is there extensive information on allelic variation in lasR genes. An analysis of the sequences of the lasR gene among 66 clinical and environmental isolates showed that 81% have a sequence either identical to that of strain PAO1 or with a silent mutation, 15% have nucleotide changes resulting in amino acid changes, and 5% have an insertion sequence in the lasR gene. Using real-time PCR to quantify transcript levels of lasR, lasB, and aprA in the early log and early stationary phases among 35 isolates from bacteremia and pneumonia cases and the environment, we found most (33 of 35) strains had increases in lasR transcripts in early stationary phase but with a very wide range of final transcript levels per cell. There was a strong correlation (r2 = 0.84) between early-log- and early-stationary-phase transcript levels in all strains, but this finding remained true only for the 50% of strains above the median level of lasR found in early log phase. There were significant (P < 0.05) but weak-to-modest correlations of lasR transcript levels with aprA (r2 = 0.2) and lasB (r2 = 0.5) transcript levels, but again this correlation occurred only in the 50% of P. aeruginosa strains with the highest levels of lasR transcripts in early stationary phase. There were no differences in distribution of lasR alleles among the bacteremia, pneumonia, or environmental isolates. Overall, only about 50% of P. aeruginosa strains from clinical and environmental sources show a las

  9. Identification of quorum-sensing regulated proteins in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Ferro, Catalina; Hentzer, Morten; Reil, Gerold; Görg, Angelika; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo

    2003-12-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is responsible for severe nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients and is the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis. The bacterium utilizes two interrelated quorum-sensing (QS) systems, which rely on N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules, to control the expression of virulence factors and biofilm development. In this study, we compared the protein patterns of the intracellular, extracellular and surface protein fractions of the PAO1 parent strain with those of an isogenic lasI rhlI double mutant by means of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This analysis showed that the intensities of 23.7% of all detected protein spots differed more than 2.5-fold between the two strains. We only considered those protein spots truly QS regulated that were changed in the mutant in the absence of signal molecules but were rescued to the wild-type situation when the medium was supplemented with AHLs. These protein spots were characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide mapping. Twenty-seven proteins were identified that were previously reported to be AHL controlled, among them several well-characterized virulence factors. For one of the identified proteins, the serine protease PrpL, a biochemical assay was established to verify that expression of this factor is indeed QS regulated. Furthermore, it is shown that the quorum-sensing blocker C-30 specifically interferes with the expression of 67% of the AHL-controlled protein spots of the surface fraction, confirming the high specificity of the compound. Importantly, 20 novel QS-regulated proteins were identified, many of which are involved in iron utilization, suggesting a link between quorum sensing and the iron regulatory system. Two of these proteins, PhuR and HasAp, are components of the two distinct haem-uptake systems present in P. aeruginosa. In agreement with the finding that both proteins are positively regulated by the

  10. Dissecting the Machinery That Introduces Disulfide Bonds in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Isabelle S.; Ball, Geneviève; Leverrier, Pauline; Garvis, Steven; Nicolaes, Valérie; Vertommen, Didier; Ize, Bérengère; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Messens, Joris; Voulhoux, Romé; Collet, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disulfide bond formation is required for the folding of many bacterial virulence factors. However, whereas the Escherichia coli disulfide bond-forming system is well characterized, not much is known on the pathways that oxidatively fold proteins in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we report the detailed unraveling of the pathway that introduces disulfide bonds in the periplasm of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The genome of P. aeruginosa uniquely encodes two DsbA proteins (P. aeruginosa DsbA1 [PaDsbA1] and PaDsbA2) and two DsbB proteins (PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2). We found that PaDsbA1, the primary donor of disulfide bonds to secreted proteins, is maintained oxidized in vivo by both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2. In vitro reconstitution of the pathway confirms that both PaDsbB1 and PaDsbB2 shuttle electrons from PaDsbA1 to membrane-bound quinones. Accordingly, deletion of both P. aeruginosa dsbB1 (PadsbB1) and PadsbB2 is required to prevent the folding of several P. aeruginosa virulence factors and to lead to a significant decrease in pathogenicity. Using a high-throughput proteomic approach, we also analyzed the impact of PadsbA1 deletion on the global periplasmic proteome of P. aeruginosa, which allowed us to identify more than 20 new potential substrates of this major oxidoreductase. Finally, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of PaDsbA2, a highly oxidizing oxidoreductase, which seems to be expressed under specific conditions. By fully dissecting the machinery that introduces disulfide bonds in P. aeruginosa, our work opens the way to the design of novel antibacterial molecules able to disarm this pathogen by preventing the proper assembly of its arsenal of virulence factors. PMID:24327342

  11. Long-term effects of single and combined introductions of antibiotics and bacteriophages on populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barceló, Clara; Franzon, Blaise; Vasse, Marie; Hochberg, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    With escalating resistance to antibiotics, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapies against bacterial pathogens and pests. One of the most promising is the employment of bacteriophages (phages), which may be highly specific and evolve to counter antiphage resistance. Despite an increased understanding of how phages interact with bacteria, we know very little about how their interactions may be modified in antibiotic environments and, reciprocally, how phage may affect the evolution of antibiotic resistance. We experimentally evaluated the impacts of single and combined applications of antibiotics (different doses and different types) and phages on in vitro evolving populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We also assessed the effects of past treatments on bacterial virulence in vivo, employing larvae of Galleria mellonella to survey the treatment consequences for the pathogen. We find a strong synergistic effect of combining antibiotics and phages on bacterial population density and in limiting their recovery rate. Our long-term study establishes that antibiotic dose is important, but that effects are relatively insensitive to antibiotic type. From an applied perspective, our results indicate that phages can contribute to managing antibiotic resistance levels, with limited consequences for the evolution of bacterial virulence.

  12. Optimal dosing regimen of nitric oxide donor compounds for the reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and isolates from wastewater membranes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert J; Bandi, Ratnaharika R; Wong, Wee Seng; Barraud, Nicolas; McDougald, Diane; Fane, Anthony; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Membrane fouling by bacterial biofilms remains a key challenge for membrane-based water purification systems. Here, the optimal biofilm dispersal potential of three nitric oxide (NO) donor compounds, viz. sodium nitroprusside, 6-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine (MAHMA NONOate) and 1-(hydroxy-NNO-azoxy)-L-proline, disodium salt, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model organism. Dispersal was quantitatively assessed by confocal microscopy [bacterial cells and the components of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (polysaccharides and extracellular DNA)] and colony-forming unit counts. The three NO donor compounds had different optimal exposure times and concentrations, with MAHMA NONOate being the optimal NO donor compound. Biofilm dispersal correlated with a reduction in both bacterial cells and EPS. MAHMA NONOate also reduced single species biofilms formed by bacteria isolated from industrial membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis membranes, as well as in isolates combined to generate mixed species biofilms. The data present strong evidence for the application of these NO donor compounds for prevention of biofouling in an industrial setting. PMID:23368407

  13. Characterization of wetland quorum quenching Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2SW8 and its 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone production.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheng-Siang; Yin, Wai-Fong; Sam, Choon-Kook; Koh, Chong-Lek; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Most Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones for bacterial cell-to-cell communication, a process called quorum sensing. Interference of quorum sensing, commonly known as quorum quenching, represents an important way to control quorum sensing. This work reports the isolation of quorum quenching bacterium strain 2WS8 from Malaysia tropical wetland water (2°11'8"N, 102°15'2"E, in 2007) by using a modified version of a previously reported KG medium. Strain 2WS8 was isolated based on its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) as the sole source of energy. This bacterium clustered closely to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain 2SW8 possesses both quiP and pvdQ homologue acylase genes. Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography analysis confirmed that strain 2SW8 preferentially degraded N-acylhomoserine lactones with 3-oxo group substitution but not those with unsubstituted groups at C3 position in the acyl side chain. Strain 2SW8 also showed 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone production.

  14. Optimal dosing regimen of nitric oxide donor compounds for the reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and isolates from wastewater membranes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Robert J; Bandi, Ratnaharika R; Wong, Wee Seng; Barraud, Nicolas; McDougald, Diane; Fane, Anthony; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Membrane fouling by bacterial biofilms remains a key challenge for membrane-based water purification systems. Here, the optimal biofilm dispersal potential of three nitric oxide (NO) donor compounds, viz. sodium nitroprusside, 6-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-hexanamine (MAHMA NONOate) and 1-(hydroxy-NNO-azoxy)-L-proline, disodium salt, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model organism. Dispersal was quantitatively assessed by confocal microscopy [bacterial cells and the components of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (polysaccharides and extracellular DNA)] and colony-forming unit counts. The three NO donor compounds had different optimal exposure times and concentrations, with MAHMA NONOate being the optimal NO donor compound. Biofilm dispersal correlated with a reduction in both bacterial cells and EPS. MAHMA NONOate also reduced single species biofilms formed by bacteria isolated from industrial membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis membranes, as well as in isolates combined to generate mixed species biofilms. The data present strong evidence for the application of these NO donor compounds for prevention of biofouling in an industrial setting.

  15. Antimicrobial and antifouling efficacy of urinary catheters impregnated with a combination of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Saini, Hina; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) is increasing worldwide. This study was designed to modify a biomaterial by impregnating a silicone urinary catheter with combination of a macrolide, azithromycin (AZM) and a fluoroquinolone, ciprofloxacin (CIP). Drug release profiles showed slow yet continuous release of antibiotics from catheters for one month. In vitro efficacy testing showed that group B catheters [3% (w v(-1)) CIP + 6% (w v(-1)) AZM] outperformed group A catheters [2% (w v(-1)) CIP + 5% (w v(-1)) AZM] by (1) showing larger zones of inhibition (>31 mm) compared to group A (<28 mm) for up to 30 days against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1; (2) killing adhered bacteria in 24 h compared to 24-48 h in group A; (3) showing longer antimicrobial durability for four weeks; and (4) exhibiting a stable real-time shelf life of one year, suggesting that these catheters can be explored in clinical settings, especially in long-term CAUTI. PMID:26982572

  16. Evolved resistance to colistin and its loss due to genetic reversion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Young Kyoung; Chung, Eun Seon; Na, In Young; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2016-01-01

    The increased reliance on colistin for treating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections has resulted in the emergence of colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We attempted to identify genetic contributors to colistin resistance in vitro evolved isogenic colistin-resistant and -susceptible strains of two P. aeruginosa lineages (P5 and P155). Their evolutionary paths to acquisition and loss of colistin resistance were also tracked. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 13 and five colistin resistance determinants in the P5 and P155 lineages, respectively. Lipid A in colistin-resistant mutants was modified through the addition of 4-amino-L-arabinose; this modification was absent in colistin-susceptible revertant strains. Many amino acid substitutions that emerged during the acquisition of colistin resistance were reversed in colistin-susceptible revertants. We demonstrated that evolved colistin resistance in P. aeruginosa was mediated by a complicated regulatory network that likely emerges through diverse genetic alterations. Colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa became susceptible to the colistin upon its withdrawal because of genetic reversion. The mechanisms through which P. aeruginosa acquires and loses colistin resistance have implications on the treatment options that can be applied against P. aeruginosa infections, with respect to improving bactericidal efficacy and preventing further resistance to antibiotics. PMID:27150578

  17. Diverse Mobilized Class 1 Integrons Are Common in the Chromosomes of Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Elena; Marquez, Carolina; Ingold, Ana; Merlino, John; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu

    2012-01-01

    Eleven clinical class 1 integron-containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Australia and Uruguay were investigated for the genomic locations of these elements. Several novel class 1 integrons/transposons were found in at least four distinct locations in the chromosome, including genomic islands. These elements seem to be undergoing successful dispersal by lateral gene transfer since integrons were identified across several lineages and more than one clonal line. PMID:22271862

  18. The Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains from Cystic Fibrosis Patients to Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Cablanmian, Arsher; Lathro, Serge; Kutter, Elizabeth; Thien, Hoang Vu; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Phage therapy may become a complement to antibiotics in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. To design efficient therapeutic cocktails, the genetic diversity of the species and the spectrum of susceptibility to bacteriophages must be investigated. Bacterial strains showing high levels of phage resistance need to be identified in order to decipher the underlying mechanisms. Here we have selected genetically diverse P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and tested their susceptibility to a large collection of phages. Based on plaque morphology and restriction profiles, six different phages were purified from “pyophage”, a commercial cocktail directed against five different bacterial species, including P. aeruginosa. Characterization of these phages by electron microscopy and sequencing of genome fragments showed that they belong to 4 different genera. Among 47 P. aeruginosa strains, 13 were not lysed by any of the isolated phages individually or by pyophage. We isolated two new phages that could lyse some of these strains, and their genomes were sequenced. The presence/absence of a CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Crisper associated genes) was investigated to evaluate the role of the system in phage resistance. Altogether, the results show that some P. aeruginosa strains cannot support the growth of any of the tested phages belonging to 5 different genera, and suggest that the CRISPR-Cas system is not a major defence mechanism against these lytic phages. PMID:23637754

  19. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients to bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Cablanmian, Arsher; Lathro, Serge; Kutter, Elizabeth; Thien, Hoang Vu; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Phage therapy may become a complement to antibiotics in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. To design efficient therapeutic cocktails, the genetic diversity of the species and the spectrum of susceptibility to bacteriophages must be investigated. Bacterial strains showing high levels of phage resistance need to be identified in order to decipher the underlying mechanisms. Here we have selected genetically diverse P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and tested their susceptibility to a large collection of phages. Based on plaque morphology and restriction profiles, six different phages were purified from "pyophage", a commercial cocktail directed against five different bacterial species, including P. aeruginosa. Characterization of these phages by electron microscopy and sequencing of genome fragments showed that they belong to 4 different genera. Among 47 P. aeruginosa strains, 13 were not lysed by any of the isolated phages individually or by pyophage. We isolated two new phages that could lyse some of these strains, and their genomes were sequenced. The presence/absence of a CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Crisper associated genes) was investigated to evaluate the role of the system in phage resistance. Altogether, the results show that some P. aeruginosa strains cannot support the growth of any of the tested phages belonging to 5 different genera, and suggest that the CRISPR-Cas system is not a major defence mechanism against these lytic phages.

  20. Azithromycin and ciprofloxacin: a possible synergistic combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Hina; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation is becoming a predominant feature in nosocomial infections. Since biofilms are increasingly resistant to antibiotics, making monotherapy ineffective, combination therapy appears to be relevant for their eradication. This study assessed the potential of azithromycin (AZM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) alone and in combination in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI) induced with biofilm cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of antibiotics alone and in combination were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), time-kill analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo efficacy was evaluated in a UTI model by quantitation of bacterial burden in kidney and bladder tissue, renal histopathology, pathology index factors (MDA and NO), and pro-inflammatory (MIP-2 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. MICs of AZM and CIP for strain PAO1 were 256 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively; MBECs were 4096 and 1024 μg/mL. Synergistic interaction was observed between AZM and CIP both against planktonic and biofilm bacteria (FICI<0.5). The combination was also able to inhibit biofilm formation (at MIC levels) as observed with CLSM. Oral therapy with AZM (500 mg/kg) and CIP (30 mg/kg) combination in mice for 4 days showed accelerated clearance of bacteria from kidney and bladder tissue, improved renal histopathology, decreased levels of MDA and NO, significant decline in MIP-2 and IL-6, and increased IL-10 in the kidney (P<0.0001). We conclude that AZM+CIP therapy holds promise against biofilm-associated UTIs as it confers antibacterial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25604277

  1. Homogentisate 1-2-Dioxygenase Downregulation in the Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian Epidemic Strain-1 in the CF Lung

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Christopher J.; Wynn, Matthew; Pinto, Rachel; Cordwell, Stuart; Rose, Barbara R.; Harbour, Colin; Triccas, James A.; Manos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains including Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1 or AUS-01) cause persistent chronic infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with greater morbidity and mortality. Factors conferring persistence are largely unknown. Previously we analysed the transcriptomes of AES-1 grown in Luria broth, nematode growth medium for Caenorhabditis elegans assay (both aerobic) and artificial sputum medium (mainly hypoxic). Transcriptional comparisons included chronic AES-1 strains against PAO1 and acute AES-1 (AES-1R) against its chronic isogen (AES-1M), isolated 10.5 years apart from a CF patient and not eradicated in the meantime. Prominent amongst genes downregulated in AES-1M in all comparisons was homogentisate-1-2-dioxygenase (hmgA); an oxygen-dependent gene known to be mutationally deactivated in many chronic infection strains of P. aeruginosa. To investigate if hmgA downregulation and deactivation gave similar virulence persistence profiles, a hmgA mutant made in UCBPP-PA14 utilising RedS-recombinase and AES-1M were assessed in the C. elegans virulence assay, and the C57BL/6 mouse for pulmonary colonisation and TNF-α response. In C. elegans, hmgA deactivation resulted in significantly increased PA14 virulence while hmgA downregulation reduced AES-1M virulence. AES-1M was significantly more persistent in mouse lung and showed a significant increase in TNF-α (p<0.0001), sustained even with no detectable bacteria. PA14ΔhmgA did not show increased TNF-α. This study suggests that hmgA may have a role in P. aeruginosa persistence in chronic infection and the results provide a starting point for clarifying the role of hmgA in chronic AES-1. PMID:26252386

  2. Homogentisate 1-2-Dioxygenase Downregulation in the Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian Epidemic Strain-1 in the CF Lung.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Wynn, Matthew; Pinto, Rachel; Cordwell, Stuart; Rose, Barbara R; Harbour, Colin; Triccas, James A; Manos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains including Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1 or AUS-01) cause persistent chronic infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with greater morbidity and mortality. Factors conferring persistence are largely unknown. Previously we analysed the transcriptomes of AES-1 grown in Luria broth, nematode growth medium for Caenorhabditis elegans assay (both aerobic) and artificial sputum medium (mainly hypoxic). Transcriptional comparisons included chronic AES-1 strains against PAO1 and acute AES-1 (AES-1R) against its chronic isogen (AES-1M), isolated 10.5 years apart from a CF patient and not eradicated in the meantime. Prominent amongst genes downregulated in AES-1M in all comparisons was homogentisate-1-2-dioxygenase (hmgA); an oxygen-dependent gene known to be mutationally deactivated in many chronic infection strains of P. aeruginosa. To investigate if hmgA downregulation and deactivation gave similar virulence persistence profiles, a hmgA mutant made in UCBPP-PA14 utilising RedS-recombinase and AES-1M were assessed in the C. elegans virulence assay, and the C57BL/6 mouse for pulmonary colonisation and TNF-α response. In C. elegans, hmgA deactivation resulted in significantly increased PA14 virulence while hmgA downregulation reduced AES-1M virulence. AES-1M was significantly more persistent in mouse lung and showed a significant increase in TNF-α (p<0.0001), sustained even with no detectable bacteria. PA14ΔhmgA did not show increased TNF-α. This study suggests that hmgA may have a role in P. aeruginosa persistence in chronic infection and the results provide a starting point for clarifying the role of hmgA in chronic AES-1. PMID:26252386

  3. Presence of the siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin in the extracellular medium reduces toxic metal accumulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and increases bacterial metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Braud, Armelle; Geoffroy, Valérie; Hoegy, Françoise; Mislin, Gaëtan L A; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2010-06-01

    In order to get access to iron, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 produces two major siderophores pyoverdine (PVD) and pyochelin (PCH). Both siderophores are able to chelate many other metals in addition to iron. However, despite this property, only iron is transported efficiently into the bacteria by the PVD and PCH uptake pathways. Growth studies with P. aeruginosa strains showed a lower sensitivity to toxic metals for the siderophore-producing strain than for the mutants unable to produce siderophores. Moreover, addition of PVD or PCH to the growth medium of a siderophore-deficient strain considerably reduced the toxicity of toxic metals present at concentrations of 100 µM in iron-limited and iron-supplemented growth conditions. Measurement by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry of the concentration of metals present in bacteria incubated with metals in the presence or absence of PVD or PCH indicated that both siderophores were able to sequester metals from the extracellular medium of the bacteria, decreasing metal diffusion into the bacteria. Pyoverdine was able to sequester Al(3+) , Co(2+) , Cu(2+) , Eu(3+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) , Tb(3+) and Zn(2+) from the extracellular medium, and PCH, Al(3+) , Co(2+) , Cu(2+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) . Moreover, the presence of 100 µM Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) increased PVD production by 290% and 380%, respectively, in a medium supplemented with iron. All these data suggest that PVD and PCH may contribute to P. aeruginosa resistance to heavy metals. PMID:23766115

  4. Genetics of O-Antigen Biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Rocchetta, H. L.; Burrows, L. L.; Lam, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria produce an elaborate assortment of extracellular and cell-associated bacterial products that enable colonization and establishment of infection within a host. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules are cell surface factors that are typically known for their protective role against serum-mediated lysis and their endotoxic properties. The most heterogeneous portion of LPS is the O antigen or O polysaccharide, and it is this region which confers serum resistance to the organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of concomitantly synthesizing two types of LPS referred to as A band and B band. The A-band LPS contains a conserved O polysaccharide region composed of d-rhamnose (homopolymer), while the B-band O-antigen (heteropolymer) structure varies among the 20 O serotypes of P. aeruginosa. The genes coding for the enzymes that direct the synthesis of these two O antigens are organized into two separate clusters situated at different chromosomal locations. In this review, we summarize the organization of these two gene clusters to discuss how A-band and B-band O antigens are synthesized and assembled by dedicated enzymes. Examples of unique proteins required for both A-band and B-band O-antigen synthesis and for the synthesis of both LPS and alginate are discussed. The recent identification of additional genes within the P. aeruginosa genome that are homologous to those in the A-band and B-band gene clusters are intriguing since some are able to influence O-antigen synthesis. These studies demonstrate that P. aeruginosa represents a unique model system, allowing studies of heteropolymeric and homopolymeric O-antigen synthesis, as well as permitting an examination of the interrelationship of the synthesis of LPS molecules and other virulence determinants. PMID:10477307

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolutionary Adaptation and Diversification in Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Lung Infections

    PubMed Central

    Winstanley, Craig; O’Brien, Siobhan; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo a characteristic evolutionary adaptation during chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, including reduced production of virulence factors, transition to a biofilm-associated lifestyle, and evolution of high-level antibiotic resistance. Populations of P. aeruginosa in chronic CF lung infections typically exhibit high phenotypic diversity, including for clinically important traits such as antibiotic resistance and toxin production, and this diversity is dynamic over time, making accurate diagnosis and treatment challenging. Population genomics studies reveal extensive genetic diversity within patients, including for transmissible strains the coexistence of highly divergent lineages acquired by patient-to-patient transmission. The inherent spatial structure and spatial heterogeneity of selection in the CF lung appears to play a key role in driving P. aeruginosa diversification. PMID:26946977

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene for NADH-sensitive citrate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Donald, L J; Molgat, G F; Duckworth, H W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the allosteric citrate synthase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been cloned from a genomic library by using the Escherichia coli citrate synthase gene as a hybridization probe under conditions of reduced stringency. Subcloning of portions of the original 10-kilobase-pair (kbp) clone led to isolation of the structural gene, with its promoter, within a 2,083-bp length of DNA flanked by sites for KpnI and BamHI. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment is presented; the inferred amino acid sequence was 70 and 76% identical, respectively, with the citrate synthase sequences from E. coli and Acinetobacter anitratum, two other gram-negative bacteria. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of P. aeruginosa citrate synthase from an E. coli host harboring the cloned P. aeruginosa gene gave three peaks of activity. All three enzyme peaks had subunit molecular weights of 48,000; the proteins were identical by immunological criteria and very similar in kinetics of substrate saturation and NADH inhibition. Because the cloned gene contained only one open reading frame large enough to encode a polypeptide of such a size, the three peaks must represent different forms of the same protein. A portion of the cloned P. aeruginosa gene was used as a hybridization probe under stringent conditions to identify highly homologous sequences in genomic DNA of a second strain classified as P. aeruginosa and isolates of P. putida, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. When crude extracts of each of these four isolates were mixed with antiserum raised against purified P. aeruginosa citrate synthase, however, only the P. alcaligenes extract cross-reacted. Images PMID:2507528

  7. A comparative study of coastal and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anusree V; Joseph, Neetha; Krishna, Kiran; Sneha, K G; Tom, Neenu; Jangid, Kamlesh; Nair, Shanta

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium having a versatile metabolic potential and great ecological and clinical significance. The geographical distribution of P. aeruginosahas revealed the existence of an unbiased genetic arrangement in terrestrial isolates. In contrast, there are very few reports about P. aeruginosa strains from marine environments. The present work was aimed at studying the distribution of P. aeruginosa in coastal waters along the Indian Peninsula and understanding the environmental influence on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics by comparing marine and clinical isolates. Of the 785 marine isolates obtained on selective media, only 32 (~4.1%) were identified as P. aeruginosa, based on their fatty acid methyl ester profiles. A low Euclidian distance value (< 2.5) obtained from chemotaxonomic analysis suggested that all the environmental (coastal and marine) isolates originated from a single species. While UPGMA analyses of AP-PCR and phenotypic profiles separated the environmental and clinical isolates, fatty acid biotyping showed overlapping between most clinical and environmental isolates. Our study revealed the genetic diversity among different environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa. While biogeographical separation was not evident based solely on phenotypic and metabolic typing, genomic and metatranscriptomic studies are more likely to show differences between these isolates. Thus, newer and more insightful methods are required to understand the ecological distribution of this complex group of bacteria. PMID:26413053

  8. A comparative study of coastal and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anusree V.; Joseph, Neetha; Krishna, Kiran; Sneha, K. G.; Tom, Neenu; Jangid, Kamlesh; Nair, Shanta

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium having a versatile metabolic potential and great ecological and clinical significance. The geographical distribution of P. aeruginosahas revealed the existence of an unbiased genetic arrangement in terrestrial isolates. In contrast, there are very few reports about P. aeruginosa strains from marine environments. The present work was aimed at studying the distribution of P. aeruginosa in coastal waters along the Indian Peninsula and understanding the environmental influence on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics by comparing marine and clinical isolates. Of the 785 marine isolates obtained on selective media, only 32 (~4.1%) were identified as P. aeruginosa, based on their fatty acid methyl ester profiles. A low Euclidian distance value (< 2.5) obtained from chemotaxonomic analysis suggested that all the environmental (coastal and marine) isolates originated from a single species. While UPGMA analyses of AP-PCR and phenotypic profiles separated the environmental and clinical isolates, fatty acid biotyping showed overlapping between most clinical and environmental isolates. Our study revealed the genetic diversity among different environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa. While biogeographical separation was not evident based solely on phenotypic and metabolic typing, genomic and metatranscriptomic studies are more likely to show differences between these isolates. Thus, newer and more insightful methods are required to understand the ecological distribution of this complex group of bacteria. PMID:26413053

  9. Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mahenthiralingam, E; Campbell, M E; Foster, J; Lam, J S; Speert, D P

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from chronically colonized patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are phenotypically different from those collected from other patients or from the environment. To assess whether alterations in motility, mucoidy, and serum susceptibility represented an adaptation to chronic infection or replacement by a new strain, sequential P. aeruginosa isolates of known phenotype collected from 20 CF patients were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. A total of 35 RAPD strain types were found among 385 isolates from 20 patients, and only two patients had P. aeruginosa strains of the same RAPD fingerprint. Eight strain pairs representative of the first eight RAPD types were also analyzed by SpeI macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); the strain types found by both fingerprinting techniques correlated exactly. In 11 of 20 patients, the RAPD types of serial P. aeruginosa isolates remained stable despite alterations in isolate motility, colonial morphology, and lipopolysaccharide phenotype. However, in isolates collected from one CF patient, a single band change in RAPD fingerprint and CeuI PFGE profile correlated with the appearance of an RpoN mutant phenotype, suggesting that the altered phenotype may have been due to a stable genomic rearrangement. Secretion of mucoid exopolysaccharide, loss of expression of RpoN-dependent surface factors, and acquisition of a serum-susceptible phenotype in P. aeruginosa appear to evolve during chronic colonization in CF patients from specific adaptation to infection rather than from acquisition of new bacterial strains. PMID:8727889

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MifS-MifR Two-Component System Is Specific for α-Ketoglutarate Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Tatke, Gorakh; Kumari, Hansi; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Ramirez, Lourdes; Mathee, Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen that elaborates a multitude of virulence factors, and is extraordinarily resistant to a gamut of clinically significant antibiotics. This ability, in part, is mediated by two-component regulatory systems (TCS) that play a crucial role in modulating virulence mechanisms and metabolism. MifS (PA5512) and MifR (PA5511) form one such TCS implicated in biofilm formation. MifS is a sensor kinase whereas MifR belongs to the NtrC superfamily of transcriptional regulators that interact with RpoN (σ54). In this study we demonstrate that the mifS and mifR genes form a two-gene operon. The close proximity of mifSR operon to poxB (PA5514) encoding a ß-lactamase hinted at the role of MifSR TCS in regulating antibiotic resistance. To better understand this TCS, clean in-frame deletions were made in P. aeruginosa PAO1 creating PAO∆mifS, PAO∆mifR and PAO∆mifSR. The loss of mifSR had no effect on the antibiotic resistance profile. Phenotypic microarray (BioLOG) analyses of PAO∆mifS and PAO∆mifR revealed that these mutants were unable to utilize C5-dicarboxylate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. This finding was confirmed using growth analyses, and the defect can be rescued by mifR or mifSR expressed in trans. These mifSR mutants were able to utilize all the other TCA cycle intermediates (citrate, succinate, fumarate, oxaloacetate or malate) and sugars (glucose or sucrose) except α-KG as the sole carbon source. We confirmed that the mifSR mutants have functional dehydrogenase complex suggesting a possible defect in α-KG transport. The inability of the mutants to utilize α-KG was rescued by expressing PA5530, encoding C5-dicarboxylate transporter, under a regulatable promoter. In addition, we demonstrate that besides MifSR and PA5530, α-KG utilization requires functional RpoN. These data clearly suggests that P. aeruginosa MifSR TCS is involved

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MifS-MifR Two-Component System Is Specific for α-Ketoglutarate Utilization.

    PubMed

    Tatke, Gorakh; Kumari, Hansi; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Ramirez, Lourdes; Mathee, Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen that elaborates a multitude of virulence factors, and is extraordinarily resistant to a gamut of clinically significant antibiotics. This ability, in part, is mediated by two-component regulatory systems (TCS) that play a crucial role in modulating virulence mechanisms and metabolism. MifS (PA5512) and MifR (PA5511) form one such TCS implicated in biofilm formation. MifS is a sensor kinase whereas MifR belongs to the NtrC superfamily of transcriptional regulators that interact with RpoN (σ54). In this study we demonstrate that the mifS and mifR genes form a two-gene operon. The close proximity of mifSR operon to poxB (PA5514) encoding a ß-lactamase hinted at the role of MifSR TCS in regulating antibiotic resistance. To better understand this TCS, clean in-frame deletions were made in P. aeruginosa PAO1 creating PAO∆mifS, PAO∆mifR and PAO∆mifSR. The loss of mifSR had no effect on the antibiotic resistance profile. Phenotypic microarray (BioLOG) analyses of PAO∆mifS and PAO∆mifR revealed that these mutants were unable to utilize C5-dicarboxylate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. This finding was confirmed using growth analyses, and the defect can be rescued by mifR or mifSR expressed in trans. These mifSR mutants were able to utilize all the other TCA cycle intermediates (citrate, succinate, fumarate, oxaloacetate or malate) and sugars (glucose or sucrose) except α-KG as the sole carbon source. We confirmed that the mifSR mutants have functional dehydrogenase complex suggesting a possible defect in α-KG transport. The inability of the mutants to utilize α-KG was rescued by expressing PA5530, encoding C5-dicarboxylate transporter, under a regulatable promoter. In addition, we demonstrate that besides MifSR and PA5530, α-KG utilization requires functional RpoN. These data clearly suggests that P. aeruginosa MifSR TCS is involved

  12. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Kristiansen, Søren; Phipps, Richard; Nielsen, Anne Kirstine; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Silver has been recognized for its antimicrobial properties for centuries. Most studies on the antibacterial efficacy of silver, with particular emphasis on wound healing, have been performed on planktonic bacteria. Our recent studies, however, strongly suggest that colonization of wounds involves bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 mug/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 mug/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds primarily colonized either by biofilm-forming or planktonic bacteria.

  13. Physiological responses of Microcystis aeruginosa against the algicidal bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Su; Yin, Hua; Tang, Shaoyu; Peng, Hui; Yin, Donggao; Yang, Yixuan; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Proliferation of cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems has caused water security problems throughout the world. Our preliminary study has showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can inhibit the growth of cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. In order to explore the inhibitory mechanism of P. aeruginosa on the cell growth and synthesis of intracellular substances of M. aeruginosa, concentrations of Chlorophyll-a, intracellular protein, carbohydrate, enzyme activities and ion metabolism of M. aeruginosa, were investigated. The results indicated that 83.84% algicidal efficiency of P. aeruginosa was achieved after treatment for 7 days. The strain inhibited the reproduction of M. aeruginosa by impeding the synthesis of intracellular protein and carbohydrate of cyanobacterium, and only a very small part of intracellular protein and carbohydrate was detected after exposure to P. aeruginosa for 5 days. P. aeruginosa caused the alteration of intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity of M. aeruginosa, such as catalase, peroxidase. The accumulation of malondialdehyde aggravated membrane injury after treatment for 3 days. P. aeruginosa also affected the ion metabolism of cyanobacteria. The release of Na(+) and Cl(-) was significantly enhanced while the uptake of K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NO3(-) and SO4(2)(-) decreased. Surface morphology and intracellular structure of cyanobacteria and bacterial cells changed dramatically over time as evidenced by electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. These results revealed that the algicidal activity of P. aeruginosa was primarily due to the fermentation liquid of P. aeruginosa that impeded the synthesis of intracel