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Sample records for aeruginosa strain pa103

  1. PA103 Container Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on PA103 containers unitized on a pallet with dunnage assemblies...supplied by Olin Ordnance. This report contains test results with the palletized unit load tested failing to meet MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for

  2. Spaceflight Effects on Virulence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, S.; Goins, T.; Crandell, C.; Richards, C.; Patel, M.; Pyle, B.

    2008-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found in the environment. It is known to infect the immunocompromised. The organism has about 25 virulence genes that play different roles in disease processes. Several exotoxin proteins may be produced, including ExoA, ExoS, ExoT and ExoY, and other virulence factors. In spaceflight, possible increased expression of P. aeruginosa virulence proteins could increase health risks for spaceflight crews who experience decreased immunity. Cultures of P. aeruginosa strains PA01 and PA103 grown on orbit on Shuttle Endeavour flight STS-123 vs. static ground controls were used for analysis. The production of ETA was quantitated using an ELISA procedure. Results showed that while flight cultures of PA103 produced slightly more ETA than corresponding ground controls, the opposite was found for PA01. While it appears that spaceflight has little effect on ETA, stimulation of other virulence factors could cause increased virulence of this organism in space flight. Similar increased virulence in spaceflight has been observed for other bacteria. This is important because astronauts may be more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  3. Imported PER-1 producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PER-1 producing Acinetobacter baumanii and VIM-2-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Dora; Szentandrássy, Julia; Juhász, Zsuzsa; Katona, Katalin; Nagy, Károly; Rókusz, László

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii are important nosocomial pathogens with wide intrinsic resistance. However, due to the dissemination of the acquired resistance mechanisms, such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production, multidrug resistant strains have been isolated more often. Case presentation We report a case of a Hungarian tourist, who was initially hospitalized in Egypt and later transferred to Hungary. On the day of admission PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa, PER-1 producing A. baumannii, SHV-5-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were subcultured from the patient's samples in Hungary. Comparing the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the P. aeruginosa strains from the patient to the P. aeruginosa strains occurring in this hospital, we can state that the PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa had external origin. Conclusion This is the first report of PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa,and PER-1-producing A. baumanii strains in Hungary. This case highlights the importance of spreading of the beta-lactamase-mediated resistance mechanisms between countries and continents, showing the importance of careful screening and the isolation of patients arriving from a different country. PMID:18513394

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain RB, a Bacterium Capable of Synthesizing Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Masashi; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2014-05-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RB is a bacterium capable of synthesizing cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles and was isolated from a soil sample. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain RB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a draft genome of a CdSe-synthesizing bacterium.

  5. Contribution of the platelet activating factor signaling pathway to cerebral microcirculatory dysfunction during experimental sepsis by ExoU producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Plotkowski, Maria Cristina; Estato, Vanessa; Santos, Sabrina Alves; da Silva, Mauricio Costa Alves; Miranda, Aline Silva; de Miranda, Pedro Elias; Pinho, Vanessa; Tibiriça, Eduardo; Morandi, Verônica; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Vianna, Albanita; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy was used to assess the involvement of ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, in dysfunction of cerebral microcirculation during experimental pneumosepsis. Cortical vessels from mice intratracheally infected with low density of the ExoU-producing PA103 P. aeruginosa strain exhibited increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion to venule endothelium, decreased capillar density and impaired arteriolar response to vasoactive acetylcholine. These phenomena were mediated by the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) pathway because they were reversed in mice treated with a PAFR antagonist prior to infection. Brains from PA103-infected animals exhibited a perivascular inflammatory infiltration that was not detected in animals infected with an exoU deficient mutant or in mice treated with the PAFR antagonist and infected with the wild type bacteria. No effect on brain capillary density was detected in mice infected with the PAO1 P. aeruginosa strain, which do not produce ExoU. Finally, after PA103 infection, mice with a targeted deletion of the PAFR gene exhibited higher brain capillary density and lower leukocyte adhesion to venule endothelium, as well as lower increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines, when compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, our results establish a role for PAFR in mediating ExoU-induced cerebral microvascular failure in a murine model of sepsis. PMID:26187894

  6. COMPARATIVE TAXONOMY OF CRYSTALLOGENIC STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND PSEUDOMONAS CHLORORAPHIS

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, William C.; Rhodes, Lenora J.

    1962-01-01

    Haynes, William C. (Northern Utilization Research and Development Division, Peoria, Ill.) and Lenora J. Rhodes. Comparative taxonomy of crystallogenic strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas chlororaphis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1080–1084. 1962.—Only 11 of 39 strains received in the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection under the designation Pseudonomas chlororaphis proved to be authentic; 28 were typical, pyocyanogenic strains of P. aeruginosa. The reason for this disproportionately high rate of misidentification apparently arises from an erroneous belief that the ability to produce green and yellow crystals of chlororaphin and oxychlororaphin is confined to P. chlororaphis. The ability of many strains of P. aeruginosa to do likewise is not well known. Inasmuch as the characteristic is not unique to P. chlororaphis, other criteria are required to distinguish crystallogenic strains of these species. After a taxonomic comparison of 18 strains of P. chlororaphis and 47 crystallogenic strains of P. aeruginosa, it was determined that there are three main distinctions: (i) P. aeruginosa grows well at 42 C but fails to grow upon serial transfer at 5 C, whereas P. chlororaphis fails to grow at 42 C, but grows well at 5 C: (ii) most strains of P. aeruginosa produce pyocyanin, whereas P. chlororaphis strains do not; (iii) P. aeruginosa cells possess only one or two polar flagella, whereas P. chlororaphis usually has at least four, sometimes as many as eight, polar flagella. PMID:13963593

  7. Diverse effects of Galleria mellonella infection with entomopathogenic and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Andrejko, Mariola; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In numerous studies, the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been exploited as an alternative model host for investigating virulence factors of different pathogenic bacteria. In the present paper, we provide evidence that G. mellonella constitutes a useful and convenient model for analysis of the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains. In this in vivo study on the G. mellonella–P. aeruginosa interaction, a bidirectional analysis comprising evaluation of humoral immune response of the bacteria-infected larvae and determination of P. aeruginosa proteinases synthesized during the infection was performed. The effects of G. mellonella infection by two clinical strains (PA C124/9 and PA 02/18) and one entomopathogenic strain (ATCC 27853) cultured in a rich LB and minimal M9 medium, known to induce synthesis of different sets of extracellular proteinases, were evaluated. Both clinical isolates were able to establish infection in G. mellonella caterpillars after intrahemocelic injection. However, although the final effect of the larvae infection by each P. aeruginosa strain was their death within ca. 48 h, considerable strain and medium-dependent differences in the immune response of the insects were detected. The results indicated that G. mellonella larvae distinguished between the three P. aeruginosa strains, which was well reflected by the diverse humoral immune response. The significant differences concerned, among others, the level of phenoloxidase, lysozyme, and antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of the infected insects. An analysis of proteinases performed using specific activity tests, zymography and immunoblotting, revealed that elastase B and alkaline protease were synthesized by each P. aeruginosa strain during the infection. In contrast, a high level of elastase A activity was detected only in the larvae infected by the P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain. It can be postulated that the three P. aeruginosa strains exploit different

  8. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ([minus]60[degrees]F) temperatures.

  9. Dynamic impact and pressure analysis of the insensitive munitions container PA103 with modified design features

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents analytical analyses of the insensitive munitions container PA103, with modified design features for a static internal pressure of 500 psi and for a dynamic impact resulting from a 7-ft free fall onto a rigid surface. The modified design features addressed by the analyses were the inclusion of a score pattern on the container cylindrical body and a plastic plate (fuse) sandwiched between metal flanges on the container end. The objectives of both the pressure and impact analyses were to determine if the induced stresses at the score patterns in the cylindrical body of the container were sufficient to induce failure. Analytical responses of the container to the imposed loads were obtained with finite element analysis methodology. The computer codes ABAQUS and VEC/DYNA3D were used to obtain the results. Results of the pressure analysis indicate that failure of the container body would be expected to occur at the score pattern for a static internal pressure of 500 psi. Also, results from three impact orientations for a 7-ft drop indicate that membrane stresses in the vicinity of the score pattern are above critical crack growth stress magnitudes, especially at low ({minus}60{degrees}F) temperatures.

  10. A Novel Insight into Dehydroleucodine Mediated Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, S.; Veisaga, M. L.; López, L. A.; Barbieri, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to conventional treatments demands the search for novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene lactone obtained from Artemisia (A.) douglasiana, was screened against several pathogenic virulence effectors of P. aeruginosa. In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration of DhL was determined against P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA103, PA14, and multidrug resistant clinical strain, CDN118. Results showed that DhL was active against each strain where PAO1 and PA103 showed higher susceptibility (MIC 0.48 mg/mL) as compared to PA14 (MIC 0.96 mg/mL) and CDN118 (MIC 0.98 mg/mL). Also, when PAO1 strain was grown in the presence of DhL (MIC50, 0.12 mg/mL), a delay in the generation time was noticed along with significant inhibition of secretory protease and elastase activities, interruption in biofilm attachment phase in a stationary culture, and a significant decline in Type III effector ExoS. At MIC50, DhL treatment increased the sensitivity of P. aeruginosa towards potent antibiotics. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa with DhL prevented toxin-induced apoptosis in macrophages. These observations suggest that DhL activity was at the bacterial transcriptional level. Hence, antimicrobial activity of DhL may serve as leads in the development of new anti-Pseudomonas pharmaceuticals. PMID:26640783

  11. Co-incubation of Acanthamoeba castellanii with strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alters the survival of amoeba.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, A M; Harmis, N; Stapleton, F

    2000-06-01

    Enhanced survival of Acanthamoeba castellanii has previously been reported following co-incubation with a single strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different strains of P. aeruginosa on amoebae survival. Four contact lens solutions were challenged with A. castellanii for between 6 and 24 h, and survival rates of amoeba were calculated. Subsequently, A. castellanii was co-incubated with different strains of P. aeruginosa (strain 6294, an invasive isolate; 6206, a cytotoxic isolate; and Paer 001, a null isolate). Differences in amoeba survival over time between solutions for each bacterial strain were analysed. Non-neutralized hydrogen peroxide was the most effective system against A. castellani at all time points (P<0.05). Survival rates were not different between multipurpose solutions and neutralized hydrogen peroxide. Co-incubation with P. aeruginosa altered amoeba survival, and maximum survival occurred in the presence of the invasive strain of P. aeruginosa. Enhanced amoeba survival may occur in the presence of certain strains of Gram-negative bacteria, and with certain types of contact lens disinfection systems.

  12. Identification of Novel Genomic Islands in Liverpool Epidemic Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Using Segmentation and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Mehul; Mathee, Kalai; Azad, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in a myriad of infections and a leading pathogen responsible for mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Horizontal transfers of genes among the microorganisms living within CF patients have led to highly virulent and multi-drug resistant strains such as the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa, namely the LESB58 strain that has the propensity to acquire virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Often these genes are acquired in large clusters, referred to as “genomic islands (GIs).” To decipher GIs and understand their contributions to the evolution of virulence and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa LESB58, we utilized a recursive segmentation and clustering procedure, presented here as a genome-mining tool, “GEMINI.” GEMINI was validated on experimentally verified islands in the LESB58 strain before examining its potential to decipher novel islands. Of the 6062 genes in P. aeruginosa LESB58, 596 genes were identified to be resident on 20 GIs of which 12 have not been previously reported. Comparative genomics provided evidence in support of our novel predictions. Furthermore, GEMINI unraveled the mosaic structure of islands that are composed of segments of likely different evolutionary origins, and demonstrated its ability to identify potential strain biomarkers. These newly found islands likely have contributed to the hyper-virulence and multidrug resistance of the Liverpool epidemic strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:27536294

  13. [Effects of different iron concentrations on the growths of a unicellular strain and a colonial strain of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-wen; Li, Jian-hong; Fu, Lu; Wu, Min; Weng, Yong-ping; Zhou, Yao-ming

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the growth, photosynthetic efficiency, siderophore production and iron accumulation of two strains of M. aeruginosa, a unicellular strain M. aeruginosa PCC7806 and a colonial strain M. aeruginosa XW01, under iron-limited and iron-replete conditions. The identities of ITS and fur gene sequences of two strains were 95% and 98% respectively.That implied the two strains should be close relatives. Results showed the growths of two strains were severely inhibited under an iron-limited condition. The unicellular strain died in 6 days,whereas the colonial strain could maintain a weak growth in 10 days under the iron-limited condition. PSII maximum light energy transformation (Fv/Fm) of the colonial strain and the unicellular strain were 0.182 +/- 0.014 and 0.160 +/- 0.017, respectively. The colonial strain displayed a higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution than the unicellular strain. Two strains could produce siderophores, which were hydroxamate type. The colonial strain produced more siderophores than unicellular strain under the iron-limited condition.Iron contents of two strains were less than 1/3 cultured in the iron-limited condition than in iron-replete condition, but no obvious difference appeared between the two strains. Our result demonstrated that the colonial strain have a stronger endurance than unicellular strain under the iron-limited condition. As two strains had almost same abilities of iron accumulation, the other physiological mechanisms in the unicellular strain should be more sensitive to lower iron level.

  14. R-type pyocin is required for competitive growth advantage between Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun-Jeong; Chung, In-Young; Choi, Kelly B; Cho, You-Hee

    2007-01-01

    R-type pyocin is a bacteriophage tail-shaped bacteriocin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but its physiological roles are relatively unknown. Here we describe a role of R-type pyocin in the competitive growth advantages between P. aeruginosa strains. Partial purification and gene disruption revealed that the major killing activity from the culture supernatant of PA14 is attributed to R-type pyocin, neither F-type nor S-type pyocins. These findings may provide insight into the forces governing P. aeruginosa population dynamics to promote and maintain its biodiversity.

  15. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients to bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Cablanmian, Arsher; Lathro, Serge; Kutter, Elizabeth; Thien, Hoang Vu; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Phage therapy may become a complement to antibiotics in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. To design efficient therapeutic cocktails, the genetic diversity of the species and the spectrum of susceptibility to bacteriophages must be investigated. Bacterial strains showing high levels of phage resistance need to be identified in order to decipher the underlying mechanisms. Here we have selected genetically diverse P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and tested their susceptibility to a large collection of phages. Based on plaque morphology and restriction profiles, six different phages were purified from "pyophage", a commercial cocktail directed against five different bacterial species, including P. aeruginosa. Characterization of these phages by electron microscopy and sequencing of genome fragments showed that they belong to 4 different genera. Among 47 P. aeruginosa strains, 13 were not lysed by any of the isolated phages individually or by pyophage. We isolated two new phages that could lyse some of these strains, and their genomes were sequenced. The presence/absence of a CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Crisper associated genes) was investigated to evaluate the role of the system in phage resistance. Altogether, the results show that some P. aeruginosa strains cannot support the growth of any of the tested phages belonging to 5 different genera, and suggest that the CRISPR-Cas system is not a major defence mechanism against these lytic phages.

  16. ISOLATION AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE BACTERIOPHAGES ASSOCIATED WITH A LYSOGENIC STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA, 12

    PubMed Central

    Feary, Thomas W.; Fisher, Earl; Fisher, Thelma N.

    1964-01-01

    Feary, Thomas W. (Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La.), Earl Fisher, Jr., and Thelma N. Fisher. Isolation and preliminary characteristics of three bacteriophages associated with a lysogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 87:196–208. 1964.—Three bacteriophages designated 7v, 7m, and 7s were isolated from a lysogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa designated Ps-7. The three viruses were found to be completely unrelated on the basis of plaque morphology, host range, serology, ultraviolet induction, sensitivity to heat, and particle morphology as revealed by electron microscopy. In addition, it was shown that the three phages were incapable of plaque formation on bacteria other than various strains of P. aeruginosa. Of the three phages, only phage 7v was capable of plaque formation on strain Ps-7. The growth of phage 7v on strain Ps-7 exhibited properties which suggest that this virus arises as the result of mutation in a temperate phage for which strain Ps-7 is lysogenic. Phages 7m and 7s are incapable of plaque formation on strain Ps-7, but are adsorbed at characteristic rates to cell suspensions of strain Ps-7. The relationship between phage 7m and strain Ps-7 was shown to meet the classical criteria for lysogeny. Because phage 7s contains ribonucleic acid as its nucleic acid component, it was concluded that its production by strain Ps-7 and the demonstration of immunity of strain Ps-7 to infection by phage 7s were not sufficient evidence to define the nature of the relationship between phage 7s and P. aeruginosa strain Ps-7. It was observed that under certain conditions the infectious titer of phage 7s preparations are markedly reduced in the presence of ribonuclease. Images PMID:14102854

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is a non-virulent strain suitable for mono-rhamnolipids production.

    PubMed

    Grosso-Becerra, María-Victoria; González-Valdez, Abigail; Granados-Martínez, María-Jessica; Morales, Estefanía; Servín-González, Luis; Méndez, José-Luis; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Ponce-Soto, Gabriel-Yaxal; Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2016-12-01

    Rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are biosurfactants with a high biotechnological potential, but their extensive commercialization is limited by the potential virulence of P. aeruginosa and by restrictions in producing these surfactants in heterologous hosts. In this work, we report the characterization of P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027 in terms of its genome-sequence, virulence, antibiotic resistance, and its ability to produce mono-rhamnolipids when carrying plasmids with different cloned genes from the type strain PAO1. The genes that were expressed from the plasmids are those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of this biosurfactant (rhlA and rhlB), as well as the gene that codes for the RhlR transcriptional regulator. We confirm that strain ATCC 9027 forms part of the PA7 clade, but contrary to strain PA7, it is sensitive to antibiotics and is completely avirulent in a mouse model. We also report that strain ATCC 9027 mono-rhamnolipid synthesis is limited by the expression of the rhlAB-R operon. Thus, this strain carrying the rhlAB-R operon produces similar rhamnolipids levels as PAO1 strain. We determined that strain ATCC 9027 with rhlAB-R operon was not virulent to mice. These results show that strain ATCC 9027, expressing PAO1 rhlAB-R operon, has a high biotechnological potential for industrial mono-rhamnolipid production.

  18. Screening of Molecular Virulence Markers in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Clinical Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cotar, Ani-Ioana; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Dinu, Sorin; Bucur, Marcela; Iordache, Carmen; Banu, Otilia; Dracea, Olguta; Larion, Cristina; Lazar, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Pseudomonas (Ps.) aeruginosa are two of the most frequently opportunistic pathogens isolated in nosocomial infections, responsible for severe infections in immunocompromised hosts. The frequent emergence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains has determined the development of new strategies in order to elucidate the different mechanisms used by these bacteria at different stages of the infectious process, providing the scientists with new procedures for preventing, or at least improving, the control of S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular markers of virulence in S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains isolated from different clinical specimens. We used multiplex and uniplex PCR assays to detect the genes encoding different cell-wall associated and extracellular virulence factors, in order to evaluate potential associations between the presence of putative virulence genes and the outcome of infections caused by these bacteria. Our results demonstrate that all the studied S. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa strains synthesize the majority of the investigated virulence determinants, probably responsible for different types of infections. PMID:21614207

  19. Strain- and Substrate-Dependent Redox Mediator and Electricity Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, Erick M.; Blank, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important, thriving member of microbial communities of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) through the production of versatile phenazine redox mediators. Pure culture experiments with a model strain revealed synergistic interactions of P. aeruginosa with fermenting microorganisms whereby the synergism was mediated through the shared fermentation product 2,3-butanediol. Our work here shows that the behavior and efficiency of P. aeruginosa in mediated current production is strongly dependent on the strain of P. aeruginosa. We compared levels of phenazine production by the previously investigated model strain P. aeruginosa PA14, the alternative model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1, and the BES isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain KRP1 with glucose and the fermentation products 2,3-butanediol and ethanol as carbon substrates. We found significant differences in substrate-dependent phenazine production and resulting anodic current generation for the three strains, with the BES isolate KRP1 being overall the best current producer and showing the highest electrochemical activity with glucose as a substrate (19 μA cm−2 with ∼150 μg ml−1 phenazine carboxylic acid as a redox mediator). Surprisingly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed very low phenazine production and electrochemical activity under all tested conditions. IMPORTANCE Microbial fuel cells and other microbial bioelectrochemical systems hold great promise for environmental technologies such as wastewater treatment and bioremediation. While there is much emphasis on the development of materials and devices to realize such systems, the investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying microbiology and ecology are lagging behind. Physiological investigations focus on microorganisms exhibiting direct electron transfer in pure culture systems. Meanwhile, mediated electron transfer with natural redox compounds produced by, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa might enable an

  20. The impact of anaerobiosis on strain-dependent phenotypic variations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hao; Toyofuku, Masanori; Kiyokawa, Tatsunori; Ichihashi, Akihiro; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria participate in social behaviors by communicating with each other and forming surface-associated biofilms. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, such social behaviors are affected greatly by the environment. Although P. aeruginosa survive under anaerobic conditions, previous studies indicate that quorum sensing is attenuated under such conditions, and that this leads to decreased activity of extracellular virulence factors as compared to aerobic conditions. Hence it has come into question whether P. aeruginosa are virulent under anaerobic conditions. Here, we compared various phenotypes between PAO1 and clinical isolates under anaerobic conditions. Our data revealed that when grown anaerobically, growth and cell morphology greatly differed among the strains. One of the clinical isolates produced comparable amounts of quorum-sensing signaling molecules and extracellular virulence factors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while the other strains showed low production under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation also exhibited strain-dependent variations, suggesting that there are several mechanisms that lead to biofilm formation under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that the impact of anaerobiosis on the social interactions of P. aeruginosa is strain dependent, and suggest that multiple regulatory mechanisms are involved in the regulation of quorum sensing and biofilm formation under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Exploring the In Vitro Thrombolytic Activity of Nattokinase From a New Strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Subathra Devi; Vaithilingam, Mohanasrinivasan; Shanker, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thiyur, Swathi; Babu, Vaishnavi; Selvakumar, Jemimah Naine; Prakash, Suyash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thrombolytic therapy has become a conventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet currently, clinically prescribed thrombolytic drugs have problems such as delayed action and other side effects. Fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted interest as thrombolytic agents because of their efficiency in the fibrinolytic process, including plasmin activation. Nattokinase (NK) is a potent fibrinolytic agent for thrombosis therapy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to enhance the production of NK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS by media optimization and strain improvement. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a potent NK-producing strain was isolated from cow milk and identified. To enhance the yield of NK, effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inoculum size were optimized. Strain improvement of P. aeruginosa CMSS was done by random UV-mutagenesis. Nattokinase was partially purified and the activity was determined by the casein digestion method, blood clot lysis and fibrin degradation assay. Results: Based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization, the strain was confirmed as P. aeruginosa (GenBank accession number: JX112657), designated as P. aeruginosa CMSS. The optimum condition at pH 7 and temperature at 25˚C showed activity of NK as 1514 U mL-1 and 1532 U mL-1, respectively. Sucrose as the carbon source and shrimp shell powder (SSP) as the nitrogen source expressed NK activity of 1721 U mL-1 and 2524 U mL-1, respectively. At 1% inoculum size, the maximum rate of enzyme production was achieved with 2581 U mL-1. The NK activity of the mutant strain UV60 was 4263 U mL-1, indicating a two-fold increase in activity compared to the wild strain (2581 UmL-1). Nattokinase produced from mutant strain P. aeruginosa CMSS UV60 showed 94% blood clot lysis at ten minutes. The degradation of fibrin clot by the produced NK was observed after two hours of incubation. Sodium

  2. Genome Sequences of Three Strains of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7 Clade

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Romain; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Draft genome sequences of three P. aeruginosa strains from the PA7 clade are presented here. Their lengths are 6.36 (EML528), 6.44 (EML545), and 6.33 Mb (EML548). Comparisons with the PA7 genome showed 5,113 conserved coding sequences (CDSs), and significant numbers of strain-specific CDSs. Their analysis will improve our understanding of this highly divergent clade. PMID:26586898

  3. Introduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutator phage D3112 into Alcaligenes eutrophus strain CH34.

    PubMed

    Krylov, V; Merlin, C; Toussaint, A

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of growing mutator phages from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various isolates of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Although none out of 10 A. eutrophus strains were susceptible to infection with any of the phages tested, phage D3112 could be readily transferred in our model strain CH34 by means of an RP4::D3112 plasmid. CH34/RP4::D3112 lysogens were stable and produced phages. However, neither mitomycin C nor UV treatment increased the phage yield.

  4. Rapid Classification and Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Strains Using MALDI–TOF MS and Polygenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Wei; Jiang, Wen-Jing; Sato, Hiroaki; Kawachi, Masanobu; Lu, Xi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS) was used to establish a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate among strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, one of the most prevalent types of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. M. aeruginosa NIES-843, for which a complete genome has been sequenced, was used to characterize ribosomal proteins as biomarkers and to optimize conditions for observing ribosomal proteins as major peaks in a given mass spectrum. Thirty-one of 52 ribosomal subunit proteins were detected and identified along the mass spectrum. Fifty-five strains of M. aeruginosa from different habitats were analyzed using MALDI–TOF MS; among these samples, different ribosomal protein types were observed. A polygenetic analysis was performed using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means and different ribosomal protein types to classify the strains into five major clades. Two clades primarily contained toxic strains, and the other three clades contained exclusively non-toxic strains. This is the first study to differentiate cyanobacterial strains using MALDI–TOF MS. PMID:27227555

  5. Comparative protein expression in different strains of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Alexova, Ralitza; Haynes, Paul A; Ferrari, Belinda C; Neilan, Brett A

    2011-09-01

    Toxin production in algal blooms presents a significant problem for the water industry. Of particular concern is microcystin, a potent hepatotoxin produced by the unicellular freshwater species Microcystis aeruginosa. In this study, the proteomes of six toxic and nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa were analyzed to gain further knowledge in elucidating the role of microcystin production in this microorganism. This represents the first comparative proteomic study in a cyanobacterial species. A large diversity in the protein expression profiles of each strain was observed, with a significant proportion of the identified proteins appearing to be strain-specific. In total, 475 proteins were identified reproducibly and of these, 82 comprised the core proteome of M. aeruginosa. The expression of several hypothetical and unknown proteins, including four possible operons was confirmed. Surprisingly, no proteins were found to be produced only by toxic or nontoxic strains. Quantitative proteome analysis using the label-free normalized spectrum abundance factor approach revealed nine proteins that were differentially expressed between toxic and nontoxic strains. These proteins participate in carbon-nitrogen metabolism and redox balance maintenance and point to an involvement of the global nitrogen regulator NtcA in toxicity. In addition, the switching of a previously inactive toxin-producing strain to microcystin synthesis is reported.

  6. Evaluating synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Jerzsele, Ákos; Pásztiné-Gere, Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25-64 mg/L and 0.25-32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031-8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.

  7. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M. C. E.; Toffoli, D. J.; Prates, R. A.; Courrol, Lilia C.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2009-06-01

    Burns are frequently contamined by pathogenic microorganisms and the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitals is a matter of growing concern. Hypocrellin B (HB) is a new generation photosensitizer extracted from the fungus Hypocrella bambusae with absorption bands at 460, 546 and 584 nm. Lanthanide ions change the HB molecular structure and a red shift in the absorption band is observed as well as an increase in the singlet oxygen quantum yield. In this study, we report the use of HB:La+3 to kill resistant strain of P. aeruginosa infected burns. Burns were produced on the back of mice and wounds were infected subcutaneously with 1x109 cfu/mL of P. aeruginosa. Three-hours after inoculation, the animals were divided into 4 groups: control, HB:La+3, blue LED and HB:La+3+blue LED. PDT was performed using 10μM HB:La+3 and 500mW light-emitting diode (LED) emitting at λ=470nm+/-20nm during 120s. The animals of all groups were killed and the infected skin was removed for bacterial counting. Mice with photosensitizer alone, light alone or untreated infected wounds presented 1x108 cfu/g while mice PDT-treated showed a reduction of 2 logs compared to untreated control. These results suggest that HB:La+3 associated to blue LED is effective in diminishing antibiotic resistant strain P. aeruginosa in infected burns.

  8. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic investigation of imipenem-susceptible and -resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isogenic strains.

    PubMed

    Sockalingum, G D; Bouhedja, W; Pina, P; Allouch, P; Mandray, C; Labia, R; Millot, J M; Manfait, M

    1997-03-06

    The primary mechanism of imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been ascribed to an outer membrane impermeability owing to a loss of expression of protein D2. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with statistical methods has been used as a new approach to rapidly discriminate four isogenic strains of P. aeruginosa--susceptible, less susceptible, and highly resistant to imipenem-- and to follow the structural modifications related to this low permeability. Decomposition of the broad protein and carbohydrate contours into underlying Gaussians and comparison of the susceptible and highly resistant strain provided quantitative and ultrastructural information on these strains. This methodology allows for discrimination not of the mutation itself but of its consequences observed in the protein and carbohydrate absorption regions. Its association with other existing biochemical methods may be envisaged since it may allow for rapid orientation of investigations in the field of bacterial resistance diagnosis.

  9. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Pobiega, Monika; Maciąg, Joanna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Pomorska-Wesolowska, Monika; Ziolkowski, Grzegorz; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2015-11-01

    Due to the clinical threat posed by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and importance of virulence factors produced in infection, 21 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were analyzed. 42.8% metallo-beta-lactamases-positive strains were identified. 85.7% of strains were meropenem resistant. 14.2% of strains were MDR; 38%, extensively drug-resistant (XDR). ExoY was present in all strains; exoT, in 95.2%; exoS, in 90.5%; exoU, in 47.6%. Eight XDR strains were typed using multilocus sequence typing: 4 as ST235, 2 as ST260, 2 as ST654 and ST234. MDR P. aeruginosa were isolated from hospitalized patients and among those from the community. Our study demonstrates the serious clinical issues posed by MDR P. aeruginosa and underscores the need for new treatment.

  10. Increased morbidity associated with chronic infection by an epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in CF patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aloul, M; Crawley, J; Winstanley, C; Hart, C; Ledson, M; Walshaw, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary infection with transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported, raising issues of cross infection and patient segregation. The first such strain to be described (the Liverpool epidemic strain, LES) is now widespread in many UK CF centres. However, whether such infection carries a worse prognosis is unknown. To address this, the clinical course of a group of CF patients chronically infected by LES was compared with that in patients harbouring unique strains. Methods: Using P aeruginosa strain genotyping, two cohorts of CF patients attending the Liverpool CF service were identified who were LES positive or negative in 1998 and remained so until 2002. From these, two groups of 12 patients were matched in 1998 for age, spirometric parameters, and nutritional state and their clinical course was followed for 5 years. Patients chronically infected with Burkholderia cepacia were excluded. Results: Patients chronically infected with LES had a greater annual loss of lung function than those not chronically infected by LES (mean difference between groups -4.4% (95% CI -8.1 to -0.9; p<0.02)), and by 2002 their percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was worse (mean 65.0% v 82.6%, p<0.03). Their nutritional state also deteriorated over the study period (mean difference between groups in body mass index -0.7 (95% CI -1.2 to -0.2; p<0.01)), such that by 2002 they were malnourished compared with LES negative patients (mean BMI 19.4 v 22.7, p<0.02). Conclusions: Chronic infection with the Liverpool epidemic P aeruginosa strain in CF patients confers a worse prognosis than infection with unique strains alone, confirming the need for patient segregation. Since this strain is common in many CF units, strain identification in all CF centres is essential. This can only be carried out using genomic typing methods. PMID:15047956

  11. Strain-dependent diversity in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing regulon.

    PubMed

    Chugani, Sudha; Kim, Byoung Sik; Phattarasukol, Somsak; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Choi, Sang Ho; Harwood, Caroline S; Greenberg, E Peter

    2012-10-09

    Quorum sensing allows bacteria to sense and respond to changes in population density. Acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing signals for many Proteobacteria, and acyl-homoserine lactone signaling is known to control cooperative activities. Quorum-controlled activities vary from one species to another. Quorum-sensing controls a constellation of genes in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which thrives in a number of habitats ranging from soil and water to animal hosts. We hypothesized that there would be significant variation in quorum-sensing regulons among strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from different habitats and that differences in the quorum-sensing regulons might reveal insights about the ecology of P. aeruginosa. As a test of our hypothesis we used RNA-seq to identify quorum-controlled genes in seven P. aeruginosa isolates of diverse origins. Although our approach certainly overlooks some quorum-sensing-regulated genes we found a shared set of genes, i.e., a core quorum-controlled gene set, and we identified distinct, strain-variable sets of quorum-controlled genes, i.e., accessory genes. Some quorum-controlled genes in some strains were not present in the genomes of other strains. We detected a correlation between traits encoded by some genes in the strain-variable subsets of the quorum regulons and the ecology of the isolates. These findings indicate a role for quorum sensing in extension of the range of habitats in which a species can thrive. This study also provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which quorum-sensing systems operate, the evolutionary pressures by which they are maintained, and their importance in disparate ecological contexts.

  12. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LCT-PA220, Which Was Selected after Space Flight by Using Biolog's Powerful Carbon Source Utilization Technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guogang; Hu, Juan; Fang, Xiangqun; Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Junfeng; Guo, Yinghua; Li, Tianzhi; Chen, Zhenghong; Dai, Wenkui; Liu, Changting

    2014-03-13

    To explore the changes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in space flight, we present the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa strain LCT-PA220, which originated from a P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC 27853, that traveled on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft.

  13. Anticandidal activity of medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains of clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Bora, Limpon

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro anticandidal activity of some medicinal plants and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against Candida species. The antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of five medicinal plants, namely, Cinnamomum porrectum, Lippia nudiflora, Cestrum nocturnum, Trachyspermum ammi, and Sida carpinifolia were studied. The medicinal characteristics of these plants were compared with commercially used antibiotics. The antimicrobial assay was done by agar well diffusion and the broth dilution method. Among the plants used, T. ammi and C. nocturnum were found to be more potent than the others. Twenty P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from various clinical specimens. The total inhibitions obtained were found to be 47%, 38%, and 36% in blood agar, whereas in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) the inhibitions were 57%, 48%, and 37%, respectively.

  14. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Niewerth, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:25239889

  15. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Niewerth, Heiko; Fetzner, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule.

  16. Bactericidal activities of cathelicidin LL-37 and select cationic lipids against the hypervirulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain LESB58.

    PubMed

    Wnorowska, Urszula; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Myint, Melissa; Diamond, Scott L; Wróblewska, Marta; Savage, Paul B; Janmey, Paul A; Bucki, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are associated with transmissibility and increased patient morbidity. This study was designed to assess the in vitro activities of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide (LL-37) and select cationic lipids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa LESB58 in CF sputum and in a setting mimicking the CF airway. We found that LL-37 naturally present in airway surface fluid and some nonpeptide cationic lipid molecules such as CSA-13, CSA-90, CSA-131, and D2S have significant, but broadly differing, bactericidal activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58. We observed strong inhibition of LL-37 bactericidal activity in the presence of purified bacteriophage Pf1, which is highly expressed by P. aeruginosa LES, but the activities of the cationic lipids CSA-13 and CSA-131 were not affected by this polyanionic virus. Additionally, CSA-13 and CSA-131 effectively prevent LESB58 biofilm formation, which is stimulated by Pf1 bacteriophage, DNA, or F-actin. CSA-13 and CSA-131 display strong antibacterial activities against different clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, and their activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58 and Xen5 strains were maintained in CF sputum. These data indicate that synthetic cationic lipids (mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides) are suitable for developing an effective treatment against CF lung P. aeruginosa infections, including those caused by LES strains.

  17. Bactericidal Activities of Cathelicidin LL-37 and Select Cationic Lipids against the Hypervirulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain LESB58

    PubMed Central

    Wnorowska, Urszula; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Myint, Melissa; Diamond, Scott L.; Wróblewska, Marta; Savage, Paul B.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Liverpool epidemic strain (LES) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are associated with transmissibility and increased patient morbidity. This study was designed to assess the in vitro activities of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide (LL-37) and select cationic lipids against Pseudomonas aeruginosa LESB58 in CF sputum and in a setting mimicking the CF airway. We found that LL-37 naturally present in airway surface fluid and some nonpeptide cationic lipid molecules such as CSA-13, CSA-90, CSA-131, and D2S have significant, but broadly differing, bactericidal activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58. We observed strong inhibition of LL-37 bactericidal activity in the presence of purified bacteriophage Pf1, which is highly expressed by P. aeruginosa LES, but the activities of the cationic lipids CSA-13 and CSA-131 were not affected by this polyanionic virus. Additionally, CSA-13 and CSA-131 effectively prevent LESB58 biofilm formation, which is stimulated by Pf1 bacteriophage, DNA, or F-actin. CSA-13 and CSA-131 display strong antibacterial activities against different clinical strains of P. aeruginosa, and their activities against P. aeruginosa LESB58 and Xen5 strains were maintained in CF sputum. These data indicate that synthetic cationic lipids (mimics of natural antimicrobial peptides) are suitable for developing an effective treatment against CF lung P. aeruginosa infections, including those caused by LES strains. PMID:25870055

  18. Mechanisms of plant growth promotion and disease suppression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2apa.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, P; Chandrashekar, S; Singh, S Brijesh; Niranjana, S R

    2014-08-01

    A new Pseudomonas strain, designated as 2apa was isolated from tomato rhizosphere and identified as a member of species Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its morphology, conventional, biochemical, cell wall fatty acid methyl ester analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain 2apa was positive for root colonization, indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and siderophore production and inhibited the growth of wide range of microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain with further purification and structure elucidation proved to be phenazine. Under laboratory and greenhouse conditions the strain promoted plant growth and suppressed a wide range of foliar and root pathogens in tomato. The protection offered by strain 2apa to foliar pathogens is considered as induced systemic resistance and was further confirmed by enhanced accumulation of phenolics, elicitation of lipoxygenas activity, and jasmonic acid levels. The broad-spectrum antimicrobial and induced systemic resistance exhibiting strain P. aeruginosa 2apa can be used as an effective biological control candidate against devastating fungal and bacterial pathogens, which attack both root and foliar portions of tomato plant. Production of other functional traits such as IAA and siderophore may enhance its potential as biofertilizer.

  19. Isolation of the Autoinducer-Quenching Strain that Inhibits LasR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lixing; Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lianhui

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been recognized as a general phenomenon in microorganisms and plays an important role in many pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor strain NT1 to rapidly screen for autoinducer-quenching inhibitors from bacteria. After initial screening 5389 isolates obtained from land and beach soil, 53 putative positive strains were identified. A confirmatory bioassay was carried out after concentrating the putative positive culture supernatant, and 22 strains were confirmed to have anti-LasR activity. Finally, we determined the strain JM2, which could completely inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas by analysis of 16S rDNA. Partially purified inhibitor factor(s) F5 derived from culture supernatants specifically inhibited LasR-controlled elastase and protease in wild type P. aeruginosa PAO1 by 68% and 73%, respectively, without significantly affecting growth; the rhl-controlled pyocyanin and rhamnolipids were inhibited by 54% and 52% in the presence of 100 μg/mL of F5. The swarming motility and biofilm of PAO1 were also inhibited by F5. Real time RT-PCR on samples from 100 μg/mL F5-treated P. aeruginosa showed downregulation of autoinducer synthase (LasRI and rhlI) and cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 50%, 28%, 48%, and 29%, respectively. These results provide compelling evidence that the F5 inhibitor(s) interferes with the las system and significantly inhibits biofilm formation. PMID:24736783

  20. First Report of OXA-4, an ESBL Isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa a South Indian Strain.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, S A Jemima; Verghese, Susan

    2013-09-01

    The OXA-type β-lactamases are so named because of their oxacillin-hydrolyzing abilities. In this study we characterize an extended spectrum β-lactamase, designated OXA-4, produced by a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ESBL production was detected by double disk synergy test. The P. aeruginosa isolate was obtained from endotracheal suction tip of 84 years old male patient diagnosed with CVA and hypertension. ESBL producing OXA β-lactamases was detected by PCR with primers specific to the conserved regions of the coding genes. Iso electric focusing was done to confirm the significance, sequencing the amplified product was also done. In the phenotypic identification, the strain was highly resistant to third generation cephalosporins and also to imipenem. The PCR amplified product for OXA β-lactamase was viewed at 919 bp. The pI point for the same was identified at 7.2. With the help of sequencing the amplified OXA β-lactamase was identified as OXA-4 gene. Here we report P. aeruginosa producing OXA-4 ESBL for the first time in the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Comparative Profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Reveals Differential Expression of Novel Unique and Conserved Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Silvia; Brugnoli, Margherita; De Bonis, Angela; Righetti, Francesco; Delvillani, Francesco; Dehò, Gianni; Horner, David; Briani, Federica; Bertoni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly adaptable bacterium that thrives in a broad range of ecological niches and can infect multiple hosts as diverse as plants, nematodes and mammals. In humans, it is an important opportunistic pathogen. This wide adaptability correlates with its broad genetic diversity. In this study, we used a deep-sequencing approach to explore the complement of small RNAs (sRNAs) in P. aeruginosa as the number of such regulatory molecules previously identified in this organism is relatively low, considering its genome size, phenotypic diversity and adaptability. We have performed a comparative analysis of PAO1 and PA14 strains which share the same host range but differ in virulence, PA14 being considerably more virulent in several model organisms. Altogether, we have identified more than 150 novel candidate sRNAs and validated a third of them by Northern blotting. Interestingly, a number of these novel sRNAs are strain-specific or showed strain-specific expression, strongly suggesting that they could be involved in determining specific phenotypic traits. PMID:22590564

  2. Biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility and RAPD genotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains isolated from single centre intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Vaněrková, Martina; Mališová, Barbora; Kotásková, Iva; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip; Freiberger, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and serotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains, including the clonal dissemination of particular strains throughout various intensive care units in one medical centre. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) and P. aeruginosa antisera, 22 different genotypes and 8 serotypes were defined among 103 isolates from 48 patients. No direct association between P. aeruginosa strain genotypes and serotypes was observed. RAPD typing in strains with the same serotype revealed different genotypes and, on the contrary, most strains with a different serotype displayed the same amplification pattern. The resulting banding patterns showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity among all isolates from the patients examined, suggesting a non-clonal relationship between isolates from these patients. A higher degree of antibiotic resistance and stronger biofilm production in common genotypes compared to rare ones and genetic homogeneity of the most resistant strains indicated the role of antibiotic pressure in acquiring resistant and more virulent strains in our hospital. In conclusion, genetic characterisation of P. aeruginosa strains using RAPD method was shown to be more accurate in epidemiological analyses than phenotyping.

  3. Production of biosurfactant from a new and promising strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    PubMed

    Santa Anna, L M; Sebastian, G V; Pereira, N; Alves, T L; Menezes, E P; Freire, D M

    2001-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain, isolated from the water of oil production in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil, was evaluated as a potential rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant producer. The production of biosurfactants was investigated using different carbon sources (n-hexadecane, paraffin oil, glycerol, and babassu oil) and inoculum concentrations (0.0016-0.008 g/L). The best results were obtained with glycerol as the substrate and an initial cell concentration of 0.004 g/L. A C:N ratio of 22.8 led to the greatest production of rhamnolipids (1700 mg/L) and efficiency (1.18 g of rhamnolipid/g of dry wt).

  4. Transcriptomic Analyses Elucidate Adaptive Differences of Closely-Related Strains of P. aeruginosa in Fuel.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Bowen, Loryn L; Zhou, Carol E; Howard-Byerly, Susan C; Foley, William S; Striebich, Richard C; Dugan, Larry C; Ruiz, Oscar N

    2017-03-17

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize hydrocarbons, but different strains have varying degrees of adaptation despite their highly conserved genome. P. aeruginosa ATCC 33988 is highly adapted to hydrocarbons while strain PAO1, a human pathogen, is less-adapted and degrades jet fuel at a slower rate than does ATCC 33988. We investigated fuel specific transcriptomic differences between these strains in order to ascertain the underling mechanisms utilized by the adapted strain to proliferate in fuel. During growth in fuel, the genes related to alkane degradation, heat-shock response, membrane proteins, efflux pumps and several novel genes were upregulated in ATCC 33988. Overexpression of alk genes in PAO1 provided some improvement in growth, but not as robust as that of ATCC 33988, suggesting the role of other genes in adaptation. Expression of the function unknown gene PA5359 from ATCC 33988 in PAO1 increased the growth in fuel. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that PA5359 is a predicted lipoprotein with a conserved 'Yx(FWY)xxD' motif, which is shared among bacterial adhesins. Overexpression of the putative RND-efflux pump PA3521-PA3523 increased the growth of ATCC 33988 strain suggesting a possible role in fuel tolerance. Interestingly the PAO1 strain cannot utilize nC8 and nC10. Expression of GFP under the control of alkB promoters confirmed that alk gene promoter polymorphism affects the expression of alk genes. Promoter fusion assays further confirmed that regulation of alk genes was different in the two strains. Protein sequence analysis showed low amino acid differences for many of the upregulated genes, further supporting transcriptional control as the main mechanism for enhanced adaptation.IMPORTANCE These results support that specific signal transduction, gene regulation and coordination of multiple biological responses are required to improve survival, growth and metabolism of fuel in adapted strains. This study provides new insight into the mechanistic

  5. Microcyclamide Biosynthesis in Two Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa: from Structure to Genes and Vice Versa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ziemert, Nadine; Ishida, Keishi; Quillardet, Philippe; Bouchier, Christiane; Hertweck, Christian; de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau; Dittmann, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Comparative analysis of related biosynthetic gene clusters can provide new insights into the versatility of these pathways and allow the discovery of new natural products. The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES298 produces the cytotoxic peptide microcyclamide. Here, we provide evidence that the cyclic hexapeptide is formed by a ribosomal pathway through the activity of a set of processing enzymes closely resembling those recently shown to be involved in patellamide biosynthesis in cyanobacterial symbionts of ascidians. Besides two subtilisin-type proteases and a heterocyclization enzyme, the gene cluster discovered in strain NIES298 encodes six further open reading frames, two of them without similarity to enzymes encoded by the patellamide gene cluster. Analyses of genomic data of a second cyanobacterial strain, M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, guided the discovery and structural elucidation of two novel peptides of the microcyclamide family. The identification of the microcyclamide biosynthetic genes provided an avenue by which to study the regulation of peptide synthesis at the transcriptional level. The precursor genes were strongly and constitutively expressed throughout the growth phase, excluding the autoinduction of these peptides, as has been observed for several peptide pheromone families in bacteria. PMID:18245249

  6. Microcyclamide biosynthesis in two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa: from structure to genes and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Ziemert, Nadine; Ishida, Keishi; Quillardet, Philippe; Bouchier, Christiane; Hertweck, Christian; de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau; Dittmann, Elke

    2008-03-01

    Comparative analysis of related biosynthetic gene clusters can provide new insights into the versatility of these pathways and allow the discovery of new natural products. The freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES298 produces the cytotoxic peptide microcyclamide. Here, we provide evidence that the cyclic hexapeptide is formed by a ribosomal pathway through the activity of a set of processing enzymes closely resembling those recently shown to be involved in patellamide biosynthesis in cyanobacterial symbionts of ascidians. Besides two subtilisin-type proteases and a heterocyclization enzyme, the gene cluster discovered in strain NIES298 encodes six further open reading frames, two of them without similarity to enzymes encoded by the patellamide gene cluster. Analyses of genomic data of a second cyanobacterial strain, M. aeruginosa PCC 7806, guided the discovery and structural elucidation of two novel peptides of the microcyclamide family. The identification of the microcyclamide biosynthetic genes provided an avenue by which to study the regulation of peptide synthesis at the transcriptional level. The precursor genes were strongly and constitutively expressed throughout the growth phase, excluding the autoinduction of these peptides, as has been observed for several peptide pheromone families in bacteria.

  7. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    PubMed Central

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

  8. Silver(I) complexes with phthalazine and quinazoline as effective agents against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Glišić, Biljana Đ; Senerovic, Lidija; Comba, Peter; Wadepohl, Hubert; Veselinovic, Aleksandar; Milivojevic, Dusan R; Djuran, Miloš I; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

    2016-02-01

    Five silver(I) complexes with aromatic nitrogen-containing heterocycles, phthalazine (phtz) and quinazoline (qz), were synthesized, characterized and analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Although different AgX salts reacted with phtz, only dinuclear silver(I) complexes of the general formula {[Ag(X-O)(phtz-N)]2(μ-phtz-N,N')2} were formed, X=NO3(-) (1), CF3SO3(-) (2) and ClO4(-) (3). However, reactions of qz with an equimolar amount of AgCF3SO3 and AgBF4 resulted in the formation of polynuclear complexes, {[Ag(CF3SO3-O)(qz-N)]2}n (4) and {[Ag(qz-N)][BF4]}n (5). Complexes 1-5 were evaluated by in vitro antimicrobial studies against a panel of microbial strains that lead to many skin and soft tissue, respiratory, wound and nosocomial infections. The obtained results indicate that all tested silver(I) complexes have good antibacterial activity with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values in the range from 2.9 to 48.0μM against the investigated strains. Among the investigated strains, these complexes were particularly efficient against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=2.9-29μM) and had a marked ability to disrupt clinically relevant biofilms of strains with high inherent resistance to antibiotics. On the other hand, their activity against the fungus Candida albicans was moderate. In order to determine the therapeutic potential of silver(I) complexes 1-5, their antiproliferative effect on the human lung fibroblastic cell line MRC5, has been also evaluated. The binding of complexes 1-5 to the genomic DNA of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis techniques and well supported by molecular docking into the DNA minor groove. All investigated complexes showed an improved cytotoxicity profile in comparison to the clinically used AgNO3.

  9. Expression of Interleukin-6 in the Cornea in Response to Infection with Different Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Nerida; Bao, Shisan; Willcox, Mark; Husband, Alan J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing keratitis can be either cytotoxic (6206) or invasive (6294), while a strain (Paer1) causing contact lens-induced acute red eye has been shown to be neither. In situ hybridization was used to examine the location and identity of cells expressing interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA in the murine cornea and changes in expression in response to infection with different strains of P. aeruginosa. The number of IL-6-positive cells was determined by image analysis. IL-6 protein levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. BALB/c mice were challenged by use of the wounded-cornea model with P. aeruginosa 6294, 6206, or Paer1 (2 × 106 CFU). At time intervals up to 24 h, postchallenge corneal tissue was probed for IL-6 mRNA. IL-6 mRNA expression was rapidly elevated in the epithelium in response to strains 6294 and 6206. At the conclusion of the experiments, infiltrating inflammatory cells also stained positively for IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, corneas challenged with strain Paer1 showed significant upregulation of IL-6 mRNA only at 4 h postchallenge. Three distinct patterns of IL-6 mRNA expression in the mouse cornea occur in response to these three ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa. The data obtained for mRNA expression in the cornea for all three strains of P. aeruginosa correlated well with IL-6 protein analysis of whole-eye homogenates. Differences in the cytokine responses to these strains correlate with differences in the pathology associated with each strain and may offer an opportunity to develop strategies for the improved management of ocular inflammation. PMID:10225913

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains causing infection in an Italian general hospital. A one-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Grigis, A; Farina, C; Moioli, F; Parea, M; Cirillo, D M; Goglio, A; Marchiaro, G

    1995-06-01

    During the 1989 calendar year, P. aeruginosa caused clinical infections in 0.46% of patients admitted to Ospedali Riuniti (a general hospital), Bergamo, Italy. Strains (n = 267) of P. aeruginosa were collected during this period, and epidemiological characteristics were studied. The mean prevalence of P. aeruginosa infection in inpatients was 1.1% (range 0.06-7.3), whereas outpatients showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection (0.05%). Strains were recovered from inpatients of surgical wards (n = 126; 47.2%), and outpatients (n = 15; 5.6%). Males were more often affected than females (2.7:1). Infection of the urinary tract was the most common (34.1%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also involved in lower respiratory tract infections (18.7%) and septicaemia (17.6%). Four typing methods were performed, i.e. serotyping, antibiotyping, pyocin typing, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). Serotypes O:11 and O:6 were endemic in the hospital. Some serotypes correlated with specific clinical wards. Pyocin typing was an unreliable epidemiological tool. However, antibiotyping showed the presence of some epidemic clusters, probably related to the antibiotic consumption of the patients. REA suggested the circulation of edemic P. aeruginosa strains in both the obstetrics and neurosurgery wards.

  11. Streptomycin Accumulation in Susceptible and Resistant Strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, L. E.; Elzen, H. M. Van Den

    1976-01-01

    Streptomycin accumulation by susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been shown to be prevented or inhibited by inhibitors of electron transport, sulfhydryl groups and protein synthesis, and agents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Streptomycin is recovered from cells in an unchanged form and is intracellularly concentrated above extracellular concentrations. Accumulation kinetics are multiphasic; an initial phase which cannot be prevented by the above inhibitors is unable to cause inhibition of cell growth or loss of cell viability. Prevention of further phases of uptake does prevent these events. Inhibitor-susceptible accumulation is time dependent and begins almost immediately upon exposure of cells to streptomycin. Streptomycin accumulation remains energy dependent even when cells are losing acid-soluble [3H]adenine, presumably through loss of permeability control. These results demonstrate that streptomycin accumulation necessary for inhibition of cell growth or cell death requires energy and is not a process of diffusion or secondary to membrane leakage. Streptomycin accumulation in ribosomally resistant mutants of E. coli and P. aeruginosa is similar in that both energy-independent and energy-dependent accumulation can be demonstrated. The total energy-dependent accumulation is, however, significantly lower than that in streptomycin-susceptible cells due to the absence of an additional energy-dependent phase of accumulation, which seems dependent on ribosomal binding of streptomycin. Ribosomally resistant strains can be shown to concentrate streptomycin accumulated by the energy-dependent process above the external concentration in nutrient broth but not in Trypticase soy broth. The energy-dependent accumulation can be saturated in the Strr strain of E. coli in nutrient broth, implying limited accumulation sites. PMID:820248

  12. Reduction and Acetylation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain.

    PubMed

    Noguera, D R; Freedman, D L

    1996-07-01

    Aerobic and anoxic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) was examined by using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a plant treating propellant manufacturing wastewater. DNT biotransformation in the presence and absence of oxygen was mostly reductive and was representative of the type of cometabolic transformations that occur when a high concentration of an easily degradable carbon source is present. P. aeruginosa reduced both nitro groups on DNT, with the formation of mainly 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene and 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and small quantities of 2,4-diaminotoluene. Acetylation of the arylamines was a significant reaction. 4-Acetamide-2-nitrotoluene and the novel compounds 2-acetamide-4-nitrotoluene, 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene, and 2,4-diacetamidetoluene were identified as DNT metabolites. The biotransformation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene was 24 times faster than abiotic transformation. 2-Nitrotoluene and 4-nitrotoluene were also reduced to their corresponding toluidines and then acetylated. However, the yield of 4-acetamidetoluene was much higher than that of 2-acetamidetoluene, demonstrating that acetylation at the position para to the methyl group was favored.

  13. Reduction and Acetylation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, D. R.; Freedman, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and anoxic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) was examined by using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a plant treating propellant manufacturing wastewater. DNT biotransformation in the presence and absence of oxygen was mostly reductive and was representative of the type of cometabolic transformations that occur when a high concentration of an easily degradable carbon source is present. P. aeruginosa reduced both nitro groups on DNT, with the formation of mainly 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene and 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and small quantities of 2,4-diaminotoluene. Acetylation of the arylamines was a significant reaction. 4-Acetamide-2-nitrotoluene and the novel compounds 2-acetamide-4-nitrotoluene, 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene, and 2,4-diacetamidetoluene were identified as DNT metabolites. The biotransformation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene was 24 times faster than abiotic transformation. 2-Nitrotoluene and 4-nitrotoluene were also reduced to their corresponding toluidines and then acetylated. However, the yield of 4-acetamidetoluene was much higher than that of 2-acetamidetoluene, demonstrating that acetylation at the position para to the methyl group was favored. PMID:16535348

  14. Antagonistic interactions peak at intermediate genetic distance in clinical and laboratory strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria excrete costly toxins to defend their ecological niche. The evolution of such antagonistic interactions between individuals is expected to depend on both the social environment and the strength of resource competition. Antagonism is expected to be weak among highly similar genotypes because most individuals are immune to antagonistic agents and among dissimilar genotypes because these are unlikely to be competing for the same resources and antagonism should not yield much benefit. The strength of antagonism is therefore expected to peak at intermediate genetic distance. Results We studied the ability of laboratory strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to prevent growth of 55 different clinical P. aeruginosa isolates derived from cystic fibrosis patients. Genetic distance was determined using genetic fingerprints. We found that the strength of antagonism was maximal among genotypes of intermediate genetic distance and we show that genetic distance and resource use are linked. Conclusions Our results suggest that the importance of social interactions like antagonism may be modulated by the strength of resource competition. PMID:22439760

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Hex1T Isolated from Soils Contaminated with Used Lubricating Oil in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Luján, Adela M.; Feliziani, Sofía

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa Hex1T was isolated from soils contaminated with used lubricating oil from a garage in Córdoba, Argentina. This strain is capable of utilizing this pollutant as the sole carbon and energy source. Here, we present the 6.9-Mb draft genome sequence of Hex1T, which contains many heavy metal-resistance genes. PMID:28082504

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of the Triclosan- and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain B10W Isolated from Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chuanqing; Nelson, Matthew; Cao, Guangxiang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the triclosan- and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain B10W, obtained from municipal wastewater in Hawaii. The bacterium has a 6.7-Mb genome, contains 6,391 coding sequences and 78 RNAs, with an average G+C content of 66.2 mol%. PMID:28104659

  18. Isolation and characterization of an alginase from mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Linker, A; Evans, L R

    1984-09-01

    Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produce an alginate-like slime polysaccharide were shown to also synthesize an intracellular enzyme which can degrade these polysaccharides and the seaweed alginic acids. The enzyme acts as an eliminase introducing delta 4,5 unsaturation into the uronic acid moiety. It appears to be a polymannuronide lyase which degrades the polysaccharides, depending on their uronic acid composition, to a series of oligosaccharides, the smallest of which is a disaccharide. L-Guluronic acid linkages are not split. The Pseudomonas alginase resembles other bacterial alginases and enzymes from molluscs but differs in some important properties, such as extent of degradation and linkage preference. Nonmucoid forms of the organism produce detectable but much lower amounts of enzyme.

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Light Availability on Growth and Competition Between Strains of Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Torres, Camila de Araujo; Lürling, Miquel; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Planktothrix agardhii strains isolated from a tropical water body were better competitors for light than Microcystis aeruginosa strains. These cyanobacteria are common in eutrophic systems, where light is one of the main drivers of phytoplankton, and Planktothrix is considered more shade-adapted and Microcystis more high-light tolerant. First, the effect of light intensities on growth was studied in batch cultures. Next, the minimum requirement of light (I*) and the effect of light limitation on the outcome of competition was investigated in chemostats. All strains showed similar growth at 10 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), demonstrating the ability of the two species to grow in low light. The optimum light intensity was lower for P. agardhii, but at the highest light intensity, Microcystis strains reached higher biovolume, confirming that P. agardhii has higher sensitivity to high light. Nonetheless, P. agardhii grew in light intensities considered high (500 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) for this species. M. aeruginosa showed a higher carrying capacity in light-limited condition, but I* was similar between all the strains. Under light competition, Microcystis strains displaced P. agardhii and dominated. In two cases, there was competitive exclusion and in the other two P. agardhii managed to remain in the system with a low biovolume (≈15%). Our findings not only show that strains of P. agardhii can grow under higher light intensities than generally assumed but also that strains of M. aeruginosa are better competitors for light than supposed. These results help to understand the co-occurrence of these species in tropical environments and the dominance of M. aeruginosa even in low-light conditions.

  20. Restriction endonuclease analysis of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: useful epidemiologic data from a simple and rapid method.

    PubMed Central

    Maher, W E; Kobe, M; Fass, R J

    1993-01-01

    Newer genetic techniques have replaced phenotypic methods of subtyping Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Widespread application of newer methodologies, however, may be limited by technologic complexity and the cost of equipment. We conducted restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of sheared genomic DNAs from 48 clinical P. aeruginosa strains using the enzyme SalI and electrophoresis in horizontal, low-concentration (0.3 to 0.6%) agarose gels. Each REA profile consisted of a smear of lower-molecular-mass bands as well as a countable number of well-resolved bands in the 8.3- to 48.5-kbp range which could easily be compared when isolates were run side-by-side on the same gel. In general, the REA patterns of strains recovered from different patients differed by at least seven bands, and those of serial isolates from individual patients were identical or differed by, at most, two bands over this 8.3- to 48.5-kbp range. REA of strains already subtyped by field inversion gel electrophoresis revealed that the two techniques generally paralleled each other. Overall, some unrelated strains had similar REA profiles, but the relative simplicity and low cost of the approach coupled with the ability to demonstrate differences between most unrelated strains should make this type of REA an attractive first step in the investigation of institutional P. aeruginosa problems. Images PMID:8391021

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Chitinase Antigen from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain 385

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Suzanne E.; Smith, Mark; Wilkinson, Mark C.; Peek, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A chitinase antigen has been identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 385 using sera from animals immunized with a whole-cell vaccine. The majority of the activity was shown to be in the cytoplasm, with some activity in the membrane fraction. The chitinase was not secreted into the culture medium. Purification of the enzyme was achieved by exploiting its binding to crab shell chitin. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a pI of 5.2. NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed two sequences of M(I/L)RID and (Q/M/V)AREDAAAAM that gave an exact match to sequences in a translated putative open reading frame from the P. aeruginosa genome. The chitinase was active against chitin azure, ethylene glycol chitin, and colloidal chitin. It did not display any lysozyme activity. Using synthetic 4-methylumbelliferyl chitin substrates, it was shown to be an endochitinase. The Km and kcat for 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-N,N′-diacetylchitobiose were 4.28 mM and 1.7 s−1 respectively, and for 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-N,N′,N′′-triacetylchitotriose, they were 0.48 mM and 0.16 s−1 respectively. The pH optimum was determined to be pH 6.75, and 90% activity was maintained over the pH range 6.5 to 7.1. The enzyme was stable over the pH range 5 to 10 for 3 h and to temperatures up to 50°C for 30 min. The chitinase bound strongly to chitin, chitin azure, colloidal chitin, lichenan, and cellulose but poorly to chitosan, xylan, and heparin. It is suggested that the chitinase functions primarily as a chitobiosidase, removing chitobiose from the nonreducing ends of chitin and chitin oligosaccharides. PMID:11525997

  2. A novel protein quality control mechanism contributes to heat shock resistance of worldwide-distributed Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone C strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Wigren, Edvard; Trček, Janja; Peters, Verena; Kim, Jihong; Hasni, Muhammad Sharif; Nimtz, Manfred; Lindqvist, Ylva; Park, Chankyu; Curth, Ute; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Römling, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly successful nosocomial pathogen capable of causing a wide variety of infections with clone C strains most prevalent worldwide. In this study, we initially characterize a molecular mechanism of survival unique to clone C strains. We identified a P. aeruginosa clone C-specific genomic island (PACGI-1) that contains the highly expressed small heat shock protein sHsp20c, the founding member of a novel subclass of class B bacterial small heat shock proteins. sHsp20c and adjacent gene products are involved in resistance against heat shock. Heat stable sHsp20c is unconventionally expressed in stationary phase in a wide temperature range from 20 to 42°C. Purified sHsp20c has characteristic features of small heat shock protein class B as it is monodisperse, forms sphere-like 24-meric oligomers and exhibits significant chaperone activity. As the P. aeruginosa clone C population is significantly more heat shock resistant than genetically unrelated P. aeruginosa strains without sHsp20c, the horizontally acquired shsp20c operon might contribute to the survival of worldwide-distributed clone C strains.

  3. Detection of Quorum Sensing Activity in the Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain GB11

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huey Jia; Ee, Robson; Cheong, Yuet Meng; Tan, Wen-Si; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant clinical bacteria strain GB11 was isolated from a wound swab on the leg of a patient. Identity of stain GB11 as Pseudomonas aeruginosa was validated by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Detection of the production of signaling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), was conducted using three different bacterial biosensors. A total of four different AHLs were found to be produced by strain GB11, namely N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-3-oxo-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) using high resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of these detected AHLs, 3-oxo-C12-HSL was found to be the most abundant AHL produced by P. aeruginosa GB11. PMID:25019635

  4. Inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a Bacteriocin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen A.; Vaughan, Patrick; Johnson, Deanne; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    1976-01-01

    Supernatants from broth-grown cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 103 exhibited bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The concentration of the bactericidal substance increased significantly after induction by mitomycin C. Purification was effected by salt fractionation, chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, and sedimentation by centrifugation at 100,000 × g for 90 min. Electron microscopy of this purified preparation revealed structures resembling R-type pyocins in both the contracted and uncontracted state. Pyocins in the contracted state were observed in association with the gonococcal cell surface. No loss of bactericidal activity was observed after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Standard pyocin typing procedures identified the pyocin pattern as 611 131. The bactericidal activity of this pyocin was examined on various species of Neisseria. Out of 56 strains of N. gonorrhoeae from disseminated and nondisseminated infections, all were susceptible to pyocin 611 131. However, only 3 of 20 strains of N. meningitidis and 5 of 16 strains of N. lactamica were susceptible. The bactericidal activity that pyocin 611 131 has for N. gonorrhoeae and other species of Neisseria is significant because it departs from the expected specificity that heretofore has distinguished bacteriocins from most “classical” antibiotics. Images PMID:825024

  5. Production of exotoxin A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    DeBell, R M

    1979-04-01

    A defined medium was developed in which easily measured quantities of exotoxin A (PE) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA-103. The medium contained three L-amino acids (arginine, aspartic acid, and alanine), basal and trace salts including 14 mM K2HPO4, 14 mM glucose, and 140 mM glycerol. The concentrations of amino acids which yielded most satisfactory results were 6 mM alanine, 13 mM aspartic acid, and 16 mM arginine. The identity of PE in the culture supernatant fluid was demonstrated by adenosine diphosphate-ribosyl transferase activity and by immunodiffusion with sheep antitoxin elicited with purified PE and with PE produced in Trypticase soy broth dialysate and pure PE as controls. PE production was also demonstrated by mouse lethality and passive hemagglutination. As compared to Trypticase soy broth dialysate, P. aeruginosa produced 25 to 50% PE in the defined medium. Different strains of P. aeruginosa produced PE in the defined medium in proportions relative to those in Trypticase soy broth dialysate.

  6. Environmentally Endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Mutations in lasR Are Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Corneal Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Hebert, Wesley P.; Naimie, Amanda; Ray, Kathryn; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Lalitha, Prajna; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Acharya, Nisha R.; Lietman, Thomas; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates. The lasR sequences from these isolates each contained one of three nonsynonymous substitutions, and these strains were deficient in production of LasR-regulated protease and rhamnolipids. Replacement of lasR with either of the two most common lasR alleles from the SCUT isolates was sufficient to decrease protease and rhamnolipid production in PA14. Loss of LasR function is associated with increased production of CupA fimbriae, and the LasR-defective isolates exhibited higher production of CupA fimbriae than LasR-intact isolates. Strains with the same lasR mutation were of the same multilocus sequence type, suggesting that LasR-deficient, environmental P. aeruginosa strains were endemic to the area, and infections caused by these strains were associated with worse patient outcomes in the SCUT study. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00324168.) IMPORTANCE The LasR transcription factor is an important regulator of quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa and positively controls multiple virulence-associated pathways. The emergence of strains with lasR loss-of-function alleles in chronic disease is well described and is thought to represent a specific adaptation to the host environment. However, the prevalence and virulence of these strains in acute infections remain unclear. This report describes observations revealing that lasR mutants were common among isolates from

  7. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  8. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oleophilic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of an indigenous strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514, isolated from petroleum-polluted soil, for the biodegradation of crude petroleum oil. The isolate completely decolorized 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol in 120h when grown at (37±1°C), indicating its hydrocarbon utilizing nature. Ex situ biodegradation study was performed to find out quantitative utilization and biodegradation of paraffin(s) present in crude oil. When the culture was grown in Bushnell-Hass medium containing crude oil (3%,v/v) at 37°C, 180rpm for 60days, the viscosity of the oil was reduced from 1883cp to 1002cp. Gravimetric and gas chromatographic analysis showed 61.03% and 60.63% of biodegradation of C8-C36+ hydrocarbons, respectively. These results indicated that the isolate has potential to be used for ex-situ and in-situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants and could have promising applications in petrochemical industry.

  9. Computerized restriction endonuclease analysis compared with O-serotype and phage type in the epidemiologic fingerprinting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Javier; Latorre, Mikel; López-Molina, Nuria; Laconcha, Idoia; Alberdi, Leire; Rementeria, Aitor; Audicana, Ana; Uliarte, Rosario; Cisterna, Ramón

    1997-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) of chromosomal DNA using SalI enzyme, low-concentration (0.4%) agarose gels and digitalized data management of the REA patterns obtained for the typing of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: A group of 67 clinical unrelated isolates from 10 Spanish hospitals was used to study the discriminatory power, reproducibility and typeability of REA typing. RESULTS: A SalI REA pattern consisted of a variety (1--10) of restriction bands in the range between 12.2 and 48.5 kb and an unresolvable smear of low-molecular-weight bands. Forty different SalI REA patterns with an index of discrimination of 0.979 were obtained. Low typeability (91.04%) was the major limitation of REA typing. Analysis of blinded subcultures of eight Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed the reproducibility of REA typing to be 87.5%. Combined phenotypic typing (O-serotyping and phage typing) performed on the same group of strains showed comparable discrimination but much lower reproducibility. Isolates selected from five clusters of nosocomial infections in hospitals in the UK were typed by REA typing, and the results show high agreement when compared with conventional phenotypic typing methods in distinguishing between strains. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the usefulness of REA typing enhanced with digitalized data management for the epidemiologic subtyping of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

  10. Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis Using an ATCC Reference Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activity as Broad Spectrum Clinical Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Quinteros, Melisa A.; Aiassa Martínez, Ivana M.; Dalmasso, Pablo R.; Páez, Paulina L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the biosynthesis of silver-based nanomaterials attracts enormous attention owing to the documented antimicrobial properties of these ones. This study reports the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a reference culture collection. A greenish culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa incubated at 37°C with a silver nitrate solution for 24 h changed to a yellowish brown color, indicating the formation of Ag-NPs, which was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. TEM analysis showed spherical and pseudospherical nanoparticles with a distributed size mainly between 25 and 45 nm, and the XRD pattern revealed the crystalline nature of Ag-NPs. Also it provides an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs against human pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Ag-NPs were found to be bioactive at picomolar concentration levels showing bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. This work demonstrates the first helpful use of biosynthesized Ag-NPs as broad spectrum bactericidal agents for clinical strains of pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, A. baumannii, and E. coli. In addition, these Ag-NPs showed negligible cytotoxic effect in human neutrophils suggesting low toxicity to the host. PMID:27340405

  11. Biotechnological potential of a rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Sun, Shuang; Yang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Kai-Ming; Zhang, Wei; He, Ya-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial phenazine metabolites belong to a group of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds with antimicrobial activities. In this study, a rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201 was isolated and identified through 16S rDNA sequence analysis and fatty acid profiling. PA1201 inhibited the growth of various pathogenic microorganisms, including Rhizotonia solani, Magnaporthe grisea, Fusarium graminearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Staphylococcus aureus. High Performance Liquid Chromatography showed that PA1201 produced high levels of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), a registered green fungicide 'Shenqinmycin' with the fermentation titers of 81.7 mg/L in pigment producing medium (PPM) and 926.9 mg/L in SCG medium containing soybean meal, corn steep liquor and glucose. In addition, PA1201 produced another antifungal metabolite, phenazine-1-carboxaminde (PCN), a derivative of PCA, with the fermentation titers of 18.1 and 489.5 mg/L in PPM and SCG medium respectively. To the best of our knowledge, PA1201 is a rhizosphere originating P. aeruginosa strain that congenitally produces the highest levels of PCA and PCN among currently reported P. aeruginosa isolates, which endows it great biotechnological potential to be transformed to a biopesticide-producing engineering strain.

  12. Sensitivity to Antimicrobial Drugs of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Extreme-Resistant Strains Isolated in the Major Hospitals of Central Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Azizov, Ilya S.; Lavrinenko, Alyona V.; Belyaev, Ilya A.; Babenko, Dmitry B.; Shambilova, Natalya A.; Bissenova, Nelya M.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The article presents the current data on the sensitivity of the main 37 strains of eXtremaly Drugs Resistance (XDR) category to anti-pseudomonas drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The strains were collected during the prospective multicenter study in large multidisciplinary hospitals of Central Kazakhstan. Susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was carried out by disk method and the serial dilution method with the interpretation of the results according to EUCAST criteria. Detection of carbapenemases gene of VIM, IMP, NDM and GES classes was carried out by PCR method using the commercial kits. RESULTS: All identified carbapenemases were sorted to VIM class and accounted for 63.64%. Resistance to aminoglycoside drugs exceeded 80%. All the strains were susceptible to polymyxin. CONCLUSION: Thus, at the present stage the circulation of P. aeruginosa strains of XDR category continues in major hospitals in Kazakhstan. The strains remain sensitiveness only to polymyxin. PMID:28293307

  13. Novel rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain NY3.

    PubMed

    Nie, Maiqian; Yin, Xihou; Ren, Chunyan; Wang, Yang; Xu, Feng; Shen, Qirong

    2010-01-01

    A novel rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain NY3 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil samples. Strain NY3 was characterized by its extraordinary capacity to produce structurally diverse rhamnolipids. A total of 25 rhamnolipid components and 37 different parent molecular ions, representing various metal ion adducts (Na(+), 2Na(+) and K(+)), were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among these compounds are ten new rhamnolipids. In addition to its biosurfactant production, strain NY3 was shown to be capable of efficient degradation of PAHs as well as synergistic improvement in the degradation of high molecular weight PAHs by its biosurfactant. These findings have added novel members to the rhamnolipid group and expanded current knowledge regarding the diversity and productive capability of rhamnolipid biosurfactants from a single specific strain with variation of only one carbon source. Additionally, this paper lays the foundation for improvement in the yield of NY3BS and study of the degradation pathway(s) of PAHs in P. aeruginosa strain NY3.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a bacteriophage specific for the lipopolysaccharide of rough derivatives of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrell, K F; Kropinski, A M

    1981-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-defective (rough) mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO was isolated by selection for resistance to the LPS-specific phage E79. The LPS of this mutant, AK-1012, lacked the O-antigenic side chain-specific amino sugar fucosamine as well as the core-specific sugars glucose and rhamnose. Using this strain, we isolated and characterized a phage, phi PLS27, which is specifically inactivated upon incubation with LPS extracted from rough mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO. phi PLS27 was found to be a Bradley type C phage and was very similar to coliphage T7 in a number of properties, including size, buoyant density, mass, and the number of structural proteins. Images PMID:6787214

  15. [Introduction of mutator phage D3112 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into Alcaligenes eutrophus var. metallotollerans (Strain CH34)].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V N

    1996-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the intact genome of a D3112 tranposable phage (TP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, integrated into a recombinant plasmid RP4 :: D3112, can be transferred by means of conjugation from P. putida PpG1 (RP4npt :: D3112) donor cells into Alcaligenes eutrophus var. metallotollerans cells. P. aeruginosa strains are unacceptable as donors because they have a bactericidal effect on A. eutrophus. RP4npt :: D3112 plasmid is stably inherited by A. eutrophus with D3112 being expressed and successfully reproduced. However, TP loses the induction ability after UV irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. It is suggested that D3112 TP and its miniderivatives could be used in manipulations with A. eutrophus var. metallotolerans.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains with Increased Mutation Frequency Due to Inactivation of the DNA Oxidative Repair System▿

    PubMed Central

    Mandsberg, L. F.; Ciofu, O.; Kirkby, N.; Christiansen, L. E.; Poulsen, H. E.; Høiby, N.

    2009-01-01

    The chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by the biofilm mode of growth and chronic inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). A high percentage of P. aeruginosa strains show high frequencies of mutations (hypermutators [HP]). P. aeruginosa is exposed to oxygen radicals, both those generated by its own metabolism and especially those released by a large number of PMNs in response to the chronic CF lung infection. Our work therefore focused on the role of the DNA oxidative repair system in the development of HP and antibiotic resistance. We have constructed and characterized mutT, mutY, and mutM mutants in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. The mutT and mutY mutants showed 28- and 7.5-fold increases in mutation frequencies, respectively, over that for PAO1. These mutators had more oxidative DNA damage (higher levels of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine) than PAO1 after exposure to PMNs, and they developed resistance to antibiotics more frequently. The mechanisms of resistance were increased β-lactamase production and overexpression of the MexCD-OprJ efflux-pump. Mutations in either the mutT or the mutY gene were found in resistant HP clinical isolates from patients with CF, and complementation with wild-type genes reverted the phenotype. In conclusion, oxidative stress might be involved in the development of resistance to antibiotics. We therefore suggest the possible use of antioxidants for CF patients to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:19332676

  17. Biodegradation of isoproturon using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11 as a multi-functional bioinoculant of environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Singh, Braj Raj; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2011-01-30

    Biodegradation of phenylurea herbicide isoproturon was studied in soil microcosm bioaugmented with a novel bacterial strain JS-11 isolated from wheat rhizosphere. The molecular characterization based on 16SrDNA sequence homology confirmed its identity as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11. The herbicide was completely degraded within 20 days at ambient temperature with the rate constant of 0.08 day(-1), following the first-order rate kinetics. In stationary phase, at a cell density of 6.5 × 10(9) CFU mL(-1), the bacteria produced substantially increased amounts of indole acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of tryptophan as compared with the control. Also, the bacteria exhibited a time-dependent increase in the amount of tri-calcium phosphate solubilization in Pikovskaya's medium. Further screening of the strain JS-11 for auxiliary activities revealed its remarkable capability of producing the siderophores and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), besides antifungal activity against a common phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Thus, the versatile P. aeruginosa strain JS-11 with innate potential for multifarious biological activities is envisaged as a super-bioinoculant for exploitation in the integrated bioremediation, plant growth and disease management (IBPDM) in contaminated agricultural soils.

  18. Evaluation of Synergistic Interactions Between Cell-Free Supernatant of Lactobacillus Strains and Amikacin and Genetamicin Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Aminnezhad, Sargol; Kermanshahi, Rouha Kasra; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases can increase the development of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, there is a big demand for new sources of antimicrobial agents and alternative treatments for reduction of antibiotic dosage required to decrease the associated side effects. Objectives: In this study, the synergistic action of aminoglycoside antibiotics and cell-free supernatant (CFS) of probiotic (Lactobacillus rahmnosus and L. casei) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was evaluated. Materials and Methods: A growth medium for culturing of probiotic bacteria was separated by centrifugation. The antimicrobial effects of CFS of probiotic bacteria were evaluated using the agar well diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Finally, an interaction between CFS and amikacin or gentamicin against P. aeruginosa PTCC 1430 was examined through the checkerboard method and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Furthermore, CFSs from Lactobacillus strains were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) for antimicrobial compounds. Results: The results showed a significant effect of CFS on the growth of P. aeruginosa. The MIC and MBC of CFS from L. casei were 62.5 µL⁄mL while the MIC and MBC of CFS from L. rhamnosus were 62.5 μL⁄mL and 125 μL⁄mL, respectively. Using the FIC indices, synergistic interactions were observed in combination of CFS and antibiotics. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration indices of CFS from L. casei and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.312 while FIC indices of CFS from L. rhamnosus and aminoglycoside antibiotics were 0.124 and 0.56, respectively showing a synergism effect. The results of RP-HPLC showed that CFS of Lactobacillus strains contained acetic acid, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that probiotic bacterial

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BAMCPA07-48, Isolated from a Combat Injury Wound

    PubMed Central

    Sanjar, Fatemeh; Karna, S. L. Rajasekhar; Chen, Tsute; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BAMCPA07-48, isolated from a combat injury wound. The closed genome sequence of this isolate is a valuable resource for pathogenome characterization of P. aeruginosa associated with wounds, which will aid in the development of a higher-resolution phylogenomic framework for molecular-guided pathogen-surveillance. PMID:27389262

  20. Divergence of a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during an outbreak of ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elli A; Di Lorenzo, Valeria; Trappetti, Claudia; Liciardi, Manuele; Orru, Germano; Viti, Carlo; Bronowski, Christina; Hall, Amanda J; Darby, Alistair C; Oggioni, Marco R; Winstanley, Craig

    2015-01-30

    Bacterial infections causing mastitis in sheep can result in severe economic losses for farmers. A large survey of milk samples from ewes with mastitis in Sardinia, Italy, indicated an increasing prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It has been shown previously that during chronic, biofilm-associated infections P. aeruginosa populations diversify. We report the phenotypic and genomic characterisation of two clonal P. aeruginosa isolates (PSE305 and PSE306) from a mastitis infection outbreak, representing distinct colony morphology variants. In addition to pigment production, PSE305 and PSE306 differed in phenotypic characteristics including biofilm formation, utilisation of various carbon and nitrogen sources, twitching motility. We found higher levels of expression of genes associated with biofilm formation (pelB) and twitching motility (flgD) in PSE305, compared to the biofilm and twitching-defective PSE306. Comparative genomics analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and minor insertion/deletion variations between PSE305 and PSE306, including a SNP mutation in the pilP gene of PSE306. By introducing a wild-type pilP gene we were able to partially complement the defective twitching motility of PSE306. There were also three larger regions of difference between the two genomes, indicating genomic instability. Hence, we have demonstrated that P. aeruginosa population divergence can occur during an outbreak of mastitis, leading to significant variations in phenotype and genotype, and resembling the behaviour of P. aeruginosa during chronic biofilm-associated infections.

  1. Nanoscale analysis of the effects of antibiotics and CX1 on a Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrug-resistant strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, C.; Grare, M.; Jauvert, E.; Coutable, A.; Regnouf-de-Vains, J. B.; Mourer, M.; Duval, R. E.; Dague, E.

    2012-08-01

    Drug resistance is a challenge that can be addressed using nanotechnology. We focused on the resistance of the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and investigated, using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), the behavior of a reference strain and of a multidrug resistant clinical strain, submitted to two antibiotics and to an innovative antibacterial drug (CX1). We measured the morphology, surface roughness and elasticity of the bacteria under physiological conditions and exposed to the antibacterial molecules. To go further in the molecules action mechanism, we explored the bacterial cell wall nanoscale organization using functionalized AFM tips. We have demonstrated that affected cells have a molecularly disorganized cell wall; surprisingly long molecules being pulled off from the cell wall by a lectin probe. Finally, we have elucidated the mechanism of action of CX1: it destroys the outer membrane of the bacteria as demonstrated by the results on artificial phospholipidic membranes and on the resistant strain.

  2. Genetic variability associated with photosynthetic pigment concentration, and photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching, in strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bañares-España, Elena; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Salgado, Concepción; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2007-06-01

    Although populations of cyanobacteria are usually considered to be clonal, their capacity to survive environmental changes suggests intrapopulation genetic variation. We therefore estimated the genetic variability on the basis of two processes important for any photoautotroph - photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching - as well as photosynthetic pigment concentrations. For this purpose, two parameters related to photochemical and nonphotochemical quenching were measured using specific experimental and statistical procedures, in 25 strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, along with their contents of chlorophyll a, total carotenoids and phycocyanin. The experimental procedure allowed discrimination between genetic and nongenetic (or residual) variability among strains. The high genetic variability found in photosynthetic pigments and both photosynthetic parameters denotes large differences even among strains isolated from the same community. The high genetic diversity within a population could be important for the evolutionary success of cyanobacteria.

  3. The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in corneal ring abscess formation in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kamata, R; Aoki, H; Matsumoto, K; Okamura, R; Kambara, T

    1993-09-01

    In order to identify the causative factors of ring abscess, which is the characteristic feature of pseudomonal keratitis, pseudomonal endotoxin, exotoxin A, and elastase were each separately injected into guinea pig cornea. There was no formation of ring abscess. Injection of living Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains IFO3455 and Takamatsu which produce all three molecules, clearly induced ring abscess. In contrast, when heat-killed bacteria strain IFO3455 or living bacteria of the non-elastase-producing strain PA103 were injected, ring abscess was not induced. Furthermore, when living bacteria strain IFO3455 were injected with anti-elastase antibody or a protease inhibitor, ovomacroglobulin, ring abscess formation was significantly inhibited. Histological examination demonstrated that the ring abscess was a dense accumulation and aggregation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) with debris of cells and lamellae in the deep stroma at the corneal margins, suggesting prevention of PMN migration to the central lesion. The presence of anti-elastase antibody or a specific elastase inhibitor facilitated PMN migration towards living bacteria strain IFO3455 in an in vitro model. These results indicate that pseudomonal elastase is a necessary but not sufficient factor in the formation of ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

  4. Identification of extensive drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: New clone ST1725 and high-risk clone ST233.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rodea, Pamela; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Espino, Benjamín Antonio; Olivares Cervantes, Alma Lidia; Gamiño Arroyo, Ana Estela; Moreno-Espinosa, Sarbelio; de la Rosa Zamboni, Daniela; López Martínez, Briceida; Castellanos-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Jiménez Rojas, Verónica Leticia; Vigueras Galindo, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Several microorganisms produce nosocomial infections (NIs), among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa stands out as an opportunist pathogen with the capacity to develop multiresistance to first-choice antibiotics. From 2007 to 2013, forty-six NIs produced by P. aeruginosa were detected at a pediatric tertiary care hospital in Mexico with a significant mortality rate (17.39%). All isolates (n = 58/46 patients) were characterized by evaluating their response to several antibiotics as panresistant (PDR), extensively resistant (XDR), multiresistant (MDR) or sensitive (S). In addition, all isolates were typified through multilocus sequencing of seven genes: acsA, aroE, guaA, mutL, nuoD, ppsA and trpE. Furthermore, to establish the genetic relationships among these isolates, we carried out a phylogenetic inference analysis using maximum likelihood to construct a phylogenetic network. To assess evolutionary parameters, recombination was evaluated using the PHI test, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions was determined. Two of the strains were PDR (ST1725); 42 were XDR; four were MDR; and ten were S. Twenty-one new sequence types were detected. Thirty-three strains exhibited novel sequence type ST1725. The ratio of nonsynonym to synonym substitutions was 1:1 considering all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genetic relationship of the PDR, XDR and MDR strains was mainly clonal; however, the PHI test and the phylogenetic network suggest that recombination events occurred to produce a non-clonal population. This study aimed not only to determine the genetic diversity of clinical P. aeruginosa but also to provide a warning regarding the identification and spreading of clone ST1725, its ability to cause outbreaks with high mortality rates, and to remain in the hospital environment for over seven years. These characteristics highlight the need to identify clonal outbreaks, especially where high resistance to most antibiotics is observed, and control

  5. [Shall we report the carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains detected by BD Phoenix system?].

    PubMed

    Oğünç, Dilara; Ongüt, Gözde; Ozen, Nevgün Sepin; Baysan, Betil Ozhak; Günseren, Filiz; Dağlar, Duygu; Demirbakan, Hadiye; Gültekin, Meral

    2010-04-01

    Imipenem and meropenem are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that are especially useful in the treatment of nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. infections. Previous reports have noted that susceptibility tests could show false resistance to imipenem. For this reason, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all carbapenem resistant or intermediate resistant isolates should be tested with an additional method to verify the results. This study was aimed to evaluate the imipenem and meropenem susceptibilities by disk diffusion, E-test and broth microdilution in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains found to be resistant or intermediate to imipenem-meropenem by BD Phoenix automated susceptibility testing system. Between January 2006-January 2007, 85 non-duplicate isolates of A. baumannii and 51 non-duplicate isolates of P. aeruginosa which were determined as resistant or intermediate resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem by BD Phoenix automated identification and susceptibility system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA) were collected in Akdeniz University Hospital Central Laboratory. All strains were tested by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden), disk diffusion and reference broth microdilution (BMD) method following CLSI recommendations. All 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa determined as imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by BD Phoenix, were found to be imipenem and/or meropenem resistant or intermediate resistant by the reference BMD method. Minor error rates were same for all testing systems (1.9%) except for the meropenem results of BD Phoenix system (5.9%). No major errors were produced by any system. For A. baumannii, only one very major error was detected for meropenem by BD Phoenix system. Number of minor errors determined for meropenem by all testing systems compared to the reference test, ranged from 2 (2.4%) to 3 (3.5%). It was concluded that carbapenem susceptibility test

  6. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Bento, Etiene Barbosa; Almeida, Larissa da Cunha; de Sá, Luisa Zaiden Carvalho Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs. PMID:24031917

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Able To Decompose N,N-Dimethyl Formamide

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming; Xu, Lin; Wei, Li; Zhang, Liting

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium, which uses a variety of organic chemicals as carbon sources. Here, we report the genome sequence of the Cu1510 isolate from wastewater containing a high concentration of N,N-dimethyl formamide. PMID:26847883

  8. Sodium houttuyfonate inhibits biofilm formation and alginate biosynthesis-associated gene expression in a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    PubMed Central

    WU, DA-QIANG; CHENG, HUIJUAN; DUAN, QIANGJUN; HUANG, WEIFENG

    2015-01-01

    The increasing multidrug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious public-health problem. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of sodium houttuyfonate (SH) against biofilm formation and alginate production in a clinical strain of P. aeruginosa (AH16) were investigated in vitro using crystal violet dying and standard curve methods, respectively. The cellular morphology of P. aeruginosa treated with SH was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to identify differences in the expression levels of genes associated with alginate biosynthesis as a result of the SH treatment. The results indicated that SH significantly inhibited biofilm formation, and decreased the levels of the primary biofilm constituent, alginate, in P. aeruginosa AH16 at various stages of biofilm development. In addition, scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that SH markedly altered the cellular morphology and biofilm structure of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the results from the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that SH inhibited biofilm formation by mitigating the expression of the algD and algR genes, which are associated with alginate biosynthesis. Therefore, the present study has provided novel insights into the potent effects and underlying mechanisms of SH-induced inhibition of biofilm formation in a clinical strain of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26622388

  9. Sodium houttuyfonate inhibits biofilm formation and alginate biosynthesis-associated gene expression in a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, DA-Qiang; Cheng, Huijuan; Duan, Qiangjun; Huang, Weifeng

    2015-08-01

    The increasing multidrug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become a serious public-health problem. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of sodium houttuyfonate (SH) against biofilm formation and alginate production in a clinical strain of P.aeruginosa (AH16) were investigated in vitro using crystal violet dying and standard curve methods, respectively. The cellular morphology of P. aeruginosa treated with SH was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to identify differences in the expression levels of genes associated with alginate biosynthesis as a result of the SH treatment. The results indicated that SH significantly inhibited biofilm formation, and decreased the levels of the primary biofilm constituent, alginate, in P. aeruginosa AH16 at various stages of biofilm development. In addition, scanning electron microscopy observations demonstrated that SH markedly altered the cellular morphology and biofilm structure of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the results from the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that SH inhibited biofilm formation by mitigating the expression of the algD and algR genes, which are associated with alginate biosynthesis. Therefore, the present study has provided novel insights into the potent effects and underlying mechanisms of SH-induced inhibition of biofilm formation in a clinical strain of P. aeruginosa.

  10. Characterization of carbapenem resistance mechanisms and integrons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from blood samples in a French hospital.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Cavalié, Laurent; Dubois, Damien; Oswald, Eric; Torres, Carmen; Sáenz, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), porin OprD, integrons, virulence factors and the clonal relationships were characterized in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates. Fifty-six IRPA strains were recovered from blood samples of different patients at a Toulouse teaching hospital from 2011 to 2013. Susceptibility testing of 14 antibiotics was performed by the disc diffusion method. Detection and characterization of MBLs, the oprD gene and integrons were studied by PCR and sequencing. Thirteen genes involved in the virulence of P. aeruginosa were analysed. Molecular typing of IRPA strains was performed by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. In this study, 61 % of the IRPA isolates showed a multi-resistance phenotype. The MBL phenotype, detected in three isolates (5.4 %), was linked to the blaVIM-2 gene. The oprD gene was amplified in 55 (98.2 %) IRPA strains, and variations were observed in 54 of them. Insertion sequences (IS) truncating oprD were detected in eight IRPA strains, with the novel ISPa56 identified in two strains. Class 1 integrons were detected in 24 (42.9 %) IRPA strains. The blaVIM-2 gene was found inside the class 1 integron arrangements. The new integrons In1054 (intI1-aacA56-qacEΔ1-sul1) and In1160 (intI1-aacA4-aacC1d-ISKpn4-gcuE-qacEΔ1-sul1) have been described for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in this study. A high clonal diversity was found in our strains. Among the variety of sequence types (STs) found, ST175, ST233, ST235, ST244 and ST654 were noteworthy as epidemic clones. In conclusion, 5.4 % of IRPA strains showed an MBL phenotype linked to the blaVIM-2 gene. The identified oprD high polymorphism could be implicated in the variable resistance to carbapenems in IRPA strains. The dissemination of high-risk clones is a cause of concern.

  11. Genotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis after initial and subsequent colonization.

    PubMed

    Munck, A; Bonacorsi, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Lebourgeois, M; Gérardin, M; Brahimi, N; Navarro, J; Bingen, E

    2001-10-01

    Chronic infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is preceded by a period of colonization and acute infection. Early aggressive antibiotic treatment of initial colonisation may prevent or at least delay chronic pulmonary infection. We initiated treatment with a combination of IV beta-lactam tobramycin, followed by nebulized colistin when PA was first isolated from patients with CF. Subsequent serial PA isolates obtained from these colonized CF patients were characterized by means of molecular methods to determine whether they were genetically related to the initial strain. Initial colonization was eradicated in all 19 patients. All patients reacquired PA within 3-25 months during the 3 years of follow-up. Fourteen patients acquired a new PA strain with a distinct genotypic profile, suggesting a new source of contamination. Five patients had two PA isolates with identical genotypes, suggesting either previous undetected respiratory tract colonization or a persistent environmental source of contamination.

  12. The Healing Effect of Licorice on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infected Burn Wounds in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Rokhsari, Pedram; Mehrabani, Davood; Mohammadi Samani, Soleiman; Sabet Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Koohi Hosseinabadi, Omid; Shamsian, Shahram; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn is still one of the most devastating injuries in emergency medicine while improvements in wound healing knowledge and technology have resulted into development of new dressings. This study was undertaken to evaluate the healing effect of licorice in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected burn wounds of experimental rat model. METHODS One hundred and twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 4 equal groups. Group A received silver sulfadiazine ointment, Group B received 10% licorice extract and Group C was considered as control group and received gel base as the base of medication. Group D did not receive any medication and just underwent burn injury. A standard 3rd degree burn wound was produced by a hot plate with similar size about 20% of total body surface area (TBSA) and at identical temperature. After 24 h of burn production, 108 colony forming units (CFU) of toxigenic strains of P. aeruginosa (PA 103) were inoculated subcutaneously into the burnt area. After 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of therapy, the animals were sacrificed and burn areas were macroscopically examined and histologically evaluated. RESULTS Decrease in size of the burn wounds, in inflammation and re-epithelialization were poor in groups B-D. Infection to P. aeruginosa was still visible in groups B-D but was absent in Group A. The mean histological score, tensile strength, maximum stress, yield strength and stiffness in groups B-D were lower compared with Group A. CONCLUSION Licorice extract in 10% concentration was shown not to be effective in healing of P. aeruginosa infected burn wounds. PMID:25489532

  13. Structural basis for effectiveness of siderophore-conjugated monocarbams against clinically relevant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungil; Zaniewski, Richard P.; Marr, Eric S.; Lacey, Brian M.; Tomaras, Andrew P.; Evdokimov, Artem; Miller, J. Richard; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2012-02-08

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen that causes nosocomial infections for which there are limited treatment options. Penicillin-binding protein PBP3, a key therapeutic target, is an essential enzyme responsible for the final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis and is covalently inactivated by {beta}-lactam antibiotics. Here we disclose the first high resolution cocrystal structures of the P. aeruginosa PBP3 with both novel and marketed {beta}-lactams. These structures reveal a conformational rearrangement of Tyr532 and Phe533 and a ligand-induced conformational change of Tyr409 and Arg489. The well-known affinity of the monobactam aztreonam for P. aeruginosa PBP3 is due to a distinct hydrophobic aromatic wall composed of Tyr503, Tyr532, and Phe533 interacting with the gem-dimethyl group. The structure of MC-1, a new siderophore-conjugated monocarbam complexed with PBP3 provides molecular insights for lead optimization. Importantly, we have identified a novel conformation that is distinct to the high-molecular-weight class B PBP subfamily, which is identifiable by common features such as a hydrophobic aromatic wall formed by Tyr503, Tyr532, and Phe533 and the structural flexibility of Tyr409 flanked by two glycine residues. This is also the first example of a siderophore-conjugated triazolone-linked monocarbam complexed with any PBP. Energetic analysis of tightly and loosely held computed hydration sites indicates protein desolvation effects contribute significantly to PBP3 binding, and analysis of hydration site energies allows rank ordering of the second-order acylation rate constants. Taken together, these structural, biochemical, and computational studies provide a molecular basis for recognition of P. aeruginosa PBP3 and open avenues for future design of inhibitors of this class of PBPs.

  14. Characterization of five newly isolated bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Magdalena; Mizak, Lidia; Parasion, Sylwia; Gryko, Romuald; Olender, Alina; Niemcewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. It exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including efflux pumps, antibiotic modifying enzymes and limited membrane permeability. The primary reason for the development of novel therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections is the declining efficacy of conventional antibiotic therapy. These clinical problems caused a revitalization of interest in bacteriophages, which are highly specific and have very effective antibacterial activity as well as several other advantages over traditional antimicrobial agents. Above all, so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. Five newly purified P. aeruginosa phages named vB_PaeM_WP1, vB_PaeM_WP2, vB_PaeM_WP3, vB_PaeM_WP4 and vB_PaeP_WP5 have been characterized as potential candidates for use in phage therapy. They are representatives of the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Their host range, genome size, structural proteins and stability in various physical and chemical conditions were tested. The results of these preliminary investigations indicate that the newly isolated bacteriophages may be considered for use in phagotherapy.

  15. Identification of extensive drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: New clone ST1725 and high-risk clone ST233

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Rodea, Pamela; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Espino, Benjamín Antonio; Olivares Cervantes, Alma Lidia; Gamiño Arroyo, Ana Estela; Moreno-Espinosa, Sarbelio; de la Rosa Zamboni, Daniela; López Martínez, Briceida; Castellanos-Cruz, María del Carmen; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Jiménez Rojas, Verónica Leticia; Vigueras Galindo, Juan Carlos; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Several microorganisms produce nosocomial infections (NIs), among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa stands out as an opportunist pathogen with the capacity to develop multiresistance to first-choice antibiotics. From 2007 to 2013, forty-six NIs produced by P. aeruginosa were detected at a pediatric tertiary care hospital in Mexico with a significant mortality rate (17.39%). All isolates (n = 58/46 patients) were characterized by evaluating their response to several antibiotics as panresistant (PDR), extensively resistant (XDR), multiresistant (MDR) or sensitive (S). In addition, all isolates were typified through multilocus sequencing of seven genes: acsA, aroE, guaA, mutL, nuoD, ppsA and trpE. Furthermore, to establish the genetic relationships among these isolates, we carried out a phylogenetic inference analysis using maximum likelihood to construct a phylogenetic network. To assess evolutionary parameters, recombination was evaluated using the PHI test, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions was determined. Two of the strains were PDR (ST1725); 42 were XDR; four were MDR; and ten were S. Twenty-one new sequence types were detected. Thirty-three strains exhibited novel sequence type ST1725. The ratio of nonsynonym to synonym substitutions was 1:1 considering all genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genetic relationship of the PDR, XDR and MDR strains was mainly clonal; however, the PHI test and the phylogenetic network suggest that recombination events occurred to produce a non-clonal population. This study aimed not only to determine the genetic diversity of clinical P. aeruginosa but also to provide a warning regarding the identification and spreading of clone ST1725, its ability to cause outbreaks with high mortality rates, and to remain in the hospital environment for over seven years. These characteristics highlight the need to identify clonal outbreaks, especially where high resistance to most antibiotics is observed, and control

  16. Art-175 is a highly efficient antibacterial against multidrug-resistant strains and persisters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Briers, Yves; Walmagh, Maarten; Grymonprez, Barbara; Biebl, Manfred; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Defraine, Valerie; Michiels, Jan; Cenens, William; Aertsen, Abram; Miller, Stefan; Lavigne, Rob

    2014-07-01

    Artilysins constitute a novel class of efficient enzyme-based antibacterials. Specifically, they covalently combine a bacteriophage-encoded endolysin, which degrades the peptidoglycan, with a targeting peptide that transports the endolysin through the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Art-085, as well as Art-175, its optimized homolog with increased thermostability, are each composed of the sheep myeloid 29-amino acid (SMAP-29) peptide fused to the KZ144 endolysin. In contrast to KZ144, Art-085 and Art-175 pass the outer membrane and kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including multidrug-resistant strains, in a rapid and efficient (∼ 5 log units) manner. Time-lapse microscopy confirms that Art-175 punctures the peptidoglycan layer within 1 min, inducing a bulging membrane and complete lysis. Art-175 is highly refractory to resistance development by naturally occurring mutations. In addition, the resistance mechanisms against 21 therapeutically used antibiotics do not show cross-resistance to Art-175. Since Art-175 does not require an active metabolism for its activity, it has a superior bactericidal effect against P. aeruginosa persisters (up to >4 log units compared to that of the untreated controls). In summary, Art-175 is a novel antibacterial that is well suited for a broad range of applications in hygiene and veterinary and human medicine, with a unique potential to target persister-driven chronic infections.

  17. A Galleria mellonella infection model reveals double and triple antibiotic combination therapies with enhanced efficacy versus a multidrug-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Krezdorn, Jessica; Adams, Sophie; Coote, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inhibitory effect of antibiotic combinations in vitro with efficacy in Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo to identify efficacious combinations that target Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa NCTC 13437, a multidrug-resistant strain resistant to β-lactams and aminoglycosides, was used. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, levofloxacin and colistin alone, or in dual or triple combinations, was measured in vitro via a 24 h time-kill assay. In vitro results were then compared with the efficacy of the same dual or triple antibiotic combinations versus G. mellonella larvae infected with P. aeruginosa. G. mellonella haemolymph burden of P. aeruginosa was determined over 96 h post-infection and treatment with the most potent combination therapies. Many dual and triple combinations of antibiotics displayed synergistic inhibition of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in vitro. There was little correlation between combinations that were synergistic in vitro and those that showed enhanced efficacy in vivo versus infected G. mellonella larvae. The most potent dual and triple combinations in vivo were cefotaxime plus piperacillin, and meropenem plus piperacillin and amikacin, respectively. Fewer combinations were found to offer enhanced therapeutic benefit in vivo compared with in vitro. The therapeutic benefit arising from treatment with antibiotic combinations in vivo correlated with reduced larval burden of P. aeruginosa. This study has identified antibiotic combinations that merit further investigation for their clinical potential and has demonstrated the utility of using G. mellonella to screen for novel antibiotic treatments that demonstrate efficacy in vivo.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION INTO A HYBRID LINEAR ION TRAP-FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cyclic heptapeptide microcystin toxins produced by a strain of Microcystis aeruginosa that has not been investigated previously were separated by liquid chromatography and identified by high-accuracy m/z measurements of their [M + H]+ ions and the fragment i...

  19. [The biological kinetics of biofilms of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa separated from patients with bronchopulmonary complications under traumatic disease of spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Ul'ianov, V Iu; Opredelentseva, S V; Shvidenko, I G; Norkin, I A; Korshunov, G V; Gladkova, E V

    2014-08-01

    The capacity and intensity of formation of microbial biofilms was analyzed in 24 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in static conditions of cultivation during 24, 48, 72 and 96 yours. The microorganisms were separated from patients with bronchopulmonary infectious complications in acute and early periods of traumatic disease of spinal cord.

  20. Unusual non-fluorescent broad spectrum siderophore activity (SID EGYII) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 and a new insight towards simple siderophore bioassay.

    PubMed

    Embaby, Amira M; Heshmat, Yasmin; Hussein, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Present study highlights an unusual non-fluorescent hydroxamate broad spectrum siderophore (SID EGYII) activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801, a soil bacterial isolate, along with simple low cost effective siderophore bioassay. Detection of SID EGYII activity qualitatively was proved by masking this activity against Erwinia amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800, an indicator strain, in well-cut diffusion assay containing 100 µM FeCl3. SID EGYII activity was expressed quantitatively as arbitrary units [Siderophore arbitrary units (SAU)] 380 SAU/mL against E. amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800. Maximal SID EGYII activity was achieved upon growing P. aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 in PYB broth at 180 rpm for 24 h. SID EGYII displayed a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against some human pathogens (i.e., Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts) and a fireblight plant pathogen. Interestingly, transformants of Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3)pSID/EGYII harboring P. aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 plasmid demonstrated a perceivable antimicrobial activity against E. amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800. The broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of the unusual non-fluorescent SID EGYII would underpin its high potential in targeting bacterial pathogens posing probable threats to human health and agricultural economy. The present simple low cost effective bioassay is a new insight towards an alternative to the expensive cumbersome siderophore Chrome Azurol S assay.

  1. Emerging and existing mechanisms co-operate in generating diverse β-lactam resistance phenotypes in geographically dispersed and genetically disparate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elena; Pérez, Javier Escobar; Márquez, Carolina; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Centrón, Daniela; Leal, Aura L; Saavedra, Carlos; Saavedra, Sandra Y; Tovar, Catalina; Vanegas, Natasha; Stokes, H W

    2013-09-01

    β-Lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates is driven by a number of mechanisms. Whilst several are understood, how they act co-operatively in pathogenic strains is less clear. In some isolates, resistance profiles cannot always be explained by identifying the common resistance-determining pathways, suggesting that other mechanisms may be important. Pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates from four countries were characterised by PCR. Quantitative expression analysis was also assessed for the activity of several pathways that influence antibiotic resistance, and culture experiments were conducted to test how random transposition of the insertion sequence IS26 during growth may influence resistance to some antibiotics. In most strains, antibiotic resistance was being driven by changes in multiple pathways and by the presence or absence of genes acquired by lateral gene transfer. Multiple mechanisms of resistance were prevalent in strains from all of the countries examined, although regional differences in the type of interacting mechanisms were apparent. Changes in chromosomal pathways included overexpression of AmpC and two efflux pumps. Also, gain or loss of IS26 at some chromosomal locations, most notably oprD, could influence resistance to carbapenems. IS26-related resistance was found in strains from Argentina and geographically linked Uruguay, but not in strains from either Colombia or Australia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic strains are evolving to become multidrug-resistant in more complex ways. This is being influenced by single strains acquiring changes in numerous known pathways as well as by newly emerging resistance mechanisms in this species.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilises its type III secretion system to kill the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Abd, Hadi; Wretlind, Bengt; Saeed, Amir; Idsund, Eva; Hultenby, Kjell; Sandström, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living and common environmental bacterium. It is an opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen causing serious human health problems. To overcome its predators, such as macrophages and environmental phagocytes, it utilises different survival strategies, such as the formation of microcolonies and the production of toxins mediated by a type III secretion system (TTSS). The aim of this study was to examine interaction of TTSS effector proteins of P. aeruginosa PA103 with Acanthamoeba castellanii by co-cultivation, viable count, eosin staining, electron microscopy, apoptosis assay, and statistical analysis. The results showed that P. aeruginosa PA103 induced necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii by the effects of TTSS effector proteins ExoU, ExoS, ExoT, and ExoY. In comparison, Acanthamoeba cultured alone and co-cultured with P. aeruginosa PA103 lacking the known four TTSS effector proteins were not killed. The results are consistent with P. aeruginosa being a strict extracellular bacterium that needs TTSS to survive in the environment, because the TTSS effector proteins are able to kill its eukaryotic predators, such as Acanthamoeba.

  3. [Molecular typification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, N G; Marengo, J M; Rentería, F; Gatti, B; Segal, E; Semorile, L

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most frequent lethal genetic disease that affects the caucasian population. The main cause of morbidity is the chronic lung infection, being the infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most difficult to eradicate. This bacteria can be acquired in direct form, by person-to-person transfer, or indirectly, by hospital acquired infection. The Centro Provincial de Referencia de Fibrosis Quistica functioning in the Hospital de Niños "Sor María Ludovica", in La Plata, cares almost 220 patients aged two months to 45 years. The life expectancy depends of factors like the early diagnosis of the disease and the later acquisition of the chronic lung infection. The purpose of this work was the molecular typing of P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from cystic fibrosis patients to evaluate the genomic relationship among them. The study was carried out using RAPD-PCR. The analysis showed a great genetic heterogeneity among the isolates. The separation of the patients in groups in accordance with its bacteriology, that implies the attendance in different days and the implementation of isolation (or segregation) measures had demonstrated to be, in addition to other strategies, effective in the reduction of cross infections.

  4. Sensitive and specific modified Hodge test for KPC and metallo-beta- lactamase detection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by use of a novel indicator strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Veliz, Omar; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the ability of the modified Hodge test to discriminate between KPC- and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and carbapenemase nonproducers. With Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the indicator strain, the MHT resulted in low sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability. Replacing the indicator strain with Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 led to an improved performance (100%, 97%, 0%, and 100% sensitivity, specificity, indeterminate results and repeatability, respectively).

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain WI-1 from Mandovi estuary possesses metallothionein to alleviate lead toxicity and promotes plant growth.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Pandey, Anju; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    A bacterial isolate from Mandovi estuary Goa, India, which can resist 0.6mM lead nitrate in Tris-buffered minimal medium was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and designated as strain WI-1. PCR amplification clearly revealed presence of bmtA gene encoding bacterial metallothionein responsible for metal sequestration and AAS analysis proved intracellular bioaccumulation of 26.5mg lead/gram dry weight of cells. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed lead induced bacterial metallothionein with molecular weight 11 kDa, which corresponds to the predicted bmtA gene. Significant growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum NCIM 1008 by siderophore-rich culture supernatant was also observed. Pot experiment with Pisum sativum L inoculated with this strain revealed higher seed germination percentage and significant growth promotion than uninoculated seeds in a soil amended with 7.704 g/kg lead, which indicates amelioration of lead toxicity. This lead resistant strain showed cross tolerance to cadmium, mercury and Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) along with resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  6. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Marin, José Moacir; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains) and water system (71 strains), were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted. PMID:24031269

  7. The Effect of Infection Control Nurses on the Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Healthcare-Acquired Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Critically-Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; He, Linxi; Liu, Chunfeng; Rong, Jian; Shi, Yongyan; Song, Wenliang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), which have a high incidence, increase treatment costs and mortality, and seriously threaten the safety of critically ill children. It is essential to seek convenient and effective methods to control and prevent healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs). This research was conducted to study the effect of infection control nurses on the occurrence of P. aeruginosa HAIs and multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains in PICU. Methods The clinical data was divided into two groups, with the age ranging from 1 month to 14 years. One group of the critically ill patients(N = 3,722) was admitted to PICU from 2007 to 2010, without the management of infection control nurses. The other group of the critically ill patients (N = 3,943) was admitted to PICU from 2011 to 2013, with the management of infection control nurses. Compare the mortality, morbidity and the incidence of acquired P. aeruginosa infections to evaluate the effect of infection control nurses. Results After implementation of the post of infection control nurses, the patient's overall mortality fell from 4.81% to 3.73%. Among the patients with endotracheal intubation more than 48 hours, the incidence of endotracheal intubation-related pneumonia decreased from 44.6% to 34.32%. The mortality of patients with endotracheal intubation decreased from 16.96% to 10.17%, and the morbidity of HAIs with P. aeruginosa decreased from 1.89% to 1.07%. The mutual different rate (MDR) dropped from 67.95% to 44.23%. There were remarkable differences in these rates between the two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Implementing the post of infection control nurses is associated with effectively reducing the HAI rate, especially the incidence and morbidity of P. aeruginosa HAIs, reducing PICU mortality, improving P. aeruginosa drug resistance. PMID:26630032

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro colistin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains at a tertiary care centre in Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ece, Gulfem; Samlioglu, Pinar; Atalay, Sabri; Kose, Sukran

    2014-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria are an important issue in intensive care units worldwide. Colistin, one of the earliest polymyxin antibiotics, was once widely used for the treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. However, its use is now limited due to concerns over nephrotoxicity. The appearance of multidrug-resistant species, including A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, has led to the re-emergence of this class of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates to colistin and other antibiotics. The antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates to colistin and other antibiotics was evaluated between January 2011 and October 2012 at Tepecik Education and Research Hospital in Izmir, Turkey. Clinical isolates were identified using an automatized Vitek 2.0 system. Colistin susceptibility was measured by E-test; the susceptibility profiles of other antibiotics were evaluated using the Kirby Bauer disk-diffusion method. A total of 149 isolates were included in the study, consisting of 98 A. baumannii and 51 P. aeruginosa isolates. The MICs of colistin against A. baumannii were 0.125-2.0 mcg/mL, and 0.25-2.0 mcg/mL against P. aeruginosa; all multidrug-resistant strains examined in this study were susceptible to colistin. Recently, colistin has re-emerged as an effective treatment for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All isolates examined in this study were susceptible to colistin, suggesting it could be a viable alternative for the treatment of infections with multidrug-resistant strains.

  9. Synthetic Peptide Vaccine Development: Designing Dual Epitopes into a Single Pilin Peptide Immunogen Generates Antibody Cross-reactivity between Two Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hackbarth, Clifton; Hodges, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main challenges of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) vaccine development is the design of an antigen that elicits cross-reactive antibodies against multiple virulent strains. Using a rational design approach, we have developed a single 17-residue peptide immunogen that generates antibodies that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the type IV pilus of more than one strain of P. aeruginosa. Using the RBD sequence, of native strain PAO as a template, we have systematically changed up to five residues in the PAO sequence of the peptide immunogen, into that of the PAK sequence. We show by indirect and competitive ELISA, that the mutant peptide immunogens elicit the development of polyclonal sera that is cross-reactive to both native strain PAO and PAK pilin. We further show that there are at least two separate antibody populations in the polyclonal sera that possess closely-related epitopes but which are each strain specific. Moreover, part of the epitope for the PAO specific antibodies consists of several residues outside the disulfide loop of the receptor binding domain. This allows us to create two unique epitopes within the same receptor binding domain sequence. PMID:20807222

  10. A Geobacter sulfurreducens strain expressing pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili localizes OmcS on pili but is deficient in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-02-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity.

  11. A Geobacter sulfurreducens Strain Expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pili Localizes OmcS on Pili but Is Deficient in Fe(III) Oxide Reduction and Current Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-01-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity. PMID:24296506

  12. Glutathione-Disrupted Biofilms of Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Exhibit an Enhanced Antibiotic Effect and a Novel Biofilm Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Das, Theerthankar; Ibugo, Amaye; Buckle, Edwina; Manefield, Mike; Manos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections result in high morbidity and mortality rates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), with premature death often occurring. These infections are complicated by the formation of biofilms in the sputum. Antibiotic therapy is stymied by antibiotic resistance of the biofilm matrix, making novel antibiofilm strategies highly desirable. Within P. aeruginosa biofilms, the redox factor pyocyanin enhances biofilm integrity by intercalating with extracellular DNA. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) reacts with pyocyanin, disrupting intercalation. This study investigated GSH disruption by assaying the physiological effects of GSH and DNase I on biofilms of clinical CF isolates grown in CF artificial sputum medium (ASMDM+). Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that 2 mM GSH, alone or combined with DNase I, significantly disrupted immature (24-h) biofilms of Australian epidemic strain (AES) isogens AES-1R and AES-1M. GSH alone greatly disrupted mature (72-h) AES-1R biofilms, resulting in significant differential expression of 587 genes, as indicated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Upregulated systems included cyclic diguanylate and pyoverdine biosynthesis, the type VI secretion system, nitrate metabolism, and translational machinery. Biofilm disruption with GSH revealed a cellular physiology distinct from those of mature and dispersed biofilms. RNA-seq results were validated by biochemical and quantitative PCR assays. Biofilms of a range of CF isolates disrupted with GSH and DNase I were significantly more susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and increased antibiotic effectiveness was achieved by increasing the GSH concentration. This study demonstrated that GSH, alone or with DNase I, represents an effective antibiofilm treatment when combined with appropriate antibiotics, pending in vivo studies. PMID:27161630

  13. Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Bryan A.; Ramsay, Kay A.; Kidd, Timothy J.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Whiley, David M.; Beatson, Scott A.; Bell, Scott C.

    2017-01-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AUST-02 strain sub-type (M3L7) has been identified in Australia, infects the lungs of some people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with antibiotic resistance. Multiple clonal lineages may emerge during treatment with mutations in chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes commonly observed. Here we describe the within-host diversity and antibiotic resistance of M3L7 during and after antibiotic treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation using whole genome sequencing and show both variation and shared mutations in important genes. Eleven isolates from an M3L7 population (n = 134) isolated over 3 months from an individual with cystic fibrosis underwent whole genome sequencing. A phylogeny based on core genome SNPs identified three distinct phylogenetic groups comprising two groups with higher rates of mutation (hypermutators) and one non-hypermutator group. Genomes were screened for acquired antibiotic resistance genes with the result suggesting that M3L7 resistance is principally driven by chromosomal mutations as no acquired mechanisms were detected. Small genetic variations, shared by all 11 isolates, were found in 49 genes associated with antibiotic resistance including frame-shift mutations (mexA, mexT), premature stop codons (oprD, mexB) and mutations in quinolone-resistance determining regions (gyrA, parE). However, whole genome sequencing also revealed mutations in 21 genes that were acquired following divergence of groups, which may also impact the activity of antibiotics and multi-drug efflux pumps. Comparison of mutations with minimum inhibitory concentrations of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics could not easily explain all resistance profiles observed. These data further demonstrate the complexity of chronic and antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa infection where a multitude of co-existing genotypically diverse sub-lineages might co-exist during and after intravenous antibiotic treatment. PMID:28273168

  14. Within-host whole genome analysis of an antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sub-type in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sherrard, Laura J; Tai, Anna S; Wee, Bryan A; Ramsay, Kay A; Kidd, Timothy J; Ben Zakour, Nouri L; Whiley, David M; Beatson, Scott A; Bell, Scott C

    2017-01-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AUST-02 strain sub-type (M3L7) has been identified in Australia, infects the lungs of some people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with antibiotic resistance. Multiple clonal lineages may emerge during treatment with mutations in chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes commonly observed. Here we describe the within-host diversity and antibiotic resistance of M3L7 during and after antibiotic treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation using whole genome sequencing and show both variation and shared mutations in important genes. Eleven isolates from an M3L7 population (n = 134) isolated over 3 months from an individual with cystic fibrosis underwent whole genome sequencing. A phylogeny based on core genome SNPs identified three distinct phylogenetic groups comprising two groups with higher rates of mutation (hypermutators) and one non-hypermutator group. Genomes were screened for acquired antibiotic resistance genes with the result suggesting that M3L7 resistance is principally driven by chromosomal mutations as no acquired mechanisms were detected. Small genetic variations, shared by all 11 isolates, were found in 49 genes associated with antibiotic resistance including frame-shift mutations (mexA, mexT), premature stop codons (oprD, mexB) and mutations in quinolone-resistance determining regions (gyrA, parE). However, whole genome sequencing also revealed mutations in 21 genes that were acquired following divergence of groups, which may also impact the activity of antibiotics and multi-drug efflux pumps. Comparison of mutations with minimum inhibitory concentrations of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics could not easily explain all resistance profiles observed. These data further demonstrate the complexity of chronic and antibiotic resistant P. aeruginosa infection where a multitude of co-existing genotypically diverse sub-lineages might co-exist during and after intravenous antibiotic treatment.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MA01 aerobically metabolizes the aminodinitrotoluenes produced by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene nitro group reduction.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M A; Kitts, C L; Botsford, J L; Unkefer, P J

    1995-11-01

    Many microbes reduce the nitro substituents of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), producing aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs). These compounds are recalcitrant to further breakdown and are acutely toxic. In a search for organisms capable of metabolizing ADNTs, a bacterial strain was isolated for the ability to use 2-aminobenzoate (anthranilate) as sole C-source. This isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MA01, metabolized TNT by first reducing one nitro group to form either 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) or 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT). However, strain MA01 was distinct from other TNT-reducing organisms in that it transformed these compounds into highly polar metabolites through an O2-dependent process. Strain MA01 was able to cometabolize TNT, 2ADNT, and 4ADNT in the presence of a variety of carbon and energy sources. During aerobic cometabolism with succinate, 45% of uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT was transformed to highly polar compounds. Aerobic cometabolism of purified [14C]2ADNT and [14C]4ADNT with succinate as C-source produced similar amounts of these polar metabolites. During O2-limited cometabolism with succinate as C-source and nitrate as electron acceptor, less than 8% of the [14C]TNT was transformed to polar metabolites. Purified 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene was not metabolized, and while 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene was acetylated, the product (N-acetyl-2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene) was not further metabolized. Therefore, strain MA01 metabolized TNT by oxidation of the ADNTs and not by reduction the remaining nitro groups on the ADNTs.

  16. Antibacterial compound produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UICC B-40, an endophytic bacterium isolated from Neesia altissima.

    PubMed

    Pratiwi, Rina Hidayati; Hidayat, Iman; Hanafi, Muhammad; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2017-04-01

    This study's aim was to determine the identity of antibacterial compounds produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UICC B-40 and describe the antibacterial compounds' mechanisms of action for damaging pathogenic bacteria cells. Isolation and identification of the compounds were carried out using thin layer chromatography (TLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Antibacterial activity was assayed via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the antibacterial compound mechanism was observed morphologically through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study successfully identified the (2E,5E)-phenyltetradeca-2,5-dienoate antibacterial compound (molecular weight 300 g/mol), composed of a phenolic ester, fatty acid and long chain of aliphatic group structures. MIC values for this compound were determined at 62.5 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 25923. The mechanism of the compound involved breaking down the bacterial cell walls through the lysis process. The (2E,5E)-phenyltetradeca-2,5-dienoate compound exhibited inhibitory activity on the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Conjugal transfer of R68.45 and FP5 between Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in a freshwater environment.

    PubMed Central

    O'Morchoe, S B; Ogunseitan, O; Sayler, G S; Miller, R V

    1988-01-01

    Recent concern over the release of genetically engineered organisms has resulted in a need for information about the potential for gene transfer in the environment. In this study, the conjugal transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa of the plasmids R68.45 and FP5 was demonstrated in the freshwater environment of Fort Loudoun Resevoir, Knoxville, Tenn. When genetically well defined plasmid donor and recipient strains were introduced into test chambers suspended in Fort Loudoun Lake, transfer of both plasmids was observed. Conjugation occurred in both the presence and absence of the natural microbial community. The number of transconjugants recovered was lower when the natural community was present. Transfer of the broad-host-range plasmid R68.45 to organisms other than the introduced recipient was not observed in these chambers but was observed in laboratory simulations when an organism isolated from lakewater was used as the recipient strain. Although the plasmids transferred in laboratory studies were genetically and physically stable, a significant number of transconjugants recovered from the field trials contained deletions and other genetic rearrangements, suggesting that factors which increase gene instability are operating in the environment. The potential for conjugal transfer of genetic material must be considered in evaluating the release of any genetically engineered microorganism into a freshwater environment. Images PMID:3140724

  18. Effects of culture conditions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RB on the synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayano, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Masashi; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) was synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RB in a culture containing lactic acid as a carbon source, 1 mM selenite, and 1 mM cadmium under various conditions. High purity (1.02-1.16 of the atomic ratio of Se to Cd) and efficient synthesis of biogenic CdSe nanoparticles were observed at 25-30°C, 0.05-10 g L(-1) NaCl, and neutral pH conditions compared with other tested conditions. However, the size and shape of synthesized CdSe nanoparticles were not changed by changing culture conditions. The contents of S and Se in the particles respectively increased under alkaline and weak acidic conditions. Furthermore, high temperature (>37°C), high salinity (>10 g L(-1) NaCl), and alkaline pH affected the CdSe-synthesizing rate by strain RB. This report is the first optimizing the culture conditions for synthesizing biogenic CdSe nanoparticles in a batch processing.

  19. Proteomic profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AES-1R, PAO1 and PA14 reveals potential virulence determinants associated with a transmissible cystic fibrosis-associated strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide. The molecular basis for transmissibility and colonization of the CF lung remains poorly understood. Results A dual proteomics approach consisting of gel-based and gel-free comparisons were undertaken to analyse protein profiles in a transmissible, early (acute) isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R), the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1. Over 1700 P. aeruginosa proteins were confidently identified. AES-1R protein profiles revealed elevated abundance of proteins associated with virulence and siderophore biosynthesis and acquisition, antibiotic resistance and lipopolysaccharide and fatty acid biosynthesis. The most abundant protein in AES-1R was confirmed as a previously hypothetical protein with sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding proteins and database search revealed this gene is only found in the CF-associated strain PA2192. The link with CF infection may suggest that transmissible strains have acquired an ability to rapidly interact with host mucosal glycoproteins. Conclusions Our data suggest that AES-1R expresses higher levels of proteins, such as those involved in antibiotic resistance, iron acquisition and virulence that may provide a competitive advantage during early infection in the CF lung. Identification of novel proteins associated with transmissibility and acute infection may aid in deciphering new strategies for intervention to limit P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients. PMID:22264352

  20. Quality Control for β-Lactam Susceptibility Testing with a Well-Defined Collection of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cantón, Rafael; Loza, Elena; Del Carmen Conejo, María; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 16 of them with well-defined β-lactam re sistance mechanisms, were sent to 52 Spanish microbiology laboratories. Interpretative categories for 8 extended-spectrum β-lactams were collected. Participating laboratories used their own routine susceptibility testing procedures (88% automatic systems, 10% disk diffusion, and 2% agar dilution). Control results were established by two independent reference laboratories by applying the NCCLS microdilution method and interpretative criteria. Interpretative discrepancies were observed in 16% of the results (4.4% for cefepime, 3.0% for aztreonam, 2.8% for piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.7% for cefotaxime [CTX] and ceftazidime, 1.1% for ceftriaxone, 0.9% for meropenem, and 0.3% for imipenem). High consistency with reference values (<5% of major plus very major errors) was observed with (i) American Type Culture Collection quality control strains; (ii) strains with low-efficiency mechanisms inactivating extended-spectrum β-lactams, such as OXA-1-producing Escherichiacoli or SHV-1-hyperproducing Klebsiella pneumoniae; (iii) strains with highly efficient mechanisms, such as SHV-5 porin-deficient K. pneumoniae, CTX-M-10 in Enterobacter cloacae hyperproducing AmpC, and P. aeruginosa with the MexAB OprM efflux phenotype or hyperproducing AmpC. Low consistency (>30% major plus very major errors) was detected in K1-producing Klebsiella oxytoca, CTX-M-9-producing E. coli, and in OprD− P. aeruginosa strains. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains accounted for 86% of very major errors. Recognition of the ESBL phenotype was particularly low in Enterobacter cloacae strains (<35%), due to the lack of NCCLS-specific rules in this genus. A K1-producing K. oxytoca was misidentified by 10% of laboratories as an ESBL producer. The use of well-defined resistant strains is useful for improving proficiency in susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories. PMID

  1. Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J at extreme environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Kirti V; Charde, Pravin N; Meshram, Sudhir U; Shendre, Latika P; Dubey, Vijay S; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2012-12-01

    Surface-active potential of biosurfactants produced cost-effectively in curd whey by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain-PP2 and Kocuria turfanesis strain-J were tested using parameters viz. surface tension (ST) reduction, F(CMC) (highest dilution factor to reach critical micelle concentration) and emulsification index (EI-24) of pesticides; monocrotophos and imidacloprid at extreme environmental conditions. Results have shown that ST reduction of biosurfactants was stable at pH 2-11. High F(CMC) of the biosurfactant in the fermented whey at low pH improved emulsification of pesticides. ST marginally increased at 5% and 15% NaCl, resulting in high EI-24 and F(CMC). Over a range of temperatures 30-121 °C, ST remained low with a higher F(CMC) and EI-24 at 60 °C than at 121 and 30 °C. The biosurfactants have shown differences in their surface-active property and have marked specificity to emulsify pesticides in extreme environmental conditions.

  2. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase gene blaVIM-1 in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in the hospitals of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mansour; Vaez, Hamid; Moghoofeie, Mohsen; Hadifar, Shima; Oryan, Golfam; Faghri, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious problems, especially in people, who have immunodeficiency. In recent times, metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs) resistance in this bacterium has led to some difficulties in treating bacterial infections. The metallo-beta-lactamase family of genes, including blaVIM-1, is being reported with increasing frequency worldwide. The aim of this study is the detection of the metallo-β-lactamase gene blaVIM-1 in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA) strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, 106 P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from various nosocomial infections. The isolates were identified, tested for susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and all the imipenem-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of MBLs by using the combined disk (IMP-EDTA). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of imipenem was determined by E-test on the Mueller-Hinton agar. To detect the blaVIM-1 gene, the isolates were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Of all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 62 (58.5%) were found to be imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (MIC ≥32 μg/ml). Twenty-six (42%) of the imipenem-resistant isolates were MBL positive. None of these isolates carried the blaVIM-1 gene using the PCR assay. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the serious therapeutic threat of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa populations. The rate of imipenem resistance due to MBL was increased dramatically. Early detection and infection-control practices are the best antimicrobial strategies for this organism. None of MBL-producing isolates in this study carry the blaVIM-1 gene; therefore, another gene in the MBL family should be investigated. PMID:25802826

  3. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Metallo-β-Lactamase IMP-1 and VIM-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains From Different Hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abiri, Ramin; Mohammadi, Pantea; Shavani, Navid; Rezaei, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosais a frequent nosocomial pathogen that causes severe diseases in many settings. Carbapenems, including meropenem and imipenem, are effective antibiotics against this organism. However, the use of carbapenems has been hampered by the emergence of strains resistant to carbapenemsvia different mechanisms such as the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), which hydrolyze all carbapenems. Several kinds of MBLs have been reported, among them VIM and IMP types being the most clinically significant carbapenemases. Objectives: We aimed to determine the distribution of blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-1 transferable genes encoding MBLs in P. aeruginosa isolated from three academic hospitals in Kermanshah. Patients and Methods: From 22nd June to 22nd September 2012, 225 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected. These isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method, and the MBLs were assessed using the imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test. The isolates were investigated for blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-1 genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Among the 225 isolates, 33.7% (76/225) and 18.1% (41/225) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Of the 76 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, 45 (59.2%) were positive for MBLs, 34 (75%) strains carried the blaIMP-1 gene, and 1 (2.2%) strain carried the blaVIM-2 gene. Conclusions: Our results showed that there was a high frequency of IMP-1 positive P. aeruginosa in the different wards of the hospitals. PMID:26495110

  4. Real-time PCR based analysis of metal resistance genes in metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain J007.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-07-01

    A uranium (U)-resistant and -accumulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was characterized to assess the response of toxic metals toward its growth and expression of metal resistance determinants. The bacterium showed MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 6, 3, and 2 mM for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively; with resistance phenotype conferred by periplasmic Cu sequestering copA and RND type heavy metal efflux czcA genes. Real-time PCR-based expression analysis revealed significant upregulation of both these genes upon exposure to low concentrations of metals for short duration, whereas the global stress response gene sodA encoding superoxide dismutase enzyme was upregulated only at higher metal concentrations or longer exposure time. It could also be inferred that copA and czcA are involved in providing resistance only at low metal concentrations, whereas involvement of "global stress response" phenomenon (expression of sodA) at higher metal concentration or increased exposure was evident. This study provides significant understanding of the adaptive response of bacteria surviving in metal and radionuclide contaminated environments along with the development of real-time PCR-based quantification method of using metal resistance genes as biomarker for monitoring relevant bacteria in such habitats.

  5. Changes in secondary metabolic profiles of Microcystis aeruginosa strains in response to intraspecific interactions

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Enora; Bormans, Myriam; Gugger, Muriel; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cyanobacteria Microcystis proliferate in freshwater ecosystems and produce bioactive compounds including the harmful toxins microcystins (MC). These secondary metabolites play an important role in shaping community composition through biotic interactions although their role and mode of regulation are poorly understood. As natural cyanobacterial populations include producing and non-producing strains, we tested if the production of a range of peptides by coexisting cells could be regulated through intraspecific interactions. With an innovative co-culturing chamber together with advanced mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, we monitored the growth and compared the metabolic profiles of a MC-producing as well as two non-MC-producing Microcystis strains under mono- and co-culture conditions. In monocultures, these strains grew comparably; however, the non-MC-producing mutant produced higher concentrations of cyanopeptolins, aerucyclamides and aeruginosins than the wild type. Physiological responses to co-culturing were reflected in a quantitative change in the production of the major peptides. Using a MS/MS-based molecular networking approach, we identified new analogues of known classes of peptides as well as new compounds. This work provides new insights into the factors that regulate the production of MC and other secondary metabolites in cyanobacteria, and suggests interchangeable or complementary functions allowing bloom-forming cyanobacteria to efficiently colonize and dominate in fluctuating aquatic environments. PMID:25980449

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4.

  7. Fingerprint Analysis and Identification of Strains ST309 as a Potential High Risk Clone in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Isolated from Children with Bacteremia in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Delgado, Gabriela; Espinosa, Luis F.; Isselo, Dassaev; Méndez, José L.; Rodriguez, Cristina; Miranda, Guadalupe; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and is associated with nosocomial infections. Its ability to thrive in a broad range of environments is due to a large and diverse genome of which its accessory genome is part. The objective of this study was to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from children who developed bacteremia, using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and in terms of its genomic islands, virulence genes, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Our results showed that P. aeruginosa strains presented the seven virulence genes: toxA, lasB, lecA, algR, plcH, phzA1, and toxR, a type IV pilin alleles (TFP) group I or II. Additionally, we detected a novel pilin and accessory gene, expanding the number of TFP alleles to group VI. All strains presented the PAPI-2 Island and the majority were exoU+ and exoS+ genotype. Ten percent of the strains were multi-drug resistant phenotype, 18% extensively drug-resistant, 68% moderately resistant and only 3% were susceptible to all the antimicrobial tested. The most prevalent acquired β-Lactamase was KPC. We identified a group of ST309 strains, as a potential high risk clone. Our finding also showed that the strains isolated from patients with bacteremia have important virulence factors involved in colonization and dissemination as: a TFP group I or II; the presence of the exoU gene within the PAPI-2 island and the presence of the exoS gene. PMID:28298909

  8. Fingerprint Analysis and Identification of Strains ST309 as a Potential High Risk Clone in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Isolated from Children with Bacteremia in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Delgado, Gabriela; Espinosa, Luis F; Isselo, Dassaev; Méndez, José L; Rodriguez, Cristina; Miranda, Guadalupe; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and is associated with nosocomial infections. Its ability to thrive in a broad range of environments is due to a large and diverse genome of which its accessory genome is part. The objective of this study was to characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from children who developed bacteremia, using pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and in terms of its genomic islands, virulence genes, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Our results showed that P. aeruginosa strains presented the seven virulence genes: toxA, lasB, lecA, algR, plcH, phzA1, and toxR, a type IV pilin alleles (TFP) group I or II. Additionally, we detected a novel pilin and accessory gene, expanding the number of TFP alleles to group VI. All strains presented the PAPI-2 Island and the majority were exoU+ and exoS+ genotype. Ten percent of the strains were multi-drug resistant phenotype, 18% extensively drug-resistant, 68% moderately resistant and only 3% were susceptible to all the antimicrobial tested. The most prevalent acquired β-Lactamase was KPC. We identified a group of ST309 strains, as a potential high risk clone. Our finding also showed that the strains isolated from patients with bacteremia have important virulence factors involved in colonization and dissemination as: a TFP group I or II; the presence of the exoU gene within the PAPI-2 island and the presence of the exoS gene.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

    2014-02-06

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

  11. Profile of Virulence Factors in the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains of Human Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Asghar; Honarmand, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Putative virulence factors are responsible for the pathogenicity of UTIs caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used antibiotics is caused by the extreme overprescription of those antibiotics. Objectives: The goal of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates in UTI cases in Iran. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty urine samples were collected from patients who suffered from UTIs. Samples were cultured immediately, and those that were P. aeruginosa-positive were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of the 250 urine samples analyzed, 8 samples (3.2%) were positive for P. aeruginosa. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa in male and female patients was 2.7% and 3.5%, respectively, (P = 0.035). In patients less than 10 years old, it was 4.2%, and in patients more than 55 years old, it was 4.2%. These were the most commonly infected groups. The highest levels of resistance were seen against ampicillin (87.5%), norfloxacin (62.5%), gentamycin (62.5%), amikacin (62.5%), and aztreonam (62.5%), while the lowest were seen for meropenem (0%), imipenem (12.5%), and polymyxin B (12.5%). LasB (87.5%), pclH (75%), pilB (75%), and exoS (75%) were the most commonly detected virulence factors in the P. aeruginosa isolates. Conclusions: It is logical to first prescribe meropenem, imipenem, and polymyxin B in cases of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa. Medical practitioners should be aware of the presence of levels of antibiotic resistance in hospitalized UTI patients in Iran. PMID:26756017

  12. Cloning and characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR gene, a transcriptional activator of elastase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gambello, M J; Iglewski, B H

    1991-01-01

    We report the discovery of the lasR gene, which positively regulates elastase expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The lasR gene was cloned by its ability to restore a positive elastase phenotype in strain PA103, a strain which possesses the elastase structural gene (lasB) but fails to synthesize the enzyme. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 716 nucleotides encoding a protein of approximately 27 kDa. A labeled LasR protein of 27 kDa was detected in Escherichia coli by using a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. A chromosomal deletion mutant of the lasR gene was constructed in PAO1 by gene replacement. This mutant (PAO-R1) is devoid of elastolytic activity and elastase antigen. The deduced amino acid sequence of LasR is 27% homologous to the positive activator LuxR of Vibrio fischeri and the suspected activator 28K-UvrC of E. coli. Northern (RNA) analysis of total cellular RNA from PAO1, PAO-R1, and PAO-R1 containing the lasR gene on a multicopy plasmid (pMG1.7) revealed that a functional lasR gene is required for transcription of the elastase structural gene (lasB). Images PMID:1902216

  13. MIC score, a new tool to compare bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics application to the comparison of susceptibility to different penems of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bretonnière, Cédric; Maitte, Adeline; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Boutoille, David; Jacqueline, Cédric; Guitton, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the susceptibility to carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and doripenem) of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also studied whether susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem could predict, reliably, susceptibility to doripenem. Pseudomonal strains were collected from respiratory specimens, half of them from cystic fibrosis patients. MICs were determined according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing recommendations. Carbapenems were compared according to the susceptible, intermediate or resistant categories. A new approach also allowed comparing these carbapenems in a 'MIC score' taking into account the differences in breakpoints between drugs. One hundred thirty-nine strains were studied. They were found to be statistically more susceptible to meropenem than to the two other drugs. However, this difference was small: less than one dilution between the agents. This study also highlighted a significant correlation between susceptibility to penems taken in pairs. However, susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem did not reliably predict susceptibility to doripenem. Despite potential differences in resistance mechanisms, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed close susceptibility to three carbapenems. This was true for both cystic fibrosis patients and others. However, there were variations between strains. That justifies MICs to be determined for each of the three penems. This might be useful in case of elevated MICs and/or for potentially difficult-to-treat infections such as pneumonia in patients with cystic fibrosis patients.

  14. First detection in Europe of the metallo-β-lactamase IMP-15 in clinical strains of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gilarranz, R; Juan, C; Castillo-Vera, J; Chamizo, F J; Artiles, F; Álamo, I; Oliver, A

    2013-09-01

    In a prospective study (2009-2011) in healthcare institutions from the Canary Islands (Spain), 6 out of 298 carbapenem non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates produced a metallo-β-lactamase: four IMP-15, two VIM-2 (including one IMP-15-positive isolate) and one VIM-1. Multilocus sequence typing identified the single VIM-1-producing isolate as clone ST111 and two IMP-15-producing isolates as ST606, but, strikingly, bacterial re-identification revealed that the other three isolates (producing IMP-15 and/or VIM-2) were actually Pseudomonas putida. Further retrospective analysis revealed a very high prevalence (close to 50%) of carbapenem resistance in this environmental species. Hence, we report the simultaneous emergence in hospitals on the Canary Islands of P. putida and P. aeruginosa strains producing IMP-15, a metallo-β-lactamase not previously detected in Europe, and suggest an underestimated role of P. putida as a nosocomial reservoir of worrying transferable resistance determinants.

  15. Sulphide Resistance in the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa: a Comparative Study of Morphology and Photosynthetic Performance Between the Sulphide-Resistant Mutant and the Wild-Type Strain.

    PubMed

    Bañares-España, Elena; del Mar Fernández-Arjona, María; García-Sánchez, María Jesús; Hernández-López, Miguel; Reul, Andreas; Mariné, Mariona Hernández; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is a mesophilic freshwater organism, which cannot tolerate sulphide. However, it was possible to isolate a sulphide-resistant (S(r)) mutant strain that was able to survive in a normally lethal medium sulphide. In order to evaluate the cost of the mutation conferring sulphide resistance in the S(r) strain of M. aeruginosa, the morphology and the photosynthetic performance were compared to that found in the wild-type, sulphide-sensitive (S(s)) strain. An increase in size and a disrupted morphology was observed in S(r) cells in comparison to the S(s) counterpart. Phycoerythrin and phycocyanin levels were higher in the S(r) than in the S(s) cells, whereas a higher carotenoid content, per unit volume, was found in the S(s) strain. The irradiance-saturated photosynthetic oxygen-production rate (GPR max) and the photosynthetic efficiency (measured both by oxygen production and fluorescence, α(GPR) and α(ETR)) were lower in the S(r) strain than in the wild-type. These results appear to be the result of package effect. On the other hand, the S(r) strain showed higher quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching, especially those regulated mechanisms (estimated throughout qN and Y(NPQ)) and a significantly lower slope in the maximum quantum yield of light-adapted samples (Fv'/Fm') compared to the S(s) strain. These findings point to a change in the regulation of the quenching of the transition states (qT) in the S(r) strain which may be generated by a change in the distribution of thylakoidal membranes, which somehow could protect metalloenzymes of the electron transport chain from the lethal effect of sulphide.

  16. Homogentisate 1-2-Dioxygenase Downregulation in the Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Australian Epidemic Strain-1 in the CF Lung.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Wynn, Matthew; Pinto, Rachel; Cordwell, Stuart; Rose, Barbara R; Harbour, Colin; Triccas, James A; Manos, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Some Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains including Australian Epidemic Strain-1 (AES-1 or AUS-01) cause persistent chronic infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with greater morbidity and mortality. Factors conferring persistence are largely unknown. Previously we analysed the transcriptomes of AES-1 grown in Luria broth, nematode growth medium for Caenorhabditis elegans assay (both aerobic) and artificial sputum medium (mainly hypoxic). Transcriptional comparisons included chronic AES-1 strains against PAO1 and acute AES-1 (AES-1R) against its chronic isogen (AES-1M), isolated 10.5 years apart from a CF patient and not eradicated in the meantime. Prominent amongst genes downregulated in AES-1M in all comparisons was homogentisate-1-2-dioxygenase (hmgA); an oxygen-dependent gene known to be mutationally deactivated in many chronic infection strains of P. aeruginosa. To investigate if hmgA downregulation and deactivation gave similar virulence persistence profiles, a hmgA mutant made in UCBPP-PA14 utilising RedS-recombinase and AES-1M were assessed in the C. elegans virulence assay, and the C57BL/6 mouse for pulmonary colonisation and TNF-α response. In C. elegans, hmgA deactivation resulted in significantly increased PA14 virulence while hmgA downregulation reduced AES-1M virulence. AES-1M was significantly more persistent in mouse lung and showed a significant increase in TNF-α (p<0.0001), sustained even with no detectable bacteria. PA14ΔhmgA did not show increased TNF-α. This study suggests that hmgA may have a role in P. aeruginosa persistence in chronic infection and the results provide a starting point for clarifying the role of hmgA in chronic AES-1.

  17. Heterogeneity of pulmonary endothelial cyclic nucleotide response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY infection

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, K. A.; Seifert, R.; Kaever, V.; Britain, A. L.; Sayner, S. L.; Ochoa, C. D.; Cioffi, E. A.; Frank, D. W.; Rich, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that a promiscuous bacterial cyclase synthesizes purine and pyrimidine cyclic nucleotides in the pulmonary endothelium. To test this hypothesis, pulmonary endothelial cells were infected with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that introduces only exoenzyme Y (PA103 ΔexoUexoT::Tc pUCPexoY; ExoY+) via a type III secretion system. Purine and pyrimidine cyclic nucleotides were simultaneously detected using mass spectrometry. Pulmonary artery (PAECs) and pulmonary microvascular (PMVECs) endothelial cells both possess basal levels of four different cyclic nucleotides in the following rank order: cAMP > cUMP ≈ cGMP ≈ cCMP. Endothelial gap formation was induced in a time-dependent manner following ExoY+ intoxication. In PAECs, intercellular gaps formed within 2 h and progressively increased in size up to 6 h, when the experiment was terminated. cGMP concentrations increased within 1 h postinfection, whereas cAMP and cUMP concentrations increased within 3 h, and cCMP concentrations increased within 4 h postinfection. In PMVECs, intercellular gaps did not form until 4 h postinfection. Only cGMP and cUMP concentrations increased at 3 and 6 h postinfection, respectively. PAECs generated higher cyclic nucleotide levels than PMVECs, and the cyclic nucleotide levels increased earlier in response to ExoY+ intoxication. Heterogeneity of the cyclic nucleotide signature in response to P. aeruginosa infection exists between PAECs and PMVECs, suggesting the intracellular milieu in PAECs is more conducive to cNMP generation. PMID:26386118

  18. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to untreated and oxygen-plasma treated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) from endotracheal intubation devices.

    PubMed

    Triandafillu, K; Balazs, D J; Aronsson, B-O; Descouts, P; Tu Quoc, P; van Delden, C; Mathieu, H J; Harms, H

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia is a life threatening complication in mechanically ventilated patients that requires the ability of the bacteria to adhere to, and colonize the endotracheal intubation device. New strategies to prevent or reduce these nosocomial infections are greatly needed. We report here the study of a set of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, together with specific mutants, regarding their adhesion on native and chemically modified poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces from endotracheal intubation devices. The adhesion of the different strains to untreated PVC varied widely, correlating with several physico-chemical characteristics known to influence the attachment of bacteria to inert surfaces. The adhesion patterns were compared to the calculations obtained with the DLVO theory of colloidal stability. These results illustrate the importance of testing different clinical isolates when investigating bacterial adhesion. Oxygen plasma treatment of the PVC pieces yielded a hydrophilic surface and reduced the number of adhering bacteria by as much as 70%. This reduction is however unlikely to be sufficient to prevent P. aeruginosa colonization of endotracheal intubation devices.

  19. Synergistic algicidal effect and mechanism of two diketopiperazines produced by Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106 on the harmful bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingliang; Liu, Xianglong; Pan, Jianliang; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A potent algicidal bacterium isolated from Lake Taihu, Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106, produces two algicidal compounds: 1106-A (cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu)) and 1106-B (cyclo(Pro-Leu)). Both diketopiperazines showed strong algicidal activities against Microcystis aeruginosa, the dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterium in Lake Taihu. Interestingly, these two algicidal compounds functioned synergistically. Compared with individual treatment, combined treatment with cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) significantly enhanced algicidal activity, accelerated the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in M. aeruginosa, and further decreased the activities of antioxidases, effective quantum yield and maximal electron transport rate of M. aeruginosa. The results also showed that the algicidal characteristics of cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) are distinct from those of cyclo(Pro-Leu). Cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) mainly interrupted the flux of electron transport in the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system, whereas cyclo(Pro-Leu) mainly inhibited the activity of cyanobacterial intracellular antioxidases. A possible algicidal mechanism for the synergism between cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) is proposed, which is in accordance with their distinct algicidal characteristics in individual and combined treatment. These findings suggest that synergism between algicidal compounds might be used as an effective strategy for the future control of Microcystis blooms. PMID:26423356

  20. Large-insert genome analysis technology detects structural variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Hillary S; Gillett, Will; Saenphimmachak, Channakhone; Lim, Regina; Zhou, Yang; Jacobs, Michael A; Chang, Jean; Rohmer, Laurence; D'Argenio, David A; Palmieri, Anthony; Levy, Ruth; Haugen, Eric; Wong, Gane K S; Brittnacher, Mitch J; Burns, Jane L; Miller, Samuel I; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder

    2008-06-01

    Large-insert genome analysis (LIGAN) is a broadly applicable, high-throughput technology designed to characterize genome-scale structural variation. Fosmid paired-end sequences and DNA fingerprints from a query genome are compared to a reference sequence using the Genomic Variation Analysis (GenVal) suite of software tools to pinpoint locations of insertions, deletions, and rearrangements. Fosmids spanning regions that contain new structural variants can then be sequenced. Clonal pairs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from four cystic fibrosis patients were used to validate the LIGAN technology. Approximately 1.5 Mb of inserted sequences were identified, including 743 kb containing 615 ORFs that are absent from published P. aeruginosa genomes. Six rearrangement breakpoints and 220 kb of deleted sequences were also identified. Our study expands the "genome universe" of P. aeruginosa and validates a technology that complements emerging, short-read sequencing methods that are better suited to characterizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms than structural variation.

  1. MrkD1P from Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain IA565 Allows for Coexistence with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Protection from Protease-Mediated Biofilm Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Brandon M.; Van Laar, Tricia A.; You, Tao; Clegg, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation and persistence are essential components for the continued survival of pathogens inside the host and constitute a major contributor to the development of chronic wounds with resistance to antimicrobial compounds. Understanding these processes is crucial for control of biofilm-mediated disease. Though chronic wound infections are often polymicrobial in nature, much of the research on chronic wound-related microbes has focused on single-species models. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are microbes that are often found together in wound isolates and are able to form stable in vitro biofilms, despite the antagonistic nature of P. aeruginosa with other organisms. Mutants of the K. pneumoniae strain IA565 lacking the plasmid-borne mrkD1P gene were less competitive than the wild type in an in vitro dual-species biofilm model with P. aeruginosa (PAO1). PAO1 spent medium inhibited the formation of biofilm of mrkD1P-deficient mutants and disrupted preestablished biofilms, with no effect on IA565 and no effect on the growth of the wild type or mutants. A screen using a two-allele PAO1 transposon library identified the LasB elastase as the secreted effector involved in biofilm disruption, and a purified version of the protein produced results similar to those with PAO1 spent medium. Various other proteases had a similar effect, suggesting that the disruption of the mrkD1P gene causes sensitivity to general proteolytic effects and indicating a role for MrkD1P in protection against host antibiofilm effectors. Our results suggest that MrkD1P allows for competition of K. pneumoniae with P. aeruginosa in a mixed-species biofilm and provides defense against microbial and host-derived proteases. PMID:23980108

  2. Antibiotic resistance pattern and evaluation of metallo-beta lactamase genes (VIM and IMP) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing MBL enzyme, isolated from patients with secondary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Kiana; Ataei, Behrouz; Roshandel, Fardad

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of hospital-acquired secondary infections in hospitalized patients is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of IMP and VIM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (carbapenem resistant and producer MBL enzyme) in patients with secondary immunodeficiency. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 96 patients with secondary immunodeficiency hospitalized in the Al-Zahra hospital were selected. Carbapenem resistant strains isolated and modified Hodge test was performed in order to confirm the presence of the metallo carbapenemase enzyme. Under the standard conditions they were sent to the central laboratory for investigating nosocomial infection Multiplex PCR. Results: Of 96 samples 28.1% were IMP positive, 5.2% VIM positive and 3.1% both VIM and IMP positive. The prevalence of multidrug resistance in the IMP and/or VIM negative samples was 29%, while all 5 VIM positive samples have had multidrug resistance. Also the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in IMP positive samples were 96.3% and in IMP and VIM positive samples were 100%. According to Fisher’s test, the prevalence of multi-drug resistance based on gene expression has significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that, a significant percentage of patients with secondary immunodeficiency that suffer nosocomial infections with multidrug resistance, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are probably MBL-producing gene positive. Therefore the cause of infection should be considered in the hospital care system to identify their features, the presence of genes involved in the development of multi-drug resistance and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27563634

  3. Engineering the central biosynthetic and secondary metabolic pathways of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201 to improve phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kaiming; Zhou, Lian; Jiang, Haixia; Sun, Shuang; Fang, Yunling; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Xuehong; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-11-01

    The secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is an important component of the newly registered biopesticide Shenqinmycin. We used a combined method involving gene, promoter, and protein engineering to modify the central biosynthetic and secondary metabolic pathways in the PCA-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1201. The PCA yield of the resulting strain PA-IV was increased 54.6-fold via the following strategies: (1) blocking PCA conversion and enhancing PCA efflux pumping; (2) increasing metabolic flux towards the PCA biosynthetic pathway through the over-production of two DAHP synthases and blocking the synthesis of 21 secondary metabolites; (3) increasing the PCA precursor supply through the engineering of five chorismate-utilizing enzymes; (4) engineering the promoters of two PCA biosynthetic gene clusters. Strain PA-IV produced 9882 mg/L PCA in fed-batch fermentation, which is twice as much as that produced by the current industrial strain. Strain PA-IV was also genetically stable and comparable to Escherichia coli in cytotoxicity.

  4. Prevalence of resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in a University Hospital in Northeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Anna Diana; Sacha, Pawel Tomasz; Ojdana, Dominika; Wieczorek, Anna; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones among twenty-five Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated between 2002 and 2009. In PCR, following genes were detected: ant(2″)-Ia in 9 (36.0%), aac(6')-Ib in 7 (28.0%), qnrB in 5 (20.0%), aph(3″)-Ib in 2 (8.0%) of isolates.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of biogenically produced spherical Se-nanomaterials embedded in organic material against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains on hydroxyapatite-coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lemire, Joseph A; Demeter, Marc; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J; Lampis, Silvia

    2017-02-23

    In an effort to prevent the formation of pathogenic biofilms on hydroxyapatite (HA)-based clinical devices and surfaces, we present a study evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of Spherical biogenic Se-Nanostructures Embedded in Organic material (Bio Se-NEMO-S) produced by Bacillus mycoides SelTE01 in comparison with two different chemical selenium nanoparticle (SeNP) classes. These nanomaterials have been studied as potential antimicrobials for eradication of established HA-grown biofilms, for preventing biofilm formation on HA-coated surfaces and for inhibition of planktonic cell growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 12934 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Bio Se-NEMO resulted more efficacious than those chemically produced in all tested scenarios. Bio Se-NEMO produced by B. mycoides SelTE01 after 6 or 24 h of Na2 SeO3 exposure show the same effective antibiofilm activity towards both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains at 0.078 mg ml(-1) (Bio Se-NEMO6 ) and 0.3125 mg ml(-1) (Bio Se-NEMO24 ). Meanwhile, chemically synthesized SeNPs at the highest tested concentration (2.5 mg ml(-1) ) have moderate antimicrobial activity. The confocal laser scanning micrographs demonstrate that the majority of the P. aeruginosa and S. aureus cells exposed to biogenic SeNPs within the biofilm are killed or eradicated. Bio Se-NEMO therefore displayed good antimicrobial activity towards HA-grown biofilms and planktonic cells, becoming possible candidates as new antimicrobials.

  6. Modulation of behaviour and virulence of a high alginate expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from cystic fibrosis by oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Muhammad R.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways harbour complex and dynamic polymicrobial communities that include many oral bacteria. Despite increased knowledge of CF airway microbiomes the interaction between established CF pathogens and other resident microbes and resulting impact on disease progression is poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that oral commensal streptococci of the Anginosus group (AGS) can establish chronic pulmonary infections and become numerically dominant in CF sputa indicating that they play an important role in CF microbiome dynamics. In this study a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DWW2) of the mucoid alginate overproducing phenotype associated with chronic CF airway infection and a strain of the oral commensal AGS species Streptococcus anginosus (3a) from CF sputum were investigated for their ability to co-exist and their responses to biofilm co-culture. Bacteria in biofilms were quantified, pyocyanin expression by DWW2 was measured and the effect of AGS strain 3a on reversion of DWW2 to a non-mucoidal phenotype investigated. The virulence of DWW2, 3a and colony variant phenotypes of DWW2 in mono- and co-culture were compared in a Galleria mellonella infection model. Co-culture biofilms were formed in normoxic, hypercapnic (10% CO2) and anoxic atmospheres with the streptococcus increasing in number in co-culture, indicating that these bacteria would be able to co-exist and thrive within the heterogeneous microenvironments of the CF airway. The streptococcus caused increased pyocyanin expression by DWW2 and colony variants by stimulating reversion of the mucoid phenotype to the high pyocyanin expressing non-mucoid phenotype. The latter was highly virulent in the infection model with greater virulence when in co-culture with the streptococcus. The results of this study demonstrate that the oral commensal S. anginosus benefits from interaction with P. aeruginosa of the CF associated mucoid phenotype and modulates the behaviour of the

  7. Auxotrophic variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are selected from prototrophic wild-type strains in respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Barth, A L; Pitt, T L

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four nutritionally dependent (auxotrophic) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from 20 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and tested for their amino acid requirements. Two different methods were necessary to identify the nutritional status of all isolates. Methionine was the most common single amino acid required (9 of 24 isolates), followed by leucine and arginine or ornithine. In total, a requirement for 12 different compounds or combination of compounds was demonstrated. Auxotrophic and prototrophic pairs of isolates from the same patient were compared by macrorestriction analysis of DNA in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirteen of 18 pairs analyzed presented identical restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles following digestion of DNA with XbaI. Three of the remaining pairs showed percentage similarities of 77, 91, and 98%, and the profiles of two pairs could not be compared because of the excessive degradation of their DNA. These results suggest that auxotrophic and prototrophic P. aeruginosa isolates colonizing the same CF patient constitute an isogenic group and raise the possibility that auxotrophs are selected from the prototrophic population during the course of pulmonary infection in CF patients. PMID:7699062

  8. Antimicrobial activity of honey of stingless bees, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida) compared to the strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenório, Eleuza Gomes; de Jesus, Natália Rocha; Nascimento, Adenilde Ribeiro; Teles, Amanda Mara

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honeys of stingless bees produced in Maranhão, tiúba (Melipona fasciculata) and jandaira (Melipona subnitida), opposite the strains of pathogenic bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The honey samples were collected from different regions of Maranhão. Of the 17 samples collected, twelve samples were honey M. fasciculata and five were honey M. subnitida. We used the Kirby-Bauer method, and the technique of agar disk diffusion through the extent of inhibition in milimetros. Results were negative for all samples from M. fasciculata. However, the tests for M. subnitida demonstrated bacteriostatic halos ranging from 12 to 32,6mm.

  9. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of growth and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus, Navicula pelliculosa and two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; Juneau, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The temperature-dependent sensitivities of two algal species and two strains of cyanobacteria to the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide atrazine were evaluated in order to understand how the interaction between acclimation temperature and herbicide will affect growth and photosynthesis of aquatic microorganisms. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and a toxic and non-toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were acclimated to three different temperatures (10, 15 and 25°C) and exposed to five concentrations of the herbicide atrazine (0-0.15μM) for 72h. Growth, photosynthetic yields, energy fluxes within photosystem II and pigment content were then measured as potential responses to each treatment. With the exception of N. pelliculosa, the toxicity of atrazine was higher when microorganisms were acclimated to lower temperatures. N. pelliculosa was not only the most tolerant to atrazine, but also had a similar sensitivity to this herbicide at every temperature. The observed differences in growth sensitivity to atrazine at low temperature are associated with the ability of algae and cyanobacteria to cope with high excitation pressure, by increasing its protective carotenoid content and non-photochemical energy dissipation. Our results demonstrate that future guidelines for the protection of aquatic life should consider water temperature as an important factor influencing the toxicity of atrazine to aquatic microorganisms.

  10. Evaluation of Stress-Induced Microbial Siderophore from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain S1 as a Potential Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor in Wound Healing Applications.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Sita Lakshmi; Kandhasamy, S; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli; Perumal, P T

    2016-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes capable of causing various inflammatory and various degenerative diseases if over-expressed. The active site of these enzymes is a zinc binding motif which binds to the specific site on the substrate and induce degradation. Hence an inhibitor is required to form a complex with zinc motif which hampers the binding ability of MMPs. To obtain novel MMPs inhibitor for wound healing, the chelating activity of siderophore from the microbial source was focused. During screening for siderophore production, strain S1 produced the highest amount of siderophore in the minimal salts medium. The isolate was confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain S1 based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The activity of the siderophore was assayed using chrome azurol sulphonate and purified by the chromatographic techniques. The structural evidence through Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the isolated siderophore is a catecholate type with the distinctive characters. The positive results of calcein and fluozin-3 assays indicate that siderophore could bind to divalent metal ions, namely Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). As the siderophore compound focused on wound healing property, the in vitro studies revealed the viability of NH3T3 fibroblast cells and its efficiency in matrix modulating was confirmed through gelatin zymogram.

  11. Biofilm Filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Inhibit Preformed Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Fazal; Ferreira, Jose A. G.; Stevens, David A.; Clemons, Karl V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) colonize cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airways. Pa culture filtrates inhibit Af biofilms, and Pa non-CF, mucoid (Muc-CF) and nonmucoid CF (NMuc-CF) isolates form an ascending inhibitory hierarchy. We hypothesized this activity is mediated through apoptosis induction. One Af and three Pa (non-CF, Muc-CF, NMuc-CF) reference isolates were studied. Af biofilm was formed in 96 well plates for 16 h ± Pa biofilm filtrates. After 24 h, apoptosis was characterized by viability dye DiBAc, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity. Muc-CF and NMuc-CF filtrates inhibited and damaged Af biofilm (p<0.0001). Intracellular ROS levels were elevated (p<0.001) in NMuc-CF-treated Af biofilms (3.7- fold) compared to treatment with filtrates from Muc-CF- (2.5- fold) or non-CF Pa (1.7- fold). Depolarization of mitochondrial potential was greater upon exposure to NMuc-CF (2.4-fold) compared to Muc-CF (1.8-fold) or non-CF (1.25-fold) (p<0.0001) filtrates. Exposure to filtrates resulted in more DNA fragmentation in Af biofilm, compared to control, mediated by metacaspase activation. In conclusion, filtrates from CF-Pa isolates were more inhibitory against Af biofilms than from non-CF. The apoptotic effect involves mitochondrial membrane damage associated with metacaspase activation. PMID:26930399

  12. Biofilm Filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Inhibit Preformed Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms via Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Ferreira, Jose A G; Stevens, David A; Clemons, Karl V; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) colonize cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airways. Pa culture filtrates inhibit Af biofilms, and Pa non-CF, mucoid (Muc-CF) and nonmucoid CF (NMuc-CF) isolates form an ascending inhibitory hierarchy. We hypothesized this activity is mediated through apoptosis induction. One Af and three Pa (non-CF, Muc-CF, NMuc-CF) reference isolates were studied. Af biofilm was formed in 96 well plates for 16 h ± Pa biofilm filtrates. After 24 h, apoptosis was characterized by viability dye DiBAc, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity. Muc-CF and NMuc-CF filtrates inhibited and damaged Af biofilm (p<0.0001). Intracellular ROS levels were elevated (p<0.001) in NMuc-CF-treated Af biofilms (3.7- fold) compared to treatment with filtrates from Muc-CF- (2.5- fold) or non-CF Pa (1.7- fold). Depolarization of mitochondrial potential was greater upon exposure to NMuc-CF (2.4-fold) compared to Muc-CF (1.8-fold) or non-CF (1.25-fold) (p<0.0001) filtrates. Exposure to filtrates resulted in more DNA fragmentation in Af biofilm, compared to control, mediated by metacaspase activation. In conclusion, filtrates from CF-Pa isolates were more inhibitory against Af biofilms than from non-CF. The apoptotic effect involves mitochondrial membrane damage associated with metacaspase activation.

  13. Carbon spectrum utilization by an indigenous strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514: Production, characterization and surface active properties of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J; Upasani, Vivek N

    2016-12-01

    The present research work was undertaken with a mandate to study carbon spectrum utilization and structural characterization of biosurfactant produced by indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 5514, which showed unique properties to utilize a large number of carbon sources effectively for production of biosurfactant, although glucose was the best carbon substrate. In Bushnell-Hass medium supplemented with glucose (1%, w/v), 3.178±0.071g/l biosurfactant was produced by this isolate in 96h. The biosurfactant produced showed surface tension and emulsification activity values from 29.14±0.05 to 62.29±0.13mN/m and 88.50±1.96 to 15.40±0.91%, respectively. Toluene showed highest emulsification activity followed by kerosene. However, kerosene exhibited emulsion stability for 30days. Biosurfactant was characterized as a mixture of di-rhamnolipid (Rha-Rha-C10-C14:1) and mono-rhamnolipid (Rha-C8-C10) by FTIR, ESI-MS and LC-MS techniques. High biosurfactant yield opens up doors for the isolate to find utility in various industries.

  14. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  15. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100). The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L−1; starch, 15.0 g.L−1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L−1; incubation temperature, 34.12 °C and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL−1). The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R2) value (0.9987). The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization. PMID:24159311

  16. Alterations of OprD in Carbapenem-Intermediate and -Susceptible Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients with Bacteremia in a Spanish Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabot, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Cristina; Roman, Elena; Tubau, Fe; Macia, María D.; Moya, Bartolomé; Zamorano, Laura; Suárez, Cristina; Peña, Carmen; Domínguez, María A.; Moncalián, Gabriel; Oliver, Antonio; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of OprD mutations in 60 strains of metallo-ß-lactamase-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa intermediately susceptible (IS [n = 12]; MIC = 8 μg/ml) or susceptible (S [n = 48]; MICs ≤ 1 to 4 μg/ml) to imipenem and/or meropenem that were isolated from patients with bacteremia in order to evaluate their impact on carbapenem susceptibility profiles. The presence of mutations in oprD was detected by sequencing analysis. OprD expression was assessed by both outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Fourteen (23%) isolates had an OprD identical to that of PAO1, and OprD modifications were detected in 46 isolates (77%). Isolates were classified as OprD “full-length types” (T1 [n = 40, including both wild-type OprD and variants showing several polymorphisms]) and OprD “deficient types” (T2 [n = 3 for OprD frameshift mutations] and T3 [n = 17 for premature stop codons in oprD]). RT-PCR showed that 5 OprD type T1 isolates presented reduced transcription of oprD (0.1- to 0.4-fold compared to PAO1), while oprD levels increased more than 2-fold over that seen with PAO1 in 4 OprD type T1 isolates. A total of 50% of the isolates belonging to OprD “deficient types” were susceptible to both carbapenems, and 40% were susceptible to meropenem and intermediately susceptible to imipenem. Only one isolate (5%) within this group was intermediately susceptible to both carbapenems, and one (5%) was susceptible to imipenem and intermediately susceptible to meropenem. We concluded that OprD inactivating mutations in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa are not restricted only to carbapenem-resistant isolates but are also found in isolates with imipenem or meropenem MICs of only 0.06 to 4 μg/ml. PMID:22290967

  17. Different tolerances to chemical contaminants between unicellular and colonial morph of Microcystis aeruginosa: excluding the differences among different strains.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Peng, Qiang

    2015-03-21

    In order to ascertain the different tolerances to chemical contaminants in one strain of Microcystis with different morphology, unicellular and colonial Microcystis in one strain was obtained from different conditions of light intensity and temperature. The samples were divided into 8 groups including control (no chemical addition), CuSO4, chloromycetin, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonatelas (LAS) treatments. The cell density, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde of Microcystis were analyzed. It was observed that cell density of both unicellular and colonial Microcystis increased from the beginning to day-5 in the control and the CuSO4 treatments. However, the growth of Microcystis was significantly inhibited in the culture with chloromycetin and LAS treatments. Notably, the inhibition rate was significantly high in unicellular Microcystis relative to the colonial Microcystis. The esterase activity in all the treatments decreased dramatically relating to the control. In addition, the esterase activity in colonial Microcystis was significantly higher than that of the unicellular Microcystis in all the treatments. Although there were no significant differences in activities of SOD between the two morphologies in the control treatments, in all the other treatments, significant differences were observed. The results proved that colony formation of Microcystis could be considered as a strategy in response to chemical stress.

  18. Establishment and multi drug resistance evolution of ST235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in the intensive care unit of a Colombian hospital.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elena; Pérez, Javier Escobar; Buelvas, Francisco; Tovar, Catalina; Vanegas, Natasha; Stokes, H W

    2014-12-01

    Drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a therapeutic challenge. To assess the diversity of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistant variants, isolates were recovered from hospital patients in Colombia. Thirty of 60 isolates contained class 1 integrons and five were of Sequence Type ST235 having appeared in a single intensive care unit. All five possessed an unusual integron but showed differences in gene cassette content and the presence/absence of insertion sequence IS26. This showed that differences can arise rapidly, even within a single ICU. Also, the emergence of IS26 in P. aeruginosa is contributing to the evolution of resistance in this bacterium.

  19. Quinazoline derivatives are efficient chemosensitizers of antibiotic activity in Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Jacqueline; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Baitiche, Milad; Adam, Elissavet; Viveiros, Miguel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Pascu, Mihail L; Amaral, Leonard; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2010-08-01

    Amongst the three series of quinazoline derivatives synthesised and studied in this work, some molecules increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria presenting multidrug-resistant phenotypes. N-alkyl compounds induced an increase in the activity of chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and sparfloxacin, which are substrates of the AcrAB-TolC and MexAB-OprM efflux pumps in clinical isolates. These molecules are able to increase the intracellular concentration of chloramphenicol in efflux pump-overproducing strains. Their activity depends on the antibiotic structure, suggesting that different sites may be involved for the recognition of substrates by a given efflux pump. Quinazoline molecules exhibiting a nitro functional group are more active, and structure-activity relationship studies may be undertaken to identify the pharmacophoric group involved in the AcrB and MexB affinity sites.

  20. Blood pressure and hepatocellular effects of the cyclic heptapeptide toxin produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa strain PCC-7820.

    PubMed

    Theiss, W C; Carmichael, W W; Wyman, J; Bruner, R

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory rats and mice were used to investigate the hepatotoxicity caused by the cyclic heptapeptide (mol. wt 994) termed microcystin-LR. Microcystin-LR (also known as cyanoginosin-LR) is produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) M. aeruginosa strain PCC-7820. In time course histopathology studies with mice significant liver damage, with an absence of pulmonary emboli, were observed after 15 min. Pulmonary emboli did not appear until 1 hr. In rats, significant liver damage and the presence of occasional emboli were observed at 20 min. Pulmonary emboli did not contain fibrin nor appear life-threatening in any case and resembled the globular eosinophilic debris found in the liver sinusoids and central veins. Measurements of rat femoral arterial, jugular venous and hepatic portal venous blood pressures during the course of toxicity revealed a slowly declining arterial pressure and stable, normal venous pressures. Blood lactic acid levels rose in parallel with the fall in arterial pressure, a pattern typical of hemorrhagic shock. There was no indication of venous congestion that would accompany right heart failure. Isolated, perfused rat livers dosed with toxin showed rapid changes in the liver, including cessation of bile flow within 10 min and complete obliteration of normal lobular architecture within 60 min. No effect of the toxin was observed in isolated perfused rat heart. We conclude that in the mouse and rat, microcystin-LR is a potent, rapid-acting, direct hepatotoxin, with the immediate cause of death in acute toxicities being hemorrhagic shock secondary to massive hepatocellular necrosis and collapse of hepatic parenchyma.

  1. Carbenicillin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tebar, A; Rojo, F; Dámaso, D; Vázquez, D

    1982-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates which are carbenicillin resistant were studied to find the cause(s) of resistance to this beta-lactam antibiotic. The electrophoresis patterns of the four strains (PH20610, PH20815, PH4011, and PH4301) were found to be different from those of a wild-type strain, P. aeruginosa NCTC 10662, and appeared to lack penicillin-binding protein 2. Affinity of other penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH20610 and PH20815 for carbenicillin seemed to be normal or slightly diminished. Electrophoretic patterns of penicillin-binding proteins from strains PH4011 and PH4301 had more profound differences, since the affinities of their penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 4 for carbenicillin were decreased by nearly two orders of magnitude relative to the preparations from the wild-type strain. Kinetic studies on binding of carbenicillin to penicillin-binding proteins both in isolated membrane preparations and in intact cells revealed that carbenicillin penetration into resistant cells was a much slower process than in susceptible cells, suggesting that the outer envelope structures serve as an efficient barrier against carbenicillin entry into our P. aeruginosa strains from clinical isolates. PMID:6821456

  2. The Accessory Genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Vanderlene L.; Ozer, Egon A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains exhibit significant variability in pathogenicity and ecological flexibility. Such interstrain differences reflect the dynamic nature of the P. aeruginosa genome, which is composed of a relatively invariable “core genome” and a highly variable “accessory genome.” Here we review the major classes of genetic elements comprising the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and highlight emerging themes in the acquisition and functional importance of these elements. Although the precise phenotypes endowed by the majority of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome have yet to be determined, rapid progress is being made, and a clearer understanding of the role of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome in ecology and infection is emerging. PMID:21119020

  3. Osmoregulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa under hyperosmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Velasco, R; Burgoa, R; Flores, E; Hernández, E; Villa, A; Vaca, S

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain was found to be able to tolerate 700 mM NaCl. 0.5 mM of the osmoprotectant betaine restablished the growth of this strain in 1200 mM NaCl. Intracellular K+ and glutamate concentrations of P. aeruginosa PAO1 after an hyperosmotic shock (400 mM NaCl) showed a permanent increase. Adition of betaine (0.5 mM) to the medium with NaCl had an inhibitory effect on the intracellular accumulation of glutamate. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa PAO1 resists high NaCl concentrations, K+ accumulation and glutamate synthesis probably being the first mechanisms involved in adaptation to osmotic stress. Also is is demonstrated that betaine modulates intracellular glutamate levels in osmotically stressed P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  4. Evaluating the influence of light intensity in mcyA gene expression and microcystin production in toxic strains of Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Daniel; Churro, Catarina; Valério, Elisabete

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are phytoplanktonic organisms widely occurring in freshwaters, being frequently associated with the production of toxins, namely microcystins (MCs). MCs are produced non-ribosomally by a multienzyme complex (mcy genes). It has been reported that environmental factors, such as light intensity, can influence toxin production. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of light intensity in the transcription of the mcyA gene and corresponding production of microcystins in toxic isolates of Planktothrix agardhii, where little is known, and compare them to Microcystis aeruginosa. For that purpose, cultures were exposed to three different light intensities (4, 20 and 30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) for 18 days at 20 ± 1 °C. The growth was followed daily using absorbance readings. Samples were collected at each growth stage for cell counting, microcystins quantification and RNA extraction. The level of transcripts was quantified by RT-qPCR and the relative expression determined using 16S rDNA, gltA and rpoC1 as reference genes. The most stable reference genes in M. aeruginosa were rpoC1 and gltA, whereas in P. agardhii were 16S rDNA and gltA. There was a correspondence between the growth rate and light intensity in M. aeruginosa and P. agardhii. The growth rates for both species were lower at 4 and higher at 30 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Microcystin concentration per cell was similar between light intensities in M. aeruginosa and over time, while in P. agardhii it was higher in the stationary phase at 4 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). There were differences in the expression of mcyA between the two species. In M. aeruginosa, the highest levels of expression occurred at 4 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in the adaptation phase, whereas for P. agardhii it was at 4μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) in the exponential growth phase. Our results indicate that the light intensities tested had distinct influences on the growth, microcystin production and mcyA expression levels

  5. Application of the multifactor dimensionality reduction method in evaluation of the roles of multiple genes/enzymes in multidrug-resistant acquisition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Yao, Z; Peng, Y; Bi, J; Xie, C; Chen, X; Li, Y; Ye, X; Zhou, J

    2016-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) infections are major threats to healthcare-associated infection control and the intrinsic molecular mechanisms of MDRPA are also unclear. We examined 348 isolates of P. aeruginosa, including 188 MDRPA and 160 non-MDRPA, obtained from five tertiary-care hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Significant correlations were found between gene/enzyme carriage and increased rates of antimicrobial resistance (P < 0·01). gyrA mutation, OprD loss and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) presence were identified as crucial molecular risk factors for MDRPA acquisition by a combination of univariate logistic regression and a multifactor dimensionality reduction approach. The MDRPA rate was also elevated with the increase in positive numbers of those three determinants (P < 0·001). Thus, gyrA mutation, OprD loss and MBL presence may serve as predictors for early screening of MDRPA infections in clinical settings.

  6. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel.

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.

  7. Bioalteration of synthetic Fe(III)-, Fe(II)-bearing basaltic glasses and Fe-free glass in the presence of the heterotrophic bacteria strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Impact of siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Anne; Rossano, Stéphanie; Trcera, Nicolas; Huguenot, David; Fourdrin, Chloé; Verney-Carron, Aurélie; van Hullebusch, Eric D.; Guyot, François

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of micro-organisms and their siderophores in the first steps of the alteration processes of basaltic glasses in aqueous media. In this regard, three different types of glasses - with or without iron, in the reduced Fe(II) or oxidized Fe(III) states - were prepared on the basis of a simplified basaltic glass composition. Control and Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated experiments were performed in a buffered (pH 6.5) nutrient depleted medium to stimulate the production of the pyoverdine siderophore. Results show that the presence of P. aeruginosa has an effect on the dissolution kinetics of all glasses as most of the calculated elemental release rates are increased compared to sterile conditions. Reciprocally, the composition of the glass in contact with P. aeruginosa has an impact on the bacterial growth and siderophore production. As an essential nutrient for this microbial strain, Fe notably appears to play a central role during biotic experiments. Its presence in the glass stimulates the bacterial growth and minimizes the synthesis of pyoverdine. Moreover the initial Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio in the glasses modulates this synthesis, as pyoverdine is not detected at all in the system in contact with Fe(III)-bearing glass. Finally, the dissolution rates appear to be correlated to siderophore concentrations as they increase with respect to sterile experiments in the order Fe(III)-bearing glass < Fe(II)-bearing glass < Fe-free glass. This increase is attributed to complexation reactions between siderophores and Fe or Al for Fe(II)-bearing glass or Fe-free glass, respectively. The dissolution of an Fe-free glass is significantly improved in the presence of bacteria, as initial dissolution rates are increased by a factor of 3. This study attests to the essential role of siderophores in the P. aeruginosa-promoted dissolution processes of basaltic glasses as well as to the complex relationships between the nutritional potential of the glass and

  8. Wide Dispersion of ST175 Clone despite High Genetic Diversity of Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains in 16 Spanish Hospitals▿

    PubMed Central

    García-Castillo, María; del Campo, Rosa; Morosini, María Isabel; Riera, Elena; Cabot, Gabriel; Willems, Rob; van Mansfeld, Rosa; Oliver, Antonio; Cantón, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    During the COMParative Activity of Carbapenems Testing (COMPACT) surveillance study, 448 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates were obtained from 16 Spanish hospitals. Nonsusceptibility (EUCAST breakpoints) to imipenem (35%), meropenem (33%), and/or doripenem (33%) was observed with 175 isolates (39%). Simultaneous resistance to these three drugs was observed with 126 of the 175 isolates (72%). Except for colistin, high resistance rates were observed among noncarbapenem antibiotics. Clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SpeI, discriminating 68 patterns. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on 84 isolates representing different PFGE types and all participating hospitals. Thirty-nine sequence types (STs) could be distinguished, and of these, ST175 (48 isolates, 10 hospitals), ST646 (16 isolates, 4 hospitals), ST532 (13 isolates, 3 hospitals), and ST111 (13 isolates, 7 hospitals) were the most frequently encountered. Minimum-spanning tree analysis confirmed a wide dissemination of different clones among participant hospitals, particularly ST175. PFGE pattern comparison within the four most frequent STs revealed that ST175 isolates were relatively uniform, while ST646, ST532, and ST111 isolates were highly diverse, with almost every isolate belonging to a unique pulsotype, even when originating from the same center. The population of carbapenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa isolates from 16 hospitals is highly diverse, with one ST (ST175) representing a highly conserved clone disseminated in 10 of the 16 participant hospitals. This ST175 clone should be added to the list of P. aeruginosa clones at high risk for epidemic spread, such as the Liverpool, Manchester, and Melbourne clones previously found in cystic fibrosis patients and ST235 in the nosocomial setting. PMID:21697331

  9. Comparative studies on growth and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa to Acorus calamus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S-H; Chang, J-J; Cao, J-Y; Yang, C-L

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the growth inhibition and physiological responses of unicellular and colonial Microcystis aeruginosa during coexistence with Acorus calamus, algal densities, chlorophyll a contents, exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, catalase (CAT) activities, and peroxidase (POD) activities of the two algae strains were analyzed. Although the unicellular and colonial strains of M. aeruginosa were both inhibited by A. calamus, unicellular algae were more sensitive than the colonial algae. The measurement results for EPS, MDA, CAT, and POD showed that unicellular M. aeruginosa had higher levels of stress related damage than colonial strains when they were exposed to the same density of A. calamus, and the cellular defense system of colonial M. aeruginosa was stronger than that of unicellular M. aeruginosa. Natural blooms of Microcystis are typically composed of colonial forms of M. aeruginosa, therefore future efforts to control such blooms, possibly through the development of new algicides, should focus on the unique characteristics of colonial M. aeruginosa strains.

  10. Occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kuwait soil.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Akbar, Abrar

    2015-02-01

    Environmentally ubiquitous bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa evolved mechanisms to adapt and prevail under diverse conditions. In the current investigation, strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrating high rates of crude oil utilization and tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals were found in both crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Kuwait, and were dominant in the contaminated sites. The incidence of P. aeruginosa in tested soils implies the definitive pattern of crude oil contamination in the selection of the bacterial population in petroleum-contaminated sites in Kuwait. Surprisingly, the unculturable P. aeruginosa in different soil samples showed significant high similarity coefficients based on 16S-RFLP analyses, implying that the unculturable fraction of existing bacterial population in environmental samples is more stable and, hence, reliable for phylogenetic studies compared to the culturable bacteria.

  11. Dimerization of the type IV pilin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K122-4 results in increased helix stability as measured by time-resolved hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    PubMed Central

    Lento, Cristina; Wilson, Derek J.; Audette, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Truncated pilin monomers from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K122-4 (ΔK122) have been shown to enter a monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution prior to oligomerization into protein nanotubes. Here, we examine the structural changes occurring between the monomeric and dimeric states of ΔK122 using time-resolved hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Based on levels of deuterium uptake, the N-terminal α-helix and the loop connecting the second and third strands of the anti-parallel β-sheet contribute significantly to pilin dimerization. Conversely, the antiparallel β-sheet and αβ loop region exhibit increased flexibility, while the receptor binding domain retains a rigid conformation in the equilibrium state. PMID:26798830

  12. Environmental Pseudomonads Inhibit Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Payel; Davis, Elizabeth; Yu, Fengan; James, Sarah; Wildschutte, Julia H; Wiegmann, Daniel D; Sherman, David H; McKay, Robert M; LiPuma, John J; Wildschutte, Hans

    2017-01-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is evolving resistance to many currently used antibiotics. While much research has been devoted to the roles of pathogenic P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, less is known of its ecological properties. P. aeruginosa dominates the lungs during chronic infection in CF patients, yet its abundance in some environments is less than that of other diverse groups of pseudomonads. Here, we sought to determine if clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa are vulnerable to environmental pseudomonads that dominate soil and water habitats in one-to-one competitions which may provide a source of inhibitory factors. We isolated a total of 330 pseudomonads from diverse habitats of soil and freshwater ecosystems and competed these strains against one another to determine their capacity for antagonistic activity. Over 900 individual inhibitory events were observed. Extending the analysis to P. aeruginosa isolates revealed that clinical isolates, including ones with increased alginate production, were susceptible to competition by multiple environmental strains. We performed transposon mutagenesis on one isolate and identified an ∼14.8-kb locus involved in antagonistic activity. Only two other environmental isolates were observed to carry the locus, suggesting the presence of additional unique compounds or interactions among other isolates involved in outcompeting P. aeruginosa This collection of strains represents a source of compounds that are active against multiple pathogenic strains. With the evolution of resistance of P. aeruginosa to currently used antibiotics, these environmental strains provide opportunities for novel compound discovery against drug-resistant clinical strains.

  13. Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth and virulence in modelled microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadarrama, Seratna; Pulcini, Elinor de L.; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2005-08-01

    Stress, radiation and microgravity cause astronauts to experience secondary immunosuppression. Spaceflight conditions enhance bacterial growth and alter antimicrobial susceptibility. Clinostats are used to model microgravity effects at 1xg. In controls rotated on the vertical axis, the g-vector acts on cells as in static cultures. Salmonella enterica serovar T yphimurium virulence genes are up-regulated in modelled microgravity (MMG); a MMG regulon has been postulated. We hypothesize that the virulence of P. aeruginosa (PA) may be affected similarly by microgravity, which could be observed in MMG. This study focused on regulation of the ETA protein by PA during growth in MMG. PA103 was grown in an ETA production medium at 37°C. One series of media was inoculated with frozen cultures and grown using horizontal (MMG) or static incubation. Another series inoculated with refrigerated cultures included vertical rotating controls. Analyses included optical density (OD), agar plate counts (PC) on R2A, ETA ELISA, and protein expression by 2-D gel analyses. Growth and ETA results differed depending on inoculum, with minor effects of MMG. Proteomic analysis of 2-D gels indicate differences in protein expression with MMG. Growth and ETA results show that consistent methodology is critical when studying environmental effects. This study provides information on the relationships between environmental changes and virulence regulation, especially for flight experiments, when ground experiments are used to predict potential spaceflight effects.

  14. Analysis of Pdeudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Virulence in Modelled Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guadarrama, Seratna; deL. Pulcini, Elinor; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2005-01-01

    Stress, radiation and microgravity cause astronauts to experience secondary immunosuppression. Spaceflight conditions enhance bacterial growth and alter antimicrobial susceptibility. Clinostats are used to model microgravity effects at lxg. In controls rotated on the vertical axis, the g-vector acts on cells as in static cultures. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence genes are up-regulated in modelled microgravity (MMG); a MMG regulon has been postulated. We hypothesize that the virulence of P. aeruginosa (PA) may be affected similarly by microgravity, which could be observed in MMG. This study focused on regulation of the ETA protein by PA during growth in MMG. PA103 was grown in an ETA production medium at 37 C. One series of media was inoculated with frozen cultures and grown using horizontal (MMG) or static incubation. Another series inoculated with refrigerated cultures included vertical rotating controls. Analyses included optical density (OD), agar plate counts (PC) on R2A, ETA ELISA, and protein expression by 2-D gel analyses. Growth and ETA results differed depending on inoculum, with minor effects of MMG. Proteomic analysis of 2-D gels indicate differences in protein expression with MMG. Growth and ETA results show that consistent methodology is critical when studying environmental effects. This study provides information on the relationships between environmental changes and virulence regulation, especially for flight experiments, when ground experiments are used to predict potential spaceflight effects.

  15. Cryptic transposable phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, V.N.; Mit`kina, L.N.; Pleteneva, E.A.; Aleshin, V.V.

    1995-11-01

    Frequencies of nucleotide sequences homologous to phage transposons (PT) of two species, D3112 and B3, were assessed in genomes of natural Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by the dot-blot hybridization method. These strains were incapable of liberating viable phages on a lawn of the PA01 standard indicator strain of P. aeruginosa. It was shown that the homologies detected belong to two groups, high and intermediate, with respect to homology level. Homology patterns were classified as high when they provided signals comparable to those for hybridization in a positive control; patterns were classified as intermediate when the hybridization level was higher than the background level, but lower than in the positive control. Homologous PT sequences were designated as cryptic PT. Intact cryptic PT prophages were shown to exist in genomes of particular natural strains manifesting a higher level of hybridization. However, the growth of these phages was limited by the restriction system of strain PA01. It is possible to isolate strains maintaining the growth of some cryptic PT. These strains differed from P. aeruginosa with respect to the specificity of the restriction and modification system. Nevertheless, in most cases, the attempt to identify a novel host capable of maintaining growth of a cryptic PT failed. Natural strains often carry cryptic PT related to both known PT species, D3112 and B3. The frequency of cryptic PT is extremely high, reaching 30% in strains with a high level of homology only and up to 50% in all strains exhibiting homology. This high PT frequency is assumed to be associated with the considerable variation of P. aeruginosa. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; Peng, Qiu-Ling; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-03-06

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance by numerous human and animal bacterial pathogens. As a result, an increasing number of microorganisms are resistant to multiple antibiotics causing continuing economic losses in dairy farming. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative, cost-effective, and efficient antimicrobial agents that overcome antimicrobial resistance. Here, AgNPs synthesized using the bio-molecule quercetin were characterized using various analytical techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were highly spherical in shape and had an average size of 11 nm. We evaluated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against two MDR pathogenic bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from milk samples produced by mastitis-infected goats. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that AgNPs exert antibacterial effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results from the present study demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and leakage of proteins and sugars in bacterial cells. Results of the present study showed that AgNP-treated bacteria had significantly lower lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to the control. Furthermore, AgNP-treated bacteria

  17. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu-Guo; Peng, Qiu-Ling; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in various applications as antimicrobial agents, anticancer, diagnostics, biomarkers, cell labels, and drug delivery systems for the treatment of various diseases. Microorganisms generally acquire resistance to antibiotics through the course of antibacterial therapy. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) has become a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance by numerous human and animal bacterial pathogens. As a result, an increasing number of microorganisms are resistant to multiple antibiotics causing continuing economic losses in dairy farming. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative, cost-effective, and efficient antimicrobial agents that overcome antimicrobial resistance. Here, AgNPs synthesized using the bio-molecule quercetin were characterized using various analytical techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were highly spherical in shape and had an average size of 11 nm. We evaluated the efficacy of synthesized AgNPs against two MDR pathogenic bacteria, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which were isolated from milk samples produced by mastitis-infected goats. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were found to be 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that AgNPs exert antibacterial effects in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Results from the present study demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and leakage of proteins and sugars in bacterial cells. Results of the present study showed that AgNP-treated bacteria had significantly lower lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and lower adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to the control. Furthermore, AgNP-treated bacteria

  18. Characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Jing; Liang, Rubing; Liu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    A gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium SJTD-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. SJTD-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C30) as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. In 36 h, 500 mg/L of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octadecane were transformed completely; and 2 g/L n-hexadecane was degraded to undetectable levels within 72 h. Two putative alkane-degrading genes (gene 3623 and gene 4712) were characterized and our results indicated that their gene products were rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synergetic catabolism of C12-C16 alkanes. On the basis of bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis, two P450 monooxygenases, along with a putative AlmA-like oxygenase, were examined. Genetically defective mutants lacking the characteristic alkane hydroxylase failed to degrade n-octadecane, thereby suggesting a different catalytic mechanism for the microbial transformation of alkanes with chain lengths over C18.

  19. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1 mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200 µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  20. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ndeddy Aka, Robinson Junior; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial inoculation may influence Brassica juncea growth and heavy metal (Ni, Cr, and Cd) accumulation. Three metal tolerant bacterial isolates (BCr3, BCd33, and BNi11) recovered from mine tailings, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KP717554, Alcaligenes feacalis KP717561, and Bacillus subtilis KP717559 were used. The isolates exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial characteristics including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, insoluble phosphate solubilization together with the potential to protect plants against fungal pathogens. Bacterial inoculation improved seeds germination of B. juncea plant in the presence of 0.1 mM Cr, Cd, and Ni, as compared to the control treatment. Compared with control treatment, soil inoculation with bacterial isolates significantly increased the amount of soluble heavy metals in soil by 51% (Cr), 50% (Cd), and 44% (Ni) respectively. Pot experiment of B. juncea grown in soil spiked with 100 mg kg(-1) of NiCl2, 100 mg kg(-1) of CdCl2, and 150 mg kg(-1) of K2Cr2O7, revealed that inoculation with metal tolerant bacteria not only protected plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals, but also increased growth and metal accumulation of plants significantly. These findings suggest that such metal tolerant, plant growth promoting bacteria are valuable tools which could be used to develop bio-inoculants for enhancing the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  2. Mechanism of resistance to benzalkonium chloride by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Y; Yokoyama, H; Nishimura, H; Ose, Y; Tashima, T

    1989-08-01

    The mechanisms of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride (BC) were studied. The effluence of cell components was observed in susceptible P. aeruginosa by electron microscopy, but resistant P. aeruginosa seemed to be undamaged. No marked changes in cell surface potential between Escherichia coli NIHJC-2 and a spheroplast strain were found. The contents of phospholipids (PL) and fatty and neutral lipids (FNL) in the cell walls of resistant P. aeruginosa were higher than those in the cell walls of susceptible P. aeruginosa. The amounts of BC adsorbed to PL and FNL of cell walls of BC-resistant P. aeruginosa were lower than those for BC-susceptible P. aeruginosa. Fifteen species of cellular fatty acids were identified by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ability of BC to permeate the cell wall was reduced because of the increase in cellular fatty acids. These results suggested that the resistance of P. aeruginosa to BC is mainly a result of increased in the contents of PL and FNL. In resistant P. aeruginosa, the decrease in the amount of BC adsorbed is likely to be the result of increases in the contents of PL and FNL.

  3. Mechanism of resistance to benzalkonium chloride by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Y; Yokoyama, H; Nishimura, H; Ose, Y; Tashima, T

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to benzalkonium chloride (BC) were studied. The effluence of cell components was observed in susceptible P. aeruginosa by electron microscopy, but resistant P. aeruginosa seemed to be undamaged. No marked changes in cell surface potential between Escherichia coli NIHJC-2 and a spheroplast strain were found. The contents of phospholipids (PL) and fatty and neutral lipids (FNL) in the cell walls of resistant P. aeruginosa were higher than those in the cell walls of susceptible P. aeruginosa. The amounts of BC adsorbed to PL and FNL of cell walls of BC-resistant P. aeruginosa were lower than those for BC-susceptible P. aeruginosa. Fifteen species of cellular fatty acids were identified by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ability of BC to permeate the cell wall was reduced because of the increase in cellular fatty acids. These results suggested that the resistance of P. aeruginosa to BC is mainly a result of increased in the contents of PL and FNL. In resistant P. aeruginosa, the decrease in the amount of BC adsorbed is likely to be the result of increases in the contents of PL and FNL. Images PMID:2506813

  4. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C P; Huisman, Jef

    2015-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2.

  5. Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Differ in Gene Expression and Activity of Inorganic Carbon Uptake Systems at Elevated CO2 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Jakupovic, Dennis; Matthijs, Hans C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are generally assumed to be effective competitors at low CO2 levels because of their efficient CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and yet how bloom-forming cyanobacteria respond to rising CO2 concentrations is less clear. Here, we investigate changes in CCM gene expression at ambient CO2 (400 ppm) and elevated CO2 (1,100 ppm) in six strains of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis. All strains downregulated cmpA encoding the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, whereas both the low- and high-affinity CO2 uptake genes were expressed constitutively. Four strains downregulated the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and/or sbtA, whereas two strains showed constitutive expression of the bicA-sbtA operon. In one of the latter strains, a transposon insert in bicA caused low bicA and sbtA transcript levels, which made this strain solely dependent on BCT1 for bicarbonate uptake. Activity measurements of the inorganic carbon (Ci) uptake systems confirmed the CCM gene expression results. Interestingly, genes encoding the RuBisCO enzyme, structural carboxysome components, and carbonic anhydrases were not regulated. Hence, Microcystis mainly regulates the initial uptake of inorganic carbon, which might be an effective strategy for a species experiencing strongly fluctuating Ci concentrations. Our results show that CCM gene regulation of Microcystis varies among strains. The observed genetic and phenotypic variation in CCM responses may offer an important template for natural selection, leading to major changes in the genetic composition of harmful cyanobacterial blooms at elevated CO2. PMID:26319871

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed Central

    Döring, G.; Hörz, M.; Ortelt, J.; Grupp, H.; Wolz, C.

    1993-01-01

    Genotyping was used to analyse Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from sink drains and 15 intubated patients as part of a 3-month prospective study of strain transmission in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. Ninety percent of all washbasin drains were persistently contaminated with several P. aeruginosa genotypes. In 60% (9/15) of the patients, P. aeruginosa colonization or infection was hospital-acquired: P. aeruginosa strains isolated from these patients were present in hospital sinks or in other patients before their admission. Since all patients were immobile, personnel were the probable route of transmission of P. aeruginosa in the hospital. The mechanism of strain transmission from sinks to hands during hand washing was investigated in a children's hospital. When P. aeruginosa was present at densities of > 10(5)/c.f.u. per ml in sink drains, hand washing resulted in hand contamination with P. aeruginosa via aerosol generation in the majority of experiments or P. aeruginosa was detected using an air sampler above the washing basin. High P. aeruginosa cfu were present at 4.30 h in the eight sinks (5.4 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(10) c.f.u./ml), whereas at 13.00 h P. aeruginosa c.f.u. were significantly lower (3.1 x 10(2)-8.0 x 10(5) c.f.u./ml). These data reveal that the danger of bacterial contamination of hands during hand washing is highest in the morning. The identified transmission routes demand more effective hygienic measures in hospital settings particularly concerning personnel hands and sink drains. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8519308

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3

    PubMed Central

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H.; Studholme, David J.; Passos da Silva, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3. PMID:24994800

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Beneficial Rice Rhizosphere Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3.

    PubMed

    Uzelac, Gordana; Bertani, Iris; Kojic, Milan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H; Studholme, David J; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio

    2014-07-03

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 is a rhizosphere-colonizing and plant growth-promoting strain isolated from the rhizosphere of rice. This strain has, however, been shown to be pathogenic in two nonmammalian infection models. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PUPa3.

  9. Structural Relationship of the Lipid A Acyl Groups to Activation of Murine Toll-Like Receptor 4 by Lipopolysaccharides from Pathogenic Strains of Burkholderia mallei, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Korneev, Kirill V.; Arbatsky, Nikolay P.; Molinaro, Antonio; Palmigiano, Angelo; Shaikhutdinova, Rima Z.; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Pier, Gerald B.; Kondakova, Anna N.; Sviriaeva, Ekaterina N.; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Drutskaya, Marina S.; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Kuprash, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is required for activation of innate immunity upon recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of TLR4 to respond to a particular LPS species is important since insufficient activation may not prevent bacterial growth while excessive immune reaction may lead to immunopathology associated with sepsis. Here, we investigated the biological activity of LPS from Burkholderia mallei that causes glanders, and from the two well-known opportunistic pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (causative agents of nosocomial infections). For each bacterial strain, R-form LPS preparations were purified by hydrophobic chromatography and the chemical structure of lipid A, an LPS structural component, was elucidated by HR-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The biological activity of LPS samples was evaluated by their ability to induce production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF, by bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our results demonstrate direct correlation between the biological activity of LPS from these pathogenic bacteria and the extent of their lipid A acylation. PMID:26635809

  10. Epinecidin-1 Has Immunomodulatory Effects, Facilitating Its Therapeutic Use in a Mouse Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Jian-Chyi; Sheen, Jenn-Feng; Lin, Tai-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are garnering attention as possible alternatives to antibiotics. Here, we describe the antimicrobial properties of epinecidin-1 against a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa R) and a P. aeruginosa strain from ATCC (P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660) in vivo. The MICs of epinecidin-1 against P. aeruginosa R and P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660 were determined and compared with those of imipenem. Epinecidin-1 was found to be highly effective at combating peritonitis infection caused by P. aeruginosa R or P. aeruginosa ATCC 19660 in mouse models, without inducing adverse behavioral effects or liver or kidney toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that epinecidin-1 enhances the rate of survival of mice infected with the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa through both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24820078

  11. Environmental Pseudomonads Inhibit Cystic Fibrosis Patient-Derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Payel; Davis, Elizabeth; Yu, Fengan; James, Sarah; Wildschutte, Julia H.; Wiegmann, Daniel D.; Sherman, David H.; McKay, Robert M.; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is evolving resistance to many currently used antibiotics. While much research has been devoted to the roles of pathogenic P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, less is known of its ecological properties. P. aeruginosa dominates the lungs during chronic infection in CF patients, yet its abundance in some environments is less than that of other diverse groups of pseudomonads. Here, we sought to determine if clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa are vulnerable to environmental pseudomonads that dominate soil and water habitats in one-to-one competitions which may provide a source of inhibitory factors. We isolated a total of 330 pseudomonads from diverse habitats of soil and freshwater ecosystems and competed these strains against one another to determine their capacity for antagonistic activity. Over 900 individual inhibitory events were observed. Extending the analysis to P. aeruginosa isolates revealed that clinical isolates, including ones with increased alginate production, were susceptible to competition by multiple environmental strains. We performed transposon mutagenesis on one isolate and identified an ∼14.8-kb locus involved in antagonistic activity. Only two other environmental isolates were observed to carry the locus, suggesting the presence of additional unique compounds or interactions among other isolates involved in outcompeting P. aeruginosa. This collection of strains represents a source of compounds that are active against multiple pathogenic strains. With the evolution of resistance of P. aeruginosa to currently used antibiotics, these environmental strains provide opportunities for novel compound discovery against drug-resistant clinical strains. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that clinical CF-derived isolates of P. aeruginosa are susceptible to competition in the presence of environmental pseudomonads. We observed that many diverse environmental strains exhibited varied

  12. Biological activities of pyochelins: iron-chelating agents of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P V; Shokrani, F

    1978-01-01

    Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa able to grow readily in serum (serum resistant) produce siderophores in large quantity, enabling them to extract iron from transferrins. The term pyochelin has been proposed for this group of compounds. Pyochelin extractable with ethyl acetate and designated pyochelin A appears to be a mixture of catechols and other phenolates. The structures of water-soluble siderophores, designated pyochelin B, have not been determined. Pyochelins enabled growth in serum of strains of serum-sensitive P. aeruginosa and other gram-negative bacilli. Serum-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa tended to be more virulent than equally toxigenic strains of the serum-sensitive group. However, incorporation of pyochelins into the inocula of serum-sensitive strains could reduce, rather than enhance, their virulence. Utilization of pyochelins by serum-sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa rendered some of these organisms resistant to pyocins which were otherwise lethal to them. Images PMID:103839

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounded Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Arivett, Brock A; Ream, Dave C; Fiester, Steven E; Kidane, Destaalem; Actis, Luis A

    2016-08-11

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.

  14. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Resistance to the Max

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to a variety of antimicrobials and can develop resistance during anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy both of which compromise treatment of infections caused by this organism. Resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials (multidrug resistance) in particular is increasingly common in P. aeruginosa, with a number of reports of pan-resistant isolates treatable with a single agent, colistin. Acquired resistance in this organism is multifactorial and attributable to chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer. Mutational changes impacting resistance include upregulation of multidrug efflux systems to promote antimicrobial expulsion, derepression of ampC, AmpC alterations that expand the enzyme's substrate specificity (i.e., extended-spectrum AmpC), alterations to outer membrane permeability to limit antimicrobial entry and alterations to antimicrobial targets. Acquired mechanisms contributing to resistance in P. aeruginosa include β-lactamases, notably the extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the carbapenemases that hydrolyze most β-lactams, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, and 16S rRNA methylases that provide high-level pan-aminoglycoside resistance. The organism's propensity to grow in vivo as antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms and the occurrence of hypermutator strains that yield antimicrobial resistant mutants at higher frequency also compromise anti-pseudomonal chemotherapy. With limited therapeutic options and increasing resistance will the untreatable P. aeruginosa infection soon be upon us? PMID:21747788

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a pediatric oncology care unit caused by an errant water jet into contaminated siphons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Henriette; Geginat, Gernot; Hogardt, Michael; Kramer, Alexandra; Dürken, Matthias; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias

    2012-06-01

    We analyzed an outbreak of invasive infections with an exotoxin U positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain within a pediatric oncology care unit. Environmental sampling and molecular characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains led to identification of the outbreak source. An errant water jet into the sink within patient rooms was observed. Optimized outbreak management resulted in an abundance of further Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections within the pediatric oncology care unit.

  16. Dynorphin Activates Quorum Sensing Quinolone Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zaborina, Olga; Lepine, Francois; Xiao, Gaoping; Valuckaite, Vesta; Chen, Yimei; Li, Terry; Ciancio, Mae; Zaborin, Alex; Petroff, Elaine; Turner, Jerrold R; Rahme, Laurence G; Chang, Eugene; Alverdy, John C

    2007-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that compounds released during host stress directly activate the virulence of certain opportunistic pathogens. Here, we considered that endogenous opioids might function as such compounds, given that they are among the first signals to be released at multiple tissue sites during host stress. We tested the ability of various opioid compounds to enhance the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using pyocyanin production as a biological readout, and demonstrated enhanced virulence when P. aeruginosa was exposed to synthetic (U-50,488) and endogenous (dynorphin) κ-agonists. Using various mutants and reporter strains of P. aeruginosa, we identified involvement of key elements of the quorum sensing circuitry such as the global transcriptional regulator MvfR and the quorum sensing-related quinolone signaling molecules PQS, HHQ, and HQNO that respond to κ-opioids. The in vivo significance of κ-opioid signaling of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated in mice by showing that dynorphin is released from the intestinal mucosa following ischemia/reperfusion injury, activates quinolone signaling in P. aeruginosa, and enhances the virulence of P. aeruginosa against Lactobacillus spp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Taken together, these data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa can intercept opioid compounds released during host stress and integrate them into core elements of quorum sensing circuitry leading to enhanced virulence. PMID:17367209

  17. Mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates after an SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase producing strain subsided in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cacci, Luciana Camila; Chuster, Stephanie Gomes; Martins, Natacha; do Carmo, Pâmella Rodrigues; Girão, Valéria Brígido de Carvalho; Nouér, Simone Aranha; de Freitas, Wania Vasconcelos; de Matos, Juliana Arruda; Magalhães, Ana Cristina de Gouveia; Ferreira, Adriana Lúcia Pires; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are a challenge in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We investigated changes in P. aeruginosa carbapenem-resistance determinants over a time period of eight years after the emergence of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for P. aeruginosa colonisation and followed for the occurrence of infections from April 2007 to April 2008. The ICU environment was also sampled. Isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and E-test, production of carbapenemases by a modified-CarbaNP test and presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction. Non-carbapenemase resistance mechanisms studied included efflux and AmpC overexpression by PAβN and cloxacillin susceptibility enhancement, respectively, as well as oprD mutations. From 472 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (93 patients) and 17 isolates from the ICU environment, high genotypic diversity and several international clones were observed; one environment isolate belonged to the blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa epidemic genotype. Among isolates from infections, 10 (29%) were carbapenem resistant: none produced carbapenemases, three exhibited all non-carbapenemase mechanisms studied, six presented a combination of two mechanisms, and one exclusively displayed oprD mutations. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa displayed a polyclonal profile after the SPM-1 epidemic genotype declined. This phenomenon is connected with blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa replaced by other carbapenem-resistant pathogens. PMID:27653359

  18. Mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates after an SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase producing strain subsided in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cacci, Luciana Camila; Chuster, Stephanie Gomes; Martins, Natacha; Carmo, Pâmella Rodrigues do; Girão, Valéria Brígido de Carvalho; Nouér, Simone Aranha; Freitas, Wania Vasconcelos de; Matos, Juliana Arruda de; Magalhães, Ana Cristina de Gouveia; Ferreira, Adriana Lúcia Pires; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are a challenge in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We investigated changes in P. aeruginosa carbapenem-resistance determinants over a time period of eight years after the emergence of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for P. aeruginosa colonisation and followed for the occurrence of infections from April 2007 to April 2008. The ICU environment was also sampled. Isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and E-test, production of carbapenemases by a modified-CarbaNP test and presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction. Non-carbapenemase resistance mechanisms studied included efflux and AmpC overexpression by PAβN and cloxacillin susceptibility enhancement, respectively, as well as oprD mutations. From 472 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (93 patients) and 17 isolates from the ICU environment, high genotypic diversity and several international clones were observed; one environment isolate belonged to the blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa epidemic genotype. Among isolates from infections, 10 (29%) were carbapenem resistant: none produced carbapenemases, three exhibited all non-carbapenemase mechanisms studied, six presented a combination of two mechanisms, and one exclusively displayed oprD mutations. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa displayed a polyclonal profile after the SPM-1 epidemic genotype declined. This phenomenon is connected with blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa replaced by other carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lifestyle: A Paradigm for Adaptation, Survival, and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Moradali, M. Fata; Ghods, Shirin; Rehm, Bernd H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa promotes its survival and persistence in various environments and particularly at different stages of pathogenesis. We will review the importance and complexity of regulatory networks and genotypic-phenotypic variations known as adaptive radiation by which P. aeruginosa adjusts physiological processes for adaptation and survival in response to environmental cues and stresses. Accordingly, we will review the central regulatory role of quorum sensing and signaling systems by nucleotide-based second messengers resulting in different lifestyles of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, various regulatory proteins will be discussed which form a plethora of controlling systems acting at transcriptional level for timely expression of genes enabling rapid responses to external stimuli and unfavorable conditions. Antibiotic resistance is a natural trait for P. aeruginosa and multiple mechanisms underlying different forms of antibiotic resistance will be discussed here. The importance of each mechanism in conferring resistance to various antipseudomonal antibiotics and their prevalence in clinical strains will be described. The underlying principles for acquiring resistance leading pan-drug resistant strains will be summarized. A future outlook emphasizes the need for collaborative international multidisciplinary efforts to translate current knowledge into strategies to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections while reducing the rate of antibiotic resistance

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lifestyle: A Paradigm for Adaptation, Survival, and Persistence.

    PubMed

    Moradali, M Fata; Ghods, Shirin; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa promotes its survival and persistence in various environments and particularly at different stages of pathogenesis. We will review the importance and complexity of regulatory networks and genotypic-phenotypic variations known as adaptive radiation by which P. aeruginosa adjusts physiological processes for adaptation and survival in response to environmental cues and stresses. Accordingly, we will review the central regulatory role of quorum sensing and signaling systems by nucleotide-based second messengers resulting in different lifestyles of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, various regulatory proteins will be discussed which form a plethora of controlling systems acting at transcriptional level for timely expression of genes enabling rapid responses to external stimuli and unfavorable conditions. Antibiotic resistance is a natural trait for P. aeruginosa and multiple mechanisms underlying different forms of antibiotic resistance will be discussed here. The importance of each mechanism in conferring resistance to various antipseudomonal antibiotics and their prevalence in clinical strains will be described. The underlying principles for acquiring resistance leading pan-drug resistant strains will be summarized. A future outlook emphasizes the need for collaborative international multidisciplinary efforts to translate current knowledge into strategies to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections while reducing the rate of antibiotic resistance

  1. Alginate Lyase Promotes Diffusion of Aminoglycosides through the Extracellular Polysaccharide of Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Richard A.; Schiller, Neal L.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrated that a 2% suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate completely blocked the diffusion of gentamicin and tobramycin, but not that of carbenicillin, illustrating how alginate production can help protect P. aeruginosa growing within alginate microcolonies in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) from the effects of aminoglycosides. This aminoglycoside diffusion barrier was degraded with a semipurified preparation of P. aeruginosa alginate lyase, suggesting that this enzyme deserves consideration as an adjunctive agent for CF patients colonized by mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa. PMID:9559826

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  4. Strong incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on bacterial rrs and ITS genetic structures of cystic fibrosis sputa

    PubMed Central

    Pages-Monteiro, Laurence; Marti, Romain; Commun, Carine; Alliot, Nolwenn; Bardel, Claire; Meugnier, Helene; Perouse-de-Montclos, Michele; Reix, Philippe; Durieu, Isabelle; Durupt, Stephane; Vandenesch, Francois; Freney, Jean; Cournoyer, Benoit; Doleans-Jordheim, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs harbor a complex community of interacting microbes, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Meta-taxogenomic analysis based on V5-V6 rrs PCR products of 52 P. aeruginosa-positive (Pp) and 52 P. aeruginosa-negative (Pn) pooled DNA extracts from CF sputa suggested positive associations between P. aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas and Prevotella, but negative ones with Haemophilus, Neisseria and Burkholderia. Internal Transcribed Spacer analyses (RISA) from individual DNA extracts identified three significant genetic structures within the CF cohorts, and indicated an impact of P. aeruginosa. RISA clusters Ip and IIIp contained CF sputa with a P. aeruginosa prevalence above 93%, and of 24.2% in cluster IIp. Clusters Ip and IIIp showed lower RISA genetic diversity and richness than IIp. Highly similar cluster IIp RISA profiles were obtained from two patients harboring isolates of a same P. aeruginosa clone, suggesting convergent evolution in the structure of their microbiota. CF patients of cluster IIp had received significantly less antibiotics than patients of clusters Ip and IIIp but harbored the most resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Patients of cluster IIIp were older than those of Ip. The effects of P. aeruginosa on the RISA structures could not be fully dissociated from the above two confounding factors but several trends in these datasets support the conclusion of a strong incidence of P. aeruginosa on the genetic structure of CF lung microbiota. PMID:28282386

  5. Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

    2010-09-01

    The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa CACIAM 03, a Cyanobacterium Isolated from an Amazonian Freshwater Environment

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Wendel Oliveira; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Gonçalves; Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; Baraúna, Anna Rafaella Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Carício; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Given its toxigenic potential, Microcystis aeruginosa is an important bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Here, we present a draft genome and annotation of the strain CACIAM 03, which was isolated from an Amazonian freshwater environment. PMID:27856592

  7. Polydopamine-Mediated Immobilization of Alginate Lyase to Prevent P. aeruginosa Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Alves, Diana; Sileika, Tadas; Messersmith, Phillip B; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2016-09-01

    Given alginate's contribution to Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence, it has long been considered a promising target for interventional therapies, which have been performed by using the enzyme alginate lyase. In this work, instead of treating pre-established mucoid biofilms, alginate lyase is immobilized onto a surface as a preventive measure against P. aeruginosa adhesion. A polydopamine dip-coating strategy is employed for functionalization of polycarbonate surfaces. Enzyme immobilization is confirmed by surface characterization. Surfaces functionalized with alginate lyase exhibit anti-adhesive properties, inhibiting the attachment of the mucoid strain. Moreover, surfaces modified with this enzyme also inhibit the adhesion of the tested non-mucoid strain. Unexpectedly, treatment with heat-inactivated enzyme also inhibits the attachment of mucoid and non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strains. These findings suggest that the antibacterial performance of alginate lyase functional coatings is catalysis-independent, highlighting the importance of further studies to better understand its mechanism of action against P. aeruginosa strains.

  8. Evaluation of flagella and flagellin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Campodónico, Victoria L; Llosa, Nicolás J; Grout, Martha; Döring, Gerd; Maira-Litrán, Tomás; Pier, Gerald B

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious pathogen in hospitalized, immunocompromised, and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa is motile via a single polar flagellum made of polymerized flagellin proteins differentiated into two major serotypes: a and b. Antibodies to flagella delay onset of infection in CF patients, but whether immunity to polymeric flagella and that to monomeric flagellin are comparable has not been addressed, nor has the question of whether such antibodies might negatively impact Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) activation, an important component of innate immunity to P. aeruginosa. We compared immunization with flagella and that with flagellin for in vitro effects on motility, opsonic killing, and protective efficacy using a mouse pneumonia model. Antibodies to flagella were superior to antibodies to flagellin at inhibiting motility, promoting opsonic killing, and mediating protection against P. aeruginosa pneumonia in mice. Protection against the flagellar type strains PAK and PA01 was maximal, but it was only marginal against motile clinical isolates from flagellum-immunized CF patients who nonetheless became colonized with P. aeruginosa. Purified flagellin was a more potent activator of TLR5 than were flagella and also elicited higher TLR5-neutralizing antibodies than did immunization with flagella. Antibody to type a but not type b flagella or flagellin inhibited TLR5 activation by whole bacterial cells. Overall, intact flagella appear to be superior for generating immunity to P. aeruginosa, and flagellin monomers might induce antibodies capable of neutralizing innate immunity due to TLR5 activation, but solid immunity to P. aeruginosa based on flagellar antigens may require additional components beyond type a and type b proteins from prototype strains.

  9. Genetic characterization of Microcystis aeruginosa isolates from Portuguese freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cristiana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are microorganisms that pose a serious threat to the aquatic waterways through the production of dense blooms under eutrophic conditions and the release of toxic secondary metabolites-cyanotoxins. Within cyanobacteria, the colonial planktonic Microcystis aeruginosa is widely distributed in both fresh and brackish aquatic environments throughout the world being frequently observed in the Portuguese water systems. Apart from the well-established distribution of M. aeruginosa in Portugal, knowledge of its genetic diversity and population structure is unknown. Therefore, in this study twenty-seven strains were obtained from the North, Centre and South regions of Portugal and were subjected to extensive phylogenetic analyses using simultaneously four distinct genetic markers (16S rRNA, 16S-23S ITS, DNA gyrase subunit ß and cell division protein (ftsZ)) encompassing in total 2834 bp. With this work we characterized the phylogenetic relationship among the Portuguese strains, with the southern strains showing higher genetic structure relatively to the North and Centre strains. A total of fifteen genotypes were determined for M. aeruginosa in Portuguese water systems revealing a high genetic diversity. This is also the first study to report geographic variation on the population structure of the Portuguese M. aeruginosa.

  10. Oxidation of 1-Tetradecene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Markovetz, A. J.; Klug, M. J.; Forney, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Sol 20 was grown on 1-tetradecene as sole carbon source, and a vinyl-unsaturated 14-carbon monocarboxylic acid, 13-tetradecenoic acid, was identified from culture fluid. This acid was not produced when n-tetradecane served as substrate for growth. Oxidation of the methyl group represents one method of attack on the 1-alkene by this organism. Tentative identification of 2-tetradecanol indicates that an attack on the double bond is also occurring. α, ω-Dienes would not support growth. PMID:4962057

  11. Fast and specific detection of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa from other pseudomonas species by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Jami Al-Ahmadi, G.; Zahmatkesh Roodsari, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important life-threatening nosocomial pathogen that plays a prominent role in wound infections of burned patients. We designed this study to identify the isolates of P. aeruginosa recovered from burned patients at the genus and species level through primers targeting oprI and oprL genes, and analyzed their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Over a 2-month period, wound samples were taken from burned patients and plated on MacConkey agar. All suspected colonies were primarily screened for P. aeruginosa by a combination of phenotypic tests. Molecular identifications of colonies were done using specific primers for oprI and oprL genes. Bacterial isolates were recovered from burn wound infections. Based on phenotypical identification tests, 138 (34%) P. aeruginosa isolates were identified; whereas by molecular techniques, just 128 P. aeruginosa yielded amplicon of oprL gene using species-specific primers, verifying the identity of P. aeruginosa; the others yielded amplicon of oprI gene using genus-specific primers, confirming the identity of fluorescent pseudomonads. This study indicates that molecular detection of P. aeruginosa in burn patients employing the OprL gene target is a useful technique for the early and precise detection of P. aeruginosa. PCR detection should be carried out as well as phenotypic testing for the best aggressive antibiotic treatment of P. aeruginosa strains at an earlier stage. It also has significant benefits on clinical outcomes. PMID:28289359

  12. Network-assisted investigation of virulence and antibiotic-resistance systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Ji, Sun-Gou; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Hanhae; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Ara; Yoon, Sang Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance. Although the genome of PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, has been extensively studied, approximately one-third of the functional genome remains unknown. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic and anti-virulence strategies, which may be facilitated by an approach that explores P. aeruginosa gene function in systems-level models. Here, we present a genome-wide functional network of P. aeruginosa genes, PseudomonasNet, which covers 98% of the coding genome, and a companion web server to generate functional hypotheses using various network-search algorithms. We demonstrate that PseudomonasNet-assisted predictions can effectively identify novel genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, an antibiotic-resistance network based on PseudomonasNet reveals that P. aeruginosa has common modular genetic organisations that confer increased or decreased resistance to diverse antibiotics, which accounts for the pervasiveness of cross-resistance across multiple drugs. The same network also suggests that P. aeruginosa has developed mechanism of trade-off in resistance across drugs by altering genetic interactions. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-scale functional network to investigate pathogenic systems in P. aeruginosa.

  13. Network-assisted investigation of virulence and antibiotic-resistance systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Ji, Sun-Gou; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Hanhae; Yang, Sunmo; Kim, Hye Jin; Cho, Ara; Yoon, Sang Sun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance. Although the genome of PAO1, a prototype strain of P. aeruginosa, has been extensively studied, approximately one-third of the functional genome remains unknown. With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic and anti-virulence strategies, which may be facilitated by an approach that explores P. aeruginosa gene function in systems-level models. Here, we present a genome-wide functional network of P. aeruginosa genes, PseudomonasNet, which covers 98% of the coding genome, and a companion web server to generate functional hypotheses using various network-search algorithms. We demonstrate that PseudomonasNet-assisted predictions can effectively identify novel genes involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance. Moreover, an antibiotic-resistance network based on PseudomonasNet reveals that P. aeruginosa has common modular genetic organisations that confer increased or decreased resistance to diverse antibiotics, which accounts for the pervasiveness of cross-resistance across multiple drugs. The same network also suggests that P. aeruginosa has developed mechanism of trade-off in resistance across drugs by altering genetic interactions. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of a genome-scale functional network to investigate pathogenic systems in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27194047

  14. Interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in predominant biofilm or planktonic forms of existence in mixed culture with Escherichia coli in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Marina V; Maslennikova, Irina L; Karpunina, Tamara I; Nesterova, Larisa Yu; Demakov, Vitaly A

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are known to be involved in mixed communities in diverse niches. In this study we examined the influence of the predominant form of cell existence of and the exometabolite production by P. aeruginosa strains on interspecies interactions, in vitro. Bacterial numbers of P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mixed plankton cultures and biofilms compared with their numbers in single plankton cultures and biofilms changed in a different way, but were in accordance with the form of P. aeruginosa cell existence. The mass of a mixed-species biofilm was greater than the mass of a single-species biofilm. Among the mixed biofilms, the one with the "planktonic" P. aeruginosa strain had the least biomass. The total pyocyanin and pyoverdin levels were found to be lower in all mixed plankton cultures. Despite this, clinical P. aeruginosa strains irrespective of the predominant form of existence ("biofilm" or "planktonic") had a higher total concentration of exometabolites than did the reference strain in 12-24 h mixed cultures. The metabolism of E. coli, according to its bioluminescence, was reduced in mixed cultures, and the decrease was by 20- to 100-fold greater with the clinical Pseudomonas strains than the reference Pseudomonas strain. Thus, both the predominant form of existence of and the exometabolite production by distinct P. aeruginosa strains should be considered to fully understand the interspecies relationship and bacteria survival in natural communities.

  15. Direct measurement of efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using an environment-sensitive fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-01-01

    Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) family pumps AcrB and MexB are the major efflux routes in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Fluorescent environment-sensitive dyes provide a means to study efflux pump function in live bacterial cells in real-time. Recently, we demonstrated the utility of this approach using the dye Nile Red to quantify AcrB-mediated efflux and measured the ability of antibiotics and other efflux pump substrates to compete with efflux of Nile Red, independent of antibacterial activity. Here, we extend this method to P. aeruginosa and describe a novel application that permits the comparison and rank-ordering of bacterial strains by their inherent efflux potential. We show that glucose and l-malate re-energize Nile Red efflux in P. aeruginosa, and we highlight differences in the glucose dependence and kinetics of efflux between P. aeruginosa and E. coli. We quantify the differences in efflux among a set of P. aeruginosa laboratory strains, which include PAO1, the hyper-sensitive strain ATCC 35151 and its parent, ATCC 12055. Efflux of Nile Red in P. aeruginosa is mediated by MexAB-OprM and is slower than in E. coli. In conclusion, we describe an efflux measurement tool for use in antibacterial drug discovery and basic research on P. aeruginosa efflux pumps.

  16. Pyocine typing as an epidemiological marker in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, G.; Mushin, Rose; Tagg, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pyocine typing was used for the characterization of 134 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis. The scheme of Gillies & Govan (1966) was adopted with some modifications, and the procedure gave 89·6% typability. Pyocine type 1 strains were most commonly encountered and were followed in frequency by types 10 and 3. The introduction of two additional indicator strains allowed for division of these types into subtypes. In spite of some limitations, discussed in the paper, the pyocine typing scheme proved to be useful in `marking' P. aeruginosa strains and in following their association with bovine mastitis in various herds. PMID:4996924

  17. Social cheating in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Mitzimberg, Shelby M; Schuster, Martin

    2007-10-02

    In a process termed quorum sensing, bacteria use diffusible chemical signals to coordinate cell density-dependent gene expression. In the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing controls hundreds of genes, many of which encode extracellular virulence factors. Quorum sensing is required for P. aeruginosa virulence in animal models. Curiously, quorum sensing-deficient variants, most of which carry a mutation in the gene encoding the central quorum sensing regulator lasR, are frequently isolated from acute and chronic infections. The mechanism for their emergence is not known. Here we provide experimental evidence suggesting that these lasR mutants are social cheaters that cease production of quorum-controlled factors and take advantage of their production by the group. We detected an emerging subpopulation of lasR mutants after approximately 100 generations of in vitro evolution of the P. aeruginosa wild-type strain under culture conditions that require quorum sensing for growth. Under such conditions, quorum sensing appears to impose a metabolic burden on the proliferating bacterial cell, because quorum-controlled genes not normally induced until cessation of growth were highly expressed early in growth, and a defined lasR mutant showed a growth advantage when cocultured with the parent strain. The emergence of quorum-sensing-deficient variants in certain environments is therefore an indicator of high quorum sensing activity of the bacterial population as a whole. It does not necessarily indicate that quorum sensing is insignificant, as has previously been suggested. Thus, novel antivirulence strategies aimed at disrupting bacterial communication may be particularly effective in such clinical settings.

  18. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-01-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ΔsprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms. PMID:24376018

  19. Subtilase SprP exerts pleiotropic effects in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Alexander; Polen, Tino; Funken, Horst; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Bott, Michael; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2014-02-01

    The open reading frame PA1242 in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a putative protease belonging to the peptidase S8 family of subtilases. The respective enzyme termed SprP consists of an N-terminal signal peptide and a so-called S8 domain linked by a domain of unknown function (DUF). Presumably, this DUF domain defines a discrete class of Pseudomonas proteins as homologous domains can be identified almost exclusively in proteins of the genus Pseudomonas. The sprP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and proteolytic activity was demonstrated. A P. aeruginosa ∆sprP mutant was constructed and its gene expression pattern compared to the wild-type strain by genome microarray analysis revealing altered expression levels of 218 genes. Apparently, SprP is involved in regulation of a variety of different cellular processes in P. aeruginosa including pyoverdine synthesis, denitrification, the formation of cell aggregates, and of biofilms.

  20. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-02-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections.

  1. Microcystins do not necessarily lower the sensitivity of Microcystis aeruginosa to tannic acid.

    PubMed

    Švanys, Algirdas; Eigemann, Falk; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Hilt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Different phytoplankton strains have been shown to possess varying sensitivities towards macrophyte allelochemicals, yet the reasons for this are largely unknown. To test whether microcystin (MC) is responsible for strain-specific sensitivities of Microcystis aeruginosa to macrophyte allelochemicals, we compared the sensitivity of 12 MC- and non-MC-producing M. aeruginosa strains, including an MC-deficient mutant and its wild type, to the polyphenolic allelochemical tannic acid (TA). Non-MC-producing strains showed a significantly higher sensitivity to TA than MC-producing strains, both in Chlorophyll a concentrations and quantum yields of photosystem II. In contrast, an MC-deficient mutant displayed a higher fitness against TA compared to its wild type. These results suggest that the resistance of M. aeruginosa to polyphenolic allelochemicals is not primarily related to MCs per se, but to other yet unknown protective mechanisms related to MCs.

  2. Bacteriophages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: long-term prospects for use in phage therapy.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Victor N

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, being opportunistic pathogens, are the major cause of nosocomial infections and, in some cases, the primary cause of death. They are virtually untreatable with currently known antibiotics. Phage therapy is considered as one of the possible approaches to the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Difficulties in the implementation of phage therapy in medical practice are related, for example, to the insufficient number and diversity of virulent phages that are active against P. aeruginosa. Results of interaction of therapeutic phages with bacteria in different conditions and environments are studied insufficiently. A little is known about possible interactions of therapeutic phages with resident prophages and plasmids in clinical strains in the foci of infections. This chapter highlights the different approaches to solving these problems and possible ways to expand the diversity of therapeutic P. aeruginosa phages and organizational arrangements (as banks of phages) to ensure long-term use of phages in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 resistance to Zinc pyrithione: phenotypic changes suggest the involvement of efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Abdel Malek, Suzanne M; Al-Adham, Ibrahim S; Matalka, Khalid Z; Collier, Philip J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of an efflux pump in the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to zinc pyrithione (ZnPT). In the presence of efflux inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP), the minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnPT for P. aeruginosa resistant cells is reduced significantly (p < 0.05). In addition, the concentration of ZnPT excluded by the resistant bacteria was reduced significantly (p < 0.01). However, the above reductions did not reach the levels measured for P. aeruginosa PAO1 sensitive strain. Furthermore, such changes in P. aeruginosa resistant cells were correlated with the overexpression of outer membrane proteins, reduced sensitivity toward imipenem (p < 0.01) and increased sensitivity toward sulphatriad and chloramphenicol (p < 0.05). In a continuation to a previous study, we conclude that P. aeruginosa resistance to ZnPT is multifactorial and involves induced efflux systems.

  4. [Resistance to antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Colombian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Villa, Lina M; Cortés, Jorge A; Leal, Aura L; Meneses, Andrés; Meléndez, Martha P

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause high morbidity and mortality. We performed a descriptive analysis of the rates of antibiotic resistance in isolates of P. aeruginosa in 33 hospitals enrolled in a surveillance network in Colombia. The study was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009 .9905 isolates of P. aeruginosa were identified, (4.9% of all strains). In intensive care units (ICU) P. aeruginosa showed an overall resistance to aztreonam, cefepime , ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem , and piperacillin / tazobactam of 31.8% , 23.9% , 24.8%, 22.5%, 20.3% and 22.3%, respectively. Resistance rates increased for piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, and imipenem; remained unchanged for meropenem; and decreased for aminoglycosides, quinolones and ceftazidime. Resistance to one, two and three or more families of antibiotics was found in 17%, 12.5%, and 32.1%, respectively. In samples collected from the wards, the resistance rate was lower but usually over 10%. Antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates in hospitalized patients and particularly in those admitted to ICUs in Colombia is high.

  5. Gold-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Swiecicka, Izabela; Wilczewska, Agnieszka Z; Misztalewska, Iwona; Kalska-Szostko, Beata; Bienias, Kamil; Bucki, Robert; Car, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and their derivatives (aminosilane and gold-coated) have been widely investigated in numerous medical applications, including their potential to act as antibacterial drug carriers that may penetrate into bacteria cells and biofilm mass. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent cause of infection in hospitalized patients, and significant numbers of currently isolated clinical strains are resistant to standard antibiotic therapy. Here we describe the impact of three types of SPIONs on the growth of P. aeruginosa during long-term bacterial culture. Their size, structure, and physicochemical properties were determined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We observed significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth in bacterial cultures continued over 96 hours in the presence of gold-functionalized nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄@Au). At the 48-hour time point, growth of P. aeruginosa, as assessed by the number of colonies grown from treated samples, showed the highest inhibition (decreased by 40%). These data provide strong evidence that Fe₃O₄@Au can dramatically reduce growth of P. aeruginosa and provide a platform for further study of the antibacterial activity of this nanomaterial.

  6. Use of a Multiplex Transcript Method for Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Expression Profiles in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Alex H; Willger, Sven D; Dolben, Emily L; Moulton, Lisa A; Dorman, Dana B; Bean, Heather; Hill, Jane E; Hampton, Thomas H; Ashare, Alix; Hogan, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of therapies that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence or that can eradicate chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) will be advanced by an improved understanding of P. aeruginosa behavior in vivo We demonstrate the use of multiplexed Nanostring technology to monitor relative abundances of P. aeruginosa transcripts across clinical isolates, in serial samples, and for the purposes of comparing microbial physiology in vitro and in vivo The expression of 75 transcripts encoded by genes implicated in CF lung disease was measured in a variety of P. aeruginosa strains as well as RNA serial sputum samples from four P. aeruginosa-colonized subjects with CF collected over 6 months. We present data on reproducibility, the results from different methods of normalization, and demonstrate high concordance between transcript relative abundance data obtained by Nanostring or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Furthermore, we address considerations regarding sequence variation between strains during probe design. Analysis of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro identified transcripts that correlated with the different phenotypes commonly observed in CF clinical isolates. P. aeruginosa transcript profiles in RNA from CF sputum indicated alginate production in vivo, and transcripts involved in quorum-sensing regulation were less abundant in sputum than strains grown in the laboratory. P. aeruginosa gene expression patterns from sputum clustered closely together relative to patterns for laboratory-grown cultures; in contrast, laboratory-grown P. aeruginosa showed much greater transcriptional variation with only loose clustering of strains with different phenotypes. The clustering within and between subjects was surprising in light of differences in inhaled antibiotic and respiratory symptoms, suggesting that the pathways represented by these 75 transcripts are stable in chronic CF P. aeruginosa lung infections.

  7. Use of a Multiplex Transcript Method for Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Expression Profiles in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Willger, Sven D.; Dolben, Emily L.; Moulton, Lisa A.; Dorman, Dana B.; Bean, Heather; Hill, Jane E.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Ashare, Alix

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of therapies that modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence or that can eradicate chronic P. aeruginosa lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) will be advanced by an improved understanding of P. aeruginosa behavior in vivo. We demonstrate the use of multiplexed Nanostring technology to monitor relative abundances of P. aeruginosa transcripts across clinical isolates, in serial samples, and for the purposes of comparing microbial physiology in vitro and in vivo. The expression of 75 transcripts encoded by genes implicated in CF lung disease was measured in a variety of P. aeruginosa strains as well as RNA serial sputum samples from four P. aeruginosa-colonized subjects with CF collected over 6 months. We present data on reproducibility, the results from different methods of normalization, and demonstrate high concordance between transcript relative abundance data obtained by Nanostring or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Furthermore, we address considerations regarding sequence variation between strains during probe design. Analysis of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro identified transcripts that correlated with the different phenotypes commonly observed in CF clinical isolates. P. aeruginosa transcript profiles in RNA from CF sputum indicated alginate production in vivo, and transcripts involved in quorum-sensing regulation were less abundant in sputum than strains grown in the laboratory. P. aeruginosa gene expression patterns from sputum clustered closely together relative to patterns for laboratory-grown cultures; in contrast, laboratory-grown P. aeruginosa showed much greater transcriptional variation with only loose clustering of strains with different phenotypes. The clustering within and between subjects was surprising in light of differences in inhaled antibiotic and respiratory symptoms, suggesting that the pathways represented by these 75 transcripts are stable in chronic CF P. aeruginosa lung infections. PMID:27481238

  8. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by Esomeprazole in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vandana; Arora, Vaneet; Alam, M. Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common nosocomial pathogens responsible for biofilm-associated infections. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole, may have novel antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to assess whether esomeprazole prevents sessile bacterial growth and biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic killing effects with standard antibiotics. The antibiofilm activity of esomeprazole at 0.25 mM was tested against two strains each of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Bacterial biofilms were prepared using a commercially available 96-peg-plate Calgary biofilm device. Sessile bacterial CFU counts and biomass were assessed during 72 hours of esomeprazole exposure. The killing activities after an additional 24 hours of vancomycin (against S. aureus) and meropenem (against P. aeruginosa) treatment with or without preexposure to esomeprazole were also assessed by CFU and biomass analyses. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains exposed to esomeprazole displayed decreased sessile bacterial growth and biomass (P < 0.001, each parameter). After 72 h of exposure, there was a 1-log10 decrease in the CFU/ml of esomeprazole-exposed P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains compared to controls (P < 0.001). After 72 h of exposure, measured absorbance was 100% greater in P. aeruginosa control strains than in esomeprazole-exposed strains (P < 0.001). Increased killing and decreased biomass were observed for esomeprazole-treated bacteria compared to untreated controls exposed to conventional antibiotics (P < 0.001, each parameter). Reduced biofilm growth after 24 h was visibly apparent by light micrographs for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates exposed to esomeprazole compared to untreated controls. In conclusion, esomeprazole demonstrated an antibiofilm effect against biofilm-producing S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. PMID:22664967

  9. Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in the nosocomial setting in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Labarca, Jaime A; Salles, Mauro José Costa; Seas, Carlos; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the nosocomial setting in Latin America represents an emerging challenge to public health, as the range of therapeutic agents active against these pathogens becomes increasingly constrained. We review published reports from 2002 to 2013, compiling data from throughout the region on prevalence, mechanisms of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. We find rates of carbapenem resistance up to 66% for P. aeruginosa and as high as 90% for A. baumannii isolates across the different countries of Latin America, with the resistance rate of A. baumannii isolates greater than 50% in many countries. An outbreak of the SPM-1 carbapenemase is a chief cause of resistance in P. aeruginosa strains in Brazil. Elsewhere in Latin America, members of the VIM family are the most important carbapenemases among P. aeruginosa strains. Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in Latin America is predominantly due to the oxacillinases OXA-23, OXA-58 and (in Brazil) OXA-143. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii to colistin remains high, however, development of resistance has already been detected in some countries. Better epidemiological data are needed to design effective infection control interventions.

  10. Insights into Mechanisms and Proteomic Characterisation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adaptation to a Novel Antimicrobial Substance

    PubMed Central

    Cierniak, Peter; Jübner, Martin; Müller, Stefan; Bender, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has been reported since the introduction of synthetic antibiotics. Bacteria, such as one of the most common nosocomial pathogens P. aeruginosa, adapt quickly to changing environmental conditions, due to their short generation time. Thus microevolutional changes can be monitored in situ. In this study, the microevolutional process of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 resistance against a recently developed novel antibacterial zinc Schiff-base (ZSB) was investigated at the proteome level. After extended exposure to ZSB the passaged strain differed in tolerance against ZSB, with the adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 exhibiting 1.6 times higher minimal inhibitory concentration. Using Two-dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis, the changes in the proteome of ZSB adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 were examined by comparison with the non-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1. The proteome of the adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain differed significantly from the non-adapted in the abundance of two proteins when both strains were grown under stressing conditions. One protein could be identified as the outer membrane protein D that plays a role in uptake of basic amino acids as well as in carbapeneme resistance. The second protein has been identified as alkyl peroxide reductase subunit F. Our data indicated a slight increase in abundance of alkyl peroxide reductase F (AhpF) in the case of ZSB passaged P. aeruginosa PAO1. Higher abundance of Ahp has been discussed in the literature as a promoter of accelerated detoxification of benzene derivatives. The observed up-regulated AhpF thus appears to be connected to an increased tolerance against ZSB. Changes in the abundance of proteins connected to oxidative stress were also found after short-time exposure of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to the ZSB. Furthermore, adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed increased tolerance against hydrogen peroxide and, in addition, showed accelerated degradation of ZSB, as determined by HPLC measurements. PMID:23869205

  11. [Hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significance in intensive therapy].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, S V; Gel'fand, E B; Mamontova, O A

    1999-01-01

    The significance of P. aeruginosa as an agent of hospital infections in intensive care departments is determined by high prevalence of this microorganism, its natural and acquired resistance to antibiotics of various groups, and severity of the infection it induces. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is different in different regions. Among the strains isolated in Moscow in intensive care wards for newborns 9% were resistant to meropenem, 10% to amicacine, 15% to imipramine, 16% to cefepime, 37% to ceftasidime, 45% to piperacylline/tasobactam, 45% to ciprofloxacine, and 60% to gentamicin; 1.5% of these strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa impedes the choice of drugs for empirical antibiotic therapy and increases the significance of microbiological diagnosis. Even if an agent is sensitive to such antibiotics as semisynthetic penicillines and aminoglycosides, their use as monotherapy in infections caused by P. aeruginosa is ineffective. Carbapenemes, III- IV generations cefalosporines, and fluoroquinolones can be used as mono therapy.

  12. Full Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Requires OprF▿

    PubMed Central

    Fito-Boncompte, Laurène; Chapalain, Annelise; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Chaker, Hichem; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Gicquel, Gwendoline; Bazire, Alexis; Madi, Amar; Connil, Nathalie; Véron, Wilfried; Taupin, Laure; Toussaint, Bertrand; Cornelis, Pierre; Wei, Qing; Shioya, Koki; Déziel, Eric; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Orange, Nicole; Dufour, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    OprF is a general outer membrane porin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a well-known human opportunistic pathogen associated with severe hospital-acquired sepsis and chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients. A multiphenotypic approach, based on the comparative study of a wild-type strain of P. aeruginosa, its isogenic oprF mutant, and an oprF-complemented strain, showed that OprF is required for P. aeruginosa virulence. The absence of OprF results in impaired adhesion to animal cells, secretion of ExoT and ExoS toxins through the type III secretion system (T3SS), and production of the quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors pyocyanin, elastase, lectin PA-1L, and exotoxin A. Accordingly, in the oprF mutant, production of the signal molecules N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone was found to be reduced and delayed, respectively. Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) production was decreased, while its precursor, 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), accumulated in the cells. Taken together, these results show the involvement of OprF in P. aeruginosa virulence, at least partly through modulation of the quorum-sensing network. This is the first study showing a link between OprF, PQS synthesis, T3SS, and virulence factor production, providing novel insights into virulence expression. PMID:21189321

  13. SERS detection of the biomarker hydrogen cyanide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures isolated from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Sommer, Lea M.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren; Jelsbak, Lars; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Boisen, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary cause of chronic airway infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Persistent infections are seen from the first P. aeruginosa culture in about 75% of young CF patients, and it is important to discover new ways to detect P. aeruginosa at an earlier stage. The P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) contains a triple bond, which is utilized in this study because of the resulting characteristic C≡N peak at 2135 cm−1 in a Raman spectrum. The Raman signal was enhanced by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on a Au-coated SERS substrate. After long-term infection, a mutation in the patho-adaptive lasR gene can alter the expression of HCN, which is why it is sometimes not possible to detect HCN in the breath of chronically infected patients. Four P. aeruginosa reference strains and 12 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from CF children were evaluated, and HCN was clearly detected from overnight cultures of all wild type-like isolates and half of the later isolates from the same patients. The clinical impact could be that P. aeruginosa infections could be detected at an earlier stage, because daily breath sampling with an immediate output could be possible with a point-of-care SERS device. PMID:28349938

  14. Dissemination of high-risk clones of extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in colombia.

    PubMed

    Correa, Adriana; Del Campo, Rosa; Perenguez, Marcela; Blanco, Victor M; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Perez, Federico; Maya, Juan J; Rojas, Laura; Cantón, Rafael; Arias, Cesar A; Villegas, Maria V

    2015-04-01

    The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to develop resistance to most antimicrobials represents an important clinical threat worldwide. We report the dissemination in several Colombian hospitals of two predominant lineages of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains. These lineages belong to the high-risk clones sequence type 111 (ST111) and ST235 and harbor blaVIM-2 on a class 1 integron and blaKPC-2 on a Tn4401 transposon, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ST1492, a novel single-locus variant of ST111, was identified. Clonal dissemination and the presence of mobile genetic elements likely explain the successful spread of XDR P. aeruginosa strains in Colombia.

  15. Mechanisms responsible for the emergence of carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Meletis, G; Exindari, M; Vavatsi, N; Sofianou, D; Diza, E

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a range of nosocomial infections. This microorganism is noted for its intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and for its ability to acquire genes encoding resistance determinants. Among the beta-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems with antipseudomonal activity are important agents for the therapy of infections due to P. aeruginosa. The development of carbapenem resistance among P. aeruginosa strains is multifactorial. Plasmid or integron-mediated carbapenemases, increased expression of efflux systems, reduced porin expression and increased chromosomal cephalosporinase activity have all been defined as contributory factors. Phenotypic tests and molecular techniques are used for the characterization of the resistance determinants. The isolation of carbapenem resistant strains is alarming and requires the implementation of strict infection control measures in order to prevent the spread of carbapenemase encoding genes to unrelated clones or to other bacterial species. PMID:23935307

  16. Dissemination of High-Risk Clones of Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Rosa; Perenguez, Marcela; Blanco, Victor M.; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Perez, Federico; Maya, Juan J.; Rojas, Laura; Cantón, Rafael; Arias, Cesar A.; Villegas, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to develop resistance to most antimicrobials represents an important clinical threat worldwide. We report the dissemination in several Colombian hospitals of two predominant lineages of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains. These lineages belong to the high-risk clones sequence type 111 (ST111) and ST235 and harbor blaVIM-2 on a class 1 integron and blaKPC-2 on a Tn4401 transposon, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ST1492, a novel single-locus variant of ST111, was identified. Clonal dissemination and the presence of mobile genetic elements likely explain the successful spread of XDR P. aeruginosa strains in Colombia. PMID:25605362

  17. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  18. Iron Depletion Enhances Production of Antimicrobials by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; Jones, Jace W.; Ruge, Max A.; Kane, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a heritable disease characterized by chronic, polymicrobial lung infections. While Staphylococcus aureus is the dominant lung pathogen in young CF patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa becomes predominant by adulthood. P. aeruginosa produces a variety of antimicrobials that likely contribute to this shift in microbial populations. In particular, secretion of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones (AQs) contributes to lysis of S. aureus in coculture, providing an iron source to P. aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. We previously showed that production of one such AQ, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), is enhanced by iron depletion and that this induction is dependent upon the iron-responsive PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs). Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial activity against S. aureus during coculture is also enhanced by iron depletion, and we provide evidence that multiple AQs contribute to this activity. Strikingly, a P. aeruginosa ΔprrF mutant, which produces very little PQS in monoculture, was capable of mediating iron-regulated growth suppression of S. aureus. We show that the presence of S. aureus suppresses the ΔprrF1,2 mutant's defect in iron-regulated PQS production, indicating that a PrrF-independent iron regulatory pathway mediates AQ production in coculture. We further demonstrate that iron-regulated antimicrobial production is conserved in multiple P. aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from CF patients. These results demonstrate that iron plays a central role in modulating interactions of P. aeruginosa with S. aureus. Moreover, our studies suggest that established iron regulatory pathways of these pathogens are significantly altered during polymicrobial infections. IMPORTANCE Chronic polymicrobial infections involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, as the interplay between these two organisms exacerbates infection. This is in part due to enhanced

  19. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sujeet Kumar; Jain, Harsh; Tripathy, Laxmi Narayan; Basu, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:27891039

  20. Characterization of Virulence Potential of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Bovine Meat, Fresh Fish, and Smoked Fish

    PubMed Central

    Benie, Comoé Koffi Donatien; Dadié, Adjéhi; Guessennd, Nathalie; N’gbesso-Kouadio, Nadège Ahou; Kouame, N’zebo Désiré; N’golo, David Coulibaly; Aka, Solange; Dako, Etienne; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Dosso, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa owns a variability of virulence factors. These factors can increase bacterial pathogenicity and infection severity. Despite the importance of knowledge about them, these factors are not more characterized at level of strains derived from local food products. This study aimed to characterize the virulence potential of P. aeruginosa isolated from various animal products. Several structural and virulence genes of P. aeruginosa including lasB, exoS, algD, plcH, pilB, exoU, and nan1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 204 strains of P. aeruginosa. They were isolated from bovine meat (122), fresh fish (49), and smoked fish (33). The 16S rRNA gene was detected on 91.1% of the presumptive strains as Pseudomonas. The rpoB gene showed that 99.5% of the strains were P. aeruginosa. The lasB gene (89.2%) was the most frequently detected (p < 0.05). In decreasing importance order, exoS (86.8%), algD (72.1%), plcH (72.1%), pilB (40.2%), and exoU (2.5%) were detected. The lasB gene was detected in all strains of P. aeruginosa serogroups O11 and O16. The prevalence of algD, exoS, and exoU genes in these strains varied from 51.2% to 87.4%. The simultaneous determination of serogroups and virulence factors is of interest for the efficacy of surveillance of infections associated with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28386471

  1. Antibiotic Tolerance Induced by Lactoferrin in Clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Andrés, María T.; Viejo-Diaz, Mónica; Pérez, Francisco; Fierro, José F.

    2005-01-01

    Lactoferrin-induced cell depolarization and a delayed tobramycin-killing effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells were correlated. This antibiotic tolerance effect (ATE) reflects the ability of a defense protein to modify the activity of an antibiotic as a result of its modulatory effect on bacterial physiology. P. aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients showed higher ATE values (≤6-fold) than other clinical strains. PMID:15793153

  2. Resistance to pefloxacin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Michea-Hamzehpour, M; Lucain, C; Pechere, J C

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of resistance to pefloxacin were investigated in four isogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains: S (parent isolate; MIC, 2 micrograms/ml), PT1 and PT2 (posttherapy isolates obtained in animals; MICs, 32 and 128 micrograms/ml, respectively), and PT2-r (posttherapy isolate obtained after six in vitro subpassages of PT2; MIC, 32 micrograms/ml). [2-3H]adenine incorporation (indirect evidence of DNA gyrase activity) in EDTA-permeabilized cells was less affected by pefloxacin in PT2 and PT2-r (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.27 and 0.26 microgram/ml, respectively) than it was in S and PT1 (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.04 and 0.05 microgram/ml, respectively). Reduced [14C]pefloxacin labeling of intact cells in strains PT1 and PT2 correlated with more susceptibility to EDTA and the presence of more calcium (P less than 0.05) and phosphorus in the outer membrane fractions. Outer membrane protein analysis showed reduced expression of protein D2 (47 kDa) in strains PT1 and PT2. Other proteins were apparently similar in all strains. The addition of calcium chloride (2 mM) to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized samples of outer membrane proteins, before heating and Western blotting, probed with monoclonal antibody anti-OmpF showed electrophoretic mobility changes of OmpF in strains PT1 and PT2 which were not seen in strain S. Calcium-induced changes were reversed with ethyleneglycoltetraacetate. Decreased [14C]pefloxacin labeling was further correlated with an altered lipopolysaccharide pattern and increased 3-deoxy-D-mannooctulosonic acid concentration (P less than 0.01). These findings suggested that resistance to pefloxacin is associated with altered DNA gyrase in strain PT2-r, with altered permeability in PT1, and with both mechanisms in PT2. The decreased expression of protein D2 and the higher calcium and lipopolysaccharide contents of the outer membrane could be responsible for the permeability deficiency in P. aeruginosa. Images PMID:1645509

  3. Functional Characterization of Triclosan-Resistant Enoyl-acyl-carrier Protein Reductase (FabV) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Lin, Jin-Shui; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR), FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholerae fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P. aeruginosa to be extremely resistant to triclosan. Moreover, fabV exhibits pleiotropic effects. Deletion of fabV led P. aeruginosa to show attenuated swarming motility, decreased rhamnolipid, pyoverdine and acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) production. Complementation of the fabV mutant with any one ENR encoding gene could restore these features to some extent, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that addition of exogenous AHLs could restore the fabV mutant strain to swarm on semisolid plates and to produce more virulence factors than the fabV mutant strain. These findings indicate that deletion of fabV reduced the activity of ENR in P. aeruginosa, decreased fatty acid synthesis, and subsequently depressed the production of AHLs and other virulence factors, which finally may led to a reduction in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. Therefore, fabV should be an ideal target for the control of P. aeruginosa infectivity. PMID:27965638

  4. Clonal Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase SHV-2a

    PubMed Central

    Jeannot, Katy; Fournier, Damien; Müller, Emeline; Cholley, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    From January to December 2011, 24 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing the extended-spectrum β-lactamase SHV-2a were identified in 13 hospitals in France. With one exception, all the strains belonged to the same clone. Double-disk synergy tests with cefepime and clavulanate were able to detect all the SHV-2a-positive isolates. PMID:23241379

  5. Clonal dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase SHV-2a.

    PubMed

    Jeannot, Katy; Fournier, Damien; Müller, Emeline; Cholley, Pascal; Plésiat, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    From January to December 2011, 24 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing the extended-spectrum β-lactamase SHV-2a were identified in 13 hospitals in France. With one exception, all the strains belonged to the same clone. Double-disk synergy tests with cefepime and clavulanate were able to detect all the SHV-2a-positive isolates.

  6. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy to inhibit pseudomonas aeruginosa of corneal isolates (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkee, Heather A.; Relhan, Nidhi; Arboleda, Alejandro; Halili, Francisco; De Freitas, Carolina; Alawa, Karam; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Amescua, Guillermo; Miller, Darlene; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Keratitis associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is difficult to manage. Treatment includes antibiotic eye drops, however, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are resistant. Current research efforts are focused on finding alternative and adjunct therapies to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. One promising alternate technique is photodynamic therapy (PDT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of riboflavin- and rose bengal-mediated PDT on Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis isolates in vitro. Two isolates (S+U- and S-U+) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were derived from keratitis patients and exposed to five experimental groups: (1) Control (dark, UV-A irradiation, 525nm irradiation); (2) 0.1% riboflavin (dark, UV-A irradiation); and (3) 0.1% rose bengal, (4) 0.05% rose bengal and (5) 0.01% rose bengal (dark, 525nm irradiation). Three days after treatment, in dark conditions of all concentration of riboflavin and rose bengal showed no inhibition in both S+U- and S-U+ strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In 0.1% and 0.05% rose bengal irradiated groups, for both S+U- and S-U+ strains, there was complete inhibition of bacterial growth in the central 50mm zone corresponding to the diameter of the green light source. These in vitro results suggest that rose bengal photodynamic therapy may be an effective adjunct treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.

  7. Honey as an Antimicrobial Agent Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vishnu Prasad; Ballal, Mamatha; Shivananda, PG; Bairy, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Background: As natural products garner attention in the medical field due to emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, honey is valued for its antibacterial activity. Objective: Fifty strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds were evaluated for their antibacterial action using honey in comparison with different antibiotics and Dettol. Methodology and Results: All the strains were found to be sensitive to honey at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20% in comparison with Dettol at 10% using agar dilution method. In the second step, the time kill assay was performed on five isolates of P. aeruginosa to demonstrate the bactericidal activity of honey at different dilutions of honey ranging from 20% to 100% at regular time intervals. All the isolates of P. aeruginosa tested were killed in 12-24 h depending on the dilutions of the honey tested. Thus, honey could prevent the growth of P. aeruginosa even if it was diluted by deionized water by fivefolds in vitro. Honey had almost uniform bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa irrespective of their susceptibility to different classes of antibiotics. Conclusion: Honey which is a natural, non-toxic, and an inexpensive product has activity against the P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds may make it an alternative topical choice in the treatment of wound infections. PMID:22754244

  8. Modulation of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bayroodi, Elnaz; Jalal, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a widespread public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the antibacterial activity of several conventional antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: ZnO NPs were prepared by solvothermal method and dispersed in glycerol with the help of ammonium citrate as a dispersant. The antibacterial effects of the resulting ZnO nanofluid, ceftazidime, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin were investigated against two P. aeruginosa strains, including one clinical isolate and P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 using microdilution method. For the evaluation of the combined effect of ZnO nanofluid and antibiotics, the fractional inhibitory concentration indices were calculated and isobolograms were plotted. Results: Clinical strain in comparison to standard strain of P. aeruginosa showed more resistance to ZnO nanofluid and the antibiotics. ZnO nanofluid acted synergistically with ceftazidime and tobramycin against both strains. Combination of ZnO nanofluid and ciprofloxacin displayed synergistic and partial synergistic activity against clinical and standard strains of P. aeruginosa, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that bacterial resistance to antimicrobials could be reduced by the synergistic action of ZnO NPs. PMID:27307973

  9. Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, Gail M.; Balzer, Grant J.; Heydorn, Arne; Molin, Søren; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2001-01-01

    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them is at the present unclear. In this study, we report that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development on an abiotic surface. Biofilms formed by an alginate-overproducing strain exhibit a highly structured architecture and are significantly more resistant to the antibiotic tobramycin than a biofilm formed by an isogenic nonmucoid strain. These results suggest that an important consequence of the conversion to mucoidy is an altered biofilm architecture that shows increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatments. PMID:11514525

  10. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae for measuring the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of antibiotic therapies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lucy; Veli, Neyme; Coote, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Galleria mellonella larvae can be used (i) as an in vivo infection model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and (ii) for evaluating the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of antipseudomonal antibiotics. Two strains of P. aeruginosa were employed, NCTC 10662 (antibiotic-susceptible) and NCTC 13437 (multidrug-resistant). Larvae were infected with increasing doses of either P. aeruginosa strain to investigate the effect of inoculum size on survival. Subsequently, infected larvae were treated with a range of antibiotics to examine whether these agents were effective against P. aeruginosa infection in vivo and whether the efficacy of these drugs matched the known susceptibilities of each bacterial strain. Larval burden of P. aeruginosa was also determined after infection and treatment with cefotaxime. Pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics tested were measured using a well diffusion assay to determine the concentration of antibiotics in larval haemolymph over time. Galleria mellonella larvae were sensitive to P. aeruginosa infection, and increasing inoculum doses of live cells resulted in greater larval mortality. Heat-killed bacteria had no detrimental effect on survival. Antibiotic efficacy against P. aeruginosa-infected G. mellonella correlated with the measured in vitro sensitivities of the two strains tested. The therapeutic benefit arising from administration of cefotaxime correlated with a reduced burden of bacteria present in the haemolymph. There was a clear correlation between measured antibiotic pharmacokinetics and the therapeutic effect. This study strongly supports future application of the G. mellonella infection model to initial studies of novel antipseudomonal treatments.

  11. Impact of alginate-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    McCaslin, Charles A; Petrusca, Daniela N; Poirier, Christophe; Serban, Karina A; Anderson, Gregory G; Petrache, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa strains that exhibit reduced virulence impair macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells and we investigated if the polysaccharide alginate produced by mucoid P. aeruginosa is sufficient to inhibit alveolar macrophage efferocytosis. Rat alveolar or human peripheral blood monocyte (THP-1)-derived macrophage cell lines were exposed in vitro to exogenous alginate or to wild type or alginate-overproducing mucoid P. aeruginosa prior to challenge with apoptotic human Jurkat T-lymphocytes. The importance of LPS contamination and that of structural integrity of alginate polymers was tested using alginate of different purities and alginate lyase, respectively. Alginate inhibited alveolar macrophage efferocytosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was augmented but not exclusively attributed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in alginates. Alginate-producing P. aeruginosa inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by more than 50%. A mannuronic-specific alginate lyase did not restore efferocytosis inhibited by exogenous guluronic-rich marine alginate, but had a marked beneficial effect on efferocytosis of alveolar macrophages exposed to mucoid P. aeruginosa. Despite decreased virulence, mucoid P. aeruginosa may contribute to chronic airway inflammation through significant inhibition of alveolar clearance of apoptotic cells and debris. The mechanism by which mucoid bacteria inhibit efferocytosis may involve alginate

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical and environmental isolates constitute a single population with high phenotypic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with a high incidence of hospital infections that represents a threat to immune compromised patients. Genomic studies have shown that, in contrast to other pathogenic bacteria, clinical and environmental isolates do not show particular genomic differences. In addition, genetic variability of all the P. aeruginosa strains whose genomes have been sequenced is extremely low. This low genomic variability might be explained if clinical strains constitute a subpopulation of this bacterial species present in environments that are close to human populations, which preferentially produce virulence associated traits. Results In this work, we sequenced the genomes and performed phenotypic descriptions for four non-human P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a plant, the ocean, a water-spring, and from dolphin stomach. We show that the four strains are phenotypically diverse and that this is not reflected in genomic variability, since their genomes are almost identical. Furthermore, we performed a detailed comparative genomic analysis of the four strains studied in this work with the thirteen previously reported P. aeruginosa genomes by means of describing their core and pan-genomes. Conclusions Contrary to what has been described for other bacteria we have found that the P. aeruginosa core genome is constituted by a high proportion of genes and that its pan-genome is thus relatively small. Considering the high degree of genomic conservation between isolates of P. aeruginosa from diverse environments, including human tissues, some implications for the treatment of infections are discussed. This work also represents a methodological contribution for the genomic study of P. aeruginosa, since we provide a database of the comparison of all the proteins encoded by the seventeen strains analyzed. PMID:24773920

  13. Heterogeneity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Brazilian Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, Suzane; Barth, Afonso Luis; Sader, Hélio S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and genomic variability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients being treated at a university hospital in Brazil. Ninety-seven isolates of P. aeruginosa from 43 CF patients were characterized by macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution. It was possible to evaluate single isolates from 20 patients and multiple isolates (two to seven) from 23 patients collected during a 22-month period. Among all of the unrelated patients, we detected only one pair of patients sharing a common strain. Among the 77 isolates from 23 patients who had multiple isolates analyzed, we identified 37 major types by PFGE, and five different colonization patterns were recognized. The isolates were susceptible to several antimicrobial agents, although consecutive isolates from the same patient may display differences in their susceptibilities. Mucoid isolates were more resistant (P < 0.001) than nonmucoid isolates to five antibiotics. Our results indicate that CF patients remain colonized by more than one strain of P. aeruginosa for long periods of time. In addition, the finding of several different genotypes in the same patient suggests that the colonizing strain may occasionally be replaced. PMID:11682517

  14. Use of the paraffin wax baiting system for identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Massengale, A R; Ollar, R A; Giordano, S J; Felder, M S; Aronoff, S C

    1999-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the primary pathogen among the Pseudomonads and is known for its minimal nutritional requirements, capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source, and biofilm formation. Because the ability of Pseudomonads to grow on paraffin is not commonly found among human pathogens and the primary Pseudomonas human pathogen is P. aeruginosa, we studied the adaptation of the paraffin baiting system for the growth and identification of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. We also studied the effectiveness of combining a fluorescence assay measuring fluorescein (pyoverdin) production and oxidase test with the paraffin baiting assay for P. aeruginosa speciation. Strains were tested for the capacity to use paraffin as a sole carbon source using the paraffin baiting system with Czapek's minimal salt medium. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested for using paraffin as a sole carbon source, 45% exhibited growth on paraffin at 24 h and 76.6% exhibited growth on paraffin at 48 h. The ability of the reference strains and clinical isolates were then tested for their ability to associate with the paraffin slide in the presence of an additional carbon source. Of 111 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested, 85 strains (76.6%), and 102 (93%) were associated with the paraffin surface at 24 and 48 h. We successfully combined fluorescence and oxidase assays with the paraffin baiting system for identification of P. aeruginosa. The simple and inexpensive paraffin baiting system is a useful method for the identification and study of P. aeruginosa suitable for both the clinical and research laboratory.

  15. Wheat Bran Enhances the Cytotoxicity of Immobilized Alcaligenes aquatilis F8 against Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Ximing; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Algicidal bacteria offer a promising option for killing cyanobacteria. Therefore, a new Alcaligenes aquatilis strain F8 was isolated to control Microcystis aeruginosa in this study. The algicidal activity of strain F8 was dependent on the cell density of M. aeruginosa, and the maximal algicidal rate of the free bacterium reached 88.45% within 72 h. With a view to its application to the control of M. aeruginosa in the natural environment, strain F8 was immobilized in sodium alginate beads, but immobilization of the strain decreased its algicidal rate compared to that of the free bacterium. However, addition of wheat bran to the sodium alginate matrix used to immobilize strain F8 not only eliminated the adverse effects of immobilization on the bacteria but also resulted in an 8.83% higher algicidal rate of the immobilized than free bacteria. Exclusion and recovery methods were used to identify key ingredients of wheat bran and gain insight into the mechanism underlying the observed enhancement of algicidal activity. This analysis indicated that certain factors in wheat bran, including vitamins B1, B2, B9, and E were responsible for promoting bacterial growth and thereby improving the algicidal rate of immobilized strain F8. Our findings indicate that wheat bran is able to improve the algicidal efficiency of A. aquatilis strain F8 for killing M. aeruginosa and is a good source of not only carbon and nitrogen but also vitamins for bacteria. PMID:26295573

  16. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cockroaches Captured in hospitals in Japan, and their antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Kawakami, Yasushi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2009-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from 45 of 370 (12.2%) cockroaches captured in hospitals. By cockroach species, the bacterial strains were isolated from 39 of 181 (21.5%) Periplaneta fuliginosa and 6 of 183 (3.3%) Blattella germanica, showing a significant difference (p<0.01). Many P. aeruginosa-carrying cockroaches inhabited locker rooms (66.7%) and kitchens (17.8%). In terms of serotyping, many isolates were typed into groups A, G, and B. In drug sensitivity tests, strains showed the highest sensitivity to ciprofloxacin with an MIC90 of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by 2 microg/ml meropenem, and 4 microg/ml ceftazidime, gentamicin, and ofloxacin. In contrast, many strains were resistant to cefotaxime and minocycline, accounting for 86.7% of all resistant strains. However, there was no multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strain, and all strains were negative for the metallo-beta-lactamase gene (IMP-1 and VIM-2). These findings suggested that cockroach-derived P. aeruginosa may contaminate hospital environments, for which the control of disease-carrying insects in hospitals is important.

  17. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic, kojic and picolinic acids

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Kübra; Ulusoy, Seyhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The inhibitory effects of iron chelators, and FeCl3 chelation on biofilm formation and swarming motility were investigated against an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activity of 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic acid, kojic acid and picolinic acid on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and three clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAK01, P. aeruginosa PAK02 and P. aeruginosa PAK03) were investigated, based on crystal violet assay, and swarming motility test. Results: The kojic, lipoic and picolinic acid inhibited biofilm formation by 5-33% in all tested P. aeruginosa isolates. When chelated iron was added, biofilm inhibition rates were determined to be 39-57%. Among the tested chelators against P. aeruginosa, lipoic acid (84%) and kojic acid (68%) presented the highest inhibition of swarming motility. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: It is considered that lipoic and picolinic acids can serve as alternatives for the treatment of the P. aeruginosa infections by inhibiting biofilm formation. PMID:26557964

  18. Genotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches and human urine.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    Molecular-epidemiological analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches captured in hospitals and from patient urine was performed, employing randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis to investigate the usefulness of RAPD analysis. Four specific bands at positions of 993, 875, 521, and 402 bp were commonly detected using primer 272 in 16 of 45 cockroach-derived strains (35.6%), but not in 21 urine-derived strains. On analysis using primer 208, 4 specific bands at positions of 1,235, 1,138, 1,068, and 303 bp were commonly detected in 15 of the 45 cockroach-derived (33.3%) and 10 of the 21 patient urine-derived (47.6%) strains, in a total of 25 of 66 strains (37.8%). On cluster analysis, 12 (48.5%) and 16 (66.7%) clusters were grouped based on a homology of 89% or greater, using primer 272 and primer 208, respectively, showing that primer 208 was suitable for the confirmation of diversity. Seven patterns were clustered based on 100% homology using either primer, and 6 of these consisted of only cockroach-derived strains. In the individual groups with 100% homology, all strains in the group were isolated at an identical site during the same period. P. aeruginosa isolated from cockroaches showed diverse genotypes suggesting several sources of contamination, indicating the necessity for investigating infection control targeting cockroaches inhabiting hospitals.

  19. Annona glabra Flavonoids Act As Antimicrobials by Binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Stanley de S. L.; Monteiro, Andrea de S.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q.; Dias-Souza, Marcus Vinícius; Ferreira, Gabriella F.; Denadai, Angelo Márcio L.; Santos, Áquila R. C.; Lúcia dos Santos, Vera; de Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important pathogen in opportunistic infections in humans. The increased incidence of antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates has highlighted the need for novel and more potent therapies against this microorganism. Annona glabra is known for presenting different compounds with diverse biological activities, such as anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. Although other species of the family display antimicrobial actions, this has not yet been reported for A. glabra. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) obtained from the leaf hydroalcoholic extract of A. glabra. EAF was bactericidal against different strains of P. aeruginosa. EAF also presented with a time- and concentration-dependent effect on P. aeruginosa viability. Testing of different EAF sub-fractions showed that the sub-fraction 32-33 (SF32-33) was the most effective against P. aeruginosa. Analysis of the chemical constituents of SF32-33 demonstrated a high content of flavonoids. Incubation of this active sub-fraction with P. aeruginosa ATCC 27983 triggered an endothermic reaction, which was accompanied by an increased electric charge, suggesting a high binding of SF32-33 compounds to bacterial cell walls. Collectively, our results suggest that A. glabra-derived compounds, especially flavonoids, may be useful for treating infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:28066374

  20. Efficacy of the Novel Antibiotic POL7001 in Preclinical Models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Cigana, Cristina; Bernardini, Francesca; Facchini, Marcella; Alcalá-Franco, Beatriz; Riva, Camilla; De Fino, Ida; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; Misson, Pauline; Chevalier, Eric; Brodmann, Maj; Schmitt, Michel; Wach, Achim; Dale, Glenn E.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical development of antibiotics with a new mode of action combined with efficient pulmonary drug delivery is a priority against untreatable Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. POL7001 is a macrocycle antibiotic belonging to the novel class of protein epitope mimetic (PEM) molecules with selective and potent activity against P. aeruginosa. We investigated ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and cystic fibrosis (CF) as indications of the clinical potential of POL7001 to treat P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections. MICs of POL7001 and comparators were measured for reference and clinical P. aeruginosa strains. The therapeutic efficacy of POL7001 given by pulmonary administration was evaluated in murine models of P. aeruginosa acute and chronic pneumonia. POL7001 showed potent in vitro activity against a large panel of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF patients, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates with adaptive phenotypes such as mucoid or hypermutable phenotypes. The efficacy of POL7001 was demonstrated in both wild-type and CF mice. In addition to a reduced bacterial burden in the lung, POL7001-treated mice showed progressive body weight recovery and reduced levels of inflammatory markers, indicating an improvement in general condition. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that POL7001 reached significant concentrations in the lung after pulmonary administration, with low systemic exposure. These results support the further evaluation of POL7001 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections. PMID:27297477

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Chemical Compound that Inhibits Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Robles, Sara; Hu, Yanmei; Resto, Tahyra; Dean, Frank; Bullard, James M

    2017-03-30

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen problematic in causing nosocomial infections and is highly susceptible to development of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The gene encoding methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) from P. aeruginosa was cloned and the resulting protein characterized. MetRS was kinetically evaluated and the KM for its three substrates, methionine, ATP and tRNAMet were determined to be 35, 515, and 29 μM, respectively. P. aeruginosa MetRS was used to screen two chemical compound libraries (1690) and a natural product compound was identified that inhibited the aminoacylation function. The compound inhibited P. aeruginosa MetRS with an IC50 of 70 μM. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was determined against nine clinically relevant bacterial strains, including efflux pump mutants and hypersensitive strains of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The compound displayed broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity. The MIC against the hypersensitive strain of P. aeruginosa was 16 μg/ml. However, the compound was not effective against the wild-type and efflux pump mutant strains, indicating that efflux may not be responsible for the lack of activity against the wild-type strains. When tested in human cell cultures, the cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) was observed to be 30 μg/ml. The compound did not compete with methionine or ATP for binding MetRS, indicating that the mechanism of action of the compound likely occurs outside the active site of aminoacylation.

  2. Comparative analysis of the volatile metabolomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Bean, Heather D; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E

    2016-11-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nearly ubiquitous Gram-negative organism, well known to occupy a multitude of environmental niches and cause human infections at a variety of bodily sites, due to its metabolic flexibility, secondary to extensive genetic heterogeneity at the species level. Because of its dynamic metabolism and clinical importance, we sought to perform a comparative analysis on the volatile metabolome (the 'volatilome') produced by P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. In this study, we analyzed the headspace volatile molecules of 24 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates grown in vitro, using 2D gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC  ×  GC-TOFMS). We identified 391 non-redundant compounds that we associate with the growth and metabolism of P. aeruginosa (the 'pan-volatilome'). Of these, 70 were produced by all 24 isolates (the 'core volatilome'), 52 by only a single isolate, and the remaining 269 volatile molecules by a subset. Sixty-five of the detected compounds could be assigned putative compound identifications, of which 43 had not previously been associated with P. aeruginosa. Using the accessory volatile molecules, we determined the inter-strain variation in the metabolomes of these isolates, clustering strains by their metabotypes. Assessing the extent of metabolomic diversity in P. aeruginosa through an analysis of the volatile molecules that it produces is a critical next step in the identification of novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers.

  3. Molecular detection of virulence genes as markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Neha; Dhall, Shriya; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2014-01-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections by P. aeruginosa are related to variety of complications. Quorum sensing and related circuitry guard its virulence potential. Though P. aeruginosa accounts for an appreciable amount of virulence factors, this organism is highly unstable phenotypically. Thus, genotyping of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is of utmost importance for understanding the epidemiology of infection. This may contribute towards development of immunotherapeutic approaches against this multi drug resistant pathogen. Moreover, no epidemiological study has been reported yet on uroisolates of P. aeruginosa. Thus this study was planned to obtain information regarding presence, distribution and rate of occurrence of quorum sensing and some associated virulence genes at genetic level. The profiling of quorum sensing genes lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and virulence genes like toxA, aprA, rhlAB, plcH, lasB and fliC of twelve strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with UTIs was done by direct PCR. The results showed variable distribution of quorum sensing genes and virulence genes. Their percentage occurrence may be specifically associated with different levels of intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity in urinary tract. Such information can help in identifying these virulence genes as useful diagnostic markers for clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from UTIs.

  4. Bactericidal and synergistic activity of moxalactam alone and in combination with gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P K; Edson, R S; Washington, J A; Hermans, P E

    1983-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of moxalactam, alone and in combination with gentamicin, was studied with macrobroth two-dimensional checkerboard and killing curve techniques against gentamicin-resistant and -susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moxalactam was bactericidal at concentrations equal to or at least two to four times its inhibitory concentrations. Synergy at clinically applicable concentrations of moxalactam and gentamicin occurred with 6 of 14 gentamicin-resistant strains and 4 of 4 gentamicin-susceptible strains by the checkerboard technique and with 7 of 14 gentamicin-resistant strains by the killing curve technique. Synergy between moxalactam and gentamicin against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa is unpredictable and strain- and method-dependent. PMID:6219619

  5. Lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid as potential quorum sensing inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gökalsın, Barış; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease and it affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Cystic Fibrosis are presented as the main cause for high mortality and morbidity rates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations can regulate their virulence gene expressions via the bacterial communication system: quorum sensing. Inhibition of quorum sensing by employing quorum sensing inhibitors can leave the bacteria vulnerable. Therefore, determining natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors is essential. Lichens have ethnobotanical value for their medicinal properties and it is possible that their secondary metabolites have quorum sensing inhibitor properties. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid to reduce the expressions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors by inhibiting quorum sensing. For this purpose, fluorescent monitor strains were utilized for quorum sensing inhibitor screens and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analyses were conducted for comparison. Results indicate that evernic acid is capable of inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

  6. Comparative in vitro activities of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant gram-negative enteric bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Fass, R J

    1982-01-01

    Piperacillin was more consistently active than tobramycin, carbenicillin, moxalactam, or ceftriaxone against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from blood cultures and against multidrug-resistant strains. Moxalactam and ceftriaxone were more consistently active than tobramycin, carbenicillin, or piperacillin against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Synergy between beta-lactam antibiotics and tobramycin was frequently observed against strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from blood cultures but not against multidrug-resistant organisms. Piperacillin plus tobramycin was the most active antibiotic combination against P. aeruginosa. Moxalactam plus tobramycin and ceftriaxone plus tobramycin were the most active antibiotic combinations against Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:6810755

  7. Friend or foe: genetic and functional characterization of plant endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Munder, A; Aravind, R; Eapen, S J; Tümmler, B; Raaijmakers, J M

    2013-03-01

    Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BP35 was originally isolated from black pepper grown in the rain forest in Kerala, India. Strain PaBP35 was shown to provide significant protection to black pepper against infections by Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis. For registration and implementation in disease management programmes, several traits of PaBP35 were investigated including its endophytic behaviour, biocontrol activity, phylogeny and toxicity to mammals. The results showed that PaBP35 efficiently colonized black pepper shoots and displayed a typical spatiotemporal pattern in its endophytic movement with concomitant suppression of Phytophthora rot. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed high populations of PaBP35::gfp2 inside tomato plantlets, supporting its endophytic behaviour in other plant species. Polyphasic approaches to genotype PaBP35, including BOX-PCR, recN sequence analysis, multilocus sequence typing and comparative genome hybridization analysis, revealed its uniqueness among P. aeruginosa strains representing clinical habitats. However, like other P. aeruginosa strains, PaBP35 exhibited resistance to antibiotics, grew at 25-41°C and produced rhamnolipids and phenazines. PaBP35 displayed strong type II secretion effectors-mediated cytotoxicity on mammalian A549 cells. Coupled with pathogenicity in a murine airway infection model, we conclude that this plant endophytic strain is as virulent as clinical P. aeruginosa strains. Safety issues related to the selection of plant endophytic bacteria for crop protection are discussed.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outcompetes other bacteria in the manifestation and maintenance of a biofilm in polyvinylchloride tubing as used in dental devices.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Christoph Gert; Nagl, Markus; Nogler, Michael; Coraça-Huber, Débora Cristina

    2016-05-01

    In a PVC tube as a model system for dental devices, Pseudomonas aeruginosa outcompetes Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae for the biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa has advantage over the other strains due to higher tolerance for low-nutrient situations or direct killing by the production of soluble factors like pyocyanin.

  9. New Small Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Renata; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Chandler, Michael; Varani, Alessandro de Mello; Darini, Ana Lúcia Costa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic context of blaKPC-2 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 244 from Brazil. The blaKPC-2 gene was detected in a new small plasmid, pBH6. Complete sequencing revealed that pBH6 was 3,652 bp long and included the Tn3 resolvase and Tn3 inverted repeat (IR), a partial copy of ISKpn6, and a putative ori region but no rep genes. pBH6 replicated stably into Escherichia coli strain DH10B and P. aeruginosa strain PAO.

  10. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti-Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa. Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu, primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration. PMID:28184354

  11. Detection of Metallo-Beta Lactamases Among Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Jolodar, Abbas; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Khorvash, Farzin; Saki, Azadeh; Shoja, Saeed; Sheikhi, Raheleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carbapenems are important drugs used for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, however metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are able to efficiently hydrolyze these classes of drugs. Immediate detection of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is necessary in order to accurately treat infections caused by this organism. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in burn and non-burn patients by two phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare phenotypic tests with PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 223 non-duplicate strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from three teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Combined disk (CD) test, MBL E-test and PCR were performed for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Results: Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 58.7% were resistant to imipenem while 31.8%, 13.5% and 74.4% were resistant to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem, respectively. Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 44.4% were multidrug resistant and 13.45% were resistant to all of the carbapenems. The CD test with doripenem disk / 750 μg ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) had the highest efficiency compared to the other phenotypic tests. blaIMP and blaVIM genes were detected in 11.7% and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. blaSPM and blaNDM genes were not observed. Conclusions: Epidemiological and regional evaluation of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa through simple and inexpensive methods should be considered for effective treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25774271

  12. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti-Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa. Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu, primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration.

  13. A long-chain flavodoxin protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa from oxidative stress and host bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Alejandro J; Tobares, Romina A; Rizzi, Yanina S; Krapp, Adriana R; Mondotte, Juan A; Bocco, José L; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Carrillo, Néstor; Smania, Andrea M

    2014-02-01

    Long-chain flavodoxins, ubiquitous electron shuttles containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as prosthetic group, play an important protective role against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which frequently has to face ROS toxicity in the environment as well as within the host. We identified a single ORF, hereafter referred to as fldP (for fl avo d oxin from P . aeruginosa), displaying the highest similarity in length, sequence identity and predicted secondary structure with typical long-chain flavodoxins. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant product (FldP) could bind FMN and exhibited flavodoxin activity in vitro. Expression of fldP in P. aeruginosa was induced by oxidative stress conditions through an OxyR-independent mechanism, and an fldP-null mutant accumulated higher intracellular ROS levels and exhibited decreased tolerance to H2O2 toxicity compared to wild-type siblings. The mutant phenotype could be complemented by expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin. Overexpression of FldP in a mutT-deficient P. aeruginosa strain decreased H2O2-induced cell death and the hypermutability caused by DNA oxidative damage. FldP contributed to the survival of P. aeruginosa within cultured mammalian macrophages and in infected Drosophila melanogaster, which led in turn to accelerated death of the flies. Interestingly, the fldP gene is present in some but not all P. aeruginosa strains, constituting a component of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome. It is located in a genomic island as part of a self-regulated polycistronic operon containing a suite of stress-associated genes. The collected results indicate that the fldP gene encodes a long-chain flavodoxin, which protects the cell from oxidative stress, thereby expanding the capabilities of P. aeruginosa to thrive in hostile environments.

  14. A Long-Chain Flavodoxin Protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Oxidative Stress and Host Bacterial Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Alejandro J.; Krapp, Adriana R.; Mondotte, Juan A.; Bocco, José L.; Saleh, Maria-Carla; Carrillo, Néstor; Smania, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain flavodoxins, ubiquitous electron shuttles containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as prosthetic group, play an important protective role against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which frequently has to face ROS toxicity in the environment as well as within the host. We identified a single ORF, hereafter referred to as fldP (for flavodoxin from P . aeruginosa), displaying the highest similarity in length, sequence identity and predicted secondary structure with typical long-chain flavodoxins. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant product (FldP) could bind FMN and exhibited flavodoxin activity in vitro. Expression of fldP in P. aeruginosa was induced by oxidative stress conditions through an OxyR-independent mechanism, and an fldP-null mutant accumulated higher intracellular ROS levels and exhibited decreased tolerance to H2O2 toxicity compared to wild-type siblings. The mutant phenotype could be complemented by expression of a cyanobacterial flavodoxin. Overexpression of FldP in a mutT-deficient P. aeruginosa strain decreased H2O2-induced cell death and the hypermutability caused by DNA oxidative damage. FldP contributed to the survival of P. aeruginosa within cultured mammalian macrophages and in infected Drosophila melanogaster, which led in turn to accelerated death of the flies. Interestingly, the fldP gene is present in some but not all P. aeruginosa strains, constituting a component of the P. aeruginosa accessory genome. It is located in a genomic island as part of a self-regulated polycistronic operon containing a suite of stress-associated genes. The collected results indicate that the fldP gene encodes a long-chain flavodoxin, which protects the cell from oxidative stress, thereby expanding the capabilities of P. aeruginosa to thrive in hostile environments. PMID:24550745

  15. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from non-chronically infected CF patients. Thus, oral prophylaxis with anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY may boost the innate immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the CF setting by facilitating a rapid and prompt bacterial clearance by PMNs. PMID:26901841

  16. Zingerone silences quorum sensing and attenuates virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajnish; Kumar, Manoj; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an imperative role in virulence factor, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Blocking quorum sensing pathways are viewed as viable anti-virulent therapy in association with traditional antimicrobial therapy. Anti-quorum sensing dietary phytochemicals with may prove to be a safe and viable choice as anti-virulent drug candidates. Previously, our lab proved zingerone as potent anti-biofilm agent hence; further its anti-virulent and anti-quorum activities were evaluated. Zingerone, besides decreasing swimming, swarming and twitching phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1, reduced biofilm forming capacity and production of virulence factors including rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, cell free and cell bound hemolysin (p<0.001) indicating anti-virulent property attributing towards attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa. Further zingerone not only had marked effect on the production of quorum sensing signal molecules by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa but also showed significant interference with the activation of QS reporter strains. To study the mechanism of blocking quorum sensing cascade, in silico analysis was carried out. Anti-QS activity was attributed to interference with the ligand receptor interaction of zingerone with QS receptors (TraR, LasR, RhlR and PqsR). Zingerone showed a good comparative docking score to respective autoinducer molecules which was even higher than that of vanillin, a proven anti-quorum sensing phytochemical. The results of the present study revealed the anti-quorum sensing activity of zingerone targeting ligand-receptor interaction, hence proposing zingerone as a suitable anti-virulent drug candidate against P. aeruginosa infections.

  17. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates to Hydrogel Contact Lens Disinfection Correlates with Cytotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lakkis, Carol; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most common pathogens in infection of hydrogel contact lens wearers is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can gain access to the eye via contamination of the lens, lens case, and lens care solutions. Only one strain per species is used in current regulatory testing for the marketing of chemical contact lens disinfectants. The aim of this study was to determine whether P. aeruginosa strains vary in their susceptibility to hydrogel contact lens disinfectants. A method for rapidly screening bacterial susceptibility to contact lens disinfectants was developed, based on measurement of the MIC. The susceptibility of 35 P. aeruginosa isolates to two chemical disinfectants was found to vary among strains. MICs ranged from 6.25 to 100% for both disinfectants at 37°C, and a number of strains were not inhibited by a 100% disinfectant concentration in the lens case environment at room temperature (22°C). Resistance to disinfection appeared to be an inherent rather than acquired trait, since some resistant strains had been isolated prior to the introduction of the disinfectants and some susceptible P. aeruginosa strains could not be made more resistant by repeated disinfectant exposure. A number of P. aeruginosa strains which were comparatively more resistant to short-term disinfectant exposure also demonstrated the ability to grow to levels above the initial inoculum in one chemical disinfectant after long-term (24 to 48 h) disinfectant exposure. Resistance was correlated with acute cytotoxic activity toward corneal epithelial cells and with exsA, which encodes a protein that regulates cytotoxicity via a complex type III secretion system. These results suggest that chemical disinfection solutions may select for contamination with cytotoxic strains. Further investigation of the mechanisms and factors responsible for resistance may also lead to strategies for reducing adverse responses to contact lens wear. PMID:11283074

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: breaking down barriers.

    PubMed

    Berube, Bryan J; Rangel, Stephanie M; Hauser, Alan R

    2016-02-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways to escape from the lung during pneumonia to cause bacteremia. Unfortunately, the clinical consequences of this spread to the bloodstream are frequently dire. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms used by pathogens to breach the lung barrier. We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia, utilizes the type III secretion system effector ExoS to intoxicate pulmonary epithelial cells. Injection of these cells leads to localized disruption of the pulmonary-vascular barrier and dissemination of P. aeruginosa to the bloodstream. We put these data in the context of previous studies to provide a holistic model of P. aeruginosa dissemination from the lung. Finally, we compare P. aeruginosa dissemination to that of other bacteria to highlight the complexity of bacterial pneumonia. Although respiratory pathogens use distinct and intricate strategies to escape from the lungs, a thorough understanding of these processes can lay the foundation for new therapeutic approaches for bacterial pneumonia.

  19. Measuring antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using Poloxamer 407 gel.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Koike, Naohito; Ehara, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2011-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes various opportunistic infections. Chronic and intractable infections with P. aeruginosa are closely related to the high levels of resistance displayed by this organism to antimicrobial agents and its ability to form biofilms. Although the standard method for examining antimicrobial resistance involves susceptibility testing using Mueller-Hinton agar or broth, this method does not take into account the influence of biofilm formation on antimicrobial susceptibility. Poloxamer 407 is a hydrophilic, nonionic surfactant of the more general class of copolymers that can be used to culture bacteria with similar properties as cells in a biofilm environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria cultured in Poloxamer 407 gel to those grown on Mueller-Hinton agar using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with 24 strains of P. aeruginosa. Antimicrobial sensibility differed between the two mediums, with >60% of the strains displaying increased resistance to β-lactams when cultured on Poloxamer 407 gel. In addition, scanning electron microscopy revealed that typical biofilm formation and extracellular polymeric substance production was only observed with bacteria grown on Poloxamer 407 gel. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility test using Poloxamer 407 gel may provide more accurate information and allow the selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for treating patients infected with biofilm-forming pathogens.

  20. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  1. O serotype-independent susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to lectin-like pyocins

    PubMed Central

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; Dingemans, Jozef; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; De Vos, Daniel; Cornelis, Pierre; De Mot, René

    2014-01-01

    Lectin-like bacteriocins of the LlpA family, originally identified in plant-associated bacteria, are narrow-spectrum antibacterial proteins composed of two tandemly organized monocot mannose-binding lectin (MMBL) domains. The LlpA-like bacteriocin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa C1433, pyocin L1, lacks any similarity to known P. aeruginosa bacteriocins. The initial interaction of pyocin L1 with target cells is mediated by binding to d-rhamnose, present in the common polysaccharide antigen of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), but the actual cytotoxic mechanism is unknown. In this study, we characterized the activity range of pyocin L1 and two additional L pyocins revealed by genome mining, representing two highly diverged LlpA groups in P. aeruginosa. The recombinant proteins exhibit species-specific antagonistic activities down to nanomolar concentrations against clinical and environmental P. aeruginosa strains, including several multidrug-resistant isolates. The overlap in target strain spectrum between two close homologues of the pyocin L1 group is only minimal, contrasting with the considerable spectral redundancy of LlpA proteins reported for other Pseudomonas species. No correlation was found between L pyocin susceptibility and phylogenetic relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates. Sensitive strains were retrieved in 13 out of 15 O serotypes tested, excluding the possibility that the highly variable and immunogenic O serotype antigen of the LPS coating would represent a dominant susceptibility-discriminating factor. PMID:25224846

  2. Characterization and interstrain transfer of prophage pp3 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Shen, Wei; Tan, Yinling; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yan; Gong, Yali; Yang, Yuhui; Zhu, Hongbin; Hu, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Prophages are major contributors to horizontal gene transfer and drive the evolution and diversification of bacteria. Here, we describe the characterization of a prophage element designated pp3 in the clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate PA1. pp3 spontaneously excises from the PA1 genome and circularizes at a very high frequency of 25%. pp3 is likely to be a defective prophage due to its inability to form plaques on P. aeruginosa indicator strains, and no phage particles could be detected in PA1 supernatants. The pp3-encoded integrase is essential for excision by mediating site-specific recombination at the 26-bp attachment sequence. Using a filter mating experiment, we demonstrated that pp3 can transfer into P. aeruginosa recipient strains that do not possess this element naturally. Upon transfer, pp3 integrates into the same attachment site as in PA1 and maintains the ability to excise and circularize. Furthermore, pp3 significantly promotes biofilm formation in the recipient. Sequence alignment reveals that the 26-bp attachment site recognized by pp3 is conserved in all P. aeruginosa strains sequenced to date, making it possible that pp3 could be extensively disseminated in P. aeruginosa. This work improves our understanding of the ways in which prophages influence bacterial behavior and evolution. PMID:28346467

  3. Two Genetic Loci Produce Distinct Carbohydrate-Rich Structural Components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. PMID:15231777

  4. Interclonal gradient of virulence in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pangenome from disease and environment.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Rolf; Munder, Antje; Klockgether, Jens; Losada, Patricia Moran; Chouvarine, Philippe; Cramer, Nina; Davenport, Colin F; Dethlefsen, Sarah; Fischer, Sebastian; Peng, Huiming; Schönfelder, Torben; Türk, Oliver; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Wölbeling, Florian; Gulbins, Erich; Goesmann, Alexander; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    The population genomics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analysed by genome sequencing of representative strains of the 15 most frequent clonal complexes in the P. aeruginosa population and of the five most common clones from the environment of which so far no isolate from a human infection has been detected. Gene annotation identified 5892-7187 open reading frame (ORFs; median 6381 ORFs) in the 20 6.4-7.4 Mbp large genomes. The P. aeruginosa pangenome consists of a conserved core of at least 4000 genes, a combinatorial accessory genome of a further 10 000 genes and 30 000 or more rare genes that are present in only a few strains or clonal complexes. Whole genome comparisons of single nucleotide polymorphism synteny indicated unrestricted gene flow between clonal complexes by recombination. Using standardized acute lettuce, Galleria mellonella and murine airway infection models the full spectrum of possible host responses to P. aeruginosa was observed with the 20 strains ranging from unimpaired health following infection to 100% lethality. Genome comparisons indicate that the differential genetic repertoire of clones maintains a habitat-independent gradient of virulence in the P. aeruginosa population.

  5. Does Pseudomonas aeruginosa use intercellular signalling to build biofilm communities?

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Mary Jo; Parsek, Matthew R

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterial species that causes several opportunistic human infections. This organism is also found in the environment, where it is renowned (like other Pseudomonads) for its ability to use a wide variety of compounds as carbon and energy sources. It is a model species for studying group-related behaviour in bacteria. Two types of group behaviour it engages in are intercellular signalling, or quorum sensing, and the formation of surface-associated communities called biofilms. Both quorum sensing and biofilm formation are important in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections. Quorum sensing regulates the expression of several secreted virulence factors and quorum sensing mutant strains are attenuated for virulence in animal models. Biofilms have been implicated in chronic infections. Two examples are the chronic lung infections afflicting people suffering from cystic fibrosis and colonization of indwelling medical devices. This review will discuss quorum sensing and biofilm formation and studies that link these two processes.

  6. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections.

  7. Drosophila melanogaster as an Animal Model for the Study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infections In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Heidi; Sibley, Christopher D.; Surette, Michael G.; Lewenza, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3) demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo. PMID:21998591

  8. Production of proteinase on noncarbohydrate carbon sources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Morihara, K

    1965-09-01

    Proteinase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in medium containing noncarbohydrate materials, especially various hydrocarbons, as the sole carbon source. On heavy oil, kerosene, n-paraffinic hydrocarbon of C(12), C(14), or C(16), and propylene glycol, the bacteria grew well and high protinase production was observed. However, production on paraffinic hydrocarbon differed remarkably with strains of varied origins. The elastase-positive strain, IFO 3455, showed abundant growth and high proteinase production on medium containing a paraffin of C(12), C(14), or C(16), whereas the elastase-negative strain, IFO 3080, showed little growth on the same medium. Neither elastase-positive nor elastase-negative strains, however, utilized n-paraffins of C(5) to C(10), or various aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. The proteinases produced on the noncarbohydrate medium were identical with those produced in glucose medium.

  9. Enterobactin-mediated iron transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, K; Young, L; Neshat, S

    1990-01-01

    A pyoverdine-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to grow in an iron-deficient minimal medium in the presence of the nonmetabolizable iron chelator ethylene diamine-di(omega-hydroxyphenol acetic acid) (EDDHA), although addition of enterobactin to EDDHA-containing minimal media did restore growth of the pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa. Consistent with the apparent ability of enterobactin to provide iron to P. aeruginosa, enterobactin-dependent 55Fe3+ uptake was observed in cells of P. aeruginosa previously grown in an iron-deficient medium containing enterobactin (or enterobactin-containing Escherichia coli culture supernatant). This uptake was energy dependent, was observable at low concentrations (60 nM) of FeCl3, and was absent in cells cultured without enterobactin. A novel protein with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 was identified in the outer membranes of cells grown in iron-deficient minimal medium containing enterobactin, concomitant with the induction of enterobactin-dependent iron uptake. A Tn501 insertion mutant lacking this protein was isolated and shown to be deficient in enterobactin-mediated iron transport at 60 nM FeCl3, although it still exhibited enterobactin-dependent growth in iron-deficient medium containing EDDHA. It was subsequently observed that the mutant was, however, capable of enterobactin-mediated iron transport at much higher concentrations (600 nM) of FeCl3. Indeed, enterobactin-dependent iron uptake at this concentration of iron was observed in both the mutant and parent strains irrespective of whether they had been cultured in the presence of enterobactin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2174865

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium aurantiacum, an opportunistic fungal pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jashanpreet; Pethani, Bhavin P.; Kumar, Sheemal; Kim, Minkyoung; Sunna, Anwar; Kautto, Liisa; Penesyan, Anahit; Paulsen, Ian T.; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens isolated from lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa has been known to suppress the growth of a number of CF related fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum have not been investigated in depth. Hence we assessed the effect of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 and two clinical isolates PASS1 and PASS2 on the growth of two clinical S. aurantiacum isolates WM 06.482 and WM 08.202 using solid plate assays and liquid cultures, in a synthetic medium mimicking the nutrient condition in the CF sputum. Solid plate assays showed a clear inhibition of growth of both S. aurantiacum strains when cultured with P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In addition to using chemical fluorescent stains, strains tagged with yfp (P. aeruginosa PASS1) and mCherry (S. aurantiacum WM 06.482) were created to facilitate detailed microscopic observations on strain interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing successful genetic transformation of S. aurantiacum. Inhibition of growth was observed only in co-cultures of P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum; the cell fractions obtained from independent bacterial monocultures failed to initiate a response against the fungus. In the liquid co-cultures, biofilm forming P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1 displayed higher inhibition of fungal growth when compared to PASS2. No change was observed in the inhibition pattern when direct cell contact between the bacterial and fungal strains was prevented using a separation membrane suggesting the involvement of extracellular metabolites in the fungal inhibition. However, one of the most commonly described bacterial virulence factors, pyocyanin, had no effect against either of the S

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Scedosporium aurantiacum, an opportunistic fungal pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jashanpreet; Pethani, Bhavin P; Kumar, Sheemal; Kim, Minkyoung; Sunna, Anwar; Kautto, Liisa; Penesyan, Anahit; Paulsen, Ian T; Nevalainen, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Scedosporium aurantiacum and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens isolated from lungs of the cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa has been known to suppress the growth of a number of CF related fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum have not been investigated in depth. Hence we assessed the effect of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 and two clinical isolates PASS1 and PASS2 on the growth of two clinical S. aurantiacum isolates WM 06.482 and WM 08.202 using solid plate assays and liquid cultures, in a synthetic medium mimicking the nutrient condition in the CF sputum. Solid plate assays showed a clear inhibition of growth of both S. aurantiacum strains when cultured with P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by confocal microscopy. In addition to using chemical fluorescent stains, strains tagged with yfp (P. aeruginosa PASS1) and mCherry (S. aurantiacum WM 06.482) were created to facilitate detailed microscopic observations on strain interaction. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing successful genetic transformation of S. aurantiacum. Inhibition of growth was observed only in co-cultures of P. aeruginosa and S. aurantiacum; the cell fractions obtained from independent bacterial monocultures failed to initiate a response against the fungus. In the liquid co-cultures, biofilm forming P. aeruginosa strains PASS1 and PAO1 displayed higher inhibition of fungal growth when compared to PASS2. No change was observed in the inhibition pattern when direct cell contact between the bacterial and fungal strains was prevented using a separation membrane suggesting the involvement of extracellular metabolites in the fungal inhibition. However, one of the most commonly described bacterial virulence factors, pyocyanin, had no effect against either of the S

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular secondary metabolite, Paerucumarin, chelates iron and is not localized to extracellular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Qaisar, Uzma; Kruczek, Cassandra J; Azeem, Muhammed; Javaid, Nasir; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Hamood, Abdul N

    2016-08-01

    Proteins encoded by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa pvcA-D operon synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin termed paerucumarin. The pvcA-D operon enhances the expression of the P. aeruginosa fimbrial chaperone/usher pathway (cup) genes and this effect is mediated through paerucumarin. Whether pvcA-D and/or paerucumarin affect the expression of other P. aeruginosa genes is not known. In this study, we examined the effect of a mutation in pvcA-D operon the global transcriptome of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1-UW. The mutation reduced the expression of several ironcontrolled genes including pvdS, which is essential for the expression of the pyoverdine genes. Additional transcriptional studies showed that the pvcA-D operon is not regulated by iron. Exogenously added paerucumarin enhanced pyoverdine production and pvdS expression in PAO1-UW. Iron-chelation experiments revealed that purified paerucumarin chelates iron. However, exogenously added paerucumarin significantly reduced the growth of a P. aeruginosa mutant defective in pyoverdine and pyochelin production. In contrast to other secondary metabolite, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), paerucumarin is not localized to the P. aeruginosa membrane vesicles. These results suggest that paerucumarin enhances the expression of iron-controlled genes by chelating iron within the P. aeruginosa extracellular environment. Although paerucumarin chelates iron, it does not function as a siderophore. Unlike PQS, paerucumarin is not associated with the P. aeruginosa cell envelope.

  13. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Michael A.; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V.; Manoil, Colin

    2003-01-01

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering. PMID:14617778

  14. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V; Manoil, Colin

    2003-11-25

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering.

  15. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  16. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  17. The increasing threat of Pseudomonas aeruginosa high-risk clones.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Antonio; Mulet, Xavier; López-Causapé, Carla; Juan, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic and hospital-acquired infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This growing threat results from the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen for developing resistance through chromosomal mutations and from the increasing prevalence of transferable resistance determinants, particularly those encoding carbapenemases or extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). P. aeruginosa has a nonclonal epidemic population structure, composed of a limited number of widespread clones which are selected from a background of a large quantity of rare and unrelated genotypes that are recombining at high frequency. Indeed, recent concerning reports have provided evidence of the existence of MDR/XDR global clones, denominated high-risk clones, disseminated in hospitals worldwide; ST235, ST111, and ST175 are likely those more widespread. Noteworthy, the vast majority of infections by MDR, and specially XDR, strains are produced by these and few other clones worldwide. Moreover, the association of high-risk clones, particularly ST235, with transferable resistance is overwhelming; nearly 100 different horizontally-acquired resistance elements and up to 39 different acquired β-lactamases have been reported so far among ST235 isolates. Likewise, MDR internationally-disseminated epidemic strains, such as the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES, ST146), have been noted as well among cystic fibrosis patients. Here we review the population structure, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence of the P. aeruginosa high-risk clones. The phenotypic and genetic factors potentially driving the success of high-risk clones, the aspects related to their detection in the clinical microbiology laboratory and the implications for infection control and public health are also discussed.

  18. High frequency of hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung infection.

    PubMed

    Oliver, A; Cantón, R; Campo, P; Baquero, F; Blázquez, J

    2000-05-19

    The lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are chronically infected for years by one or a few lineages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These bacterial populations adapt to the highly compartmentalized and anatomically deteriorating lung environment of CF patients, as well as to the challenges of the immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. These selective conditions are precisely those that recent theoretical studies predict for the evolution of mechanisms that augment the rate of variation. Determination of spontaneous mutation rates in 128 P. aeruginosa isolates from 30 CF patients revealed that 36% of the patients were colonized by a hypermutable (mutator) strain that persisted for years in most patients. Mutator strains were not found in 75 non-CF patients acutely infected with P. aeruginosa. This investigation also reveals a link between high mutation rates in vivo and the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  19. Bisphenol A removal by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized on granular activated carbon and operating in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Mita, Luigi; Grumiro, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Diano, Nadia

    2015-06-30

    Serratia rubidiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K12 have been studied for their ability of Bisphenol A removal from aqueous systems and biofilm formation on activated granule carbon. Mathematical equations for biodegradation process have been elaborated and discussed. P. aeruginosa was found the best strain to be employed in the process of Bisphenol A removal. The yield in BPA removal of a P. aeruginosa biofilm grown on GAC and operating in a fluidized bed reactor has been evaluated. The results confirm the usefulness in using biological activated carbon (BAC process) to remove phenol compounds from aqueous systems.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-98, a Non-Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Sano, Tomoharu; Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Kawachi, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is a well-known bloom-forming cyanobacterium. We newly sequenced the whole genome of M. aeruginosa NIES-98, which is a non-microcystin-producing strain isolated from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. The genome contains approximately 5.0 Mbp, with an average G+C content of 42.41% and 5,140 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:27834696

  1. Natural Genetic Variation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Natalia; Singh, Jogender; Aballay, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans responds to pathogenic microorganisms by activating its innate immune system, which consists of physical barriers, behavioral responses, and microbial killing mechanisms. We examined whether natural variation plays a role in the response of C. elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using two C. elegans strains that carry the same allele of npr-1, a gene that encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, but that differ in their genetic backgrounds. Strains carrying an allele for the NPR-1 215F isoform have been shown to exhibit lack of pathogen avoidance behavior and deficient immune response toward P. aeruginosa relative to the wild-type (N2) strain. We found that the wild isolate from Germany RC301, which carries the allele for NPR-1 215F, shows an enhanced resistance to P. aeruginosa infection when compared with strain DA650, which also carries NPR-1 215F but in an N2 background. Using a whole-genome sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphism (WGS-SNP) mapping strategy, we determined that the resistance to P. aeruginosa infection maps to a region on chromosome V. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mechanism for the enhanced resistance to P. aeruginosa infection relies exclusively on strong P. aeruginosa avoidance behavior, and does not involve the main immune, stress, and lifespan extension pathways in C. elegans. Our findings underscore the importance of pathogen-specific behavioral immune defense in the wild, which seems to be favored over the more energy-costly mechanism of activation of physiological cellular defenses. PMID:28179390

  2. Natural Genetic Variation in the Caenorhabditis elegans Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natalia; Singh, Jogender; Aballay, Alejandro

    2017-02-07

    Caenorhabditis elegans responds to pathogenic microorganisms by activating its innate immune system, which consists of physical barriers, behavioral responses, and microbial killing mechanisms. We examined whether natural variation plays a role in the response of C. elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa using two C. elegans strains that carry the same allele of npr-1, a gene that encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, but that differ in their genetic backgrounds. Strains carrying an allele for the NPR-1 215F isoform have been shown to exhibit lack of pathogen avoidance behavior and deficient immune response towards P. aeruginosa relative to the wild-type (N2) strain. We found that the wild isolate from Germany RC301, which carries the allele for NPR-1 215F, shows an enhanced resistance to P. aeruginosa infection when compared with strain DA650, which also carries NPR-1 215F but in an N2 background. Using a whole-genome sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphism (WGS-SNP) mapping strategy, we determined that the resistance to P. aeruginosa infection maps to a region on chromosome V. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mechanism for the enhanced resistance to P. aeruginosa infection relies exclusively on strong P. aeruginosa avoidance behavior and does not involve the main immune, stress and lifespan extension pathways in C. elegans Our findings underscore the importance of pathogen-specific behavioral immune defense in the wild, which seems to be favored over the more energy-costly mechanism of activation of physiological cellular defenses.

  3. Immunological evaluation of an alginate-based conjugate as a vaccine candidate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Farjah, Ali; Owlia, Parviz; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadpour, Hashem Khorsand

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, is usually resistant to antimicrobial agents, and is the leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa produce a virulence factor known as alginate. Developing a strategy to raise opsonic antibodies against alginate could be promising for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients. Conjugation of alginate to a carrier protein is a good method for increasing the immunogenicity of alginate. We conjugated alginate to the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which is a safe carrier protein, and evaluated its efficacy in mice. To evaluate the immune response, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b titers were analyzed. Immunization of mice with the alginate-OMV conjugate raised the levels of opsonic antibodies, and the vaccinated mice were protected when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. Further studies showed that the conjugated vaccine could eliminate P. aeruginosa from the lungs of infected mice. This study supports the proposal that immunization of mice with an alginate-OMV conjugate vaccine could be safe and protective against P. aeruginosa infection.

  4. Feeding characteristics of a golden alga (Poterioochromonas sp.) grazing on toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Hu, Hong-Ying; Men, Yu-Jie; Yang, Jia; Christoffersen, Kirsten

    2009-07-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa has quickly risen in infamy as one of the most universal and toxic bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Here we presented a species of golden alga (Poterioochromonas sp. strain ZX1), which can feed on toxic M. aeruginosa without any adverse effects from the cyanotoxins. Using flow cytometry, the ingestion and maximal digestion rates were estimated to be 0.2 approximately 1.2 and 0.2 M. aeruginosa cells (ZX1 cell)(-1)h(-1), respectively. M. aeruginosa in densities below 10(7)cells mL(-1) could be grazed down by ZX1, but no significant decrease was observed when the initial density was 3.2 x 10(7)cells mL(-1). ZX1 grazing was a little influenced by the light intensity (0.5 approximately 2500l x) and initial pH of the medium (pH=5.0 approximately 9.5). ZX1 could not survive in continuous darkness for longer than 10 days. The pH value was adjusted to 8 by ZX1 while to 10 by M. aeruginosa. This study may shed light on understanding the ecological interactions between M. aeruginosa and mixotrophic Poterioochromonas sp. in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Exopolysaccharide-repressing small molecules with antibiofilm and antivirulence activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg Bernardes, Erik; Charron-Mazenod, Laetitia; Reading, David J; Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L; Lewenza, Shawn

    2017-02-21

    Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P. aeruginosa produces the Pel and Psl EPS, each of which have important roles in antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and immune evasion. Given the central importance of the EPS for biofilms, they are attractive targets for novel anti-infective compounds. In this study we used a high throughput gene expression screen to identify compounds that repress expression of the pel genes. The pel repressors demonstrated antibiofilm activity against microplate and flow chamber biofilms formed by wild type and hyperbiofilm forming strains. To determine the potential role of EPS in virulence, mutants in pel/psl were shown to have reduced virulence in the feeding behavior and slow killing virulence assays in Caenorhabditis elegans The antibiofilm molecules also reduced P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence in the nematode slow killing model. Importantly, the combination of antibiotics and antibiofilm compounds increased killing of P. aeruginosa biofilms. These small molecules represent a novel anti-infective strategy for the possible treatment of chronic P. aeruginosa infections.

  6. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Cho, 1L. Y. and Takeuchi, A.: The multiplication of adenovirus in fetal mouse intestinal organ culture. Annual Meeting of American Society for...ive revealed that strains harboring this plasmid are calcium dependent when grown in vitro at 37C. Such a tem"-rqture dependent calcium deficiency in...Toxin A deficient mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA 103: Isolation and characterization. I fect. Immun. 28:899-908, 1980. 6. Collins,h.H

  7. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  8. Correlation Between Virulence Genotype and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye Hyun; Kwon, Kye Chul; Kim, Semi

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a clinically important pathogen that causes opportunistic infections and nosocomial outbreaks. Recently, the type III secretion system (TTSS) has been shown to play an important role in the virulence of P. aeruginosa. ExoU, in particular, has the greatest impact on disease severity. We examined the relationship among the TTSS effector genotype (exoS and exoU), fluoroquinolone resistance, and target site mutations in 66 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Methods Sixty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients in a university hospital in Daejeon, Korea, from January 2008 to May 2012. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) were determined by using the agar dilution method. We used PCR and sequencing to determine the TTSS effector genotype and quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the respective target genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. Results A higher proportion of exoU+ strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant than exoS+ strains (93.2%, 41/44 vs. 45.0%, 9/20; P≤0.0001). Additionally, exoU+ strains were more likely to carry combined mutations than exoS+ strains (97.6%, 40/41 vs. 70%, 7/10; P=0.021), and MIC increased as the number of active mutations increased. Conclusions The recent overuse of fluoroquinolone has led to both increased resistance and enhanced virulence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. These data indicate a specific relationship among exoU genotype, fluoroquinolone resistance, and resistance-conferring mutations. PMID:24982833

  9. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. Methods The effect of strict segregation on the incidence of P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients was investigated through longitudinal protocolized follow-up of respiratory tract infection before and after segregation. In two nested cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2011 the P. aeruginosa population structure was investigated and clinical parameters were determined in patients with and without infection with the Dutch epidemic P. aeruginosa clone (ST406). Results Of 784 included patients 315 and 382 were at risk for acquiring chronic P. aeruginosa infection before and after segregation. Acquisition rates were, respectively, 0.14 and 0.05 per 1,000 days at risk (HR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.2548–1.541]; p = 0.28). An exploratory subgroup analysis indicated lower acquisition after segregation in children < 15 years of age (HR: 0.43, 95% CI[0.21–0.95]; p = 0.04). P. aeruginosa population structure did not change after segregation and ST406 was not associated with lung function decline, death or lung transplantation. Conclusions Strict segregation was not associated with a statistically significant lower acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and ST406 was not associated with adverse clinical outcome. After segregation there were no new acquisitions of ST406. In an unplanned exploratory analysis chronic acquisition of P. aeruginosa was lower after implementation of segregation in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27280467

  10. Genetic engineering of Francisella tularensis LVS for use as a novel live vaccine platform against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cory M; Kobe, Brianna N; Schmitt, Deanna M; Phair, Brian; Gilson, Tricia; Jung, Joo-Yong; Roberts, Lawton; Liao, Jialin; Camerlengo, Chelsea; Chang, Brandon; Davis, Mackenzie; Figurski, Leah; Sindeldecker, Devin; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis LVS (Live Vaccine Strain) is an attenuated bacterium that has been used as a live vaccine. Patients immunized with this organism show a very long-term memory response (over 30 years post vaccination) evidenced by the presence of indicators of robust cell-mediated immunity. Because F. tularensis LVS is such a potent vaccine, we hypothesized that this organism would be an effective vaccine platform. First, we sought to determine if we could genetically modify this strain to produce protective antigens of a heterologous pathogen. Currently, there is not a licensed vaccine against the important opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because many P. aeruginosa strains are also drug resistant, the need for effective vaccines is magnified. Here, F. tularensis LVS was genetically modified to express surface proteins PilAPa, OprFPa, and FliCPa of P. aeruginosa. Immunization of mice with LVS expressing the recombinant FliCPa led to a significant production of antibodies specific for P. aeruginosa. However, mice that had been immunized with LVS expressing PilAPa or OprFPa did not produce high levels of antibodies specific for P. aerugionsa. Therefore, the recombinant LVS strain engineered to produce FliCPa may be able to provide immune protection against a P. aeruginosa challenge. However for future use of this vaccine platform, selection of the appropriate recombinant antigen is critical as not all recombinant antigens expressed in this strain were immunogenic.

  11. Genetic engineering of Francisella tularensis LVS for use as a novel live vaccine platform against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cory M; Kobe, Brianna N; Schmitt, Deanna M; Phair, Brian; Gilson, Tricia; Jung, Joo-Yong; Roberts, Lawton; Liao, Jialin; Camerlengo, Chelsea; Chang, Brandon; Davis, Mackenzie; Figurski, Leah; Sindeldecker, Devin; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis LVS (Live Vaccine Strain) is an attenuated bacterium that has been used as a live vaccine. Patients immunized with this organism show a very long-term memory response (over 30 years post vaccination) evidenced by the presence of indicators of robust cell-mediated immunity. Because F. tularensis LVS is such a potent vaccine, we hypothesized that this organism would be an effective vaccine platform. First, we sought to determine if we could genetically modify this strain to produce protective antigens of a heterologous pathogen. Currently, there is not a licensed vaccine against the important opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because many P. aeruginosa strains are also drug resistant, the need for effective vaccines is magnified. Here, F. tularensis LVS was genetically modified to express surface proteins PilAPa, OprFPa, and FliCPa of P. aeruginosa. Immunization of mice with LVS expressing the recombinant FliCPa led to a significant production of antibodies specific for P. aeruginosa. However, mice that had been immunized with LVS expressing PilAPa or OprFPa did not produce high levels of antibodies specific for P. aerugionsa. Therefore, the recombinant LVS strain engineered to produce FliCPa may be able to provide immune protection against a P. aeruginosa challenge. However for future use of this vaccine platform, selection of the appropriate recombinant antigen is critical as not all recombinant antigens expressed in this strain were immunogenic. PMID:25617059

  12. Interleukin-17 Is Required for Control of Chronic Lung Infection Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bayes, Hannah K.; Ritchie, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic lung diseases. Cytokines of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) family have been proposed as important in the host response to P. aeruginosa infection through their role in augmenting antibacterial immune responses, although their proinflammatory effect may contribute to lung damage that occurs as a result of chronic infection. We set out to explore the role of IL-17 in the host response to chronic P. aeruginosa infection. We used a murine model of chronic pulmonary infection with CF-related strains of P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that IL-17 cytokine signaling is essential for mouse survival and prevention of chronic infection at 2 weeks postinoculation using two different P. aeruginosa strains. Following infection, there was a marked expansion of cells within mediastinal lymph nodes, comprised mainly of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs); ∼90% of IL-17-producing (IL-17+) cells had markers consistent with group 3 ILCs. A smaller percentage of IL-17+ cells had markers consistent with a B1 phenotype. In lung homogenates harvested 14 days following infection, there was a significant expansion of IL-17+ cells; about 50% of these were CD3+, split equally between CD4+ Th17 cells and γδ T cells, while the CD3− IL-17+ cells were almost exclusively group 3 ILCs. Further experiments with B cell-deficient mice showed that B cell production of IL-17 or natural antibodies did not provide any defense against chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Thus, IL-17 rather than antibody is a key element in host defense against chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa. PMID:27698020

  13. Protective role of extracellular catalase (KatA) against UVA radiation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2014-02-05

    One of the more stressful factors that Pseudomonas aeruginosa must face in nature is solar UVA radiation. In this study, the protective role of KatA catalase in both planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa against UVA radiation was determined by using the wild-type (PAO1) and an isogenic catalase deficient strain (katA). The katA strain was more sensitive than the wild-type, especially in the case of biofilms. Moreover, the wild-type biofilm was more resistant than its planktonic counterpart, but this was not observed in the katA strain. Striking KatA activity was detected in the matrix of katA(+) strains, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of this activity in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Provision of bovine catalase or KatA to the matrix of a katA biofilm significantly increased its UVA tolerance, demonstrating that extracellular KatA is essential to optimal defense against UVA in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Efficiency of photocatalytic treatments using TiO2 and UVA was lower in biofilms than in planktonic cells, but KatA and KatB catalases seem not to be responsible for the higher resistance of the sessile cells to this treatment.

  14. Imipenem antagonism of the in vitro activity of piperacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, M A; Young, L S

    1984-01-01

    The MICs of imipenem and piperacillin, alone and in combination, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined in a checkerboard titration microdilution assay. A dramatic, one-way antagonism of imipenem for piperacillin was demonstrated in 28 of the 35 strains examined; antagonism was associated with the induction of a beta-lactamase. PMID:6435517

  15. Control of Attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia to Surfaces by Shear Force.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yew Woh; Narayanan, Kumaran; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-12-23

    The effect of physical shearing on the attachment of six Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and six Burkholderia cepacia strains to glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and Teflon® was determined. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in hydrophobicity was apparent for all P. aeruginosa strains (17-36%) and B. cepacia, MS 5 (20%) after shearing. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in attachment of some P. aeruginosa (0.2-0.5 log CFU/cm2) and B. cepacia (0.2-0.4 log CFU/cm2) strains to some surface types was apparent after shearing. Significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed for both numbers of flagellated cells and hydrophobicity against attachment to glass, stainless steel and polystyrene for P. aeruginosa while only hydrophobicity showed significant correlation against the same surfaces for B. cepacia. Scanning electron microscopy and protein analysis showed that shearing removed surface proteins from the cells and may have led to the observed changes in hydrophobicity and attachment to abiotic surfaces.

  16. [Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from four hospitals of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Armando; Sierra R, Carmen I; de Waard, Jacobus

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 17 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems isolated in four hospitals in eastern and southern Venezuela collected between 2007 and 2010. Combined disk method showed production of metallo־β־lactamases (MBLs) in all strains. PCR and sequencing of genes encoding IMP, VIM and SPM metallo־β־lactamase families confirmed the presence of VIM-2 MMBL in all strains. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis classified the strains into three similarity groups. The largest group, group A included 13 strains with over 83% similarity between them and was found in four hospitals. Two strains of Cumana hospital formed the group B and other two the Group C with similitary of 73% and 65% respectively with Group A. These results confirmed that hospitals in eastern and southern Venezuela, circulating strains of P. aeruginosa producing VIM-2 type MBLs with a common clonal origin. On the other hand, carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa circulating in Cumana city hospital had polyclonal origin.

  17. Growth inhibition and microcystin degradation effects of Acinetobacter guillouiae A2 on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang-Lei; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Strain A2 with algicidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa was isolated and identified with the genus Acinetobacter on the basis of phenotypic tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It was identified with the species Acinetobactor guillouiae by partial rpoB sequence analysis. When 10% (v/v) of the bacterial culture was co-incubated with M. aeruginosa culture, algicidal efficiency reached 91.6% after 7 days. Supernatant of A2 culture showed similar algicidal activity, while the cell pellet had little activity, suggesting that Acinetobacter guillouiae A2 indirectly attacked M. aeruginosa cells by secreting an extracellular algicidal compound, which was characterized as heat-stable. A significant decrease in the microcystin (microcystin-LR) concentration was observed after 10% (v/v) addition of A2 culture. Transcription of three microcystin-related genes (mcyA, mcyD and mcyH) was also found to be inhibited. The algicidal compound 4-hydroxyphenethylamine was obtained by further isolation and purification using various chromatographic techniques. The EC50, 3d and EC50, 7d values of 4-hydroxyphenethylamine against M. aeruginosa were 22.5 and 10.3 mgL(-1), respectively. These results indicate that A. guillouiae strain A2 inhibits growth of M. aeruginosa and degrades microcystin production. The identified compound, 4-hydroxyphenethylamine, has potential for development as a new algicidal formulation or product.

  18. In vitro sensitivity of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to carbapenems among intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Guzek, A; Korzeniewski, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Rybicki, Z; Prokop, E

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens are the most common causes of fatal pneumonia among patients treated in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Carbapenems remain a group of antibiotics characterized by the highest effectiveness in treatment of heavy infections of the lower respiratory tract. This study compared in vitro sensitivity of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa to three carbapenems: imipenem, meropenem and doripenem. The material was collected from 71 patients treated in the ICU from April 2009 to January 2010. Bronchial tree was the predominant source of samples. Fifty-four strains of A. baumannii and 17 strains of P. aeruginosa were analyzed. Sensitivity to carbapenems was interpreted in line with Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria (imipenem and meropenem) or in compliance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CLSI guidelines (doripenem). We found that A. baumannii was significantly more often sensitive to imipenem than to doripenem and meropenem, but only according to the CLSI and FDA and not EUCAST criteria. The sensitivity of P. aeruginosa was higher to imipenem than to doripenem and meropenem, according to both CLSI and EUCAST criteria (64.7 %). We conclude that the EUCAST criteria demonstrate a higher rigor than those of CLSI and FDA in the determination of carbapenems sensitivity. Imipenem appears more effective than doripenem and meropenem in treatment of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa infections.

  19. Human immune response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid exopolysaccharide (alginate) vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Pier, G B; DesJardin, D; Grout, M; Garner, C; Bennett, S E; Pekoe, G; Fuller, S A; Thornton, M O; Harkonen, W S; Miller, H C

    1994-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathologic feature of cystic fibrosis. Previous studies suggested that a failure to produce opsonic antibody to the mucoid exopolysaccharide (MEP; also called alginate) capsule is associated with the maintenance of chronic bacterial infection. Provision of MEP-specific opsonic antibodies has therapeutic potential. To evaluate the ability of MEP to elicit opsonic antibodies, humans were immunized with two lots of MEP vaccine that differed principally in molecular size. Lot 2 had a larger average MEP polymer size. Both vaccines were well tolerated, but lot 1 was poorly immunogenic, inducing long-lived opsonic antibodies in only 2 of 28 vaccinates given doses of 10 to 150 micrograms. In contrast, at the optimal dose of 100 micrograms, lot 2 elicited long-lived opsonic antibodies in 80 to 90% of the vaccinates. The antibodies elicited by both lots enhanced deposition of C3 onto mucoid P. aeruginosa cells and mediated opsonic killing of heterologous mucoid strains expressing distinct MEP antigens. These results indicate that the polymers of MEP with the largest molecular sizes safely elicit opsonic antibodies in a sufficiently large proportion of vaccinates to permit studies of active and passive immunization of cystic fibrosis patients against infection with mucoid P. aeruginosa. PMID:8063415

  20. Characterization of colony morphology variants isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Mary Jo; Prost, Lynne; Starkey, Melissa; Parsek, Matthew R

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we report the isolation of small, rough, strongly cohesive colony morphology variants from aging Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Similar to many of the P. aeruginosa colony morphology variants previously described in the literature, these variants autoaggregate in liquid culture and hyperadhere to solid surfaces. They also exhibit increased hydrophobicity and reduced motility compared to the wild-type parent strain. Despite the similarities in appearance of our colony morphology variant isolates on solid medium, the isolates showed a range of responses in various phenotypic assays. These variants form biofilms with significant three-dimensional structure and more biomass than the wild-type parent. To further explore the nature of the variants, their transcriptional profiles were evaluated. The variants generally showed increased expression of the psl and pel loci, which have been previously implicated in the adherence of P. aeruginosa to solid surfaces. When a mutation in the psl locus was introduced into a colony morphology variant, the colony morphology was only partially affected, but hyperadherence and autoaggregation were lost. Finally, similar colony morphology variants were found in isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These variants displayed many of the same characteristics as the laboratory variants, suggesting a link between laboratory and cystic fibrosis biofilms.

  1. Indole and 7‐hydroxyindole diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jintae; Attila, Can; Cirillo, Suat L. G.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Wood, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Indole is an extracellular biofilm signal for Escherichia coli, and many bacterial oxygenases readily convert indole to various oxidized compounds including 7‐hydroxyindole (7HI). Here we investigate the impact of indole and 7HI on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence and quorum sensing (QS)‐regulated phenotypes; this strain does not synthesize these compounds but degrades them rapidly. Indole and 7HI both altered extensively gene expression in a manner opposite that of acylhomoserine lactones; the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI‐opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS‐regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2‐heptyl‐3‐hydroxy‐4(1H)‐quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). Corroborating these microarray results, indole and 7HI decreased production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, PQS and pyoverdine and enhanced antibiotic resistance. In addition, indole affected the utilization of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 7HI abolished swarming motility. Furthermore, 7HI reduced pulmonary colonization of P. aeruginosa in guinea pigs and increased clearance in lungs. Hence, indole‐related compounds have potential as a novel antivirulence approach for the recalcitrant pathogen P. aeruginosa. PMID:21261883

  2. Indole and 7-hydroxyindole diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jintae; Attila, Can; Cirillo, Suat L G; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Wood, Thomas K

    2009-01-01

    Indole is an extracellular biofilm signal for Escherichia coli, and many bacterial oxygenases readily convert indole to various oxidized compounds including 7-hydroxyindole (7HI). Here we investigate the impact of indole and 7HI on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence and quorum sensing (QS)-regulated phenotypes; this strain does not synthesize these compounds but degrades them rapidly. Indole and 7HI both altered extensively gene expression in a manner opposite that of acylhomoserine lactones; the most repressed genes encode the mexGHI-opmD multidrug efflux pump and genes involved in the synthesis of QS-regulated virulence factors including pyocyanin (phz operon), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) signal (pqs operon), pyochelin (pch operon) and pyoverdine (pvd operon). Corroborating these microarray results, indole and 7HI decreased production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, PQS and pyoverdine and enhanced antibiotic resistance. In addition, indole affected the utilization of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 7HI abolished swarming motility. Furthermore, 7HI reduced pulmonary colonization of P. aeruginosa in guinea pigs and increased clearance in lungs. Hence, indole-related compounds have potential as a novel antivirulence approach for the recalcitrant pathogen P. aeruginosa.

  3. Strategies for improved rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Jr, Nei; Freire, Denise M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants with potential for diversified industrial and environmental uses. The present study evaluated three strategies for increasing the production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1. The influence of pH, the addition of P. aeruginosa spent culture medium and the use of a fed-batch process were examined. The culture medium adjusted to pH 7.0 was the most productive. Furthermore, the pH of the culture medium had a measurable effect on the ratio of synthesized mono- and dirhamnolipids. At pH values below 7.3, the proportion of monorhamnolipids decreased from 45 to 24%. The recycling of 20% of the spent culture medium in where P. aeruginosa was grown up to the later stationary phase was responsible for a 100% increase in rhamnolipid volumetric productivity in the new culture medium. Finally, the use of fed-batch operation under conditions of limited nitrogen resulted in a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of rhamnolipids produced (2.9 g L−1–10.9 g L−1). These results offer promising pathways for the optimization of processes for the production of rhamnolipids. PMID:27257553

  4. Strategies for improved rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1.

    PubMed

    Soares Dos Santos, Alexandre; Pereira, Nei; Freire, Denise M G

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants with potential for diversified industrial and environmental uses. The present study evaluated three strategies for increasing the production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA1. The influence of pH, the addition of P. aeruginosa spent culture medium and the use of a fed-batch process were examined. The culture medium adjusted to pH 7.0 was the most productive. Furthermore, the pH of the culture medium had a measurable effect on the ratio of synthesized mono- and dirhamnolipids. At pH values below 7.3, the proportion of monorhamnolipids decreased from 45 to 24%. The recycling of 20% of the spent culture medium in where P. aeruginosa was grown up to the later stationary phase was responsible for a 100% increase in rhamnolipid volumetric productivity in the new culture medium. Finally, the use of fed-batch operation under conditions of limited nitrogen resulted in a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of rhamnolipids produced (2.9 g L(-1)-10.9 g L(-1)). These results offer promising pathways for the optimization of processes for the production of rhamnolipids.

  5. General and condition-specific essential functions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Samuel A.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Thongdee, Metawee; Staudinger, Benjamin J.; Lippman, Soyeon; Singh, Pradeep K.; Manoil, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The essential functions of a bacterial pathogen reflect the most basic processes required for its viability and growth, and represent potential therapeutic targets. Most screens for essential genes have assayed a single condition—growth in a rich undefined medium—and thus have not distinguished genes that are generally essential from those that are specific to this particular condition. To help define these classes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified genes required for growth on six different media, including a medium made from cystic fibrosis patient sputum. The analysis used the Tn-seq circle method to achieve high genome coverage and analyzed more than 1,000,000 unique insertion positions (an average of one insertion every 6.0 bp). We identified 352 general and 199 condition-specific essential genes. A subset of assignments was verified in individual strains with regulated expression alleles. The profile of essential genes revealed that, compared with Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa is highly vulnerable to mutations disrupting central carbon-energy metabolism and reactive oxygen defenses. These vulnerabilities may arise from the stripped-down architecture of the organism’s carbohydrate utilization pathways and its reliance on respiration for energy generation. The essential function profile thus provides fundamental insights into P. aeruginosa physiology as well as identifying candidate targets for new antibacterial agents. PMID:25848053

  6. Coculture of Staphylococcus aureus with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Drives S. aureus towards Fermentative Metabolism and Reduced Viability in a Cystic Fibrosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Filkins, Laura M.; Graber, Jyoti A.; Olson, Daniel G.; Dolben, Emily L.; Lynd, Lee R.; Bhuju, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The airways of patients with cystic fibrosis are colonized with diverse bacterial communities that change dynamically during pediatric years and early adulthood. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen during early childhood, but during late teens and early adulthood, a shift in microbial composition occurs leading to Pseudomonas aeruginosa community predominance in ∼50% of adults. We developed a robust dual-bacterial in vitro coculture system of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus on monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells homozygous for the ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation to better model the mechanisms of this interaction. We show that P. aeruginosa drives the S. aureus expression profile from that of aerobic respiration to fermentation. This shift is dependent on the production of both 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) and siderophores by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, S. aureus-produced lactate is a carbon source that P. aeruginosa preferentially consumes over medium-supplied glucose. We find that initially S. aureus and P. aeruginosa coexist; however, over extended coculture P. aeruginosa reduces S. aureus viability, also in an HQNO- and P. aeruginosa siderophore-dependent manner. Interestingly, S. aureus small-colony-variant (SCV) genetic mutant strains, which have defects in their electron transport chain, experience reduced killing by P. aeruginosa compared to their wild-type parent strains; thus, SCVs may provide a mechanism for persistence of S. aureus in the presence of P. aeruginosa. We propose that the mechanism of P. aeruginosa-mediated killing of S. aureus is multifactorial, requiring HQNO and P. aeruginosa siderophores as well as additional genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors. IMPORTANCE In individuals with cystic fibrosis, Staphylococcus aureus is the primary respiratory pathogen during childhood. During adulthood, Pseudomonas aeruginosa predominates and correlates

  7. Phosphorylated tyrosine in the flagellum filament protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly-Wintenberg, K.; Anderson, T.; Montie, T.C. )

    1990-09-01

    Purified flagella from two strains of {sup 32}P-labeled Pseudomonas aeruginosa were shown to be phosphorylated. This was confirmed by autoradiography of flagellin protein in polyacrylamide gels. Thin-layer electrophoresis and autoradiography of flagellin partial hydrolysates indicated that phosphotyrosine was the major phosphorylated amino acid. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of phosphotyrosine in flagellum filament protein. Preliminary data indicated that less than one tyrosine per subunit was phosphorylated. No evidence was found for phosphorylation of serine or threonine. A function related to tyrosine phosphorylation has not been determined.

  8. Optimization of Polymyxin B in Combination with Doripenem To Combat Mutator Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bulman, Zackery P.; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Baron, Christopher; Rao, Gauri G.; Holden, Patricia N.; Li, Jian; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Development of spontaneous mutations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been associated with antibiotic failure, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B combinations against rapidly evolving P. aeruginosa mutator strains and to characterize the time course of bacterial killing and resistance via mechanism-based mathematical models. Polymyxin B or doripenem alone and in combination were evaluated against six P. aeruginosa strains: wild-type PAO1, mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (mutS and mutL) strains, and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanosine system (GO) base excision repair (BER)-deficient (mutM, mutT, and mutY) strains over 48 h. Pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using S-ADAPT and facilitated by SADAPT-TRAN. Mutator strains displayed higher mutation frequencies than the wild type (>600-fold). Exposure to monotherapy was followed by regrowth, even at high polymyxin B concentrations of up to 16 mg/liter. Polymyxin B and doripenem combinations displayed enhanced killing activity against all strains where complete eradication was achieved for polymyxin B concentrations of >4 mg/liter and doripenem concentrations of 8 mg/liter. Modeling suggested that the proportion of preexisting polymyxin B-resistant subpopulations influenced the pharmacodynamic profiles for each strain uniquely (fraction of resistance values are −8.81 log10 for the wild type, −4.71 for the mutS mutant, and −7.40 log10 for the mutM mutant). Our findings provide insight into the optimization of polymyxin B and doripenem combinations against P. aeruginosa mutator strains. PMID:26926641

  9. In vivo selection of a target/efflux double mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ciprofloxacin therapy.

    PubMed

    Le Thomas, I; Couetdic, G; Clermont, O; Brahimi, N; Plésiat, P; Bingen, E

    2001-10-01

    We report the emergence after 4 days of ciprofloxacin monotherapy of a double mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa overexpressing the multidrug efflux system MexAB-OprM and harbouring a mutation in the gyrB gene. Compared with its initial susceptible counterpart, this mutant exhibited a significant increase in resistance to most of the beta-lactam antibiotics tested (16 x MIC of ticarcillin) and to ciprofloxacin (128 x MIC). Combined ceftazidime and amikacin therapy finally eradicated the resistant isolate and cured the patient of his infection. This case illustrates how strains of P. aeruginosa may develop high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance by combining efflux mechanisms and target alterations.

  10. Oil wastes as unconventional substrates for rhamnolipid biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Marcia; Costa, Siddhartha G V A O; Haddad, Renato; Gonçalves, Lireny A G; Eberlin, Marcos N; Contiero, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Oil wastes were evaluated as alternative low-cost substrates for the production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI strain. Wastes obtained from soybean, cottonseed, babassu, palm, and corn oil refinery were tested. The soybean soapstock waste was the best substrate, generating 11.7 g/L of rhamnolipids with a surface tension of 26.9 mN/m, a critical micelle concentration of 51.5 mg/L, and a production yield of 75%. The monorhamnolipid RhaC(10)C(10) predominates when P. aeruginosa LBI was cultivated on hydrophobic substrates, whereas hydrophilic carbon sources form the dirhamnolipid Rha(2)C(10)C(10) predominantly.

  11. Emergence of KPC-2-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sequence Type 463 Isolates in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yan-yan; Gu, Dan-xia; Cai, Jia-chang; Zhou, Hong-wei

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-nine Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, all exhibiting high-level resistance to carbapenems and other β-lactam antibiotics, were isolated in Hangzhou, China. Molecular epidemiology analysis indicated the presence of two dominant clones, namely, clones A and B, both of which belong to sequence type 463 (ST463). A genetic environment analysis demonstrated that both clones harbor an ISKpn8 transposase, blaKPC-2, and an ISKpn6-like transposase. These findings depict the features of clonal expansion and transmission of KPC-2-producing P. aeruginosa strains in Hangzhou, China. PMID:25691651

  12. Fatty acids from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with potent inhibitory effects on fish gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Bury, N R; Codd, G A; Wendelaaar Bonga, S E; Flik, G

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acids from two strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC 7820 (a strain that produces the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR, MC-LR) and CYA 43 (a strain that produces only small quantities of MC-LR), were extracted, partially characterised and tested for their inhibitory effect on the K+-dependent p-nitrophenol phosphatase (pNPPase) activity of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill basolateral membrane. Thin-layer chromatography of the lipids from dichloromethane:methanol extracts of M. aeruginosa PCC 7820 and CYA 43, using diethylether:isopropanol:formic acid (100:4.5:2.5) as solvent, yielded five inhibitory products from M. aeruginosa 7820 and six from M. aeruginosa CYA 43. None of these products could be related to MC-LR. The inhibitory behaviour of the products mimics that of a slow, tight-binding inhibitor. The inhibitory activity is removed by incubation of extracts with fatty-acid-free bovine serum albumin (FAF-BSA). However, FAF-BSA only partially reversed the inhibition of K+-dependent pNPPase on fish gills pre-exposed to the extracted products. We conclude that M. aeruginosa strains PCC 7820 and CYA 43 produce fatty acids with potent inhibitory effects on K+-dependent pNPPase. The release of these products following lysis of cyanobacterial blooms may help to explain fish kills through a disturbance of gill functioning.

  13. Silver-coated carbon nanotubes downregulate the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes: a potential mechanism for their antimicrobial effect.

    PubMed

    Dosunmu, Ejovwoke; Chaudhari, Atul A; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A; Pillai, Shreekumar R

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver-coated carbon nanotubes (AgCNTs) and their potential mode of action against mucoid and nonmucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated in vitro. The results showed that AgCNTs exhibited antimicrobial activity against both strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations of approximately 8 µg/mL, indicating a high sensitivity of P. aeruginosa to AgCNTs. AgCNTs were also bactericidal against both strains at the same minimum inhibitory concentration. Scanning and transmission electron-microscopy studies further revealed that a majority of the cells treated with AgCNTs transformed from smooth rod-shape morphology to disintegrated cells with broken/damaged membranes, resulting in leakage of cytoplasmic contents to produce ghost cells. The molecular effects of AgCNTs on P. aeruginosa genes involved in virulence and pathogenicity, stress response, and efflux pumps were evaluated for changes in their expression. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that after exposure to AgCNTs, the expression levels of the rpoS, rsmZ, and oprD genes were significantly downregulated in both strains of P. aeruginosa compared to the untreated samples. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of AgCNTs may be attributed to their effect on cell-membrane integrity, downregulation of virulence-gene expression, and induction of general and oxidative stress in P. aeruginosa.

  14. Loss of Social Behaviours in Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Lungs of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin; Diggle, Stephen P.; Scanlan, Pauline D.; Ghoul, Melanie; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Santorelli, Lorenzo A.; Popat, Roman; West, Stuart A.; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as the result of adaptation to the lung environment. Typically, chronic strains carry mutations in global regulation factors that could effect reduced expression of social traits, raising the possibility that competitive dynamics between cooperative and selfish, cheating strains could also drive changes in P. aeruginosa infections. We compared the expression of cooperative traits - biofilm formation, secretion of exo-products and quorum sensing (QS) - in P. aeruginosa isolates that were estimated to have spent different lengths of time in the lung based on clinical information. All three exo-products involved in nutrient acquisition were produced in significantly smaller quantities with increased duration of infection, and patterns across four QS signal molecules were consistent with accumulation over time of mutations in lasR, which are known to disrupt the ability of cells to respond to QS signal. Pyocyanin production, and the proportion of cells in biofilm relative to motile, free-living cells in liquid culture, did not change. Overall, our results confirm that the loss of social behaviour is a consistent trend with time spent in the lung and suggest that social dynamics are potentially relevant to understanding the behaviour of P. aeruginosa in lung infections. PMID:24454693

  15. Loss of social behaviours in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jiricny, Natalie; Molin, Søren; Foster, Kevin; Diggle, Stephen P; Scanlan, Pauline D; Ghoul, Melanie; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Santorelli, Lorenzo A; Popat, Roman; West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic, bacterial pathogen causing persistent and frequently fatal infections of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis. Isolates from chronic infections differ from laboratory and environmental strains in a range of traits and this is widely interpreted as the result of adaptation to the lung environment. Typically, chronic strains carry mutations in global regulation factors that could effect reduced expression of social traits, raising the possibility that competitive dynamics between cooperative and selfish, cheating strains could also drive changes in P. aeruginosa infections. We compared the expression of cooperative traits - biofilm formation, secretion of exo-products and quorum sensing (QS) - in P. aeruginosa isolates that were estimated to have spent different lengths of time in the lung based on clinical information. All three exo-products involved in nutrient acquisition were produced in significantly smaller quantities with increased duration of infection, and patterns across four QS signal molecules were consistent with accumulation over time of mutations in lasR, which are known to disrupt the ability of cells to respond to QS signal. Pyocyanin production, and the proportion of cells in biofilm relative to motile, free-living cells in liquid culture, did not change. Overall, our results confirm that the loss of social behaviour is a consistent trend with time spent in the lung and suggest that social dynamics are potentially relevant to understanding the behaviour of P. aeruginosa in lung infections.

  16. Sensitivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa to atrazine: effects of acclimation and mixed cultures, and their removal ability.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured. We demonstrated that both strains of M. aeruginosa had higher growth rate-based EC50 values than S. obliquus when exposed to atrazine, even though their photosynthesis-based EC50 values were lower. After being exposed to 0.1 µM of atrazine for 1 month, only the photosynthesis-based EC50 of S. obliquus increased significantly. In mixed cultures, the growth rate of the non-toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was higher than S. obliquus at high concentrations of atrazine, resulting in a ratio of M. aeruginosa to total cell count of 0.6. This lower sensitivity might be related to the higher growth rate of cyanobacteria at low light intensity. Finally, a negligible fraction of atrazine was removed from the culture media by S. obliquus or M. aeruginosa over 6 days. These results bring new insights on the acclimation of some phytoplankton species to atrazine and its effect on the competition between S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in mixed cultures.

  17. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from pet Chinese stripe-necked turtles (Ocadia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Our research sought to characterize the phylogeny of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from pet Chinese stripe-necked turtles (Ocadia sinensis) to better understand its evolutionary relation to other isolates and increase understanding of a potential zoonotic pathogen transmitted through direct contact with pet turtles. Thirty-one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were obtained from both immature and adult turtles sold in pet shops in Korea. To characterize the phylogenic position of Chinese stripe-necked turtle-borne P. aeruginosa relative to other strains, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was performed due to the accessibility and breadth of MLST databases. Seven housekeeping genes (acsA, aroE, guaA, mutL, nuoD, ppsA, and trpE) were sequenced and the results were compared with data from the MLST database. The genes were further used for phylogenetic analysis of P. aeruginosa using concatenated gene fragments. Both rooted and unrooted phylogenetic trees were generated. Eleven distinct sequence types were present within the isolates among which seven were new. Expanding an unrooted phylogenetic tree to include P. aeruginosa MLST sequences isolated from various other geographic locations and sources revealed a divergent cluster containing the majority of isolates obtained from turtles. This suggests that P. aeruginosa strains particularly well-adapted for inhabiting turtles occupy a distinct phylogenetic position. PMID:28053614

  18. Pyocyanin Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Confers Resistance to Ionic Silver

    PubMed Central

    Merrett, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Silver in its ionic form (Ag+), but not the bulk metal (Ag0), is toxic to microbial life forms and has been used for many years in the treatment of wound infections. The prevalence of bacterial resistance to silver is considered low due to the nonspecific nature of its toxicity. However, the recent increased use of silver as an antimicrobial agent for medical, consumer, and industrial products has raised concern that widespread silver resistance may emerge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen that produces pyocyanin, a redox toxin and a reductant for molecular oxygen and ferric (Fe3+) ions. The objective of this study was to determine whether pyocyanin reduces Ag+ to Ag0, which may contribute to silver resistance due to lower bioavailability of the cation. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, pyocyanin was confirmed to be a reductant for Ag+, forming Ag0 nanoparticles and reducing the bioavailability of free Ag+ by >95% within minutes. Similarly, a pyocyanin-producing strain of P. aeruginosa (PA14) reduced Ag+ but not a pyocyanin-deficient (ΔphzM) strain of the bacterium. Challenge of each strain with Ag+ (as AgNO3) gave MICs of 20 and 5 μg/ml for the PA14 and ΔphzM strains, respectively. Removal of pyocyanin from the medium strain PA14 was grown in or its addition to the medium that ΔphzM mutant was grown in gave MICs of 5 and 20 μg/ml, respectively. Clinical isolates demonstrated similar pyocyanin-dependent resistance to Ag+. We conclude that pseudomonal silver resistance exists independently of previously recognized intracellular mechanisms and may be more prevalent than previously considered. PMID:25001302

  19. Biotic inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Soh, Eliza Ye-Chen; Chhabra, Siri R; Halliday, Nigel; Heeb, Stephan; Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Fetzner, Susanne; Cámara, Miguel; Chan, Kok-Gan; Williams, Paul

    2015-11-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) regulates the production of secondary metabolites, many of which are antimicrobials that impact on polymicrobial community composition. Consequently, quenching QS modulates the environmental impact of P. aeruginosa. To identify bacteria capable of inactivating the QS signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), a minimal medium containing PQS as the sole carbon source was used to enrich a Malaysian rainforest soil sample. This yielded an Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain (Q19) that inactivated PQS, yielding a new fluorescent compound (I-PQS) confirmed as PQS-derived using deuterated PQS. The I-PQS structure was elucidated using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-heptyl-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-dione (HHQD). Achromobacter xylosoxidans Q19 oxidized PQS congeners with alkyl chains ranging from C1 to C5 and also N-methyl PQS, yielding the corresponding 2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-diones, but was unable to inactivate the PQS precursor HHQ. This indicates that the hydroxyl group at position 3 in PQS is essential and that A. xylosoxidans inactivates PQS via a pathway involving the incorporation of oxygen at C2 of the heterocyclic ring. The conversion of PQS to HHQD also occurred on incubation with 12/17 A. xylosoxidans strains recovered from cystic fibrosis patients, with P. aeruginosa and with Arthrobacter, suggesting that formation of hydroxylated PQS may be a common mechanism of inactivation.

  20. Swimming Motility Mediates the Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induced by Flagellated Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Payel; Chassaing, Benoit; Yoo, Dae-goon; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; McCarter, Linda L.; Rada, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe infections often characterized by robust neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophils provide the first line of defense against P. aeruginosa. Aside from their defense conferred by phagocytic activity, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to immobilize bacteria. Although NET formation is an important antimicrobial process, the details of its mechanism are largely unknown. The identity of the main components of P. aeruginosa responsible for triggering NET formation is unclear. In this study, our focus was to identify the main bacterial factors mediating NET formation and to gain insight into the underlying mechanism. We found that P. aeruginosa in its exponential growth phase promoted strong NET formation in human neutrophils while its NET-inducing ability dramatically decreased at later stages of bacterial growth. We identified the flagellum as the primary component of P. aeruginosa responsible for inducing NET extrusion as flagellum-deficient bacteria remained seriously impaired in triggering NET formation. Purified P. aeruginosa flagellin, the monomeric component of the flagellum, does not stimulate NET formation in human neutrophils. P. aeruginosa-induced NET formation is independent of the flagellum-sensing receptors TLR5 and NLRC4 in both human and mouse neutrophils. Interestingly, we found that flagellar motility, not flagellum binding to neutrophils per se, mediates NET release induced by flagellated bacteria. Immotile, flagellar motor-deficient bacterial strains producing paralyzed flagella did not induce NET formation. Forced contact between immotile P. aeruginosa and neutrophils restored their NET-inducing ability. Both the motAB and motCD genetic loci encoding flagellar motor genes contribute to maximal NET release; however the motCD genes play a more important role. Phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa and superoxide production by neutrophils were also largely dependent upon

  1. Anaerobic activation of the entire denitrification pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires Anr, an analog of Fnr.

    PubMed

    Ye, R W; Haas, D; Ka, J O; Krishnapillai, V; Zimmermann, A; Baird, C; Tiedje, J M

    1995-06-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene anr, which encodes a structural and functional analog of the anaerobic regulator Fnr in Escherichia coli, was mapped to the SpeI fragment R, which is at about 59 min on the genomic map of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 grew under anaerobic conditions with nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide as alternative electron acceptors. An anr deletion mutant, PAO6261, was constructed. It was unable to grow with these alternative electron acceptors; however, its ability to denitrify was restored upon the introduction of the wild-type anr gene. In addition, the activities of two enzymes in the denitrification pathway, nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase, were not detectable under oxygen-limiting conditions in strain PAO6261 but were restored when complemented with the anr+ gene. These results indicate that the anr gene product plays a key role in anaerobically activating the entire denitrification pathway.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: arsenal of resistance mechanisms, decades of changing resistance profiles, and future antimicrobial therapies.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Al Thani, Asmaa A; Webster, Thomas J; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Schweizer, Herbert P; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Marei, Hany E; Ashour, Hossam M

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health issues facing humans since the discovery of antimicrobial agents. The frequent, prolonged, and uncontrolled use of antimicrobial agents are major factors in the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant variants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. The abundant data on the increased resistance to antipseudomonal agents support the need for global action. There is a paucity of new classes of antibiotics active against P. aeruginosa. Here, we discuss recent antibacterial resistance profiles and mechanisms of resistance by P. aeruginosa. We also review future potential methods for controlling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as phage therapy, nanotechnology and antipseudomonal vaccines.

  3. Rheological characteristics of microbial suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Al-Asheh, Sameer; Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Abunasser, Nadia; Barakat, Afaf

    2002-04-08

    The rheological properties of the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus have been investigated. The apparent viscosity of the bacterial suspensions has been measured at different conditions. The results showed that the bacterial suspensions' apparent viscosity increased with increasing biomass concentration of each of these strains. The P. aeruginosa suspension followed shear thinning behavior while B. cereus suspension followed shear thickening behavior. The shear stress versus shear rate experimental data were best represented by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The apparent viscosity of the P. aeruginosa and B. cereus suspensions decreased with increasing temperature. The relationship between the apparent viscosity and the shearing time highlighted the rheopectic behavior of the suspensions used in this work.

  4. Reducing Virulence and Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Potential Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Carotenoid: Zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Gökalsın, Barış; Aksoydan, Busecan; Erman, Burak; Sesal, Nüzhet Cenk

    2017-03-02

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can regulate its virulence gene expressions by using a signal system called quorum sensing. It is known that inhibition of quorum sensing can block biofilm formation and leave the bacteria defenseless. Therefore, it is necessary to determine natural sources to obtain potential quorum sensing inhibitors. This study aims to investigate an alternative treatment approach by utilizing the carotenoid zeaxanthin to reduce the expressions of P. aeruginosa virulence factors through quorum sensing inhibition. The inhibition potential of zeaxanthin was determined by in silico screening from a library of 638 lichen metabolites. Fluorescent monitor strains were utilized for quorum sensing inhibitor screens, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay was performed for evaluating gene expression. Results indicate that zeaxanthin is a better inhibitor than the lichen secondary metabolite evernic acid, which was previously shown to be capable of inhibiting P. aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

  5. Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Désirée; Cesaro, Simone; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Manicone, Rosaria; Livadiotti, Susanna; Cellini, Monica; Frenos, Stefano; Milano, Giuseppe M.; Cappelli, Barbara; Licciardello, Maria; Beretta, Chiara; Aricò, Maurizio; Castagnola, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one leading gram-negative organism associated with nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is life-threatening in the immunocompromised host. Increasing frequency of multi-drug-resistant (MDRPA) strains is concerning. We started a retrospective survey in the pediatric hematology oncology Italian network. Between 2000 and 2008, 127 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia were reported from 12 centers; 31.4% of isolates were MDRPA. Death within 30 days of a positive blood culture occurred in 19.6% (25/127) of total patients; in patients with MDRPA infection it occurred in 35.8% (14/39). In the multivariate analysis, only MDRPA had significant association with infection-related death. This is the largest series of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia cases from pediatric hematology oncology centers. Monitoring local bacterial isolates epidemiology is mandatory and will allow empiric antibiotic therapy to be tailored to reduce fatalities. PMID:20305140

  6. Genes involved in copper resistance influence survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on copper surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elguindi, Jutta; Wagner, Janine; Rensing, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on copper cast alloys and the influence of genes on survival on copper containing medium and surfaces. Methods and Results Different strains of P. aeruginosa were inoculated on copper containing medium or different copper cast alloys and the survival rate determined. The survival rates were compared to rates on copper-free medium and stainless steel as control. In addition, the effect of temperature on survival was examined. Conclusions Copper cast alloys had previously shown to be bactericidal to various bacteria but the mechanism of copper-mediated killing is still not known. In this report we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa PAO1 is rapidly killed on different copper cast alloys and that genes involved in conferring copper resistance in copper-containing medium also influenced survival on copper cast alloys. We also show that the rate of killing is influenced by temperature. PMID:19239551

  7. Effects of calcium levels on colonial aggregation and buoyancy of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Wen; Zhao, Jie; Li, Jian-Hong; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Li-Hua; Wu, Min

    2011-02-01

    Colonial aggregation of Microcystis plays a key role in bloom formation. Limited studies have been reported about effects of environmental factors on the aggregation of Microcystis. Calcium is an important chemical element in water system. In this study, we investigated the effects of a low- (0.015 g l⁻¹) and a high-concentration of calcium (0.100 g l⁻¹) on the aggregation and buoyancy of a colonial strain M. aeruginosa XW01. Results show that compared to the low concentration of calcium, the high-calcium condition results in bigger colonial size, higher level of buoyancy and increased production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of M. aeruginosa XW01. Increased production of EPS induced by the high-calcium concentration should contribute to the colonial aggregation and buoyancy of M. aeruginosa XW01. These results suggest that an increase in calcium concentration may be beneficial for Microcystis blooms occurring in a soft water lake.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a neonatal intensive care unit: molecular epidemiology and infection control measures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a non-fermentative, gram-negative rod, is responsible for a wide variety of clinical syndromes in NICU patients, including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and skin infections. An increased number of infections and colonisations by P. aeruginosa has been observed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our university hospital between 2005 and 2007. Methods Hand disinfection compliance before and after an educational programme on hand hygiene was evaluated. Identification of microrganisms was performed using conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by MIC microdilution. Genotyping was performed by PFGE analysis. Results The molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the NICU of the Federico II University hospital (Naples, Italy) and the infection control measures adopted to stop the spreading of P. aeruginosa in the ward were described. From July 2005 to June 2007, P. aeruginosa was isolated from 135 neonates and caused severe infections in 11 of them. Macrorestriction analysis of clinical isolates from 90 neonates identified 20 distinct genotypes, one major PFGE type (A) being isolated from 48 patients and responsible for 4 infections in 4 of them, four other distinct recurrent genotypes being isolated in 6 to 4 patients. Seven environmental strains were isolated from the hand of a nurse and from three sinks on two occasions, two of these showing PFGE profiles A and G identical to two clinical isolates responsible for infection. The successful control of the outbreak was achieved through implementation of active surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in the ward together with environmental microbiological sampling and an intense educational programme on hand disinfection among the staff members. Conclusion P. aeruginosa infections in the NICU were caused by the cross-transmission of an epidemic clone in 4 neonates, and by the selection of sporadic clones in 7

  9. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2017-03-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fitness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic efficiency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our findings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  10. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2016-05-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fi tness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield (F v/F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic effi ciency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our fi ndings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  11. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa oxyvinylglycine L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid inhibits growth of Erwinia amylovora and acts as a weak seed germination-arrest factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimetabolite L-2-amino-4-methoxy-trans-3-butenoic acid (AMB) is demonstrated to share biological activities with 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine, a related molecule produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6. We found that culture filtrates of a P. aeruginosa strain overproduc...

  12. Autolysis and autoaggregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa colony morphology mutants.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, David A; Calfee, M Worth; Rainey, Paul B; Pesci, Everett C

    2002-12-01

    Two distinctive colony morphologies were noted in a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transposon insertion mutants. One set of mutants formed wrinkled colonies of autoaggregating cells. Suppressor analysis of a subset of these mutants showed that this was due to the action of the regulator WspR and linked this regulator (and the chemosensory pathway to which it belongs) to genes that encode a putative fimbrial adhesin required for biofilm formation. WspR homologs, related in part by a shared GGDEF domain, regulate cell surface factors, including aggregative fimbriae and exopolysaccharides, in diverse bacteria. The second set of distinctive insertion mutants formed colonies that lysed at their center. Strains with the most pronounced lysis overproduced the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), an extracellular signal that interacts with quorum sensing. Autolysis was suppressed by mutation of genes required for PQS biosynthesis, and in one suppressed mutant, autolysis was restored by addition of synthetic PQS. The mechanism of autolysis may involve activation of the endogenous prophage and phage-related pyocins in the genome of strain PAO1. The fact that PQS levels correlated with autolysis suggests a fine balance in natural populations of P. aeruginosa between survival of the many and persistence of the few.

  13. Adaptation of Iron Homeostasis Pathways by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyoverdine Mutant in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Angela T.; O'Neill, Maura J.; Watts, Annabelle M.; Robson, Cynthia L.; Lamont, Iain L.; Wilks, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from chronic bacterial lung infections, most notably by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which persists for decades in the lungs and undergoes extensive evolution. P. aeruginosa requires iron for virulence and uses the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdine to scavenge and solubilize ferric iron during acute infections. Pyoverdine mutants accumulate in the lungs of some CF patients, however, suggesting that the heme and ferrous iron acquisition pathways of P. aeruginosa are more important in this environment. Here, we sought to determine how evolution of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung affects iron acquisition and regulatory pathways through the use of longitudinal CF isolates. These analyses demonstrated a significant reduction of siderophore production during the course of CF lung infection in nearly all strains tested. Mass spectrometry analysis of one of these strains showed that the later CF isolate has streamlined the metabolic flux of extracellular heme through the HemO heme oxygenase, resulting in more-efficient heme utilization. Moreover, gene expression analysis shows that iron regulation via the PrrF small RNAs (sRNAs) is enhanced in the later CF isolate. Finally, analysis of P. aeruginosa gene expression in the lungs of various CF patients demonstrates that both PrrF and HemO are consistently expressed in the CF lung environment. Combined, these results suggest that heme is a critical source of iron during prolonged infection of the CF lung and that changes in iron and heme regulatory pathways play a crucial role in adaptation of P. aeruginosa to this ever-changing host environment. PMID:24727222

  14. A major Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone common to patients and aquatic habitats.

    PubMed Central

    Römling, U; Wingender, J; Müller, H; Tümmler, B

    1994-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 573 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from environmental and clinical habitats was examined by digesting the genome with the rare-cutting enzyme SpeI. Thirty-nine strains were collected from environmental habitats mainly of aquatic origin, like rivers, lakes, or sanitary facilities. Four hundred fifty strains were collected from 76 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) treated at four different centers, and 25 additional clinical isolates were collected from patients suffering from other diseases. Twenty-nine P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from the environment of one CF clinic. Thirty strains from culture collections were of environmental and clinic origin. A common macrorestriction fingerprint pattern was found in 13 of 46 CF patients, 5 of 29 environmental isolates from the same hospital, in a single ear infection isolate from another hospital, and 8 of 38 isolates from aquatic habitats about 300 km away from the CF clinic. The data indicate that closely related variants of one major clone (called clone C) persisted in various spatially and temporally separated habitats. Southern analysis of the clonal variants with six gene probes and two probes for genes coding for rRNA revealed almost the same hybridization patterns. With the exception of the phenotypically rapidly evolving CF isolates, the close relatedness of the strains of the clone was also shown by their identical responses in pyocin typing, phage typing, and serotyping. Besides clone C, three other P. aeruginosa clones were isolated from more than one clinical or environmental source. Images PMID:8031075

  15. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal cells injured by influenza infection or by endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R; Small, P M; Shands, J W; Fischlschweiger, W; Small, P A

    1980-01-01

    Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal, injured, and regenerating tracheal mucosa was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Uninfected and influenza-infected murine tracheas were exposed to six strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from human sources and one strain of platn origin. All of the strains tested adhered to desquamating cells of the infected tracheas, but not to normal mucosa, the basal cell layer, or the regenerating epithelium. Adherence increased when the incubation time of the bacteria with the trachea was prolonged. Strains isolated from human tracheas appeared to adhere better than strains derived from the urinary tract. After endotracheal intubation of ferrets, P. aeruginosa adhered only to the injured cells and to areas of exposed basement membrane. We call this phenomenon "opportunistic adherence" and propose that alteration of the cell surfaces or cell injury facilitates the adherence of this bacterium and that adherence to injured cells may be a key to the pathogenesis of opportunistic Pseudomonas infections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:6769805

  16. Spatial Mapping of Pyocyanin in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacterial Communities Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Polisetti, Sneha; Baig, Nameera F; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Shrout, Joshua D; Bohn, Paul W

    2017-02-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging was used in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) for the in situ spatiotemporal mapping of the virulence factor pyocyanin in communities of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combination of SERS imaging and PCA analysis provides a robust method for the characterization of heterogeneous biological systems while circumventing issues associated with interference from sample autofluorescence and low reproducibility of SERS signals. The production of pyocyanin is found to depend both on the growth carbon source and on the specific strain of P. aeruginosa studied. A cystic fibrosis lung isolate strain of P. aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes pyocyanin when grown with glucose and glutamate, while the laboratory strain exhibits detectable production of pyocyanin only when grown with glutamate as the source of carbon. Pyocyanin production in the laboratory strain grown with glucose was below the limit of detection of SERS. In addition, the combination of SERS imaging and PCA can elucidate subtle differences in the molecular composition of biofilms. PCA loading plots from the clinical isolate exhibit features corresponding to vibrational bands of carbohydrates, which represent the mucoid biofilm matrix specific to that isolate, features that are not seen in the PCA loading plots of the laboratory strain.

  17. Post-antibiotic effect of orbifloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-20

    Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used widely in companion animal medicine. In this study, we firstly determined post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) and post-antibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) effects (PA-SMEs) of orbifloxacin for two strains each of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dogs, and these parameters were compared with those of enrofloxacin. At twice the MIC, the PAEs of orbifloxacin ranged from -0.28-0.93 h (mean, 0.29 h) for E. coli and -0.18-1.18 h (mean, 0.37 h) for P. aeruginosa. These parameters were not significantly different for E. coli and shorter for P. aeruginosa, compared to enrofloxacin (P < 0.05). Continued exposure to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 the MIC of orbifloxacin resulted in average PA-SMEs of 0.55, 1.11, and 2.03 h, respectively, for E. coli, and 1.04, 1.40, and 2.47 h, respectively, for P. aeruginosa. These PA-SMEs, which had no significant differences with those of enrofloxacin, were significantly longer than the corresponding PAEs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PA-SME of orbifloxacin for E. coli and P. aeruginosa can be meaningfully prolonged by increase of sub-MICs.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pyocyanin Induces Neutrophil Death via Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Acid Sphingomyelinase

    PubMed Central

    Managò, Antonella; Becker, Katrin Anne; Carpinteiro, Alexander; Wilker, Barbara; Soddemann, Matthias; Seitz, Aaron P.; Edwards, Michael J.; Grassmé, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pulmonary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a serious clinical problem and are often lethal. Because many strains of P. aeruginosa are resistant to antibiotics, therapeutic options are limited. Neutrophils play an important role in the host's early acute defense against pulmonary P. aeruginosa. Therefore, it is important to define the mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa interacts with host cells, particularly neutrophils. Results: Here, we report that pyocyanin, a membrane-permeable pigment and toxin released by P. aeruginosa, induces the death of wild-type neutrophils; its interaction with the mitochondrial respiratory chain results in the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of mitochondrial acid sphingomyelinase, the formation of mitochondrial ceramide, and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. A genetic deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase prevents both the activation of this pathway and pyocyanin-induced neutrophil death. This reduced death, on the other hand, is associated with an increase in the release of interleukin-8 from pyocyanin-activated acid sphingomyelinase-deficient neutrophils but not from wild-type cells. Innovation: These studies identified the mechanisms by which pyocyanin induces the release of mitochondrial ROS and by which ROS induce neutrophil death via mitochondrial acid sphingomyelinase. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of pyocyanin-induced death of neutrophils and show how this apoptosis balances innate immune reactions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1097–1110. PMID:25686490

  19. The role of 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Jordon D.; Chen, Wei; Parnham, Stuart; Beauchesne, Kevin; Moeller, Peter; Flume, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria synchronize group behaviors using quorum sensing, which is advantageous during an infection to thwart immune cell attack and resist deleterious changes in the environment. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (Pqs) quorum-sensing system is an important component of an interconnected intercellular communication network. Two alkylquinolones, 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ) and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS), activate transcriptional regulator PqsR to promote the production of quinolone signals and virulence factors. Our work focused on the most abundant quinolone produced from the Pqs system, 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ), which was shown previously to sustain pyocyanin production and antifungal activity of P. aeruginosa. However, little is known about how DHQ affects P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. Using C. elegans as a model for P. aeruginosa infection, we found pqs mutants only able to produce DHQ maintained virulence towards the nematodes similar to wild-type. In addition, DHQ-only producing mutants displayed increased colonization of C. elegans and virulence factor production compared to a quinolone-null strain. DHQ also bound to PqsR and activated the transcription of pqs operon. More importantly, high extracellular concentration of DHQ was maintained in both aerobic and anaerobic growth. High levels of DHQ were also detected in the sputum samples of cystic fibrosis patients. Taken together, our findings suggest DHQ may play an important role in sustaining P. aeruginosa pathogenicity under oxygen-limiting conditions. PMID:26788419

  20. Impact of sonication at 20 kHz on Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena circinalis and Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, Pradeep; Fan, Linhua; Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A

    2012-04-01

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa periodically occur within wastewater treatment lagoons in the warmer months, and may consequently cause contamination of downstream water and outages of the supply of recycled wastewater. Lab-scale sonication (20 kHz) was conducted on suspensions of M. aeruginosa isolated from a wastewater treatment lagoon, and two other algal strains, Anabaena circinalis and Chlorella sp., to investigate cell reduction, growth inhibition, release of microcystin and sonication efficiency in controlling the growth of the M. aeruginosa. For M. aeruginosa, for all sonication intensities and exposure times trialled, sonication led to an immediate reduction in the population, the highest reduction rate occurring within the initial 5 min. Sonication for 5 min at 0.32 W/mL, or for a longer exposure time (>10 min) at a lower power intensity (0.043 W/mL), led to an immediate increase in microcystin level in the treated suspensions. However, prolonged exposure (>10 min) to sonication at higher power intensities reduced the microcystin concentration significantly. Under the same sonication conditions, the order of decreasing growth inhibition of the three algal species was: A. circinalis > M. aeruginosa > Chlorella sp., demonstrating sonication has the potential to selectively remove/deactivate harmful cyanobacteria from the algal communities in wastewater treatment lagoons.

  1. Role of pili in the adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to mouse epidermal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Okinaga, K

    1987-01-01

    Pili have been demonstrated to be the adhesins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for mouse epidermal cells. The mechanisms of adhesion of P. aeruginosa to mouse epidermal cells was studied by using four mutants derived from a single strain: flagellated and piliated (F+P+), flagellated and nonpiliated (F+P-), nonflagellated and piliated (F-P+), and nonflagellated and nonpiliated (F-P-) mutants. F+P+ and F-P+ bacteria efficiently adhered to mouse epidermal cells, while F+P- and F-P- bacteria hardly adhered to mouse epidermal cells. The number of F+P+ bacteria that adhered to mouse epidermal cells was almost the same as that of F-P+ bacteria. The number of F+P- bacteria that adhered to mouse epidermal cells was almost the same as that of F-P- bacteria. The adhesion of P+ (F+P+ and F-P+) bacteria was inhibited by antipilus serum, while that of P- (F+P- and F-P-) bacteria was not inhibited by antipilus serum. There were no significant differences between the number of bacteria adhering to mouse epidermal cells isolated from normal skin and those adhering to cells isolated from burned skin. Heating of the mouse epidermal cell suspension had no effect on the adhesion of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that pili mediate the adhesion of P. aeruginosa to mouse epidermal cells and that P. aeruginosa adheres efficiently to mouse epidermal cells despite the loss of cell viability caused by burning. PMID:2886430

  2. Recent advances in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy, and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. New results from one small trial suggest that addition of oral ciprofloxacin to inhaled tobramycin may reduce lung inflammation. Clinical trials with new formulations of old antibiotics for inhalation therapy (aztreonam lysine) against chronic P. aeruginosa infection improved patient-reported outcome, lung function, time to acute exacerbations and sputum density of P. aeruginosa. Other drugs such as quinolones are currently under investigation for inhalation therapy. A trial of the use of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics for long-term prophylaxis showed no effect in patients who were not already infected. Use of azithromycin to treat CF patients without P. aeruginosa infection did not improve lung function. Here I review the recent advances in the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections with a focus on inhalation treatments targeted at prophylaxis and chronic suppressive therapy. PMID:21463524

  3. Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Enhances Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Persister Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Geetika S.; Yao, Xiangyu; Wang, Jing; Peng, Bo; Bader, Rebecca A.; Ren, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial persister cells are highly tolerant to antibiotics and cause chronic infections. However, little is known about the interaction between host immune systems with this subpopulation of metabolically inactive cells, and direct effects of host immune factors (in the absence of immune cells) on persister cells have not been studied. Here we report that human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can sensitize the persister cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to multiple antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin. GM-CSF also sensitized the biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PDO300 to tobramycin in the presence of biofilm matrix degrading enzymes. The DNA microarray and qPCR results indicated that GM-CSF induced the genes for flagellar motility and pyocin production in the persister cells, but not the normal cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Consistently, the supernatants from GM-CSF treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 persister cell suspensions were found cidal to the pyocin sensitive strain P. aeruginosa PAK. Collectively, these findings suggest that host immune factors and bacterial persisters may directly interact, leading to enhanced susceptibility of persister cells to antibiotics. PMID:26616387

  4. Characterization of Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Mohammad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Ekrami, Alireza; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most problematic hospital and community-acquired pathogens. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are maintenance regulatory systems in bacteria and have recently been considered new targets for antimicrobial therapy. The prevalence and transcription of these systems in clinical isolates are still unknown. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize three types of TA systems (parDE, relBE, and higBA) among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: We typed our clinical isolates by ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction) and BOX-PCR. We then investigated 174 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from three hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, for the presence of TA system genes, and determined whether these systems were encoded on chromosomes or plasmids by amplification of the flanking regions. Results: Our results showed that in the 174 P. aeruginosa isolates, relBE and higBA were universal, but parDE was less prevalent. Both of the flanking regions of the parDE genes in all positive isolates were amplified. The flanking regions of nearly all relBE genes were amplified. Amplification was observed for the downstream sequence of every higBA locus, as well as for the region upstream of higBA, except in 14 strains. Conclusions: Based on the presence of TA systems in the majority of P. aeruginosa isolates, these could be used as a novel target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27099681

  5. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Manuel R.; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the

  6. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Manuel R; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa KUCD1, a possible candidate for cadmium bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sangram; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2009-01-01

    A cadmium (8 mM) resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KUCd1 exhibiting high Cd accumulation under in vitro aerobic condition has been reported. The isolate showed a significant ability to remove more than 75% and 89% of the soluble cadmium during the active growth phase from the growth medium and from Cd-amended industrial wastewater under growth supportive condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) suggest the presence of Cd in the cells from mid stationary phase. The cell fractionation study revealed membrane and periplasm to be the major accumulating site in this strain. The chemical nature of the accumulated Cd was studied by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. PMID:24031411

  8. The transcriptional regulator Np20 is the zinc uptake regulator in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Matthew L; Farrow, John M; Farrow, John Matthew; Parrish, Whitney; Danell, Allison S; Pesci, Everett C

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is essential for all bacteria, but excess amounts of the metal can have toxic effects. To address this, bacteria have developed tightly regulated zinc uptake systems, such as the ZnuABC zinc transporter which is regulated by the Fur-like zinc uptake regulator (Zur). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Zur protein has yet to be identified experimentally, however, sequence alignment revealed that the zinc-responsive transcriptional regulator Np20, encoded by np20 (PA5499), shares high sequence identity with Zur found in other bacteria. In this study, we set out to determine whether Np20 was functioning as Zur in P. aeruginosa. Using RT-PCR, we determined that np20 (hereafter known as zur) formed a polycistronic operon with znuC and znuB. Mutant strains, lacking the putative znuA, znuB, or znuC genes were found to grow poorly in zinc deplete conditions as compared to wild-type strain PAO1. Intracellular zinc concentrations in strain PAO-Zur (Δzur) were found to be higher than those for strain PAO1, further implicating the zur as the zinc uptake regulator. Reporter gene fusions and real time RT-PCR revealed that transcription of znuA was repressed in a zinc-dependent manner in strain PAO1, however zinc-dependent transcriptional repression was alleviated in strain PAO-Zur, suggesting that the P. aeruginosa Zur homolog (ZurPA) directly regulates expression of znuA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays also revealed that recombinant ZurPA specifically binds to the promoter region of znuA and does not bind in the presence of the zinc chelator N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN). Taken together, these data support the notion that Np20 is the P. aeruginosa Zur, which regulates the transcription of the genes encoding the high affinity ZnuABC zinc transport system.

  9. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  10. [Evaluation of a hospital outbreak related to carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Cekin, Yeşim; Karagöz, Alper; Kızılateş, Filiz; Cekin, Ayhan Hilmi; Oztoprak Çuvalcı, Nefise; Bülbüller, Nurullah; Durmaz, Rıza

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes opportunistic infections and hospital outbreaks. During October 2012, carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa strains with similar antibiotic resistance patterns, were isolated from specimens sent from the intensive care and plastic surgery units in our hospital. Thus a hospital outbreak was suspected. The microbiology laboratory database was retrospectively searched and all strains of P.aeruginosa isolated during the four month period, starting with the initial carbapenem-resistant strain in August 2012, was evaluated as a hospital outbreak. The aim of this study was to define the outbreak by investigating the clonal relationship between the strains, to detect the potential environmental sources and to evaluate the period of the outbreak, risk factors and the efficiency of infection control measures. The study was conducted between August-November 2012. Twenty patients with carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa (CRPA) positive cultures were included in the study. The control group consisted of 22 patients with carbapenem-susceptible P.aeruginosa (CSPA) positive cultures. The clonal relationship between 26 CRPA strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The PFGE results indicated that CRPA strains in our hospital were not related to a single clone, however, there were four major clones composed of four to eight strains. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk increased 15.7 fold (95% CI: 1.19-207.76) by the use of carbapenem, 76.8 fold (95% CI: 2.03-2901.30) by surgical procedures and 0.787 fold (95% CI: 0.63-0.97) by the duration of hospital stay. Surveillance cultures from health-care personel and the environment performed in course of the outbreak, yielded no growth of a strain with the similar antibiotic resistance pattern. The spread of CRPA has been controlled by the use of effective precautionary measures, regressing the isolate number to 0-1 strain/month. Since

  11. The aliphatic amidase AmiE is involved in regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence

    PubMed Central

    Clamens, Thomas; Rosay, Thibaut; Crépin, Alexandre; Grandjean, Teddy; Kentache, Takfarinas; Hardouin, Julie; Bortolotti, Perrine; Neidig, Anke; Mooij, Marlies; Hillion, Mélanie; Vieillard, Julien; Cosette, Pascal; Overhage, Joerg; O’Gara, Fergal; Bouffartigues, Emeline; Dufour, Alain; Chevalier, Sylvie; Guery, Benoit; Cornelis, Pierre; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that the eukaryotic C-type natriuretic peptide hormone (CNP) regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation after binding on the AmiC sensor, triggering the amiE transcription. Herein, the involvement of the aliphatic amidase AmiE in P. aeruginosa virulence regulation has been investigated. The proteome analysis of an AmiE over-producing strain (AmiE+) revealed an expression change for 138 proteins, including some that are involved in motility, synthesis of quorum sensing compounds and virulence regulation. We observed that the AmiE+ strain produced less biofilm compared to the wild type, and over-produced rhamnolipids. In the same line, AmiE is involved in P. aeruginosa motilities (swarming and twitching) and production of the quorum sensing molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones and Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS). We observed that AmiE overproduction reduced levels of HCN and pyocyanin causing a decreased virulence in different hosts (i.e. Dictyostelium discoideum and Caenorhabditis elegans). This phenotype was further confirmed in a mouse model of acute lung infection, in which AmiE overproduction resulted in an almost fully virulence decrease. Taken together, our data suggest that, in addition to its role in bacterial secondary metabolism, AmiE is involved in P. aeruginosa virulence regulation by modulating pilus synthesis and cell-to-cell communication. PMID:28117457

  12. Characterization of the first double-stranded RNA bacteriophage infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuhui; Lu, Shuguang; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Mengyu; Tan, Yinling; Li, Gang; Li, Ming; Wang, Jing; Hu, Fuquan; Le, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages) are widely distributed in the biosphere and play a key role in modulating microbial ecology in the soil, ocean, and humans. Although the role of DNA bacteriophages is well described, the biology of RNA bacteriophages is poorly understood. More than 1900 phage genomes are currently deposited in NCBI, but only 6 dsRNA bacteriophages and 12 ssRNA bacteriophages genome sequences are reported. The 6 dsRNA bacteriophages were isolated from legume samples or lakes with Pseudomonas syringae as the host. Here, we report the first Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage phiYY with a three-segmented dsRNA genome. phiYY was isolated from hospital sewage in China with the clinical P. aeruginosa strain, PAO38, as a host. Moreover, the dsRNA phage phiYY has a broad host range, which infects 99 out of 233 clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from four provinces in China. This work presented a detailed characterization of the dsRNA bacteriophage infecting P. aeruginosa. PMID:27934909

  13. Prevalence and Clonal Dissemination of Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Akya, Alisha; Salimi, Afsaneh; Nomanpour, Bizhan; Ahmadi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The emergence and dissemination of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has contributed to the high rate of resistance among P. aeruginosa isolates. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and the clonal dissemination of MBL- producing P. aeruginosa isolates collected from major hospitals in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The MBLs were investigated using the Double-Disk Synergy Test (DDST) and Polymerase Chain Reaction. Molecular typing was performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Results: Of the 60 P. aeruginosa isolates included in this study, 30 (50%) were resistant to Gentamicin, 38 (63.3%) to Piperacillin, 42 (70%) to Ceftazidime, and 45 (75%) to Cefepime. Twenty-nine (48.3%) isolates were MBL producers in the DDST test. Five (8.3%) isolates were positive for the VIM gene. PFGE analysis among the MBL producers revealed 12 distinct clonal patterns. Conclusions: The inter- and intra-hospital dissemination of resistant clones is a matter of concern and is an indicator of the level of the improvement and surveillance of standard hygiene, particularly disinfection and hand washing before and after contact with patients. Given the emergence of MBL-producing strains, surveillance has become an important procedure to control the transmission of resistant strains. PMID:26421137

  14. Label-free molecular imaging of bacterial communities of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Nameera; Polisetti, Sneha; Morales-Soto, Nydia; Dunham, Sage J. B.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Shrout, Joshua D.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2016-09-01

    Biofilms, such as those formed by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are complex, matrix enclosed, and surface-associated communities of cells. Bacteria that are part of a biofilm community are much more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than their free-floating counterparts. P. aeruginosa biofilms are associated with persistent and chronic infections in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and HIV-AIDS. P. aeruginosa synthesizes and secretes signaling molecules such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) which are implicated in quorum sensing (QS), where bacteria regulate gene expression based on population density. Processes such as biofilms formation and virulence are regulated by QS. This manuscript describes the powerful molecular imaging capabilities of confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) for studying the spatiotemporal distribution of signaling molecules, secondary metabolites and virulence factors in biofilm communities of P. aeruginosa. Our observations reveal that the laboratory strain PAO1C synthesizes and secretes 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxides and 2-alkyl-4-hydroxyquinolones in high abundance, while the isogenic acyl homoserine lactone QS-deficient mutant (ΔlasIΔrhlI) strain produces predominantly 2-alkyl-quinolones during biofilm formation. This study underscores the use of CRM, along with traditional biological tools such as genetics, for studying the behavior of microbial communities at the molecular level.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa serA Gene Is Required for Bacterial Translocation through Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masashi; Nagata, Syouya; Yamane, Satoshi; Kunikata, Chinami; Kida, Yutaka; Kuwano, Koichi; Suezawa, Chigusa; Okuda, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To specify critical factors responsible for Pseudomonas aeruginosa penetration through the Caco-2 cell epithelial barrier, we analyzed transposon insertion mutants that demonstrated a dramatic reduction in penetration activity relative to P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. From these strains, mutations could be grouped into five classes, specifically flagellin-associated genes, pili-associated genes, heat-shock protein genes, genes related to the glycolytic pathway, and biosynthesis-related genes. Of these mutants, we here focused on the serA mutant, as the association between this gene and penetration activity is yet unknown. Inactivation of the serA gene caused significant repression of bacterial penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers with decreased swimming and swarming motilities, bacterial adherence, and fly mortality rate, as well as repression of ExoS secretion; however, twitching motility was not affected. Furthermore, L-serine, which is known to inhibit the D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity of the SerA protein, caused significant reductions in penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers, swarming and swimming motilities, bacterial adherence to Caco-2 cells, and virulence in flies in the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Together, these results suggest that serA is associated with bacterial motility and adherence, which are mediated by flagella that play a key role in the penetration of P. aeruginosa through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Oral administration of L-serine to compromised hosts might have the potential to interfere with bacterial translocation and prevent septicemia caused by P. aeruginosa through inhibition of serA function.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa serA Gene Is Required for Bacterial Translocation through Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Masashi; Nagata, Syouya; Yamane, Satoshi; Kunikata, Chinami; Kida, Yutaka; Kuwano, Koichi; Suezawa, Chigusa; Okuda, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To specify critical factors responsible for Pseudomonas aeruginosa penetration through the Caco-2 cell epithelial barrier, we analyzed transposon insertion mutants that demonstrated a dramatic reduction in penetration activity relative to P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. From these strains, mutations could be grouped into five classes, specifically flagellin-associated genes, pili-associated genes, heat-shock protein genes, genes related to the glycolytic pathway, and biosynthesis-related genes. Of these mutants, we here focused on the serA mutant, as the association between this gene and penetration activity is yet unknown. Inactivation of the serA gene caused significant repression of bacterial penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers with decreased swimming and swarming motilities, bacterial adherence, and fly mortality rate, as well as repression of ExoS secretion; however, twitching motility was not affected. Furthermore, L-serine, which is known to inhibit the D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity of the SerA protein, caused significant reductions in penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers, swarming and swimming motilities, bacterial adherence to Caco-2 cells, and virulence in flies in the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Together, these results suggest that serA is associated with bacterial motility and adherence, which are mediated by flagella that play a key role in the penetration of P. aeruginosa through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Oral administration of L-serine to compromised hosts might have the potential to interfere with bacterial translocation and prevent septicemia caused by P. aeruginosa through inhibition of serA function. PMID:28046014

  17. Cyclic Rhamnosylated Elongation Factor P Establishes Antibiotic Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovic, Andrei; Erickson, Sarah; Witzky, Anne; Branson, Owen E.; Seo, Jin; Gafken, Philip R.; Frietas, Michael A.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Faull, Kym F.; Navarre, William; Darwin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a ubiquitous bacterial protein that is required for the synthesis of poly-proline motifs during translation. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, the posttranslational β-lysylation of Lys34 by the PoxA protein is critical for EF-P activity. PoxA is absent from many bacterial species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, prompting a search for alternative EF-P posttranslation modification pathways. Structural analyses of P. aeruginosa EF-P revealed the attachment of a single cyclic rhamnose moiety to an Arg residue at a position equivalent to that at which β-Lys is attached to E. coli EF-P. Analysis of the genomes of organisms that both lack poxA and encode an Arg32-containing EF-P revealed a highly conserved glycosyltransferase (EarP) encoded at a position adjacent to efp. EF-P proteins isolated from P. aeruginosa ΔearP, or from a ΔrmlC::acc1 strain deficient in dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthesis, were unmodified. In vitro assays confirmed the ability of EarP to use dTDP-l-rhamnose as a substrate for the posttranslational glycosylation of EF-P. The role of rhamnosylated EF-P in translational control was investigated in P. aeruginosa using a Pro4-green fluorescent protein (Pro4GFP) in vivo reporter assay, and the fluorescence was significantly reduced in Δefp, ΔearP, and ΔrmlC::acc1 strains. ΔrmlC::acc1, ΔearP, and Δefp strains also displayed significant increases in their sensitivities to a range of antibiotics, including ertapenem, polymyxin B, cefotaxim, and piperacillin. Taken together, our findings indicate that posttranslational rhamnosylation of EF-P plays a key role in P. aeruginosa gene expression and survival. PMID:26060278

  18. Effect of Shear Stress on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Dingemans, Jozef; Monsieurs, Pieter; Yu, Sung-Huan; Crabbé, Aurélie; Förstner, Konrad U.; Malfroot, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms. In the present study, we determined the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes associated with the growth of a highly adapted, transmissible P. aeruginosa CF strain in artificial sputum medium under LS conditions. Robust self-aggregating biofilms were observed only under LS conditions. Growth under LS conditions resulted in the upregulation of genes involved in stress response, alginate biosynthesis, denitrification, glycine betaine biosynthesis, glycerol metabolism, and cell shape maintenance, while genes involved in phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion, and multidrug efflux were downregulated. In addition, a number of small RNAs appeared to be involved in the response to shear stress. Finally, quorum sensing was found to be slightly but significantly affected by shear stress, resulting in higher production of autoinducer molecules during growth under high fluid shear (HS) conditions. In summary, our study revealed a way to modulate the behavior of a highly adapted P. aeruginosa CF strain by means of introducing shear stress, driving it from a biofilm lifestyle to a more planktonic lifestyle. PMID:27486191

  19. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant non-derepressible for orthophosphate-regulated proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G L; Berka, R M; Vasil, M L

    1981-01-01

    Using a rapid screening assay based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, we isolated several mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa deficient in the production of phospholipase C. One, designated strain A50N, was also markedly deficient in the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase and several unidentified extracellular proteins. Because strain A50N produces these proteins under conditions of derepression at levels equal to those produced by the parental strain PAO1 grown in medium containing excess phosphate, it appears to have a mutation in a genetic element involved in the derepression of phosphate-repressible proteins. Images PMID:6790519

  20. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  1. Outbreak of gut colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in immunocompromised children undergoing total digestive decontamination: analysis by pulsed-field electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, J; de Montalembert, M; Gaillard, J L; Gobin, J; Grimont, F; Girault, D; Véron, M; Berche, P

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed an outbreak of gut colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurring in an intensive care hematology unit by using conventional typing methods and pulsed-field electrophoresis. In October and November 1989, the feces of four immunocompromised children undergoing total digestive decontamination were colonized by P. aeruginosa. Ten isolates were obtained from the gut flora in pure culture. Retrospective investigations found that one P. aeruginosa isolate from stools of one of the patients was already present at high counts 6 months before the outbreak. This patient had been discharged from the unit in May 1989 and had been readmitted concomitantly with the outbreak. Only pulsed-field electrophoresis could demonstrate that a single epidemic strain was present in the fecal flora of the children. This strain had probably been brought into the unit by the patient with chronic fecal carriage. Images PMID:1774336

  2. Emergence of resistance to beta-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics during moxalactam therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    PubMed Central

    Preheim, L C; Penn, R G; Sanders, C C; Goering, R V; Giger, D K

    1982-01-01

    In four patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, the infecting strain developed resistance to moxalactam during therapy with this drug. In addition, P. aeruginosa isolates from two of these four patients showed increased resistance to aminoglycosides. Isolates from a third patient acquired cross-resistance to other antipseudomonal beta-lactams. In three of the cases, disk susceptibility tests failed to detect the resistance that was demonstrated in broth dilution assays. Isolate identities were confirmed by serotyping. No new plasmids were found by agarose gel electrophoresis. The mechanisms for this resistance did not involve enzymatic antibiotic degradation. These findings suggest that currently available expanded-spectrum cephalosporin derivatives should probably not be used alone for most serious infections due to P. aeruginosa. They also suggest that strains with multiple antibiotic resistance may become more prevalent in hospitals if these drugs are used extensively. PMID:6218778

  3. Arginine Is a Critical Substrate for the Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jake; Turner, Keith; Cai, Qiuxian; Gordon, Vernita; Whiteley, Marvin; Rumbaugh, Kendra

    2017-03-14

    Environmental conditions affect bacterial behavior and can greatly influence the course of an infection. However, the environmental cues that elicit bacterial responses in specific infection sites are relatively unknown. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitous in nature and typically innocuous. However, it is also one of the most prevalent causes of fatal sepsis in burn wound patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of environmental factors, specifically the availability of arginine, on the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in burn wound infections. Comparison of burned versus noninjured tissue revealed that l-arginine (l-Arg) was significantly depleted in burn wounds as a consequence of elevated arginase produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We also observed that l-Arg was a potent chemoattractant for P. aeruginosa, and while low concentrations of l-Arg increased P. aeruginosa's swimming motility, high concentrations resulted in diminished swimming. Based on these observations, we tested whether the administration of exogenous l-Arg into the burn wound could attenuate the virulence of P. aeruginosa in thermally injured mice. Administration of l-Arg resulted in decreased P. aeruginosa spread and sepsis and increased animal survival. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the availability of environmental arginine greatly influences the virulence of P. aeruginosa in vivo and may represent a promising phenotype-modulating tool for future therapeutic avenues.IMPORTANCE Despite our growing understanding of the pathophysiology of burn wounds and the evolution of techniques and practices to manage infections, sepsis remains a significant medical concern for burn patients. P. aeruginosa continues to be a leader among all causes of bacteremic infections due to its tendency to cause complications in immunocompromised patients and its ubiquitous presence in the hospital setting. With the unforgiving emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, it

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROCYSTIN TOXINS FROM A STRAIN OF MICROCYSTIS AERUGINOSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcystin toxins are cyclic heptapeptides produced by several genera and species of cyanobacteria that are responsible for the "green scum" frequently observed on eutrophic surface waters. These toxins, which are a million times more toxic than cyanide ion, have caused deaths o...

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl promotes resistance to the biofilm inhibitor polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Zegans, Michael E; Wozniak, Daniel; Griffin, Edward; Toutain-Kidd, Christine M; Hammond, John H; Garfoot, Andrew; Lam, Joseph S

    2012-08-01

    Polysorbate 80 (PS80) is a nonionic surfactant and detergent that inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations as low as 0.001% and is well tolerated in human tissues. However, certain clinical and laboratory strains (PAO1) of P. aeruginosa are able to form biofilms in the presence of PS80. To better understand this resistance, we performed transposon mutagenesis with a PS80-resistant clinical isolate, PA738. This revealed that mutation of algC rendered PA738 sensitive to PS80 biofilm inhibition. AlgC contributes to the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharides Psl and alginate, as well as lipopolysaccharide and rhamnolipid. Analysis of mutations downstream of AlgC in these biosynthetic pathways established that disruption of the psl operon was sufficient to render the PA738 and PAO1 strains sensitive to PS80-mediated biofilm inhibition. Increased levels of Psl production in the presence of arabinose in a strain with an arabinose-inducible psl promoter were correlated with increased biofilm formation in PS80. In P. aeruginosa strains MJK8 and ZK2870, known to produce both Pel and Psl, disruption of genes in the psl but not the pel operon conferred susceptibility to PS80-mediated biofilm inhibition. The laboratory strain PA14 does not produce Psl and does not form biofilms in PS80. However, when PA14 was transformed with a cosmid containing the psl operon, it formed biofilms in the presence of PS80. Taken together, these data suggest that production of the exopolysaccharide Psl by P. aeruginosa promotes resistance to the biofilm inhibitor PS80.

  6. First report of VIM-2 metallo-β-lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Maroui, Itto; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Aboulkacem, Asmae; Ouarrak, Khadija; Sbiti, Mohammed; Louzi, Housssain; Timinouni, Mohammed; Belhaj, Abdelhaq

    2016-03-01

    The emergence and the rapid spread of Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying carbapenemases represent a serious threat to public health due to their delicate therapy. This work was performed to establish the resistance profile and to detect carbapenemases producing in 123 P. aeruginosa isolates. Among these 55 are environmental isolates and 68 are from the two major hospitals of Meknes-Tafilalet region in Morocco. All strains were tested against 14 antipseudomonal drugs by disc diffusion method. On carbapenem resistant strains minimum inhibitory concentrations of imipenem were determined by the E-test method. The modified Hodge test and EDTA tests were used for the detection of carbapenemases and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), respectively. PCR and DNA sequencing were conducted to detect carbapenemase-encoding genes and the enzyme types. 12% of isolates was susceptible to all antibiotics tested and Carbapenem resistance was observed in 33 P. aeruginosa isolates, 33.3% of them were multi-drug resistant. Among carbapenem resistant strains only two (6.1%) were positive for carbapenemases and also for MBLs. In addition to their resistance to almost all β-lactams tested, the MBLs producing strains were resistant to aminoglycosides. Molecular biology techniques confirmed the phenotypic results obtained for the two strains carbapenemase producers and demonstrated that each one of them carried blaVIM-2. The present study reports the first isolation of blaVIM genes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Morocco. Such isolates represent a serious emerging threat requiring strict hygiene measures to better control their spread.

  7. Correlation between Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds and Expression of Outer Membrane Protein OprR

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Maeda, Takuya; Murakami, Keiji; Miyake, Yoichiro; Kourai, Hiroki

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was investigated. A P. aeruginosa strain with adapted resistance to QACs was developed by a standard broth dilution method. It was revealed that P. aeruginosa exhibited remarkable resistance to N-dodecylpyridinium iodide (P-12), whose structure is similar to that of a common disinfectant, cetylpyridinium chloride. Adapted resistance to benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is commonly used as a disinfectant, was also observed in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the P-12-resistant strain exhibited cross-resistance to BAC. Analysis of the outer membrane protein of the P-12-resistant strain by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a significant increase in the level of expression of a protein (named OprR) whose molecular mass was approximately 26 kDa. The actual function of OprR is not yet clear; however, OprR was expected to be an outer membrane-associated protein with homology to lipoproteins of other bacterial species, according to a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information website with the BLAST program by use of the N-terminal sequence of OprR. A correlation between the level of expression of OprR and the level of resistance of P. aeruginosa to QACs was observed by using a PA2800 gene knockout mutant derived from the P-12-resistant strain. The knockout mutant recovered susceptibility not only to P-12 but also to BAC. These results suggested that OprR significantly participated in the adaptation of P. aeruginosa to QACs, such as P-12 and BAC. PMID:12821452

  8. Regional Control of Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lagage, Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome segregation in bacteria occurs concomitantly with DNA replication, and the duplicated regions containing the replication origin oriC are generally the first to separate and migrate to their final specific location inside the cell. In numerous bacterial species, a three-component partition machinery called the ParABS system is crucial for chromosome segregation. This is the case in the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where impairing the ParABS system is very detrimental for growth, as it increases the generation time and leads to the formation of anucleate cells and to oriC mispositioning inside the cell. In this study, we investigate in vivo the ParABS system in P. aeruginosa. Using chromatin immuno-precipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing, we show that ParB binds to four parS site located within 15 kb of oriC in vivo, and that this binding promotes the formation of a high order nucleoprotein complex. We show that one parS site is enough to prevent anucleate cell formation, therefore for correct chromosome segregation. By displacing the parS site from its native position on the chromosome, we demonstrate that parS is the first chromosomal locus to be separated upon DNA replication, which indicates that it is the site of force exertion of the segregation process. We identify a region of approximatively 650 kb surrounding oriC in which the parS site must be positioned for chromosome segregation to proceed correctly, and we called it “competence zone” of the parS site. Mutant strains that have undergone specific genetic rearrangements allow us to propose that the distance between oriC and parS defines this “competence zone”. Implications for the control of chromosome segregation in P. aeruginosa are discussed. PMID:27820816

  9. Emergence of colistin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Tabriz hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goli, Hamid Reza; Nahaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The prevalence of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main reason of new drugs resurgence such as colistin. The main objectives of this study were to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and the rate of colistin resistance along with its correlation with overexpression of MexAB-OprM and MexXY-OprM efflux pumps among P. aeruginosa isolates. Materials and Methods: Hundred clinical isolates were collected from 100 patients during 6 months in 2014. Susceptibility to the eight antibiotics was investigated using Kirby-Bauer and agar dilution methods. The Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of efflux genes. Results: Resistance rates to various antibiotics were as follows: ticarcillin (73%), ciprofloxacin (65%), aztreonam (60%), ceftazidime (55%), gentamicin (55%), imipenem (49%), piperacillin/tazobactam (34%) and colistin (2%). In disk diffusion method, only two isolates were non susceptible to colistin, however in agar dilution method the two isolates were confirmed as resistant and two others were intermediate resistant. Sixty eight (68%) isolates were multi-drug resistant and 10 isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Both colistin resistant isolates showed overexpression of both efflux pumps, but two intermediate resistant isolates exhibited reduction of efflux genes expression. Conclusions: Emergence of colistin resistance is increasing in P. aeruginosa indicating great challenge in the treatment of infections caused by MDR strains of this organism in Iran. ParRS may promote either induced or constitutive resistance to colistin through the activation of distinct mechanisms such as MDR efflux pumps, and LPS modification. PMID:27092226

  10. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical and environmental samples by amplification of the exotoxin A gene using PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A A; Cerniglia, C E

    1994-01-01

    PCR was used to detect Pseudomonas aeruginosa from water samples by amplifying a 396-bp region of the exotoxin A (ETA) structural gene sequence. The identify of the amplified 396-bp fragment was confirmed by digesting it with PvuI restriction endonuclease, which produced the predicted 246- and 150-bp fragments. Specific primers amplified ETA-positive P. aeruginosa DNA, whereas other species of Pseudomonas and GC-rich bacteria did not yield any 396-bp fragment. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were 100 and 96%, respectively, which confirms the assay's reliability for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The assay can detect as few as 5 to 10 cells in a 10-ml water sample or 0.1 pg of P. aeruginosa DNA per reaction mixture (5 microliters) by ethidium bromide staining of an agarose gel. Ten-times-lower concentrations were detected by hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe internal to the PCR product. With this PCR method, ETA-positive P. aeruginosa was detected in animal cage water samples at a level of 40 cells per ml. This method is rapid and less cumbersome than other diagnostic methods for the identification of P. aeruginosa strains. The method described can be used to detect a low level of P. aeruginosa from environmental and clinical samples without the use of selective media or additional biochemical tests. Images PMID:7986047

  11. Structural Characterization of Novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV Pilins

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Y.; Jackson, S; Aidoo, F; Junop, M; Burrows, L

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili, composed of PilA subunits, are used for attachment and twitching motility on surfaces. P. aeruginosa strains express one of five phylogenetically distinct PilA proteins, four of which are associated with accessory proteins that are involved either in pilin posttranslational modification or in modulation of pilus retraction dynamics. Full understanding of pilin diversity is crucial for the development of a broadly protective pilus-based vaccine. Here, we report the 1.6-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated form of the novel PilA from strain Pa110594 (group V), which represents the first non-group II pilin structure solved. Although it maintains the typical T4a pilin fold, with a long N-terminal {alpha}-helix and four-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet connected to the C-terminus by a disulfide-bonded loop, the presence of an extra helix in the {alpha}{beta}-loop and a disulfide-bonded loop with helical character gives the structure T4b pilin characteristics. Despite the presence of T4b features, the structure of PilA from strain Pa110594 is most similar to the Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin and is also predicted to assemble into a fiber similar to the GC pilus, based on our comparative pilus modeling. Interactions between surface-exposed areas of the pilin are suggested to contribute to pilus fiber stability. The non-synonymous sequence changes between group III and V pilins are clustered in the same surface-exposed areas, possibly having an effect on accessory protein interactions. However, based on our high-confidence model of group III PilA{sub PA14}, compensatory changes allow for maintenance of a similar shape.

  12. The role of quorum sensing system in antimicrobial induced ampC expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingming; Jiang, Handong; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Wang, Junfei; Dong, Liang

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quorum sensing (QS) systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) on the expression of ampC gene induced by antibiotics. An in vitro dynamic model of P. aeruginosa biofilms was established in a silicon tube in once-flowthrough system at 37 °C. Biofilm generation was identified by argentation. Biofilm morphology of standard P. aeruginosa strain (PAO-1) and QS systems deficient strains (PDO100, rhlI deficient strain; PAO-JP1, lasI deficient strain; and PAO-MW1, rhlI and lasI deficient strain) were observed by optical microscope. The expression of ampC in PAO1, PAO1 with QS inhibitor (furanone C-30) and the QS deficient strains before and after induced by antibiotics were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The biofilms of PAO-1 and PDO100 were much thicker and denser than that of PAO-JP1 and PAO-MW1. Being induced by antibiotics, the expression of ampC in PAO1 and PDO100 was significantly higher than that in PAO-MW1 and PAO-JP1. With the effect of furanone C-30, the expression of ampC in PAO1 induced by antibiotics was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. QS system, especially the las system, plays an important role in both biofilm formation and antimicrobials induced ampC expression and furanone C-30 is a potent inhibitor for P. aeruginosa QS system.

  13. Molecular Control of Innate Immune Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Intestinal let-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 is an important miRNA identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and has been shown to be involved in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms for let-7 regulation of innate immunity remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal let-7 in the regulation of innate immunity. Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 decreased let-7::GFP expression. Intestine- or neuron-specific activity of let-7 was required for its function in the regulation of innate immunity. During the control of innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, SDZ-24 was identified as a direct target for intestinal let-7. SDZ-24 was found to be predominantly expressed in the intestine, and P. aeruginosa PA14 infection increased SDZ-24::GFP expression. Intestinal let-7 regulated innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by suppressing both the expression and the function of SDZ-24. Knockout or RNA interference knockdown of sdz-24 dampened the resistance of let-7 mutant to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Intestinal overexpression of sdz-24 lacking 3’-UTR inhibited the susceptibility of nematodes overexpressing intestinal let-7 to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. In contrast, we could observed the effects of intestinal let-7 on innate immunity in P. aeruginosa PA14 infected transgenic strain overexpressing sdz-24 containing 3’-UTR. In the intestine, certain SDZ-24-mediated signaling cascades were formed for nematodes against the P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Our results highlight the crucial role of intestinal miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response to pathogenic infection. PMID:28095464

  14. Purification, characterization, and immunological cross-reactivity of alginates produced by mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S S; Espersen, F; Høiby, N; Shand, G H

    1989-04-01

    Alginates from nine mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were purified by repeated ethanol precipitation, nuclease digestion, anion-exchange chromatography, dialysis, and lyophilization. Uronic acid constituted 72% of the dry weight when mannuronolactone was used as the internal standard in the carbazole-borate assay for uronic acids. The average degree of acetylation was 16%, and the ratio of mannuronic acid to gluluronic acid was 4.7. No homopolymeric blocks of guluronic acid were found when analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Contaminating proteins were denatured by heating, and during purification the content of protein relative to alginate fell from 566 to 0.9%. The content of lipopolysaccharide was 0.012%. No immunological or biological activity was attributable to the protein or lipopolysaccharide content as estimated by immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a neutrophil chemotaxis assay. Rabbits were hyperimmunized with P. aeruginosa alginates and alginate from the seaweed Laminaria hyperborea, and an ELISA that detected alginate-specific antibodies was developed. Antibodies to P. aeruginosa alginate were detected by ELISA in 1:4,000 dilutions of serum from patients with cystic fibrosis with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. The serological cross-reactions between serum from the nine patients with cystic fibrosis and the corresponding P. aeruginosa alginates were investigated and showed considerable heterogeneity. This finding indicates that P. aeruginosa alginate from more than one P. aeruginosa strain should be used in serological tests. There was no serological cross-reactivity between P. aeruginosa and Laminaria hyperborea alginate in either rabbits or patients with cystic fibrosis.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Achromobacter sp. Clonal Selection Leads to Successive Waves of Contamination of Water in Dental Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Abdouchakour, Fatima; Dupont, Chloé; Grau, Delphine; Aujoulat, Fabien; Mournetas, Patricia; Marchandin, Hélène; Parer, Sylvie; Gibert, Philippe; Valcarcel, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Dental care unit waterlines (DCUWs) consist of complex networks of thin tubes that facilitate the formation of microbial biofilms. Due to the predilection toward a wet environment, strong adhesion, biofilm formation, and resistance to biocides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major human opportunistic pathogen, is adapted to DCUW colonization. Other nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli, such as members of the genus Achromobacter, are emerging pathogens found in water networks. We reported the 6.5-year dynamics of bacterial contamination of waterlines in a dental health care center with 61 dental care units (DCUs) connected to the same water supply system. The conditions allowed the selection and the emergence of clones of Achromobacter sp. and P. aeruginosa characterized by multilocus sequence typing, multiplex repetitive elements-based PCR, and restriction fragment length polymorphism in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial susceptibility. One clone of P. aeruginosa and 2 clones of Achromobacter sp. colonized successively all of the DCUWs: the last colonization by P. aeruginosa ST309 led to the closing of the dental care center. Successive dominance of species and clones was linked to biocide treatments. Achromobacter strains were weak biofilm producers compared to P. aeruginosa ST309, but the coculture of P. aeruginosa and Achromobacter enhanced P. aeruginosa ST309 biofilm formation. Intraclonal genomic microevolution was observed in the isolates of P. aeruginosa ST309 collected chronologically and in Achromobacter sp. clone A. The contamination control was achieved by a complete reorganization of the dental health care center by removing the connecting tubes between DCUs. PMID:26296724

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces pigment production and enhances virulence in a white phenotypic variant of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Antonic, Vlado; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Zhang, Binxue; Izadjoo, Mina J; Alavi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin is a virulence factor which protects Staphylococcus aureus in stress conditions. We isolated two pigment variants of S. aureus and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a single wound infection. S. aureus variants displayed white and yellow colony phenotypes. The sequence of the operons for staphyloxanthin synthesis indicated that coding and promoter regions were identical between the two pigment variants. Quorum sensing controls pigment synthesis in some bacteria. It is also shown that P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules affect S. aureus transcription. We explored whether the co-infecting P. aeruginosa can affect pigment production in the white S. aureus variant. In co-culture experiments between the white variants and a selected number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, only P. aeruginosa induced pigment production in the white variant. Gene expression analysis of the white variant did not indicate upregulation of the crtM and other genes known to be involved in pigment production (sigB, sarA, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene [FPP-synthase], hfq). In contrast, transcription of the catalase gene was significantly upregulated after co-culture. P. aeruginosa-induced pigment synthesis and catalase upregulation correlated with increased resistance to polymyxin B, hydrogen peroxide, and the intracellular environment of macrophages. Our data indicate the presence of silent but functional staphyloxanthin synthesis machinery in a white phenotypic variant of S. aureus which is activated by a co-infecting P. aeruginosa via inter-species communication. Another S. aureus virulence factor, catalase is also induced by this co-infecting bacterium. The resulting phenotypic changes are directly correlated with resistance of the white variant to stressful conditions. PMID:24232573

  17. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biomarkers in biological fluids using surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yiping; Zughaier, Susu M.

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes major infection not only in Cystic Fibrosis patients but also in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in critically ill patients in intensive care units. Successful antibiotic treatment of the infection relies on accurate and rapid identification of the infectious agents. Conventional microbiological detection methods usually take more than 3 days to obtain accurate results. We have developed a rapid diagnostic technique based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering to directly identify PA from biological fluids. P. aeruginosa strains, PAO1 and PA14, are cultured in lysogeny broth, and the SERS spectra of the broth show the signature Raman peaks from pyocyanin and pyoverdine, two major biomarkers that P. aeruginosa secretes during its growth, as well as lipopolysaccharides. This provides the evidence that the presence of these biomarkers can be used to indicate P. aeruginosa infection. A total of 22 clinical exhaled breath condensates (EBC) samples were obtained from subjects with CF disease and from non-CF healthy donors. SERS spectra of these EBC samples were obtained and further analyzed by both principle component analysis and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA can discriminate the samples with P. aeruginosa infection and the ones without P. aeruginosa infection at 99.3% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In addition, this technique can also discriminate samples from subject with CF disease and healthy donor with 97.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results demonstrate the potential of using SERS of EBC samples as a rapid diagnostic tool to detect PA infection.

  18. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute burn and chronic surgical wound infection.

    PubMed

    Turner, Keith H; Everett, Jake; Trivedi, Urvish; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-07-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq) to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.

  19. Pathogenic Effects of Biofilm on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection and Its Relationship to Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shuangqi; Li, Yanan; Wang, Ke; Cen, Yanling; Lu, Huasong; Dong, Biying; Chen, Yiqiang; Kong, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Background An animal (Sprague-Dawley rat) model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm associated with chronic pulmonary infection in vivo was established and the effects of the biofilm on P. aeruginosa and its relationship to cytokines were investigated. Material/Methods Biofilm of P. aeruginosa in alginate beads and planktonic PA0725 were purified by anion-exchange chromatograph. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with the biofilm and then inhaled the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Anti-biofilm antibody titer was detected using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The cell count and differential count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-1β, MIP-2, and G-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in sera were also measured using an ELISA kit. Results The sera anti-biofilm IgG antibody titer of immunized SD rats was increased significantly on the 5th and 8th days after inhalation. The IL-17 concentration was significantly higher on the 8th day after inhalation. The results indicated that when biofilm-pre-immunized rats were challenged with inhalation of PA0725 of P. aeruginosa, the biofilm acted as an antigen substance and mediated the antibody reaction of the antigen, which might cause serious airway inflammatory response and lung tissue injury. This effect may be related to IL-17. Conclusions P. aeruginosa biofilm protected the bacterium from antibiotics and might induce host immune damage in lung tissue and facilitate bacterium evading the host barrier. PMID:27941713

  20. The effects of mutation of the anr gene on the aerobic respiratory chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Williams, H D

    1997-11-15

    The anr gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a transcriptional regulator of anaerobic gene expression, homologous to the Fnr protein of Escherichia coli. We report here that Anr has a role in regulating the activity of the aerobic respiratory chain of P. aeruginosa. Strains with internal deletions in their anr gene had lowered levels of membrane bound cytochromes whilst the activity of the cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome co (likely to be a cytochrome cbb3-type oxidase), and the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway was markedly higher than in the wild-type strains. These data, and the finding that provision of multiple copies of the anr gene led to severe repression of these respiratory activities, suggest that Anr is a repressor of aerobic respiratory pathways and possibly the terminal oxidases themselves. In contrast, Anr activated cytochrome c peroxidase, a respiratory chain linked enzyme induced under low oxygen conditions.

  1. In vivo imaging of bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an acute murine airway infection model.

    PubMed

    Munder, Antje; Wölbeling, Florian; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging allows the analysis of infectious diseases in small animal models. In this study, an acute airway infection of C3H/HeN mice with luxCDABE transformed Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 and an isogenic transposon mutant was followed by optical imaging in vivo. Using the disease-causing dose of 2.0 × 10(6) CFU of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839, subtle luminescence of the lungs was inconsistently visible for the first hour after infection. Conversely, using a 100-fold higher dose of the strongly virulence-attenuated transposon mutant, the robust signal of bioluminescent bacteria increased over 24 h. To monitor murine airway infections with P. aeruginosa in vivo by bioluminescence, one should select an attenuated mutant of a virulent strain or a wild type strain that naturally lacks virulence determinants and/or that has acquired a low virulence persister phenotype by patho-adaptive mutations.

  2. Involvement of Stress-Related Genes polB and PA14_46880 in Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Alshalchi, Sahar A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are generally established through production of biofilm. During biofilm formation, production of an extracellular matrix and establishment of a distinct bacterial phenotype make these infections difficult to eradicate. However, biofilm studies have been hampered by the fact that most assays utilize nonliving surfaces as biofilm attachment substrates. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, we performed a genetic screen to identify novel factors involved in biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces. We found that deletion of genes polB and PA14_46880 reduced biofilm formation significantly compared to that in the wild-type strain PA14 in an abiotic biofilm system. In a biotic biofilm model, wherein biofilms form on cultured airway cells, the ΔpolB and ΔPA14_46880 strains showed increased cytotoxic killing of the airway cells independent of the total number of bacteria bound. Notably, deletion mutant strains were more resistant to ciprofloxacin treatment. This phenotype was linked to decreased expression of algR, an alginate transcriptional regulatory gene, under ciprofloxacin pressure. Moreover, we found that pyocyanin production was increased in planktonic cells of mutant strains. These results indicate that inactivation of polB and PA14_46880 may inhibit transition of P. aeruginosa from a more acute infection lifestyle to the biofilm phenotype. Future investigation of these genes may lead to a better understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and chronic biofilm infections. PMID:25156741

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of VIM-2-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST175, an Epidemic High-Risk Clone.

    PubMed

    Viedma, Esther; Juan, Carlos; Otero, Joaquín R; Oliver, Antonio; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-04-11

    The VIM-2-producing multidrug-resistant high-risk clone Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type (ST) 175 was isolated in the setting of a large outbreak in Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Spain) from 2007 to 2010. This strain was resistant to all β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, with the exception of amikacin, and has become an endemic clone in our institution.

  4. Structure and fate of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa population originating from a combined sewer and colonizing a wastewater treatment lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lavenir, Raphaël; Petit, Stéphanie M-C; Alliot, Nolwenn; Ribun, Sébastien; Loiseau, Laurence; Marjolet, Laurence; Briolay, Jérôme; Nazaret, Sylvie; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a wastewater treatment lagoon (WWTL) at preventing the spread of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into natural aquatic habitats was investigated. A WWTL and its connected combined sewer and brook were exhaustively sampled. Physico-chemical analyses showed a stratification of the first pond according to pH, temperature and oxygen content. The P. aeruginosa counts partially matched this stratification with higher values among the bottom anaerobic waters of the first half of this pond. Genotyping of 494 WWTL P. aeruginosa strains was performed and led to the definition of 85 lineages. Dominant lineages were observed, with some being found all over the WWTL including the connected brook. IS5 was used as an indicator of genomic changes, and 1 to 12 elements were detected among 16 % of the strains. IS-driven lasR (genetic regulator) disruptions were detected among nine strains that were not part of the dominant lineages. These insertional mutants did not show significant elastase activities but showed better growth than the PAO1 reference strain in WWTL waters. Differences in growth patterns were related to a better survival of these mutants at an alkaline pH and a better ability at using some C-sources such as alanine. The opportunistic colonization of a WWTL by P. aeruginosa can involve several metabolic strategies which appeared lineage specific. Some clones appeared more successful than others at disseminating from a combined sewer toward the overflow of a WWTL.

  5. Comparative genome mapping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO with P. aeruginosa C, which belongs to a major clone in cystic fibrosis patients and aquatic habitats.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, K D; Tümmler, B; Römling, U

    1996-01-01

    A physical and genetic map was constructed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa C. Mainly, two-dimensional methods were used to place 47 SpeI, 8 PacI, 5 SwaI, and 4 I-CeuI sites onto the 6.5-Mb circular chromosome. A total of 21 genes, including the rrn operons and the origin of replication, were located on the physical map. Comparison of the physical and genetic map of strain C with that of the almost 600-kb-smaller genome of P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO revealed conservation of gene order between the two strains. A large-scale mosaic structure which was due to insertions of blocks of new genetic elements which had sizes of 23 to 155 kb and contained new SpeI sites was detected in the strain C chromosome. Most of these insertions were concentrated in three locations: two are congruent with the ends of the region rich in biosynthetic genes, and the third is located in the proposed region of the replication terminus. In addition, three insertions were scattered in the region rich in biosynthetic genes. The arrangement of the rrn operons around the origin of replication was conserved in C, PAO, and nine other examined independent strains. PMID:8550447

  6. Isolation and characterization of quorum-sensing signalling molecules in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Lakshmana Gowda, Krishnappa; John, James; Marie, Mohammed A M; Sangeetha, Gopalkrishnan; Bindurani, Shanta Range

    2013-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Many studies have documented the role of quorum-sensing (QS) systems in antibiotic tolerance of P. aeruginosa. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as QS signalling molecules and can be a target for modulating bacterial pathogenicity. In this study, nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa were characterized for the presence of different types of QS signalling molecules. AHLs were solvent extracted and quantified by determination of β-galactosidase activity using the Escherichia coli MG4 reporter strain. Further characterization was performed by analytical thin layer chromatography coupled with detection using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 biosensor strain. All P. aeruginosa isolates produced AHLs, but there were differences in the quantity and nature of AHLs. We identified AHLs belonging to C4-homoserine lactone (HSL), C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL and C12-HSL. AHL profiling of P. aeruginosa isolates showed differences in the amounts and types of AHLs, suggesting differences in the virulence factors and the potential for infection. Our results may be investigated further using animal model systems.

  7. Non-apoptotic toxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward murine cells.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanhita; Bonfield, Tracey; Tartakoff, Alan M

    2013-01-01

    Although P. aeruginosa is especially dangerous in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is no consensus as to how it kills representative cell types that are of key importance in the lung. This study concerns the acute toxicity of the sequenced strain, PAO1, toward a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Toxicity requires brief contact with the target cell, but is then delayed for more than 12 h. None of the classical toxic effectors of this organism is required and cell death occurs without phagocytosis or acute perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. Apoptosis is not required for toxicity toward either RAW 264.7 cells or for alveolar macrophages. Transcriptional profiling shows that encounter between PAO1 and RAW 264.7 cells elicits an early inflammatory response, followed by growth arrest. As an independent strategy to understand the mechanism of toxicity, we selected variant RAW 264.7 cells that resist PAO1. Upon exposure to P. aeruginosa, they are hyper-responsive with regard to classical inflammatory cytokine production and show transient downregulation of transcripts that are required for cell growth. They do not show obvious morphologic changes. Although they do not increase interferon transcripts, when exposed to PAO1 they dramatically upregulate a subset of the responses that are characteristic of exposure to g-interferon, including several guanylate-binding proteins. The present observations provide a novel foundation for learning how to equip cells with resistance to a complex challenge.

  8. Chromosomal DNA deletion confers phage resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Le, Shuai; Yao, Xinyue; Lu, Shuguang; Tan, Yinling; Rao, Xiancai; Li, Ming; Jin, Xiaolin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Nicholas C; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Hu, Fuquan

    2014-04-28

    Bacteria develop a broad range of phage resistance mechanisms, such as prevention of phage adsorption and CRISPR/Cas system, to survive phage predation. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1 strain was infected with lytic phage PaP1, and phage-resistant mutants were selected. A high percentage (~30%) of these mutants displayed red pigmentation phenotype (Red mutant). Through comparative genomic analysis, one Red mutant PA1r was found to have a 219.6 kb genomic fragment deletion, which contains two key genes hmgA and galU related to the observed phenotypes. Deletion of hmgA resulted in the accumulation of a red compound homogentisic acid; while A galU mutant is devoid of O-antigen, which is required for phage adsorption. Intriguingly, while the loss of galU conferred phage resistance, it significantly attenuated PA1r in a mouse infection experiment. Our study revealed a novel phage resistance mechanism via chromosomal DNA deletion in P. aeruginosa.

  9. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriaemia: new clinical and therapeutic aspects ].

    PubMed

    Janbon, F; Despaux, E; Lepeu, G; Jonquet, O; Santoni, A; Balmayer, B; Bertrand, A

    1982-06-01

    Fifty one cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriaemia observed during the last 12 years are reported. Thirty five patients were over fifty years old; 92 p. cent were admitted for several days and about 50 p. cent were in post-operative period. A previous antibiotherapy and an impaired status are promotive factors. The respiratory or peritoneal origins are the most frequent. All patients were feverish; 24 have had an infectious shock which was inaugural in 12 cases. Seven pneumonitis, 3 endocarditis, one pericarditis and 2 osteitis were observed. An ecthyma gangrenosum was noted in three patients. Mortality was 70 p. cent. Comparison between recovered and died patients improved bad prognosis of old age, post operative period, neoplasic, previous organica weakness and pulmonary or peritoneal origins. Used alone, colimycin has seemed to be more effective than aminosid antibiotics; but their association with betalactamins was better. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains has proved the interest of piperacillin and cefsulodin; azlocillin, cefoperazone and ceftriaxone are just less effective.

  10. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines that Kill Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J.; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches. PMID:23300454

  11. Production and properties of crude enterotoxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Batish, V K; Srinivasan, R A

    1990-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa CTM-3 was found to be the most potentially enterotoxigenic strain out of the 12 isolates recovered from milk, as a high fluid length ratio, i.e. F/L (1.1) in rabbit gut and a strong permeability response in rabbit skin (38.5 mm2 necrotic zone) was obtained with this culture. No clear-cut relationship between the two tests was observed. Six of the ethidium bromide (300 micrograms/ml) cured variants of this culture completely lost their ability to produce enterotoxin indicating the possible involvement of a plasmid in enterotoxin synthesis. The crude enterotoxin from P. aeruginosa CTM-3 was completely inactivated in 15 s at 72 degrees C. However, it was fairly stable at pH values in the range 4.5-7.5. Both pepsin and trypsin inactivated the enterotoxin activity at a concentration of 40 micrograms/ml. Organic acids, formalin and hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the enterotoxin activity. The need for further investigations with purified preparations is emphasized.

  12. Genetic mapping and characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants that hyperproduce exoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Björklind, A; Wretlind, B; Möllegård, I; Schad, P A; Iglewski, B H; Cox, C D

    1985-01-01

    We isolated two mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO with defective iron uptake. In contrast to the wild-type strain, the mutants produced extracellular protease activity in media containing high concentrations of salts or iron and hyperproduced elastase, staphylolytic enzyme, and exotoxin A in ordinary media (Xch mutants). The mutations were located in the 55' region of the chromosome, between the markers met-9011 and pyrD. PMID:3922951

  13. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on neutral proteinase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Nigam, J N; Pillai, K R; Baruah, J N

    1981-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from soil produced large quantities of extracellular neutral proteinase and could utilize several organic substances as carbon and nitrogen sources for enzyme production. The growth media required the presence of a high amount of phosphate when glucose was the carbon source. The intermediates of citric-acid cycle acids supported the proteinase production more than any other carbon sources. However, complex nitrogenous substances supported enzyme production more efficiently. Higher concentration of casamino acids suppressed the protinase synthesis.

  14. Genetic determinants involved in the biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthrene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Wang, Bobo; Li, Jing; Ning, Huanhuan; Wang, Yingjuan; Kong, Weina; Shen, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Pseudomonas sp. are predominant isolates of degradation-competent strains while very few studies have explored the degradation-related genes and pathways in most of the degrading strains. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found capable of degrading naphthalene and phenanthrene efficiently. In order to investigate the degradation-related genes of naphthalene and phenanthrene in P. aeruginosa PAO1, a random promoter library of about 5760 strains was constructed. Thirty-two clones for differentially expressed promoters were obtained by screening in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Among them, 13 genes were up-regulated and 15 were down-regulated in the presence of naphthalene as well as phenanthrene. The four remaining genes have different regulation tendencies by naphthalene or phenanthrene. By comparing the growth between the wild type and mutants as well as the complementations, the roles of seven selected up-regulated genes on naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation were investigated. Five of the seven selected up-regulated genes, like PA2666 and PA4780, were found playing key roles on the degradation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Also, the results imply that these genes participate in the overlapping part of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation pathways in PAO1. Results in the article offer the convenience quick method and platform for searching degradation-related genes. It also laid a foundation for understanding of the role of the regulated genes.

  15. Cholesterol oxidase with high catalytic activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Screening, molecular genetic analysis, expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Doukyu, Noriyuki; Nihei, Shyou

    2015-07-01

    An extracellular cholesterol oxidase producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA157, was isolated by a screening method to detect 6β-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one-forming cholesterol oxidase. On the basis of a putative cholesterol oxidase gene sequence in the genome sequence data of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1, the cholesterol oxidase gene from strain PA157 was cloned. The mature form of the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The overexpressed enzyme formed inclusion bodies in recombinant E. coli cells grown at 20 °C and 30 °C. A soluble and active PA157 enzyme was obtained when the recombinant cells were grown at 10 °C. The purified enzyme was stable at pH 5.5 to 10 and was most active at pH 7.5-8.0, showing optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 70 °C. The enzyme retained about 90% of its activity after incubation for 30 min at 70 °C. The enzyme oxidized 3β-hydroxysteroids such as cholesterol, β-cholestanol, and β-sitosterol at high rates. The Km value and Vmax value for the cholesterol were 92.6 μM and 15.9 μmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The Vmax value of the enzyme was higher than those of commercially available cholesterol oxidases. This is the first report to characterize a cholesterol oxidase from P. aeruginosa.

  16. Clinical utilization of genomics data produced by the international Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    PubMed Central

    Freschi, Luca; Jeukens, Julie; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Dupont, Marie-Josée; Laroche, Jérôme; Larose, Stéphane; Maaroufi, Halim; Fothergill, Joanne L.; Moore, Matthew; Winsor, Geoffrey L.; Aaron, Shawn D.; Barbeau, Jean; Bell, Scott C.; Burns, Jane L.; Camara, Miguel; Cantin, André; Charette, Steve J.; Dewar, Ken; Déziel, Éric; Grimwood, Keith; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Harrison, Joe J.; Heeb, Stephan; Jelsbak, Lars; Jia, Baofeng; Kenna, Dervla T.; Kidd, Timothy J.; Klockgether, Jens; Lam, Joseph S.; Lamont, Iain L.; Lewenza, Shawn; Loman, Nick; Malouin, François; Manos, Jim; McArthur, Andrew G.; McKeown, Josie; Milot, Julie; Naghra, Hardeep; Nguyen, Dao; Pereira, Sheldon K.; Perron, Gabriel G.; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Rainey, Paul B.; Rousseau, Simon; Santos, Pedro M.; Stephenson, Anne; Taylor, Véronique; Turton, Jane F.; Waglechner, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Thrane, Sandra W.; Wright, Gerard D.; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Tucker, Nicholas P.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Winstanley, Craig; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The International Pseudomonas aeruginosa Consortium is sequencing over 1000 genomes and building an analysis pipeline for the study of Pseudomonas genome evolution, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Metadata, including genomic and phenotypic data for each isolate of the collection, are available through the International Pseudomonas Consortium Database (http://ipcd.ibis.ulaval.ca/). Here, we present our strategy and the results that emerged from the analysis of the first 389 genomes. With as yet unmatched resolution, our results confirm that P. aeruginosa strains can be divided into three major groups that are further divided into subgroups, some not previously reported in the literature. We also provide the first snapshot of P. aeruginosa strain diversity with respect to antibiotic resistance. Our approach will allow us to draw potential links between environmental strains and those implicated in human and animal infections, understand how patients become infected and how the infection evolves over time as well as identify prognostic markers for better evidence-based decisions on patient care. PMID:26483767

  17. In vitro comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with various susceptibilities to aminoglycosides and ten beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D H; Baltch, A L; Smith, R P

    1984-01-01

    Susceptibilities of 98 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including 33 strains with known mechanisms of amikacin resistance, were tested by the agar dilution method against 10 beta-lactam drugs. Ceftazidime, imipenem, and cefsulodin had the greatest activity, regardless of the aminoglycoside susceptibilities. The strains which were highly resistant to amikacin appeared to be less susceptible to some beta-lactam drugs, especially if their resistance was related to amikacin-inactivating enzymes; statistical significance, however, was observed for aztreonam only. PMID:6428308

  18. Berberine Is a Novel Type Efflux Inhibitor Which Attenuates the MexXY-Mediated Aminoglycoside Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuji; Nakashima, Ken-ichi; Nishino, Kunihiko; Kotani, Kenta; Tomida, Junko; Inoue, Makoto; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections is of great concern, as very few agents are effective against strains of this species. Methanolic extracts from the Coptidis Rhizoma (the rhizomes of Coptis japonica var. major Satake) or Phellodendri Cortex (the bark of Phellodendron chinense Schneider) markedly reduced resistance to anti-pseudomonal aminoglycosides (e.g., amikacin) in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Berberine, the most abundant benzylisoquinoline alkaloid in the two extracts, reduced aminoglycoside resistance of P. aeruginosa via a mechanism that required the MexXY multidrug efflux system; berberine also reduced aminoglycoside MICs in Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Burkholderia cepacia, two species that harbor intrinsic multidrug efflux systems very similar to the MexXY. Furthermore this compound inhibited MexXY-dependent antibiotic resistance of other classes including cephalosporins (cefepime), macrolides (erythromycin), and lincosamides (lincomycin) demonstrated using a pseudomonad lacking the four other major Mex pumps. Although phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a well-known efflux inhibitor, antagonized aminoglycoside in a MexXY-dependent manner, a lower concentration of berberine was sufficient to reduce amikacin resistance of P. aeruginosa in the presence of PAβN. Moreover, berberine enhanced the synergistic effects of amikacin and piperacillin (and vice versa) in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Thus, berberine appears to be a novel type inhibitor of the MexXY-dependent aminoglycoside efflux in P. aeruginosa. As aminoglycosides are molecules of choice to treat severe infections the clinical impact is potentially important. PMID:27547203

  19. LasR Variant Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Reveal an Adaptable Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Feltner, John B; Wolter, Daniel J; Pope, Christopher E; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Smalley, Nicole E; Greenberg, E Peter; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane; Déziel, Eric; Hoffman, Lucas R; Dandekar, Ajai A

    2016-10-04

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause significant morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Over years to decades, P. aeruginosa adapts genetically as it establishes chronic lung infections. Nonsynonymous mutations in lasR, the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator, are common in CF. In laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa, LasR activates transcription of dozens of genes, including that for another QS regulator, RhlR. Despite the frequency with which lasR coding variants have been reported to occur in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, little is known about their consequences for QS. We sequenced lasR from 2,583 P. aeruginosa CF isolates. The lasR sequences of 580 isolates (22%) coded for polypeptides that differed from the conserved LasR polypeptides of well-studied laboratory strains. This collection included 173 unique lasR coding variants, 116 of which were either missense or nonsense mutations. We studied 31 of these variants. About one-sixth of the variant LasR proteins were functional, including 3 with nonsense mutations, and in some LasR-null isolates, genes that are LasR dependent in laboratory strains were nonetheless expressed. Furthermore, about half of the LasR-null isolates retained RhlR activity. Therefore, in some CF isolates the QS hierarchy is altered such that RhlR quorum sensing is independent of LasR regulation. Our analysis challenges the view that QS-silent P. aeruginosa is selected during the course of a chronic CF lung infection. Rather, some lasR sequence variants retain functionality, and many employ an alternate QS strategy involving RhlR.

  20. LasR Variant Cystic Fibrosis Isolates Reveal an Adaptable Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Feltner, John B.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Pope, Christopher E.; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Smalley, Nicole E.; Greenberg, E. Peter; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Burns, Jane; Hoffman, Lucas R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections cause significant morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Over years to decades, P. aeruginosa adapts genetically as it establishes chronic lung infections. Nonsynonymous mutations in lasR, the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator, are common in CF. In laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa, LasR activates transcription of dozens of genes, including that for another QS regulator, RhlR. Despite the frequency with which lasR coding variants have been reported to occur in P. aeruginosa CF isolates, little is known about their consequences for QS. We sequenced lasR from 2,583 P. aeruginosa CF isolates. The lasR sequences of 580 isolates (22%) coded for polypeptides that differed from the conserved LasR polypeptides of well-studied laboratory strains. This collection included 173 unique lasR coding variants, 116 of which were either missense or nonsense mutations. We studied 31 of these variants. About one-sixth of the variant LasR proteins were functional, including 3 with nonsense mutations, and in some LasR-null isolates, genes that are LasR dependent in laboratory strains were nonetheless expressed. Furthermore, about half of the LasR-null isolates retained RhlR activity. Therefore, in some CF isolates the QS hierarchy is altered such that RhlR quorum sensing is independent of LasR regulation. Our analysis challenges the view that QS-silent P. aeruginosa is selected during the course of a chronic CF lung infection. Rather, some lasR sequence variants retain functionality, and many employ an alternate QS strategy involving RhlR. PMID:27703072

  1. Type IV pilus glycosylation mediates resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to opsonic activities of the pulmonary surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rommel M; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Lee, Francis; Lee, Timothy; Lee, Ryan J; Lau, Gee W

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major bacterial pathogen commonly associated with chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). Previously, we have demonstrated that the type IV pilus (Tfp) of P. aeruginosa mediates resistance to antibacterial effects of pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A). Interestingly, P. aeruginosa strains with group I pilins are O-glycosylated through the TfpO glycosyltransferase with a single subunit of O-antigen (O-ag). Importantly, TfpO-mediated O-glycosylation is important for virulence in mouse lungs, exemplified by more frequent lung infection in CF with TfpO-expressing P. aeruginosa strains. However, the mechanism underlying the importance of Tfp glycosylation in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated one mechanism of increased fitness mediated by O-glycosylation of group 1 pilins on Tfp in the P. aeruginosa clinical isolate 1244. Using an acute pneumonia model in SP-A+/+ versus SP-A-/- mice, the O-glycosylation-deficient ΔtfpO mutant was found to be attenuated in lung infection. Both 1244 and ΔtfpO strains showed equal levels of susceptibility to SP-A-mediated membrane permeability. In contrast, the ΔtfpO mutant was more susceptible to opsonization by SP-A and by other pulmonary and circulating opsonins, SP-D and mannose binding lectin 2, respectively. Importantly, the increased susceptibility to phagocytosis was abrogated in the absence of opsonins. These results indicate that O-glycosylation of Tfp with O-ag specifically confers resistance to opsonization during host-mediated phagocytosis.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern and Evaluation of Metallo-Beta Lactamase Genes Including bla- IMP and bla- VIM Types in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients in Tehran Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghamiri, Samira; Amirmozafari, Nour; Fallah Mehrabadi, Jalil; Fouladtan, Babak; Samadi Kafil, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined. A total of 212 strains of P. aeruginosa recovered from patients in hospitals in Tehran were confirmed by both biochemical methods and PCR. Their antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Following MIC determination, imipenem resistant strains were selected by DDST method which was followed by PCR tests for determination of MBLs genes: bla- IMP and bla- VIM . The results indicated that, in the DDST phenotypic method, among the 100 imipenem resistant isolates, 75 strains were MBLs positive. The PCR test indicated that 70 strains (33%) carried bla- VIM gene and 20 strains (9%) harbored bla- IMP . The results indicated that the extent of antibiotic resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. This may be due to production of MBLs enzymes. Therefore, determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and MBLs production by these bacteria, can be important in control of clinical Pseudomonas infection.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  4. Simultaneous production of alkaline lipase and protease by antibiotic and heavy metal tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gautam, Pallavi; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-09-01

    An efficient bacterial strain capable of simultaneous production of lipase and protease in a single production medium was isolated. Thirty six bacterial strains, isolated from diverse habitats, were screened for their lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Of these, only one bacterial strain was found to be lipase and protease producer. The 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain (NSD-09) was in close identity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The maximum lipase (221.4 U/ml) and protease (187.9 U/ml) activities were obtained after 28 and 24 h of incubation, respectively at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Castor oil and wheat bran were found to be the best substrate for lipase and protease production, respectively. The strain also exhibited high tolerance to lead (1450 µg/ml) and chromium (1000 µg/ml) in agar plates. It also showed tolerance to other heavy metals, such as Co(+2) , Zn(+2) , Hg(+2) , Ni(+2) and Cd(+2) . Therefore, this strain has scope for tailing bioremediation. Presumably, this is the first attempt on P. aeruginosa to explore its potential for both industrial and environmental applications.

  5. Invitro Apramycin Activity against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Anthony D; Smith, Kenneth P; Eliopoulos, George M; Berg, Anders H; McCoy, Christopher; Kirby, James E

    2017-03-16

    The in vitro activity of apramycin was compared to that of amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Apramycin demonstrated an MIC50/MIC90 of 8/32μg/ml for A. baumannii and 16/32μg/ml for P. aeruginosa. Only 2% of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa had an MIC greater than an epidemiological cutoff value of 64μg/ml. In contrast, the MIC50/MIC90 for amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin were ≥64/>256μg/ml for A. baumannii with 57%, 95%, and 74% of isolates demonstrating resistance, respectively, and the MIC50/MIC90 were ≥8/256μg/ml for P. aeruginosa with 27%, 50%, and 57% of strains demonstrating resistance, respectively. Apramycin appears to offer promising in vitro activity against highly resistant pathogens. It therefore may warrant further pre-clinical study to assess potential for repurposing as a human therapeutic and relevance as a scaffold for further medicinal chemistry exploration.

  6. Engineering microbes to sense and eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Nazanin; Wong, Choon Kit; Lo, Tat-Ming; Nguyen, Hung Xuan; Ling, Hua; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Poh, Chueh Loo; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to systematically design and construct novel biological systems that address energy, environment, and health issues. Herein, we describe the development of a synthetic genetic system, which comprises quorum sensing, killing, and lysing devices, that enables Escherichia coli to sense and kill a pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain through the production and release of pyocin. The sensing, killing, and lysing devices were characterized to elucidate their detection, antimicrobial and pyocin release functionalities, which subsequently aided in the construction of the final system and the verification of its designed behavior. We demonstrated that our engineered E. coli sensed and killed planktonic P. aeruginosa, evidenced by 99% reduction in the viable cells. Moreover, we showed that our engineered E. coli inhibited the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm by close to 90%, leading to much sparser and thinner biofilm matrices. These results suggest that E. coli carrying our synthetic genetic system may provide a novel synthetic biology-driven antimicrobial strategy that could potentially be applied to fighting P. aeruginosa and other infectious pathogens. PMID:21847113

  7. Role of small colony variants in persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis lungs

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that predominates during the later stages of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infections. Over many years of chronic lung colonization, P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive adaptation to the lung environment, evolving both toward a persistent, low virulence state and simultaneously diversifying to produce a number of phenotypically distinct morphs. These lung-adapted P. aeruginosa strains include the small colony variants (SCVs), small, autoaggregative isolates that show enhanced biofilm formation, strong attachment to surfaces, and increased production of exopolysaccharides. Their appearance in the sputum of CF patients correlates with increased resistance to antibiotics, poor lung function, and prolonged persistence of infection, increasing their relevance as a subject for clinical investigation. The evolution of SCVs in the CF lung is associated with overproduction of the ubiquitous bacterial signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP, with increased cyclic-di-GMP levels shown to be responsible for the SCV phenotype in a number of different CF lung isolates. Here, we review the current state of research in clinical P. aeruginosa SCVs. We will discuss the phenotypic characteristics underpinning the SCV morphotype, the clinical implications of lung colonization with SCVs, and the molecular basis and clinical evolution of the SCV phenotype in the CF lung environment. PMID:26251621

  8. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

  9. Resistance Emergence Mechanism and Mechanism of Resistance Suppression by Tobramycin for Cefepime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Robert A.; Bahniuk, Nadzeya; Bulitta, Juergen B.; VanScoy, Brian; DeFiglio, Holland; Fikes, Steven; Brown, David; Drawz, Sarah M.; Kulawy, Robert; Louie, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    The panoply of resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes resistance suppression difficult. Defining optimal regimens is critical. Cefepime is a cephalosporin whose 3′ side chain provides some stability against AmpC β-lactamases. We examined the activity of cefepime against P. aeruginosa wild-type strain PAO1 and its isogenic AmpC stably derepressed mutant in our hollow-fiber infection model. Dose-ranging studies demonstrated complete failure with resistance emergence (both isolates). Inoculum range studies demonstrated ultimate failure for all inocula. Lower inocula failed last (10 days to 2 weeks). Addition of a β-lactamase inhibitor suppressed resistance even with the stably derepressed isolate. Tobramycin combination studies demonstrated resistance suppression in both the wild-type and the stably derepressed isolates. Quantitating the RNA message by quantitative PCR demonstrated that tobramycin decreased the message relative to that in cefepime-alone experiments. Western blotting with AmpC-specific antibody for P. aeruginosa demonstrated decreased expression. We concluded that suppression of β-lactamase expression by tobramycin (a protein synthesis inhibitor) was at least part of the mechanism behind resistance suppression. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that a regimen of 2 g of cefepime every 8 h plus 7 mg/kg of body weight of tobramycin daily would provide robust resistance suppression for Pseudomonas isolates with cefepime MIC values up to 8 mg/liter and tobramycin MIC values up to 1 mg/liter. For P. aeruginosa resistance suppression, combination therapy is critical. PMID:22005996

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Bjørn G; Eriksen, Hanne-Merete; Bø, Gjermund; Hagestad, Kristian; Jacobsen, Trond; Engeset, Eva; Lassen, Jørgen; Aavitsland, Preben

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production. Results Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems. Conclusion Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx. PMID:17355630

  11. Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

    PubMed

    Kolpen, Mette; Mousavi, Nabi; Sams, Thomas; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Ciofu, Oana; Moser, Claus; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2016-02-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients. It is characterised by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in the endobronchial mucus with zones of oxygen (O2) depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leucocyte activity. Whilst the exact mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration. We tested such a strategy using reoxygenation of O2-depleted P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 agarose-embedded biofilms by hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) (100% O2, 2.8bar), enhancing the diffusive supply for aerobic respiration during ciprofloxacin treatment. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that biofilm reoxygenation by HBOT can significantly enhance the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin on P. aeruginosa. Combining ciprofloxacin treatment with HBOT thus clearly has potential to improve the treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections.

  12. Evaluation of an MPN test for the rapid enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital waters.

    PubMed

    Sartory, David P; Pauly, Danièle; Garrec, Nathalie; Bonadonna, Lucia; Semproni, Maurizio; Schell, Christiane; Reimann, Annika; Firth, Susan J; Thom, Christopher; Hartemann, Philippe; Exner, Martin; Baldauf, Henning; Lee, Susanne; Lee, John V

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the performance of a new most probable number (MPN) test (Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®)) for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital waters was compared with both international and national membrane filtration-based culture methods for P. aeruginosa: ISO 16266:2006 and UK The Microbiology of Drinking Water - Part 8 (MoDW Part 8), which both use Pseudomonas CN agar. The comparison based on the calculation of mean relative differences between the two methods was conducted according to ISO 17994:2014. Using both routine hospital water samples (80 from six laboratories) and artificially contaminated samples (192 from five laboratories), paired counts from each sample and the enumeration method were analysed. For routine samples, there were insufficient data for a conclusive assessment, but the data do indicate at least equivalent performance of Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®). For the artificially contaminated samples, the data revealed higher counts of P. aeruginosa being recorded by Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®). The Pseudalert(®)/Quanti-Tray(®) method does not require confirmation testing for atypical strains of P. aeruginosa, saving up to 6 days of additional analysis, and has the added advantage of providing confirmed counts within 24-28 hours incubation compared to 40-48 hours or longer for the ISO 16266 and MoDW Part 8 methods.

  13. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manash C.; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; de, Utpal C.; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-03-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It’s antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane lipoprotein I gene: molecular cloning, sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, M; Barron, C; Schweizer, A; von Specht, B U; Domdey, H

    1989-01-01

    Lipoprotein I (OprI) is one of the major proteins of the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Like porin protein F (OprF), it is a vaccine candidate because it antigenically cross-reacts with all serotype strains of the International Antigenic Typing Scheme. Since lipoprotein I was expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of its own promoter, we were able to isolate the gene by screening a lambda EMBL3 phage library with a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against lipoprotein I. The monocistronic OprI mRNA encodes a precursor protein of 83 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 19 residues. The mature protein has a molecular weight of 6,950, not including bound glycerol and lipid. Although the amino acid sequences of protein I of P. aeruginosa and Braun's lipoprotein of E. coli differ considerably (only 30.1% identical amino acid residues), peptidoglycan in E. coli, are identical. Using lipoprotein I expressed in E. coli, it can now be tested whether this protein alone, without P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide contaminations, has a protective effect against P. aeruginosa infections. Images PMID:2502533

  15. Engineering microbes to sense and eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Nazanin; Wong, Choon Kit; Lo, Tat-Ming; Nguyen, Hung Xuan; Ling, Hua; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Poh, Chueh Loo; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2011-08-16

    Synthetic biology aims to systematically design and construct novel biological systems that address energy, environment, and health issues. Herein, we describe the development of a synthetic genetic system, which comprises quorum sensing, killing, and lysing devices, that enables Escherichia coli to sense and kill a pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain through the production and release of pyocin. The sensing, killing, and lysing devices were characterized to elucidate their detection, antimicrobial and pyocin release functionalities, which subsequently aided in the construction of the final system and the verification of its designed behavior. We demonstrated that our engineered E. coli sensed and killed planktonic P. aeruginosa, evidenced by 99% reduction in the viable cells. Moreover, we showed that our engineered E. coli inhibited the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilm by close to 90%, leading to much sparser and thinner biofilm matrices. These results suggest that E. coli carrying our synthetic genetic system may provide a novel synthetic biology-driven antimicrobial strategy that could potentially be applied to fighting P. aeruginosa and other infectious pathogens.

  16. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin

    PubMed Central

    Das, Manash C.; Sandhu, Padmani; Gupta, Priya; Rudrapaul, Prasenjit; De, Utpal C.; Tribedi, Prosun; Akhter, Yusuf; Bhattacharjee, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260 μg/ml. It’s antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110 μg/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis. PMID:27000525

  17. Fructooligosacharides Reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pathogenicity through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed. PMID:24465697

  18. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ana P. B.; Ortiz, Mauro F.; Martins, Willames M. B. S.; Morais, Guilherme L.; Fehlberg, Lorena C. C.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Ciapina, Luciane P.; Gales, Ana C.; Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM−1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:27994579

  19. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana P B; Ortiz, Mauro F; Martins, Willames M B S; Morais, Guilherme L; Fehlberg, Lorena C C; Almeida, Luiz G P; Ciapina, Luciane P; Gales, Ana C; Vasconcelos, Ana T R

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM-1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes.

  20. A Survival Strategy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa That Uses Exopolysaccharides To Sequester and Store Iron To Stimulate Psl-Dependent Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Wei, Qing; Zhao, Tianhu; Guo, Yuan; Ma, Luyan Z

    2016-11-01

    Exopolysaccharide Psl is a critical biofilm matrix component in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which forms a fiber-like matrix to enmesh bacterial communities. Iron is important for P. aeruginosa biofilm development, yet it is not clearly understood how iron contributes to biofilm development. Here, we showed that iron promoted biofilm formation via elevating Psl production in P. aeruginosa The high level of iron stimulated the synthesis of Psl by reducing rhamnolipid biosynthesis and inhibiting the expression of AmrZ, a repressor of psl genes. Iron-stimulated Psl biosynthesis and biofilm formation held true in mucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Subsequent experiments indicated that iron bound with Psl in vitro and in biofilms, which suggested that Psl fibers functioned as an iron storage channel in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Moreover, among three matrix exopolysaccharides of P. aeruginosa, Psl is the only exopolysaccharide that can bind with both ferrous and ferric ion, yet with higher affinity for ferrous iron. Our data suggest a survival strategy of P. aeruginosa that uses exopolysaccharide to sequester and store iron to stimulate Psl-dependent biofilm formation.

  1. Chemical alterations in cell envelopes of polymyxin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Gilleland, H E; Lyle, R D

    1979-01-01

    Cell envelopes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to polymyxin were compared with cell envelopes from polymyxin-sensitive strains as to their content of total protein, carbohydrate, and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and as to their protein composition as determined by slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The cell envelopes of the polymyxin-resistant strains had reduced amounts of lipopolysaccharide, as indicated a reduction in both carbohydrate and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate concentrations, and a greatly altered protein composition as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was a quantitative increase in total cell envelop protein in these strains. However, those protein bands identified as being major outer membrane proteins upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of separated outer and cytoplasmic membranes were reduced greatly in concentration in the polymyxin-resistant cell envelopes. Thus, it appears that polymyxin resistance in these strains is associated with the alteration of the outer membrane through a loss of lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins. Images PMID:222726

  2. [Prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to imipenem by production of metallo-β-lactamases in Rabat Military Teaching Hospital Mohammed V].

    PubMed

    Gildas Comlan Zohoun, Alban; Moket, Danièle; El Hamzaoui, Sakina

    2013-01-01

    We studied the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) in Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains resistant to imipenem at the Rabat Mohammed V military teaching hospital, according to Yong et al.'s method, using a sterilized solution of EDTA 0.5 M pH 8. One hundred and five bacterial strains (48 A. baumannii and 57 P. aeruginosa) were identified. 45 (42.9%) with 34 A. baumannii and 11 P. aeruginosa were resistant to imipenem. The prevalence of MBL producing strains was 22.2% (10/45). The existence of this isolates resistant to imipenem by producing metallo-β-lactamases is an emerging public health problem. It is necessary to implemente infection control programs to avoid spreading of multidrug resistant bacte