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Sample records for aetiology remains unclear

  1. Invasive swallow-worts: an allelopathic role for -(-) antofine remains unclear.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Donna M; Vaughan, Richard H; Milbrath, Lindsey R

    2015-02-01

    was found in root exudates and in the growing medium in the nM range. The concentrations in exudate were much lower than that needed for biological activity (μM) although they might be an underestimate of what may accumulate over time in an undisturbed rhizosphere. Based on these various results, it remains uncertain as to whether -(-) antofine could play a significant allelopathic role for invasive swallow-worts. PMID:25653045

  2. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail. PMID:25516860

  3. Unclear loss of consciousness after clobutinol intake.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-08-10

    The case of a 13-month-old boy with a diagnosis of unclear unconsciousness is reported on. As the physical examination did not lead to any explanation of his condition, the administration of drugs in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy was suspected. Complex forensic-toxicological analyses using HPLC/UV, LC/MS/MS, and GC/MS identified ambroxol and clobutinol, two drugs that are indicated for acute respiratory diseases. No other central active compounds were detected. The accusation of intentional bodily injury raised against the parents could be rebutted, since the boy's unconsciousness could be explained with a rare but harmful side effect of the antitussive clobutinol.

  4. Unclear loss of consciousness after clobutinol intake.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-08-10

    The case of a 13-month-old boy with a diagnosis of unclear unconsciousness is reported on. As the physical examination did not lead to any explanation of his condition, the administration of drugs in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy was suspected. Complex forensic-toxicological analyses using HPLC/UV, LC/MS/MS, and GC/MS identified ambroxol and clobutinol, two drugs that are indicated for acute respiratory diseases. No other central active compounds were detected. The accusation of intentional bodily injury raised against the parents could be rebutted, since the boy's unconsciousness could be explained with a rare but harmful side effect of the antitussive clobutinol. PMID:19464130

  5. Aetiology of chronic constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, S; Bonar, S; O'Neill, H; Hanly, P; Drury, I; Flanagan, M; Garrett, J

    1983-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 32 cases of chronic constrictive pericarditis treated by pericardiectomy during the past 25 years, four were attributable to rheumatoid disease, two to trauma, one to sarcoidosis, and four, at a maximum, to tuberculosis. In the remaining 21 cases of undetermined aetiology there was no evidence of tuberculosis. It appears, therefore, that tuberculosis was not a common cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis during the period under review, which included the 1950s and early 1960s when tuberculosis was widespread. PMID:6615663

  6. Aetiology of childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Eden, Tim

    2010-06-01

    The acute leukaemias account for about 30% of all malignancy seen in childhood across the Western world. A peak incidence of precursor B cell ALL has emerged as socio-economic conditions have improved in countries worldwide. From twin studies and the use of neonatal blood spots it has been possible to back track the first initiating genetic events within critical haemopoietic cells to foetal development in utero for most precursor B cell ALL and some cases of AML. These events may occur as part of normal foetal development. Whether other factors (environmental or constitutional) are involved to increase the chance of these first genetic changes happening is unclear. For some leukaemias (e.g. infant MLL positive ALL) the first event appears adequate to create a malignant clone but for the majority of ALL and AML further 'genetic' changes are required, probably postnatal. Many environmental factors have been proposed as causative for leukaemia but only ionising irradiation and certain chemicals, e.g. benzene and cytotoxics (alkylators and topoisomerase II inhibitors) have been confirmed and then principally for acute myeloid leukaemia. It appears increasingly likely that delayed, dysregulated responses to 'common' infectious agents play a major part in the conversion of pre-leukaemic clones into overt precursor B cell ALL, the most common form of childhood leukaemia. Constitutional polymorphic alleleic variants in immune response genes (especially the HLA Class II proteins) and cytokines may play a role in determining the type of immune response. High penetrance germ-line mutations are involved in only about 5% of childhood leukaemias (more in AML than ALL). There is little evidence to support any role of viral transformation in causation, unlike in animals. Other environmental factors for which some evidence exists include non-ionising electromagnetic radiation and electric fields, although their mode of action in leukaemogenesis remains unclear. There is no single

  7. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  8. Pyrexia: aetiology in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Laupland, Kevin B

    2016-01-01

    Elevation in core body temperature is one of the most frequently detected abnormal signs in patients admitted to adult ICUs, and is associated with increased mortality in select populations of critically ill patients. The definition of an elevated body temperature varies considerably by population and thermometer, and is commonly defined by a temperature of 38.0 °C or greater. Terms such as hyperthermia, pyrexia, and fever are often used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking hyperthermia refers to the elevation in body temperature that occurs without an increase in the hypothalamic set point, such as in response to specific environmental (e.g., heat stroke), pharmacologic (e.g., neuroleptic malignant syndrome), or endocrine (e.g., thyrotoxicosis) stimuli. On the other hand, pyrexia and fever refer to the classical increase in body temperature that occurs in response to a vast list of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies in association with an increase in the hypothalamic set point. In this review, we examine the contemporary literature investigating the incidence and aetiology of pyrexia and hyperthermia among medical and surgical patients admitted to adult ICUs with or without an acute neurological condition. A temperature greater than 41.0 °C, although occasionally observed among patients with infectious or noninfectious pyrexia, is more commonly observed in patients with hyperthermia. Most episodes of pyrexia are due to infections, but incidence estimates of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies are limited by studies with small sample size and inconsistent reporting of noninfectious aetiologies. Pyrexia commonly triggers a full septic work-up, but on its own is a poor predictor of culture-positivity. In order to improve culturing practices, and better guide the diagnostic approach to critically ill patients with pyrexia, additional research is required to provide more robust estimates of the incidence of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies

  9. The multiple aetiology of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is epidemiologically and immunologically distinct from serum hepatitis. The Australia antigen is related more specifically to serum hepatitis. The possible role of coronavirus—and paramyxovirus-like particles in the aetiology of some infections of the liver in man and in marmosets inoculated with human infectious hepatitis material is discussed and the difficulties in the interpretation of the currently available data are emphasized. The recent studies in Melbourne of a faecal antigen found in some patients with infectious hepatitis and the discovery of an antiserum in Milan which reacted with an antigen associated with epidemic hepatitis are discussed. Mention is made of the recent isolation in Detroit-6 cells of virus-like particles from patients with infectious hepatitis. It is concluded that viral hepatitis is an infection of multiple aetiology and that the successful cultivation in vitro of the agent or agents of hepatitis remains the outstanding and most urgent problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4327058

  10. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  11. Antenatal brain injury: aetiology and possibilities of prevention.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, H; Mallard, C

    2000-02-01

    Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of corticosteroids to cases with pending preterm birth, and treatment of maternal/fetal infections would also reduce the incidence of injury. Mothers can decrease the risk of injury by maintaining a good diet, avoiding smoking, alcohol intake and exposure to TORCH infections during pregnancy. PMID:10802749

  12. Obamacare 2012: prognosis unclear for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), informally referred to as ObamaCare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA has substantially changed the landscape of medical practice in the United States and continues to influence all sectors, in particular evolving specialties such as interventional pain management. ObamaCare has been signed into law amidst major political fallouts, has sustained a Supreme Court challenge and emerged bruised, but still very much alive. While proponents argue that ObamaCare will provide insurance for almost everyone, with an improvement in the quality of and reduction in the cost of health care,, opponents criticize it as being a massive bureaucracy laden with penalties and taxes, that will ultimately eliminate personal medicine and individual practices. Based on the 2 years since the passage of ACA in 2010, the prognosis for interventional pain management is unclear. The damage sustained to interventional pain management and the majority of medicine practices is irreparable. ObamaCare may provide insurance for all, but with cuts in Medicare to fund Obamacare, a limited expansion of Medicaid, the inadequate funding of exchanges, declining employer health insurance coverage and skyrocketing disability claims, the coverage will be practically nonexistent. ObamaCare is composed of numerous organizations and bureaucracies charged with controlling the practice of medicine through the extension of regulations. Apart from cutting reimbursements and reducing access to interventional pain management, administration officials are determined to increase the role of midlevel practitioners and reduce the role of individual physicians by liberalizing the scope of practice regulations and introducing proposals to reduce medical education and training.

  13. Obamacare 2012: prognosis unclear for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), informally referred to as ObamaCare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA has substantially changed the landscape of medical practice in the United States and continues to influence all sectors, in particular evolving specialties such as interventional pain management. ObamaCare has been signed into law amidst major political fallouts, has sustained a Supreme Court challenge and emerged bruised, but still very much alive. While proponents argue that ObamaCare will provide insurance for almost everyone, with an improvement in the quality of and reduction in the cost of health care,, opponents criticize it as being a massive bureaucracy laden with penalties and taxes, that will ultimately eliminate personal medicine and individual practices. Based on the 2 years since the passage of ACA in 2010, the prognosis for interventional pain management is unclear. The damage sustained to interventional pain management and the majority of medicine practices is irreparable. ObamaCare may provide insurance for all, but with cuts in Medicare to fund Obamacare, a limited expansion of Medicaid, the inadequate funding of exchanges, declining employer health insurance coverage and skyrocketing disability claims, the coverage will be practically nonexistent. ObamaCare is composed of numerous organizations and bureaucracies charged with controlling the practice of medicine through the extension of regulations. Apart from cutting reimbursements and reducing access to interventional pain management, administration officials are determined to increase the role of midlevel practitioners and reduce the role of individual physicians by liberalizing the scope of practice regulations and introducing proposals to reduce medical education and training. PMID:22996858

  14. Unclear Abdominal Discomfort: Pivotal Role of Carbohydrate Malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Marco; van der Voort, Ivo; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Carbohydrate malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and in healthy volunteers and can cause gastrointestinal symptoms mimicking irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of symptomatic lactose and fructose malabsorption in a large population of patients with IBS-like symptoms based on Rome II criteria. Methods Patients with unclear abdominal discomfort (n = 2,390) underwent lactose (50 g) and fructose (50 g) hydrogen (H2) breath tests and depending on the results further testing with 25 g fructose or 50 g glucose, or upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. Additionally, this population was investigated regarding the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) based on glucose breath test and celiac disease. Results Of the 2,390 patients with IBS-like symptoms, 848 (35%) were symptomatic lactose malabsorbers and 1,531 (64%) symptomatic fructose malabsorbers. A combined symptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption was found in 587 (25%) patients. Severe fructose malabsorbers (pathologic 25 g fructose test) exhaled significantly higher H2 concentrations in the 50 g test than patients with negative 25 g fructose test (P < 0.001). Out of 460/659 patients with early significant H2 increase in the lactose and fructose test who underwent a glucose breath test, 88 patients had positive results indicative of SIBO and they were significantly older than patients with negative test result (P < 0.01). Celiac disease was found in 1/161 patients by upper endoscopy. Conclusions Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated condition in patients with IBS-like symptoms although diagnosis can be easily confirmed by H2 breath testing. PMID:24840375

  15. Omental cakes: unusual aetiologies and CT appearances.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark Daniel; Vansonnenberg, Eric; Shankar, Sridhar; Silverman, Stuart G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Omental cakes typically are associated with ovarian carcinoma, as this is the most common malignant aetiology. Nonetheless, numerous other neoplasms, as well as infectious and benign processes, can produce omental cakes. METHODS: A broader knowledge of the various causes of omental cakes is valuable diagnostically and to direct appropriate clinical management. RESULTS: We present a spectrum of both common and unusual aetiologies that demonstrate the variable computed tomographic appearances of omental cakes. CONCLUSION: The anatomy and embryology are discussed, as well as the importance of biopsy when the aetiology of omental cakes is uncertain.

  16. Softball injuries. Aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wild, D E; Hensinger, R N

    1992-04-01

    Over 40 million individuals nationally participate in organised softball leagues, playing an estimated 23 million games per year in the United States. It has also been estimated that softball causes more injuries leading to emergency room visits in the United States than any other sport. Between 1983 and 1989, over 2.6 million injuries were documented through selected emergency rooms throughout the United States. In addition, the potential costs of these injuries can be staggering, therefore, prevention is of utmost importance. Prior to implementation of any preventative measures, the aetiology and distribution of injuries must be ascertained. Softball-related injuries can be grouped into 3 categories: (a) sliding-related injuries--the most common injury scenario; (b) collision-related injuries; and (c) falls sustained by the player. Various preventative approaches have been utilised to reduce the incidence of these recreational sports injuries and the associated health care costs. In regard to sliding-related injuries, breakaway bases have been utilised and have been found to reduce sliding-related injuries by approximately 98%. In reference to collision injuries, deformable walls and padded back stops and field maintenance have been found to prevent the majority of injuries secondary to collisions and falls. In addition, better coaching techniques as well as stretching and conditioning programmes have all been found to benefit players in the prevention of their injuries. As physicians, trainers and individuals involved with sporting activities, it is imperative that we turn and focus our attention on prevention. The cornerstone to diminished injuries and subsequent prevention of an injury is a safer environment for the recreational softball player to participate in.

  17. [Advances in the identification of the aetiology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Raggio, Víctor; Boidi, María; Tapié, Alejandra; Roche, Leda

    2013-09-01

    Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, metabolic diseases in 1-5% and multifactor causes in 3-12%. The family history, the detailed medical records required by dysmorphology and the neurological examination will make it possible to establish or suspect a diagnosis in two thirds of the cases and, in the others, scanning tests will be able to confirm an aetiology. The order of the studies will be guided by the clinical picture: karyotype if a chromosome pathology is suspected, neuroimaging if there is some abnormality in the neurological examination and specific genetic or neurometabolic studies to confirm the clinical presumption. The estimated diagnostic performance of the different techniques is: karyotype, 9%; fragile X, 5%; subtelomeric abnormalities, 4%; neurometabolic diseases, 1%, and new microarray techniques, 19%. As a result of the higher performance and cost-benefit ratio, today the recommended procedure, as the first line of treatment for unexplainable cases of mental retardation, is the study of microarrays. Although the outcomes of these tests are complex and require confirmation and careful interpretation by a specialist in medical genetics, the advances in their technological development and resolution, together with lower costs make this technique a fundamental tool in the identification of the aetiology in these children.

  18. Aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Arends, M J; Buckley, C H; Wells, M

    1998-01-01

    Early epidemiological studies of cervical neoplasia suggested a causal relation with sexual activity and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have emerged as prime suspects as venerally transmitted carcinogens. HPVs fall into two broad camps: low risk types, associated with cervical condylomas and CIN 1; and high risk types (mostly 16 and 18), found in 50-80% of CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions, and 90% of cancers. This association with cancer is very strong, with odds ratios of > 15 (often much higher) in case-control studies that are methodologically sound. An infrequently detected third group of intermediate risk type HPVs is associated with all grades of CIN and occasionally with cancers. HPVs have also been detected in a wide range of asymptomatic controls, indicating that other events are required for development of neoplasia such as viral persistence and/or altered expression of viral genes, often following integration of the viral genome. This leaves the two major viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, directly coupled to viral enhancers and promoters, allowing their continued expression after integration. High risk HPV E7 proteins bind and inactivate the Rb protein, whereas E6 proteins bind p53 and direct its rapid degradation. A range of putative cofactors has been implicated in progression: HLA type, immunosuppression, sex steroid hormones, and smoking; most of these cofactors appear to influence progression to CIN 3. The natural history includes progression to CIN 3 in 10% of CIN 1 and 20% of CIN 2 cases, whereas at least 12% of CIN 3 cases progress to invasive carcinoma. Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) often coexists with squamous CIN, and the premalignant potential of high grade CGIN is not in doubt, but the natural history of low grade CGIN remains uncertain. A high proportion of CGIN lesions and adenocarcinomas are HPV positive, and HPV18 has been implicated more in glandular than in squamous lesions. A strong clinical case for the application of HPV

  19. Aetiology of colorectal cancer and relevance of monogenic inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Ponz de Leon, M; Benatti, P; Borghi, F; Pedroni, M; Scarselli, A; Di Gregorio, C; Losi, L; Viel, A; Genuardi, M; Abbati, G; Rossi, G; Menigatti, M; Lamberti, I; Ponti, G; Roncucci, L

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Although diet and lifestyle are associated with the development of colorectal malignancies, the only clearly identified aetiological factors in colorectal cancer are inheritance (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial polyposis), inflammatory bowel diseases, papillomavirus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our aim was to determine what proportion of colorectal neoplasms could be attributed to these specific factors. Patients and methods: Data from a colorectal cancer registry were analysed over a 15 year period, during which nearly 2500 cases were recorded. In patients with suspected HNPCC, microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical expression of proteins encoded by the main DNA mismatch repair genes were assessed. In families with unstable neoplasms, constitutional mutations of the mismatch repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, and hMSH6 were evaluated by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Results: Inflammatory bowel diseases, familial polyposis, and AIDS were rare causes of colorectal cancer (three, three, and one case, respectively). Anal squamous carcinoma developed in 27 patients (1.0%) and could be attributed to papillomavirus infection. In 58 patients (from 34 families) a clinical diagnosis of HNPCC was established (2.4%). In total, cases with a known aetiology were 92 (3.7% of all patients). Microsatellite instability was detected in 15 cancers from HNPCC families, and germline mutations in six families (12 patients, 0.5% of the total). Families with unstable tumours, with or without mutations, were clinically similar, suggesting the involvement of the mismatch repair system even when mutations were not detected. Conclusions: The study suggests that the aetiology of colorectal malignancies remains elusive in the large majority of cases. Among specific causes, HNPCC represents the most frequent. However, with a population based approach, constitutional mutations of the

  20. Unusual aetiology of malignant spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jason; Rennick, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is an oncological emergency requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment to prevent irreversible spinal cord injury and disability. A case is described in a 45-year-old male with renal cell carcinoma in which the presentation of the MSCC was atypical with principally proximal left leg weakness with no evidence of bone metastasis. This was due to an unusual aetiology of the MSCC as the renal carcinoma had metastasised to his left psoas muscle causing a lumbosacral plexopathy and infiltrated through the intervertebral disc spaces, initially causing left lateral cauda equina and upper lumbar cord compression, before complete spinal cord compression. This case illustrates the varied aetiology of MSCC and reinforces the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion of the possibility of spinal cord compression. PMID:24644568

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  2. The aetiology of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malone, P C; Agutter, P S

    2006-09-01

    Most ideas about the pathogenesis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are dominated by a 'consensus model' first articulated around 1962. This model invokes 'Virchow's triad' and attributes thrombogenesis in veins to some combination of 'hypercoagulability', 'stasis' and 'intimal injury'. This arose as a by-product of studies on the mechanisms of haemostasis and bleeding diatheses that were at best only indirectly relevant to thrombosis, and there are reasons for doubting the causal significance of 'hypercoagulability' and 'stasis' in the aetiology of DVT. Proponents of the consensus model make little reference to a substantial literature, mostly historical, that: (a) emphasizes the significance of the venous valve pockets (VVP) and blood rheology in DVT pathogenesis; and (b) describes morphological features specific to venous thrombi that a valid aetiological model must explain. This literature provides the basis for an alternative hypothesis of DVT aetiology, published some 30 years ago, which has been experimentally corroborated and is compatible with recent cell and molecular biological studies of the venous endothelium. We review this alternative hypothesis, considering its potential value for future research on DVT and embolism, and its significance for clinical practice.

  3. Incidence, aetiology, and outcome of non-traumatic coma: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C; Forsyth, R; Kelly, T; Eyre, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine the incidence, presentation, aetiology, and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children aged between 1 month and 16years.
METHODS—In this prospective, population based, epidemiological study in the former Northern NHS region of the UK, cases were notified following any hospital admission or community death associated with non-traumatic coma. Coma was defined as a Glasgow Coma Score below 12 for more than six hours.
RESULTS—The incidence of non-traumatic coma was 30.8 per 100 000 children under 16 per year (6.0 per 100 000 general population per year). The age specific incidence was notably higher in the first year of life (160 per 100 000 children per year). CNS specific presentations became commoner with increasing age. In infants, nearly two thirds of presentations were with non-specific, systemic signs. Infection was the commonest overall aetiology. Aetiology remained unknown in 14% despite extensive investigation and/or autopsy. Mortality was highly dependent on aetiology, with aetiology specific mortality rates varying from 3% to 84%. With follow up to approximately 12 months, overall series mortality was 46%.

 PMID:11207161

  4. Incidence, aetiology and epidemiology of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Okolo, Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumour of the female genital tract. However, their true prevalence is probably under-estimated, as the incidence at histology is more than double the clinical incidence. Recent longitudinal studies have estimated that the lifetime risk of fibroids in a woman over the age of 45 years is more than 60%, with incidence higher in blacks than in whites. The cause of fibroids remains unclear and their biology poorly understood. No single candidate gene has been detected for commonly occurring uterine fibroids. However, the occurrence of rare uterine fibroid syndromes, such as multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis, has been traced to the gene that codes for the mitochondrial enzyme, fumarate hydratase. Cytogenetic abnormalities, particularly deletions of chromosome 7, which are found in up to 50% of fibroid specimens, seem to be secondary rather than primary events, and investigations into the role of tumour suppressor genes have yielded conflicting results. The key regulators of fibroid growth are ovarian steroids, both oestrogen and progestogen, growth factors and angiogenesis, and the process of apoptosis. Black race, heredity, nulliparity, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes and hypertension are associated with increased risk of fibroids, and there is emerging evidence that familial predisposition to fibroids is associated with a distinct pattern of clinical and molecular features compared with fibroids in families without this prevalence.

  5. Aetiology of bovine abortion in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Moore, D P; Odeón, A C; Cipolla, A L; Odriozola, E

    2003-07-01

    Necropsies were performed on 354 fetuses from dairy and beef herds submitted from 1994 to 2000 to the diagnostic laboratories at Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Balcarce, Argentina. Samples from the fetuses were examined for pathogenic organisms and processed for microscopic examination. An aetiological diagnosis was made for 161 (45.5%) of the fetuses. No diagnosis was made for 193 (54.5%) fetuses. Infectious agents were isolated from 122 (34.4%) of the fetuses, bacterial agents being involved in 80 (22.6%) of these. The most common bacterial agents isolated from the fetuses were Brucella abortus in 28 fetuses, Campylobacter fetus in 26 cases, and Escherichia coli in 9 cases. Bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus were found in 9 and 6 cases, respectively. Neospora caninum was detected by an immunohistochemical technique in 26 cases (7.3%). Congenital abnormalities, dystocia and mummifications were found in 8, 19 and 11 cases, respectively.

  6. Does dermatoneuro syndrome have a viral aetiology?

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Mughal, A A; Paulus, J; Salamat, A; Howarth, S

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxoedema is a rare disease characterized by a generalized papular and sclerodermoid cutaneous eruption. It is associated with fibroblast proliferation and mucin deposition in the dermis. Most patients have a monoclonal gammopathy, defined by the presence of IgG. Treatment of scleromyxoedema is challenging, but there is mounting evidence to support the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Individual reports of systemic complications have been described. Dermatoneuro syndrome (DNS) is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation, which consists of a triad of fever, coma and seizures preceded by a flu-like illness. We describe a patient with scleromyxoedema who developed DNS. Our case highlights interesting findings suggesting that DNS may have a viral aetiology. In addition, this case demonstrates a favourable response of the cutaneous features of scleromyxoedema to IVIg.

  7. Peptidoglycan: a major aetiological factor for psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Baker, Barbara S; Powles, Anne; Fry, Lionel

    2006-12-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), a major cell-wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, has been detected within antigen-presenting cells in various inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. The additional presence of T-helper 1 cells specific for streptococcal or staphylococcal PG in psoriasis skin lesions implicates PG as an important T-cell stimulator for the disease. PG is a major target for the innate immune system, and associations between genetic polymorphisms of recognition receptors for PG and various auto-inflammatory diseases have been identified. The location of these genes within four linkage sites for psoriasis raises the possibility that an altered innate recognition of PG might contribute to the enhanced T-cell response to the bacterial antigen. These observations suggest that PG is a major aetiological factor for psoriasis and emphasize the importance of PG in bacterial-infection-induced inflammatory disease.

  8. Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.

  9. A Study on the Epidemiology and Aetiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in Adult Patients Presenting at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tirana, Albania

    PubMed Central

    Stroni, Gentian P.; Dhimolea, Majlinda M.; Pipero, Pëllumb S.; Kraja, Dhimiter V.; Sallavaci, Suela Y.; Bino, Silva F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common cause of hospital emergency room visits in Albania. However, the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalization in adults frequently remains unclear. Aims: Our objective was to study the epidemiology and causes of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult patients presenting to hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2012, among patients ≥15 years old with community-acquired gastroenteritis presenting to the emergency room of the University Hospital “Mother Theresa” in Tirana, Albania. Stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from the patients for microbiological testing. Results: The median age of the study patients was 33 (15–88) years and 577 (58%) were females. The median age of males was 35 (15–87) years. The vast majority of cases occurred in urban area (849, 85%), p<0.01. Patients were admitted throughout the year with peak admissions for patients infected by bacterial pathogens in summer and those affected by viral pathogens in autumn. A total of 917 (91.7%) patients underwent a laboratory examination. The overall isolation rate was 51%. Bacterial pathogens were found in 29%, viral pathogens in 19% and protozoal pathogens in 2.5% of patients. No aetiological agent or other cause of acute diarrhoea was found in 449 (49%) patients. Twenty-nine (3.2%) patients were hospitalized. Conclusion: Despite extensive laboratory investigations, enteropathogens were detected in only 51% of adult patients who presented to the hospital ER with acute gastroenteritis. Viral infections ranked as the second most common cause of gastroenteritis in adults. PMID:25625016

  10. Midline diastema and its aetiology--a review.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Treating the midline diastema is a matter of concern for practitioners, as many different aetiologies are reported to be associated with it. The appearance of midline diastema as part of the normal dental development makes it difficult for practitioners to decide whether to intervene or not at an early stage. The aim of this article is to review the possible aetiology and management options which will help the clinician to diagnose, intercept and to take effective action to correct the midline diastema. The available data shows that an early intervention is desirable in cases with large diastemas. Treatment modality, timing and retention protocol depends on the aetiology of the diastema. Therefore, priority needs to be given to diagnosing the aetiology before making any treatment decisions. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to determine and evaluate the aetiology and possible treatment options of midline diastema.

  11. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  12. Characteristic Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Encephalitis of Infectious, Immune-Mediated, and Unknown Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Benedict D.; Griffiths, Michael J.; Granerod, Julia; Brown, David; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Borrow, Ray; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background Encephalitis is parenchymal brain inflammation due to infectious or immune-mediated processes. However, in 15–60% the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. Methods We measured 38 mediators in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients from the Health Protection Agency Encephalitis Study. Of serum from 78 patients, 38 had infectious, 20 immune-mediated, and 20 unknown aetiology. Of CSF from 37 patients, 20 had infectious, nine immune-mediated and eight unknown aetiology. Results Heat-map analysis of CSF mediator interactions was different for infectious and immune-mediated cases, and that of the unknown aetiology group was similar to the infectious pattern. Higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were found in infectious than immune-mediated cases, in serum and CSF (p = 0.01 and p = 0.006). Serum MPO was also higher in unknown than immune-mediated cases (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis selected serum MPO; classifying 31 (91%) as infectious (p = 0.008) and 17 (85%) as unknown (p = 0.009) as opposed to immune-mediated. CSF data also selected MPO classifying 11 (85%) as infectious as opposed to immune-mediated (p = 0.036). CSF neutrophils were detected in eight (62%) infective and one (14%) immune-mediated cases (p = 0.004); CSF MPO correlated with neutrophils (p<0.0001). Conclusions Mediator profiles of infectious aetiology differed from immune-mediated encephalitis; and those of unknown cause were similar to infectious cases, raising the hypothesis of a possible undiagnosed infectious cause. Particularly, neutrophils and MPO merit further investigation. PMID:26808276

  13. 78 FR 66621 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... 202-418-7622 or lastrada@cftc.gov ; Thomas Smith, Deputy Director, Division of Swap Dealer and... Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants, 76 FR 23732 (Apr. 28, 2011). Among other... Swap Entities, 76 FR 27564 (May 11, 2011). The Commission is continuing to consider this proposal...

  14. Nocturia: aetiology and treatment in adults.

    PubMed

    Dani, Hasan; Esdaille, Ashanda; Weiss, Jeffrey P

    2016-10-01

    Nocturia is an extremely common condition that has major sequelae for affected patients. Through disruption of sleep, nocturia impairs quality of life and worsens health outcomes, and is associated with a variety of morbidities including diabetes, coronary artery disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and depression. Unsurprisingly, several studies have also linked nocturia with reduced survival. Nocturia is not simply a consequence of lower urinary tract disease; rather, it is a multifactorial disorder that is often a manifestation of an underlying renal or systemic disease. Through the use of the frequency volume chart, clinicians can accurately quantify nocturia and determine its aetiology. Evaluation of quality of life and sleep using simple measures is essential in order to assess the impact of nocturia on a patient. Numerous treatment options for nocturia exist, but most are associated with minor benefit or lack sufficient evidence supporting their use. By systematically analysing an individual's causes of nocturia, clinicians can design appropriate treatment strategies to most effectively treat this condition.

  15. A retrospective study on the aetiology, management, and outcome of brain abscess in an 11-year, single-centre study from China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain abscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brain abscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brain abscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brain abscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brain abscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brain abscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brain abscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brain abscess. PMID:24903315

  16. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  17. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Alvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-10-23

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  18. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  19. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  20. Comparison of the aetiology of stillbirth over five decades in a single centre: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wou, Karen; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Chen, Moy-Fong; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates and aetiologies of stillbirth over the past 50 years. Study design We reviewed all autopsy reports for stillbirths occurring between 1989 and 2009 at the McGill University Health Centre to determine the pathological aetiology of stillbirths. We also reviewed maternal characteristics. We compared our results with a previous study published in 1992 on aetiologies of stillbirth from 1961 to 1988 at the same institution. Results From among the 79 410 births between 1989 and 2009, 217 stillbirths were included in our study. The mean maternal age was 31.05 (±5.8) years. In 28.1% of cases, there was a history of subfertility. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32.69 (±5.58) weeks, with a birthweight of 1888 (±1084) g. The main causes of stillbirth were unknown (26.7%), placental factors (19.8%) and abruptio placentae (12.9%). Other causes included haematogenous or ascending infection (10.6%), fetal malformations (8.3%), maternal hypertension (3.2%), intrauterine growth restriction (2.8%), diabetes (1.8%) and intrapartum asphyxia (1.4%). Other fetal causes were found in 12.4% of cases. Conclusions Owing to detailed pathological examination of most stillbirth cases over the past five decades at our tertiary obstetrical centre, we could study the trends in the aetiology of stillbirths in a cohort of more than 150 000 births. In 50 years, the rate of stillbirth has decreased from 115 to 32 cases/10 000 births from the 1960s to 2000s, which represents a reduction of 72%. Stillbirth from unknown cause remains the most common contributor, with 40% of these cases occurring in late pregnancy. PMID:24902725

  1. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  2. Acquired hemophilia a: diagnosis, aetiology, clinical spectrum and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Bhave, Manali; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per million/year with a high mortality rate of more than 20%. The disease occurs due to autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) which neutralize its procoagulant function and result in severe, often life-threatening bleeding. The antibodies arise in individuals with no prior history of hemophilia A. AHA may be associated with pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, malignancy, infections or medication and occurs most commonly in the elderly. Approximately 50% of the patients remain idiopathic with no known underlying pathological condition. Clinical manifestations include spontaneous hemorrhages into the skin, muscles or soft tissues or excessive bleeding during surgery. Hemarthrosis which is the hallmark of congenital severe hemophilia A seldom occurs in AHA. The diagnosis of AHA is based on the isolated prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) which does not normalize after the addition of normal plasma along with reduced FVIII levels. The treatment involves two aspects-eradication of antibodies and maintaining effective hemostasis during a bleeding episode. The protocols for eradication of antibodies include immunoadsorption, immunosuppression or immune tolerance induction (ITI). The treatment of acute bleeding episodes involves use of different bypassing agents like recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, (FEIBA®) in case of patients with high titer inhibitors or with antifibrinolytics,1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) or FVIII concentrates in low titer inhibitor patients. The anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, has shown very good results either singly or in combination with immunosuppressive regimens in patients who do not respond to standard immunosuppressors. The present review summarizes the diagnostic, aetiological, clinical and treatment aspects of AHA focusing

  3. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  4. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  5. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  6. Aetiology and treatment of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Browse, N L; Wilson, N M; Russo, F; al-Hassan, H; Allen, D R

    1992-11-01

    A series of 45 patients with chylous ascites has been reviewed. The age at presentation ranged from 1 to 80 (median 12) years; 23 patients were aged < or = 15 years. Thirty-five patients had an abnormality of the lymphatics (primary chylous ascites); in the remaining ten, the ascites was secondary to other conditions, principally non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (six patients). Two principal mechanisms of ascites formation were identified using lymphangiography and inspection at laparotomy: leakage from retroperitoneal megalymphatics, usually through a visible lymphoperitoneal fistula (14 patients); and leakage from dilated subserosal lymphatics of the small intestine, invariably associated with leaking lacteals causing protein-losing enteropathy (24 patients). Both sites of leakage were present in a further five patients. In the remaining two patients, chyle was leaking from normal mesenteric lymphatics, in one via a ruptured mesenteric lymph cyst and in the other from the site of a previous lymph node biopsy. Other associated lymphatic abnormalities were present in 36 patients, lymphoedema of the leg being the commonest (26 patients). All patients were initially treated conservatively with dietary manipulation; this was the most satisfactory treatment for those with leaking small bowel lymphatics. Surgery (fistula closure, bowel resection or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt) was performed in 30 patients. Closure of a retroperitoneal fistula, when present, was the most successful operation, curing seven of the 12 patients so treated.

  7. Worn Down by Toothwear? Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management Revisited.

    PubMed

    Yule, Pamela L; Barclay, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of toothwear in the population is increasing, as is the number of referrals regarding this problem to secondary care dental hospital consultants and specialists. This paper outlines current theories in aetiology, diagnosis and management of localized and generalized toothwear, as well as describing clinical tips for assessing such patients.

  8. [AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS GASTRO-DUODENALES ULCERATIVE LESIONS IN ELDERLY].

    PubMed

    Chernekhovskaya, N E; Povalayev, A V; Layshenko, G A

    2015-01-01

    In review today conceptions of view to aetiology and pathogenesis gastro-duodenales ulcerative lesions in elderly. Atherosclerosis, ischemic disease of the heart and hypertension are reasons of acute ulcers and erosions in elderly. The breaking of microcirculation are very importance.

  9. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  10. Gas in the urinary tract: its aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J

    1988-01-01

    Gas within the urinary tract may be an incidental finding or it may be detected in the course of investigating a patient with urinary or abdominal symptoms. In the immediate postoperative period it is unlikely to be of any significance, but at any other time it is a sign of serious underlying pathology. In this article its aetiology and management are discussed.

  11. Innovations in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Improved Technical Precision, But Unclear Clinical Benefits.

    PubMed

    Keeney, James A

    2016-07-01

    Total knee arthroplasty has been an effective treatment for advanced degenerative joint disease. Traditional knee designs and surgical approaches have resulted in consistently high performance, but some patients may remain dissatisfied after their surgery. Several surgical innovations, including accelerometer-based navigation, patient-specific instrumentation, and robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty, have been developed to improve the accuracy and precision of total knee arthroplasty surgery, with anticipated secondary benefits of improved functional outcomes and implant survivorship. This article reviews the current status of these technologies as reported in contemporary orthopedic literature. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):217-220.]. PMID:27434889

  12. Prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of bronchiectasis: a retrospective study on 144 symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Scala, R; Aronne, D; Palumbo, U; Montella, L; Giacobbe, R; Martucci, P; Del Prato, B

    2000-04-01

    The incidence of bronchiectasis (BCT) has probably decreased in developed countries in recent years, but reliable statistical data on its occurrence are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of BCT, diagnosed in a selected series of symptomatic patients of a Western country by using bronchography. The authors analysed the main known predisposing and associated conditions (PACs), and the occurrence and age distribution of BCT in 144 consecutive patients who underwent bronchological examination (fibreoptic bronchoscopy and bronchography) in the years 1987-1994 because of recurrent purulent bronchitis and/or haemoptysis. The overall prevalence of BCT was 34% (49/144); its age distribution was: 17.2% (0-10 yrs), 43.7% (11-20 yrs), 38% (21-30 yrs), 37.5% (31-40 yrs), 33.3% (41-50 yrs), 40% (51-60 yrs), and 20% (61-70 yrs). Thirty-one PACs were found in 29/144 patients of the whole study group. The prevalence of BCT was significantly higher in the subgroup of 29 patients with PACs than in the subgroup of 115 patients without PACs (75.9% versus 23.5%; p < 0000001). The aetiology of BCT was mainly unexplained, as it was only possible to detect 24 PACs in 22/49 patients with BCT (44.9%): congenital, genetic and immune disorders (eight), localized airways obstructive diseases (five), pulmonary infections (three), bronchial asthma (two), pulmonary lobar fibrosis (two), ulcerative colitis (two), dermatomiositis (one), and toxin inhalation (one). The authors conclude that bronchiectasis still occurs in a large percentage of symptomatic patients of a developed country in the post-antimicrobial era, especially in the second to sixth decades, as well as in the presence of predisposing and associated conditions; its aetiology remains unknown in more than half of cases.

  13. Contemporary management of aortic stenosis: surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; Blumenstein, Johannes; van Linden, Arnaud; Kempfert, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Aortic valve disease is the most frequent acquired heart valve lesion in humans. In western communities, approximately 90% of patients present with aortic stenosis (AS), predominantly of a calcific degenerative aetiology. The remaining approximately 10% of patients predominantly present with aortic valve incompetence.

  14. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

  15. Aetiological factors of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Afredj, Nawel; Guessab, Nawal; Nani, Abdelbasset; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Ouled Cheikh, Ibtissem; Kerbouche, Rafik; Hannoun, Djouhar; Amir, Zine Charef; Ait Kaci, Hayet; Bentabak, Kamel; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Valerie; Denninger, Marie-Hélène; Boucekkine, Tadjeddine; Debzi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical presentation of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and identify the aetiologies of this disease in Algeria. METHODS: Patients with BCS, hospitalised in our unit from January 2004 until June 2010 were included and the aetiological factors were assessed. Patients presenting a BCS in the setting of advanced-stage cirrhosis or a liver transplantation were excluded from the study. The diagnosis was established when an obstruction of hepatic venous outflow (thrombosis, stenosis or compression) was demonstrated. We diagnosed myeloproliferative disease (MPD) by bone marrow biopsy and V617F JAK2 mutation. Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS) was detected by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein antibodies and Lupus anticoagulant. We also detected paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) by flow cytometry. Celiac disease and Behçet disease were systematically investigated in our patients. Hereditary anticoagulant protein deficiencies were also assessed. We tested our patients for the G20210A mutation at Beaujon Hospital. Imaging procedures were performed to determine a local cause of BCS, such as a hydatid cyst or a liver tumour. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Mean follow up: 32.12 mo. Mean age: 34.41 years, M/F = 0.64. Chronic presentation was frequent: 63.5%. The revealing symptoms for the BCS were ascites (74.8%) and abdominal pain (42.6%). The most common site of thrombosis was the hepatic veins (72.2%). Involvement of the inferior vena cava alone was observed in 3 patients. According to the radiological investigations, BCS was primary in 94.7% of the cases (n = 109) and secondary in 5.2% (n = 6). An aetiology was identified in 77.4% of the patients (n = 89); it was multifactorial in 27% (n = 31). The predominant aetiology of BCS in our patients was a myeloproliferative disease, observed in 34.6% of cases. APLS was found in 21.7% and celiac disease in 11.4%. Other acquired conditions were: PNH (n

  16. Bell's palsy: aetiology, clinical features and multidisciplinary care.

    PubMed

    Eviston, Timothy J; Croxson, Glen R; Kennedy, Peter G E; Hadlock, Tessa; Krishnan, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy. For those with longstanding sequaelae from incomplete recovery, aesthetic, functional (nasal patency, eye closure, speech and swallowing) and psychological considerations need to be addressed by the treating team. Increasingly, multidisciplinary collaboration between interested clinicians from a wide variety of subspecialties has proven effective. A patient centred approach utilising physiotherapy, targeted botulinum toxin injection and selective surgical intervention has reduced the burden of long-term disability in facial palsy.

  17. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  18. [Consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Martinez Campos, L; Albañil Ballesteros, R; de la Flor Bru, J; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Cervera, J; Baquero Artigao, F; Alfayate Miguelez, S; Moraga Llop, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Calvo Rey, C

    2013-11-01

    The Spanish National Consensus (Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, Spanish Society of Pediatric Outpatient and Primary Care, Spanish Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervical-Facial Pathology) on Sinusitis is presented. Rhinosinusitis is a difficult to diagnose and often unrecognised disease. The document discusses the aetiology, the clinical signs and symptoms, and the diagnostic criteria. A proposal for treatment is made based on the epidemiological situation in our country. Oral amoxicillin is the treatment of choice (80mg/kg/day divided every 8hours). Alternative treatment is proposed in special cases and when amoxicillin is not sufficient. The main complications are reviewed.

  19. Chronotropic Incompetence During Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes: Aetiology, Assessment Methodology, Prognostic Impact and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Keytsman, Charly; Dendale, Paul; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    During incremental exercise tests, chronotropic incompetence (CI), which is the inability of the heart rate (HR) to rise in proportion to an increase in metabolic demand, is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the fact that CI is associated with exercise intolerance and elevated risks of development of cardiovascular disease and premature death, this clinical anomaly is often ignored or overlooked by clinicians and physiologists. CI is, however, a significant clinical abnormality that deserves further attention, examination and treatment. The aetiology of CI in T2DM remains poorly understood and is complex. Certain T2DM-related co-morbidities or physiological anomalies may contribute to development of CI, such as altered blood catecholamine and/or potassium levels during exercise, structural myocardial abnormalities, ventricular and/or arterial stiffness, impaired baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Clinicians should thus be aware of the potential presence of yet undetected anomalies or diseases in T2DM patients who experience CI during exercise testing. However, an effective treatment for CI in T2DM is yet to be developed. Exercise training programmes seem to be the only potentially effective and feasible interventions for partial restoration of the chronotropic response in T2DM, but it remains poorly understood how these interventions lead to restoration of the chronotropic response. Studies are thus warranted to elucidate the aetiology of CI and develop an effective treatment for CI in T2DM. In particular, the impact of (different) exercise interventions on CI in T2DM deserves greater attention in future studies.

  20. The Class V lesion--aetiology and restoration.

    PubMed

    Tyas, M J

    1995-06-01

    The aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions is discussed. These have been variously described as 'abrasion', 'erosion', 'abrasion/erosion', and 'idiopathic cervical'. However, many lesions do not fit the classical appearance or location of an erosive and/or abrasive origin, and there is increasing interest in the possible role of occlusal stress in their aetiology. Non-carious cervical lesions often require restoration, and there are essentially three options using tooth-coloured materials: a restorative glass ionomer cement, a liner/base glass ionomer cement overlayed with a resin composite, or a resin composite bonded by an enamel/dentine-adhesive. The materials and techniques used in these options are discussed, indicating their advantages and disadvantages. Results of available clinical trials of these systems are given, and the link with the stress theory of cervical tooth loss is described. The preferred restorative approaches in order are: resin-modified restorative glass ionomer; resin-modified liner/base glass ionomer with a microfine resin composite overlay; enamel/dentine bonding agent with a microfine resin composite.

  1. Malignant epithelial tumours in children: incidence and aetiology.

    PubMed

    al-Sheyyab, M; Muir, K R; Cameron, A H; Raafat, F; Pincott, J R; Parkes, S E; Mann, J R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the incidence of carcinomas in children, changes in incidence over a 30-year period, and to identify features of possible aetiological significance. A total of 173 cases were identified, but after review of the histopathology, 30 patients were excluded because they were considered to have benign epithelial tumours or malignant tumours of nonepithelial origin. Seven other cases were excluded because pathology material was not available. Overall, in 28% of cases, the diagnoses were changed by pathology review. Thus, 136 children in the West Midlands Region diagnosed 1957-1986 were included, with carcinoid tumours (44) and tumours of skin (22), nasopharynx (14), salivary gland (13), adrenal cortex (13), thyroid (9), large bowel (5), other (16). Excluding carcinoids, the age-standardised incidence rate was 2.4 x 10(6) per year. Male:female ratio was 0.7:1 and 66% were aged > 10 years. Incidence increased from 1.5 to 3.3 x 10(6) per year. Genetic factors predisposing to carcinoma included tyrosinosis, MEN II and III, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and basal cell naevus syndrome. There was a case of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and several other patients had relevant family histories. Probable "environmental" causes included antenatal exposure to stilboestrol or hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate, stilboestrol given for premature menarche, neonatal hepatitis and prior radiotherapy. The aetiology of carcinomas in children is multifactorial, both genetic and environmental factors being important. The incidence is increasing.

  2. Study of Aetiology and Outcome in Acute Febrile Illness Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muthaiah, Bhanukumar; Kondareddy, Srinivas; Chikkegowda, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute febrile illness with Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) carries significant morbidity and mortality despite standard therapy in intensive care settings. Infections are the most common cause of MODS followed by polytrauma. Present study was undertaken in medical intensive care units of a tertiary hospital to study the aetiology and outcome among patients with acute febrile illness developing MODS. Aim 1) To study the aetiology of acute febrile illness in patients developing MODS. 2) To study the final outcome among these patients. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mysuru, Karnataka, India, over a period of 6 months from July 2013 to December 2013. The Institutional Ethics Committee Approval (IEC) was obtained before the commencement of the study. A total of 213 cases admitted in intensive care unit with acute febrile illness with two or more organ dysfunction were screened for the inclusion and exclusion criterias. Results A total of 213 cases of acute febrile illness with one or more organ dysfunction were screened. Of the screened patients 75 patients were finally included in the study out of which 46 (61.3%) patients were males and 29 (38.7%) patients were females. Aetiology for acute febrile illness with MODS could be established in 49 (65.3%) patients and it was obscure in 26 (34.7%) patients despite repeated investigations. Dengue infection (29.3%) was the commonest cause of febrile illness with MODS followed by leptospirosis (22.7%). Majority of these patients had haematological derangements (78.7%) and liver function test abnormalities (68%). Out of these 75 cases, 54 (72%) patients recovered completely and 21 (28%) patients died. Among males (N=46), 35 (76.1%) patients recovered and 11 (23.9%) patients died where as among females (N=29), 19 (65.5%) patients recovered and 10 (34.5%) patients died. Mortality was proportionate with the number of organ dysfunction, especially Central

  3. Functional testing strategy for coding genetic variants of unclear significance in MLH1 in Lynch syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Schäfer, Dieter; Langer, Deborah; Köger, Nicole; Wittmann, Margarethe; Aretz, Stefan; Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Trojan, Jörg; König, Rainer; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations in the MLH1 gene, but genetic variants of unclear significance frequently preclude diagnosis. Functional testing can reveal variant-conferred defects in gene or protein function. Based on functional defect frequencies and clinical applicability of test systems, we developed a functional testing strategy aimed at efficiently detecting pathogenic defects in coding MLH1 variants. In this strategy, tests of repair activity and expression are prioritized over analyses of subcellular protein localization and messenger RNA (mRNA) formation. This strategy was used for four unclear coding MLH1 variants (p.Asp41His, p.Leu507Phe, p.Gln689Arg, p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met). Expression was analyzed using a transfection system, mismatch repair (MMR) activity by complementation in vitro, mRNA formation by reverse transcriptase-PCR in carrier lymphocyte mRNA, and subcellular localization with dye-labeled fusion constructs. All tests included clinically meaningful controls. The strategy enabled efficient identification of defects in two unclear variants: the p.Asp41His variant showed loss of MMR activity, whereas the compound variant p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met had a defect of expression. This expression defect was significantly stronger than the pathogenic expression reference variant analyzed in parallel, therefore the defect of the compound variant is also pathogenic. Interestingly, the expression defect was caused additively by both of the compound variants, at least one of which is non-pathogenic when occurring by itself. Tests were neutral for p.Leu507Phe and p.Gln689Arg, and the results were consistent with available clinical data. We finally discuss the improved sensitivity and efficiency of the applied strategy and its limitations in analyzing unclear coding MLH1 variants.

  4. Prevalence, aetiology, and care of severe and profound hearing loss.

    PubMed Central

    Baille, M F; Arnaud, C; Cans, C; Grandjean, H; du Mazaubrun, C; Rumeau-Rouquette, C

    1996-01-01

    Severe and profound hearing loss (> 70 dB) were analysed in a retrospective study of 226 children, born between 1976 and 1985, and recruited from three French administrative departments. The prevalence was 0.54 per 1000 children under 9 years old, with no decrease over the study period. A hereditary origin was identified in 20.8% of cases and an infectious origin in 11.5%. Perinatal risk factors were present in 11.5%, while the aetiology was undetermined in more than half the cases. In 85.8% of the children there was no other severe impairment. Marked learning difficulties were observed: 36% of the children were two years behind their age group and 28% were more than two years behind. The age of initial care decreased over the study period but is still too advanced. Systematic neonatal screening would enable earlier care, which should limit the social and educational impact of hearing loss. PMID:8869193

  5. Dermatoglyphics in childhood leukaemia: a guide to prognosis and aetiology?

    PubMed

    Till, M; Larrauri, S; Smith, P G

    1978-06-01

    The results of analysis of the dermatoglyphics of 152 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (and the first-degree relatives of 54 of them) contrast with those of 31 children with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) (and the first-degree relatives of 25 of them). In ALL our findings suggest that neither genetic susceptibility nor an environmental factor, effective during the early antenatal period, is of aetiological importance; but the response to treatment, assessed as length of first remission, was found to be related to the amount of fingertip pattern. This may have clinical application. In AML there is evidence of a genetically determined factor carrying a high risk of the development of the disease, in that a member of each of 5 different families of the 25 studied bore a rare hypothenar pattern, compared with none in 75 control families. No dermatoglyphic features were of prognostic significance in AML.

  6. Symptoms following mild head injury: expectation as aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Mittenberg, W; DiGiulio, D V; Perrin, S; Bass, A E

    1992-01-01

    An affective, somatic, and memory check-list of symptoms was administered to subjects who had no personal experience or knowledge of head injury. Subjects indicated their current experiences of symptoms, then imagined having sustained a mild head injury in a motor vehicle accident, and endorsed symptoms they expected to experience six months after the injury. The checklist of symptoms was also administered to a group of patients with head injuries for comparison. Imaginary concussion reliably showed expectations in controls of a coherent cluster of symptoms virtually identical to the postconcussion syndrome reported by patients with head trauma. Patients consistently underestimated the premorbid prevalence of these symptoms compared with the base rate in controls. Symptom expectations appear to share as much variance with postconcussion syndrome as head injury itself. An aetiological role is suggested. PMID:1564481

  7. Aetiologic factors in male infertility: clinical, microbiological and hormonal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nalini, K; Sethi, B K; Sharma, M; Dash, R J

    1992-03-01

    Seventy two infertile men were studied. History of small pox and mumps infection was noted in 4 and 3 patients respectively. Seven patients had varicocele (9.2%), and small atrophic testes were found in 9 (12.5%). Azoospermia was reported in 41 (58.3%) and oligospermia in 17 (23.6%), and 14 patients (19.4%) had normal sperm counts. Mycoplasma were grown from urethral swabs in 25 (35%) patients. Mean LH and FSH were elevated in azoospermics (p less than 0.001), E2-17B in oligospermics (p less than 0.001) and FSH in normospermic (p less than 0.01) patients. Hypergonadotropism suggestive of primary testicular failure was recorded in 43 (59.7%) patients. Hypogonadotropism was noted in 3 (4%) and hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary microadenoma induced infertility in only one patient. No aetiology could be determined in 11 (16%) patients.

  8. Pulmonary cavitary lesion and haemoptysis: rare aetiology on biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, John; Thomashow, Byron; Saqi, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare form of malignancy that can present similarly to other necrotising cavitary lung diseases. We present a case of a Caucasian woman who presented with recurrent haemoptysis and a right upper lobe cavitary lesion on CT scan. She underwent selective embolisation of the right bronchial artery by interventional radiology to control her haemoptysis. Positron emission tomography/CT scan was performed which showed significant fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the right upper lobe cavitary lesion. There was a discussion among her providers about the aetiology of this lesion including infection and malignancy. Cultures from bronchoalveolar lavage and blood were negative for infection as the patient underwent right upper lobectomy which showed invasive sarcomatoid pleomorphic carcinoma with a minor component of acinar adenocarcinoma. She was diagnosed with stage IB (T2aN0M0) sarcomatoid pleomorphic carcinoma and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after her lobectomy with recurrence and metastasis to her stomach and pancreas. PMID:27507695

  9. Elucidating the Aetiology of Human Campylobacter coli Infections

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Francois; Sproston, Emma; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Bessell, Paul; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the determinants of Campylobacter coli infection, despite its contributing up to 10% of human Campylobacter infections. A case-control and two case-case study methods explored the aetiology of C. coli over a one year period across Scotland. The case-control multivariate model found an increased risk of C. coli infection in people older than 19 years (O.R. = 3.352), and during the summer months (O.R. = 2.596), while residing in an urban area decreased the risk (O.R. = 0.546). The first case-case study compared C. coli and C. jejuni cases and also showed a higher risk of C. coli during the summer (O.R. = 1.313) and in people older than 19 years (O.R. = 0.791). Living in an urban area was associated with a reduced risk of infection (O.R. = 0.769). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) indicated that sheep and chicken C. coli sequence types (STs) were most frequently found in humans whilst those from cattle and pigs were rarer. MLST diversity was high in isolates from pigs and chicken, intermediate in human isolates, and low in ruminant isolates. The second case-case study used MLST data to ascribe putative sources of infection to the cases. The putative source for 40% of cases was chicken, with 60% acquired from other sources (ruminants 54% and pigs 6%). The case-case analysis also showed that female gender was a risk factor (O.R. = 1.940), which may be explained by females being more likely to prepare poultry in the home. These findings indicate differences between the aetiology of C. coli and C. jejuni infections: this should be taken into account by public health professionals when developing strategies to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:23734204

  10. Mild Intellectual Disability in Children in Lahore, Pakistan: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaqoob, M.; Bashir, A.; Zaman, S.; Ferngren, H.; von Dobeln, U.; Gustavson, K.-H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main objectives of studying intellectual disability (ID) in children is to explore its causes. A specific aetiological diagnosis is important in determining the prognosis, nature and extent of services needed to support affected children. Aetiology and risk factors in mild ID were studied in a cohort of longitudinally followed children…

  11. Wake-up or unclear-onset strokes: are they waking up to the world of thrombolysis therapy?

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Wha; Kwon, Joo Y; Kwon, Sun U; Kim, Jong S

    2012-06-01

    Wake-up or unclear-onset strokes occur in up to one-fourth of patients with ischemic stroke. Although stroke severity and clinical outcomes appear to be poorer in wake-up strokes than nonwake-up strokes, many patients with wake-up strokes do not receive thrombolytic therapy because stroke onset time cannot be determined. Recent studies have suggested, however, that the actual onset time of wake-up stroke is close to the wake-up time. Furthermore, advanced imaging technologies may enable us to identify patients with favorable risk-benefit profiles for thrombolysis. Indeed, empirical thrombolytic treatments have suggested safety and feasibility of such therapy in these patients. Based on these promising results and the development of multimodal imaging methods, prospective thrombolysis trials using predefined imaging criteria are currently under way to test the safety and efficacy of thrombolysis in patients with wake-up or unclear-onset strokes. The establishment of optimal acute treatment strategies in this important yet so far neglected group of patients is eagerly awaited.

  12. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  13. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  14. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  15. Polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): clinical and aetiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, M E; Müller, H; Kaleta, E F

    1989-08-01

    In order to get insight into the aetiology of French Moult (FM) and Budgerigar Fledgling Disease (BFD), and to determine relationships between the two diseases, 298 budgerigars from 49 different breeding flocks were examined. From all birds with BFD and from several birds with FM, viruses were isolated which produced characteristic cytopathic changes in chicken embryo fibroblasts. They were insensitive to chloroform treatment, and their replication was inhibited in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuridine. One of these isolates, from a bird exhibiting clinical signs of BFD, was determined by biochemical and biophysical methods to be a polyomavirus (BFDV). Nestling budgerigars 3 to 10 days of age, were inoculated with this BFDV isolate. They developed an acute systemic disease with high mortality rates, similar to naturally occurring infections. In this regard, BFDV differs markedly from all the other polyomaviruses known until now which only cause clinically asymptomatic, persistent infections in their natural hosts. Most of the birds examined with clinical signs of BFD or FM exhibited low titers of antibodies neutralizing the BFDV isolate, whereas in clinically healthy birds from flocks that never had any problems with FM or BFD, no antibodies against BFDV could be detected. On account of the results of our experiments described here we suspect that FM might be a milder, more protracted form of a BFDV infection. PMID:2552708

  16. Multivariate refutation of aetiological hypotheses in non-experimental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Maclure, M

    1990-12-01

    Extension of Karl Popper's logic of refutation from the realm of contingency tables to multivariate modelling leads to the conclusion that rigorously scientific multivariate analysis in non-experimental epidemiology differs from the traditional quasi-scientific approach. Instead of aiming for high sensitivity in detecting aetiological agents, the goal in refutation is high specificity--to give the best defence of the 'innocence' of every exposure hypothesized as being a cause. Instead of 'forward selection' or 'backward elimination', multivariate refutation uses the method of 'forward elimination'. This entails a likelihood approach (which may be complemented by, but should be demarcated from, Bayesian methods) not only for statistical inference but also, by analogy, for study design and conduct: one starts with the conclusion (the estimate or hypothesis) and works backwards to the observations (the likelihood of the data or the design of the study). Differences in practice can sometimes be large, as illustrated by a study of hypothesized triggers of myocardial infarction. Multivariate refutation should replace the concept of multivariate modelling in non-experimental epidemiology.

  17. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome - Aetiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition that typically involves substantial pain, movement restriction, and considerable morbidity. Although function improves overtime, full and pain free range, may not be restored in everyone. Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis, however the evidence for capsular adhesions is refuted and arguably, this term should be abandoned. The aim of this Masterclass is to synthesise evidence to provide a framework for assessment and management for Frozen Shoulder. Although used in the treatment of this condition, manipulation under anaesthetic has been associated with joint damage and may be no more effective than physiotherapy. Capsular release is another surgical procedure that is supported by expert opinion and published case series, but currently high quality research is not available. Recommendations that supervised neglect is preferable to physiotherapy have been based on a quasi-experimental study associated with a high risk of bias. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom have developed dedicated care pathways that provide; assessment, referral for imaging, education, health screening, ultrasound guided corticosteroid and hydro-distension injections, embedded within physiotherapy rehabilitation. The entire pathway is provided by physiotherapists and evidence exists to support each stage of the pathway. Substantial on-going research is required to better understand; epidemiology, patho-aetiology, assessment, best management, health economics, patient satisfaction and if possible prevention. PMID:25107826

  18. Exercise associated hyponatraemia: quantitative analysis to understand the aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Montain, S J; Cheuvront, S N; Sawka, M N

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of symptomatic hyponatraemia consequent on participation in marathon and ultraendurance races has led to questions about its aetiology and prevention. Objectives To evaluate: (a) the assertion that sweat sodium losses cannot contribute to the development of hyponatraemia during endurance exercise; (b) the adequacy of fluid replacement recommendations issued by the International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA) for races of 42 km or longer; (c) the effectiveness of commercial sports drinks, compared with water, for attenuating plasma sodium reductions. Methods A mathematical model was used to predict the effects of different drinking behaviours on hydration status and plasma sodium concentration when body mass, body composition, running speed, weather conditions, and sweat sodium concentration were systematically varied. Results Fluid intake at rates that exceed sweating rate is predicted to be the primary cause of hyponatraemia. However, the model predicts that runners secreting relatively salty sweat can finish ultraendurance exercise both dehydrated and hyponatraemic. Electrolyte‐containing beverages are predicted to delay the development of hyponatraemia. The predictions suggest that the IMMDA fluid intake recommendations adequately sustain hydration over the 42 km distance if qualifiers—for example, running pace, body size—are followed. Conclusions Actions to prevent hyponatraemia should focus on minimising overdrinking relative to sweating rate and attenuating salt depletion in those who excrete salty sweat. This simulation demonstrates the complexity of defining fluid and electrolyte consumption rates during athletic competition. PMID:16431994

  19. Hamstring injuries. Proposed aetiological factors, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Agre, J C

    1985-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles can be devastating to the athlete because these injuries frequently heal slowly and have a tendency to recur. It is thought that many of the recurrent injuries to the hamstring musculotendinous unit are the result of inadequate rehabilitation following the initial injury. The severity of hamstring injuries is usually of first or second degree, but occasionally third-degree injuries (complete rupture of the musculotendinous unit) do occur. Most hamstring strain injuries occur while running or sprinting. Several aetiological factors have been proposed as being related to injury of the hamstring musculotendinous unit. They include: poor flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and/or endurance, dyssynergic muscle contraction during running, insufficient warm-up and stretching prior to exercise, awkward running style, and a return to activity before complete rehabilitation following injury. Treatment for hamstring injuries includes rest and immobilisation immediately following injury and then a gradually increasing programme of mobilisation, strengthening, and activity. Permission to return to athletic competition should be withheld until full rehabilitation has been achieved (complete return of muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility in addition to a return of co-ordination and athletic agility). Failure to achieve full rehabilitation will only predispose the athlete to recurrent injury. The best treatment for hamstring injuries is prevention, which should include training to maintain and/or improve strength, flexibility, endurance, co-ordination, and agility.

  20. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  1. Hepatitis of viral origin in Leporidae: introduction and aetiological hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E

    1991-06-01

    In less than ten years, two very serious viral hepatic diseases have spread through Leporidae populations (rabbits and hares) in numerous countries. In May 1989, the Office International des Epizooties designated this new disease of rabbits "viral haemorrhagic disease" and entered it as a List B disease in the International Animal Health Code. Clinically, the disease is very similar to the European brown hare syndrome. However, numerous uncertainties prevail today on the true nature of the viruses of the two species. Although they are related, the viruses appear to be different and cross infection between species has given contradictory results. Hepatitis of Leporidae have probably existed in Europe for several years, although their viral aetiology has been demonstrated only recently. The acute form has occurred in hares in Northern Europe since approximately 1980, while the inapparent (or ignored) form has been present in rabbits in Czechoslovakia since 1975. These diseases of Leporidae are true viral hepatitis which, in their fulminating forms, bear a remarkable resemblance to human viral hepatitis (B and non-A non-B) with regard to clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and mode of transmission. The dominant faecal-oral transmission observed for types A and E hepatitis would explain the particular susceptibility of family-kept rabbits, as they are fed potentially contaminated fodder. As the clinically similar fulminating hepatitis in human beings is caused by a diversity of viruses (both RNA and DNA), the disease in Leporidae might also be caused by different viruses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1760579

  2. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  3. Septal aperture aetiology: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Myszka, A

    2015-01-01

    Many theories have been suggested in order to explain the aetiology of septal aperture. The influence of genes, the size and shape of ulna processes, joint laxity, bone robusticity, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis has been discussed; however, the problem has not yet been solved. The aim of the study was to examine the correlations between musculoskeletal stress markers, humeral robusticity and septal aperture. Additionally, the frequency of septal aperture according to sex, age, and skeletal side had been analysed. The skeletal material had come from a medieval cemetery in Cedynia, Poland. Skeletons of 201 adults (102 males, 99 females) had been examined and septal aperture had been scored. Six muscle attachment sites of upper limb bones had been analysed. Humeral robusticity had been calculated by use of the humeral robusticity index. The frequency of septal aperture among the population from Cedynia is 7.5%. There are no differences in septal aperture prevalence between males and females, the skeletal sides or age groups. In the analysed material, males with less developed muscle markers of right upper bones proved a higher predictable rate in having septal aperture (R = -0.34). On the left bones and among females, the converse correlation had also been found, but it is not statistically significant. The correlation between septal aperture and humeral robusticity is converse, yet small and insignificant. These results can confirm the theory of joint laxity and suggest that stronger bones (heavier muscles, more robust bones) increase joint tightness, and therefore protect the humeral lamina from septal aperture formation. But this theory needs a further detailed analysis.

  4. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  5. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome. PMID:15941725

  6. Lactase deficiency: a potential novel aetiological factor in chronic pruritus of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Sonja A; Stratmann, Ewelina; Brehler, Randolf; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2011-10-01

    Chronic pruritus, which is associated with a wide variety of underlying diseases, represents a challenge in diagnostics and treatment in dermatology and general medicine. The cause of pruritus remains unknown in up to 45% of patients. In this study, 718 patients with chronic pruritus were analysed concerning lactase deficiency, demographic data, aetiology, duration and intensity of pruritus. A total of 154 patients were tested positive for lactase deficiency and 38.3% showed a significant anti-pruritic response to a lactose-free diet (minimum 4 weeks). The best results were observed in patients with pruritus of mixed or unknown origin (n = 91; 64% response). Age, sex, localization or duration had no significant influence on the anti-pruritic effect of a lactose-free diet. Lactase deficiency might be an independent causal factor in the elicitation of chronic pruritus. Thus, screening for lactase deficiency represents a rational step in the diagnostic work-up of chronic pruritus. In case of a positive test result, a lactose-free diet offers a low-cost, efficient and specific therapy in patients with chronic pruritus.

  7. At the borders of medical reasoning: aetiological and ontological challenges of medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) remain recalcitrant to the medical profession, proving less suitable for homogenic treatment with respect to their aetiology, taxonomy and diagnosis. While the majority of existing medical research methods are designed for large scale population data and sufficiently homogenous groups, MUS are characterised by their heterogenic and complex nature. As a result, MUS seem to resist medical scrutiny in a way that other conditions do not. This paper approaches the problem of MUS from a philosophical point of view. The aim is to first consider the epistemological problem of MUS in a wider ontological and phenomenological context, particularly in relation to causation. Second, the paper links current medical practice to certain ontological assumptions. Finally, the outlines of an alternative ontology of causation are offered which place characteristic features of MUS, such as genuine complexity, context-sensitivity, holism and medical uniqueness at the centre of any causal set-up, and not only for MUS. This alternative ontology provides a framework in which to better understand complex medical conditions in relation to both their nature and their associated research activity. PMID:24006875

  8. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    PubMed

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-01

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge. PMID:23694921

  9. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  10. Serrated polyposis is an underdiagnosed and unclear syndrome: the surgical pathologist has a role in improving detection.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Clinton D; Sweet, Kevin; Lehman, Amy; Frankel, Wendy L

    2012-08-01

    Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is poorly defined and patients have an increased but unspecified risk for colorectal carcinoma through the serrated pathway. Despite this association SPS remains relatively obscure and is therefore likely underrecognized. We determined the frequency of SPS among patients with any serrated polyps (SPs) over a 6-month "index" period, and in doing so we assessed the ability of surgical pathologists to improve SPS detection. Particular attention was given to the index procedure to assess the potential predictive value of the findings resulting from a single colonoscopy. A total of 929 patients with at least 1 SP were identified, 17 of whom (1.8%) were determined to meet World Health Organization criteria for SPS. Nine patients met the first criterion (≥ 5 proximal SPs, 2 of which are > 10 mm); 4 met the third criterion (> 20 SPs of any size distributed throughout the colon); and 4 met both criteria. Although no specific SP size or number at the index procedure was clearly superior in its ability to predict SPS, > 50% of cases would be detected if a cutoff of ≥ 3 SPs or a single SP ≥ 15 mm at the index procedure is used. In summary, SPS is rare but more likely underdiagnosed. Additional studies to address the underlying genetic basis for SPS are ongoing in order to shed further light on this syndrome. Surgical pathologists are in a unique position to assist in this endeavor by identifying those patients who either meet or seem to be at high risk of meeting World Health Organization criteria.

  11. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    PubMed Central

    van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

  12. Aetiologic diagnosis of hearing loss in children identified through newborn hearing screening testing.

    PubMed

    Forli, F; Giuntini, G; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes and early diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems, the need has clearly emerged to implement and carry out a systematic and coordinated protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", it has been decided to consider the problems relative to aetiological diagnosis of child PHI within UNHS programmes. The specific objective was to apply a shared diagnostic protocol that can identify the cause in at least 70% of cases of PHI. For this part of the project, four main recommendations were identified that can be useful for an efficient aetiological diagnosis in children affected by PHI and that can offer valid suggestions to optimise resources and produce positive changes for third-level audiologic centres. PMID:27054388

  13. Aetiologic diagnosis of hearing loss in children identified through newborn hearing screening testing.

    PubMed

    Forli, F; Giuntini, G; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes and early diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems, the need has clearly emerged to implement and carry out a systematic and coordinated protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", it has been decided to consider the problems relative to aetiological diagnosis of child PHI within UNHS programmes. The specific objective was to apply a shared diagnostic protocol that can identify the cause in at least 70% of cases of PHI. For this part of the project, four main recommendations were identified that can be useful for an efficient aetiological diagnosis in children affected by PHI and that can offer valid suggestions to optimise resources and produce positive changes for third-level audiologic centres.

  14. The impact of different aetiologies on the cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; Bolsover, Fay; Lecce, Francesca; White, Mark; Spanò, Barbara; Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological group study methodology is considered one of the primary methods to further understanding of the organisation of frontal ‘executive’ functions. Typically, patients with frontal lesions caused by stroke or tumours have been grouped together to obtain sufficient power. However, it has been debated whether it is methodologically appropriate to group together patients with neurological lesions of different aetiologies. Despite this debate, very few studies have directly compared the performance of patients with different neurological aetiologies on neuropsychological measures. The few that did included patients with both anterior and posterior lesions. We present the first comprehensive retrospective comparison of the impact of lesions of different aetiologies on neuropsychological performance in a large number of patients whose lesion solely affects the frontal cortex. We investigated patients who had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), high (HGT) or low grade (LGT) tumour, or meningioma, all at the post-operative stage. The same frontal ‘executive’ (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, Stroop Colour-Word Test, Letter Fluency-S; Trail Making Test Part B) and nominal (Graded Naming Test) tasks were compared. Patients' performance was compared across aetiologies controlling for age and NART IQ scores. Assessments of focal frontal lesion location, lesion volume, global brain atrophy and non-specific white matter (WM) changes were undertaken and compared across the four aetiology. We found no significant difference in performance between the four aetiology subgroups on the ‘frontal’ executive and nominal tasks. However, we found strong effects of premorbid IQ on all cognitive tasks and robust effects of age only on the frontal tasks. We also compared specific aetiology subgroups directly, as previously reported in the literature. Overall we found no significant differences in the performance of CVA and tumour patients, or LGT and HGT

  15. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    PubMed

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  16. Behavioural Phenotypes and Special Educational Needs: Is Aetiology Important in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of genetic conditions with associated intellectual disability and/or special educational needs have increasingly well-defined behavioural phenotypes. Thus, the concept of "behavioural phenotype" and aetiology of intellectual disability may be important with regard to school-based interventions. Method: The evidence for…

  17. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  18. Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

  19. Interdisciplinarity: A Concept Still Unclear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzer, Giovanni

    1982-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness and practicality of discrete academic disciplines to interdisciplinary curriculum approaches for elementary secondary education. Interdisciplinary curricula from France, Spain, and Italy are used to illustrate various ways of combining individual subjects. The author considers the interdisciplinary curriculum model…

  20. Epidemiology and aetiology of C4-6 disease.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Andrew W

    2010-10-01

    Although our understanding of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has improved, many important questions remain unanswered. Ensuring that patients are appropriately referred for specialist assessment and then receive evidence-based, cost-effective treatment continues to be challenging. The lifetime of risk of chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is around 1% with approximately 10% ulcers being open at any one time. The incidence skin changes disease is about 10 times greater (10%). However, many of the studies upon which these estimates are based are old and/or methodologically flawed. There is reason to believe that the incidence, prevalence and characteristics of CVI/CVU may have changed considerably over the last 10-20 years and that future change is likely. Further cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies are required to establish the size and nature of the health-care need going forward in developed and increasingly developing countries. CVI culminating CVU is primarily the result of sustained ambulatory venous hypertension, which in turn arises from superficial and/or deep venous reflux with or without deep vein obstruction. However, there are many other elements to this complex condition, for example, microvascular dysfunction; calf muscle pump efficiency; dermal inflammation; disordered fibroblast function and matrix production; failure of epithelialization; congenital and acquired thrombophilia; malnutrition, obesity and diet; and bacterial colonization. None of the currently available treatment modalities is entirely satisfactory and novel therapies based upon a clearer understanding of the disease at the psychological, genetic, mechanical, microvascular and microscopic level are required.

  1. Comparative aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in Kakamega and Kiambu Districts, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chunge, R N; Simwa, J M; Karumba, P N; Kenya, P R; Kinoti, S N; Muttunga, J; Nagelkerke, N

    1992-08-01

    Two hundred diarrhoea specimens collected during January to February 1988, from rural children aged 0 to 60 months in Kakamega District were examined for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus. The results were compared with a sample of 184 diarrhoea specimens matched for month of collection, taken from data collected in the same manner from children in Kiambu District. The mean ages of children in the 2 samples did not differ significantly. There were significant differences in the prevalence of specific potential pathogens isolated in the 2 areas. Notably, A. lumbricoides and rotavirus were more common in Kakamega, while G. lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas hominis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana and EPEC were more common in Kiambu. There was no difference with respect to prevalence of Campylobacter sp. or Blastocystis hominis. Factors which were probably important in determining aetiological differences included climate, water sources, animal contact and crowding. The differences highlight the fact that general predictions about aetiology cannot be made from isolated studies. PMID:1396210

  2. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  3. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  4. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  5. The aetiology of dental caries--an outline of current thought.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    1977-12-01

    Nearly 90 years after being put forward by W.D. Miller, the acidogenic theory of dental caries aetiology is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. However, while explaining the basic mechanism of caries, it does not indicate how the effect of the mechanism is modified to give the observable pattern of caries attack. This explanation is attempted on the basis of the interaction of two groups of variable factors. Firstly, those which affect the tooth's resistance to caries attack, which include the chemical, microstructural and morphological nature of the enamel surface. Secondly the factors which determine the cariogenicity of the tooth's environment. These include the nature of the diet, plaque and saliva. Finally the caries initiation is considered at an atomic level in terms of the dynamic ionic exchange between enamel and plaque. This brief review highlights the need for considerably more research to shed more light on the nature of the variable aetiological factors of caries.

  6. A putative role for Toxocara species in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Theorell, Töres

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of unknown aetiology. The finding of monoclonal antibodies in MS has been attributed to various infectious agents. Nematodes, such as Toxocara species have not been explored as possible aetiologic agents of MS. Some epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to stress and household pets prior to the diagnosis of MS. In a case known to the authors, slight malaise and eosinophilia in peripheral blood preceded the diagnosis of MS by one year in a middle-aged man who lived in rural surroundings with cats in the household. The ubiquitary parasite Toxocara catis or canis is prevalent and serum antibodies are found regularly in populations examined. It is able to develop into the larval stage in human beings. The hypothesis presented here is that MS could be initiated by such infections in previously unexposed subjects under conditions of long-term stress. PMID:15193348

  7. The definition, aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of previous caesarean scar defects.

    PubMed

    Allornuvor, G F N; Xue, M; Zhu, X; Xu, D

    2013-11-01

    Caesarean sections are the most commonly performed surgical procedures involving the uterus in fertile women. Typically, this surgery involves a transverse incision in the anterior lower uterine segment. The incidence of caesarean sections is on the increase worldwide, and consequently, the complications associated with them are becoming more common. One such complication that is gaining more attention is previous lower uterine segment caesarean scar defect (PCSD). In this review, we sought to explore the definition, aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of PCSD.

  8. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism. PMID:27213061

  9. Eosinophilia in an Acutely Limping Child: An Easy Guess of Rare Systemic Aetiology!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Harshita; Ahmed, Maaz; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Painful limping child is often considered due to septic arthritis. Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is rare in adults and children. The aetiology is often related to tuberculosis of spine. Hereby we report a case of staphylococcal IPA where incidental evaluations led to obvious diagnosis of a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome called Job syndrome or hyperimmunoglobulin E and Eosinophilia Syndrome (HIES). This was the first case of IPA in a case of immunodeficiency syndrome including HIES. PMID:27504370

  10. [Nature meets nurture: the importance of epigenetics for the aetiology of psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Buchholz, V; Kotsiari, A; Bleich, S; Frieling, H

    2013-07-01

    A successful therapy requires an understanding and investigation of the aetiology of a disease. Psychiatric diseases represent a special challenge, because environmental factors may play a crucial role in their development as well as possible physiological and genetic causes. Therefore, epigenetics has established itself to be a branch of research that studies the effect of environmental factors on the development of psychiatric diseases, leading to promising new approaches for diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

  12. Aetiology and presentation of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: report of 23 cases from Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu Adebayo; Aluko Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Abayomi Ademola; Ajike, Sunday O

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reviewed the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but only a few focused on the aetiology and clinical features. We retrospectively studied the aetiology and clinical features of patients with ankylosis of the TMJ who presented to the Maxillofacial Unit, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2009. There were 13 male and 10 female patients, M:F ratio 1.3:1, age range 6-62, mean (SD) 20 (13) years. The aetiological factors were trauma (n=11) that comprised falls (n=6), untreated fractures of the zygomatic arch (n=4) and myositis ossificans (n=1); infection (n=9), that comprised cancrum oris (n=3) and ear infection (n=6); congenital or unknown (n=2), and coronoid hyperplasia (n=1). The maximum interincisal distance at presentation ranged from 0 to 25 mm (mean (SD) 6.7 (7.2) mm). Seventeen had facial deformities. The diagnoses recorded were as follows: left extracapsular ankylosis, (n=8); right intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=6); left intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4); bilateral intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4), and bilateral intracapsular fibrous ankylosis (n=1). Extreme poverty was the main predisposing factor. There is a need for a concerted effort among healthcare providers, policy makers, and the world in general to eradicate poverty and improve healthcare to limit the incidence of ankylosis of the TMJ.

  13. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  14. Adverse Outcomes of IVF/ICSI Pregnancies Vary Depending on Aetiology of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kuivasaari-Pirinen, Paula; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Heinonen, Seppo

    2012-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a risk factor for pregnancy, but there have been few studies on the effect of infertility's aetiology. Thus, we have assessed the role of aetiology on IVF pregnancy outcomes in a retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes of IVF singleton pregnancies with those of spontaneous pregnancies in the general Finnish population. The study group consisted of 255 women with births resulting from singleton IVF pregnancies. Six subgroups were formed according to the following causes of infertility: anovulation (27%), endometriosis (19%), male factor (17%), tubal factor (15%), polycystic ovary syndrome (11%), and unexplained infertility (12%). The reference group consisted of 26,870 naturally conceived women. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs), for confounding factors such as age and parity, were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Women with endometriosis and anovulation had increased risks of preterm birth (AOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.5–7.1 and AOR 2.1, and 95% CI 1.0–4.2, resp.), while women in couples with male factor infertility had a twofold risk of admission to neonatal intensive care (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.3). The findings show that the aetiology of infertility influenced the obstetrics outcome, and that pooling results may obscure some increased risks among subgroups. PMID:22570795

  15. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  16. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia.

  17. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24467355

  18. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out.

  19. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S.; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out. PMID:26085582

  20. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  1. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  2. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  3. Impact injuries in baseball : prevalence, aetiology and the role of equipment performance.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Elliott, Bruce C; Miller, Karol

    2004-01-01

    Baseball has one of the highest impact injury rates of all sports. These injuries are primarily attributed to impact by a ball after it has been hit, pitched or thrown. This paper will review the incidence and causal factors for impact injuries in baseball. Attention is given to the design and material properties of bats, in light of evidence suggesting balls hit into the infield from metal bats can reach velocities potentially lethal to defensive players. The distribution of bat mass along the long axis of the implement appears a major factor in the greater performance potential of metal bats over wooden bats of equal length and mass. The dynamic behaviour of baseballs has also been implicated in the severity of head and chest injuries experienced by players. Balls of greatly reduced stiffness have been introduced for junior play, but debate still remains over their performance and impact characteristics. The behaviour of the ball during high-speed impact with the bat has been the subject of relatively limited research, and the effect of manipulating baseball material properties to decrease batted-ball velocity is unclear. The value of batting helmets is evident in the observed reduction of head injuries in baseball, but the use of protective vests to decrease the incidence and severity of cardio-thoracic trauma appears to be contraindicated. PMID:14715037

  4. Impact injuries in baseball : prevalence, aetiology and the role of equipment performance.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Elliott, Bruce C; Miller, Karol

    2004-01-01

    Baseball has one of the highest impact injury rates of all sports. These injuries are primarily attributed to impact by a ball after it has been hit, pitched or thrown. This paper will review the incidence and causal factors for impact injuries in baseball. Attention is given to the design and material properties of bats, in light of evidence suggesting balls hit into the infield from metal bats can reach velocities potentially lethal to defensive players. The distribution of bat mass along the long axis of the implement appears a major factor in the greater performance potential of metal bats over wooden bats of equal length and mass. The dynamic behaviour of baseballs has also been implicated in the severity of head and chest injuries experienced by players. Balls of greatly reduced stiffness have been introduced for junior play, but debate still remains over their performance and impact characteristics. The behaviour of the ball during high-speed impact with the bat has been the subject of relatively limited research, and the effect of manipulating baseball material properties to decrease batted-ball velocity is unclear. The value of batting helmets is evident in the observed reduction of head injuries in baseball, but the use of protective vests to decrease the incidence and severity of cardio-thoracic trauma appears to be contraindicated.

  5. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  6. By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value.

  7. The aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis in adolescents and adults - Fusobacterium necrophorum is commonly found.

    PubMed

    Hedin, K; Bieber, L; Lindh, M; Sundqvist, M

    2015-03-01

    Sore throat is common in primary healthcare. Aetiological studies have focused on the presence of a limited number of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a wide range of bacteria and viruses, including Fusobacterium necrophorum, in patients with pharyngotonsillitis and in asymptomatic controls. A prospective case control study was performed in primary healthcare in Kronoberg County, Sweden. Patients (n=220) aged 15 to 45 years with a suspected acute pharyngotonsillitis, and controls (n=128), were included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed for β-hemolytic streptococci, F. necrophorum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and 13 respiratory viruses. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. The patient history and symptoms, including Centor score, were analysed in relation to pathogens. In 155/220 (70.5%) of the patients, as compared to 26/128 (20.3%) of the controls (p <0.001), at least one microorganism was found. Group A streptococci, F. necrophorum, and influenza B virus were the three most common findings, and all significantly more common in patients than in controls (p <0.001, p 0.001, and p 0.002, respectively). Patients with F. necrophorum only (n=14) displayed a lower Centor score than patients with Group A streptococcus only (n=46), but a higher score than patients with influenza B, other viruses, or no potential pathogen (Kruskal-Wallis p <0.001). A pathogen was detected in 70% of the patients, displaying a wide range of pathogens contributing to the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis. This study supports F. necrophorum as one of the pathogens to be considered in the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis.

  8. Lack of Evidence for a Role of Islet Autoimmunity in the Aetiology of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Grimelius, Lars; von Euler, Henrik; Sundberg, Katarina; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lobell, Anna; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lernmark, Åke; Kämpe, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. Results None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. Conclusions/Interpretations Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus. PMID:25153886

  9. Recurrent spontaneous abortion--aetiological factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 76 couples.

    PubMed

    van Iddekinge, B; Hofmeyr, G J

    1991-09-01

    A diagnostic screening programme identified a possible aetiological factor in 32 of 76 couples (42%) evaluated for recurrent spontaneous abortion (three or more consecutive abortions). The abnormalities most commonly observed were endocervical infections (18%), cervical incompetence (11%) and uterine abnormality (9%). Hypothyroidism was present in 3 women and chromosomal abnormality in 2. None were positive for lupus anticoagulant. Treatment of uterine abnormality and cervical incompetence was associated with 75% and 86% success rates, respectively, whereas treatment of infective causes resulted in a 44% successful pregnancy rate, much the same as the 42% rate that occurred in women who had not been thus treated.

  10. Definitions and aetiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis: how the Canadian consensus clinical definition of myalgic encephalomyelitis works

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M

    2007-01-01

    A perspective on the various definitions of myalgic encephalomyelitis and the process of discovering its aetiology is presented. The importance of clinical guidelines is emphasised to encourage clinicians to provide clear descriptions of their individual patients required for proper clinical activity; diagnosis, estimation of severity of effect, prognosis, treatment and rehabilitation. This individual knowledge is informed by general and (hopefully) publicly confirmed knowledge resulting from scientific research during the second‐person interaction which lies at the core of the clinical encounter. Both types of knowledge are essential. PMID:16935963

  11. Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. II: The search for an exogenous aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Poskanzer, D C; Sheridan, J L; Prenney, L B; Walker, A M

    1980-01-01

    In Orkney and Shetland, a survey of lifetime events was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients and two control groups to define shared exposure to an exogenous agent or environmental insult. Analyses of demographic factors, diet, social class and occupation, housing and environment, animal exposure, schooling, travel, infectious disease, and medical history disclosed a remarkable similarity in responses between patients and controls for a majority of questions. However, differences were noted for sanitation, place of residence at onset, and animal exposure. The data give additional support for an exogenous aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:7241023

  12. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  15. Dental Erosion and Medical Conditions An Overview of Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Paryag, A; Rafeek, R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth wear or tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process and occurs throughout life but is considered pathological when the degree of destruction is excessive or the rate of loss is rapid, causing functional, aesthetic or sensitivity problems. The importance of tooth wear as a dental problem has been increasingly recognized. The findings of a study in Trinidad indicate that the prevalence of tooth wear in a Trinidadian population is comparable to the United Kingdom (UK) and, indeed, that the level of moderate and severe wear is nearly twice as high. The aetiology of tooth wear is attributed to four causes: erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is generally considered to be the most prevalent cause of tooth wear in the UK and Europe. Acids that cause dental erosion originate mainly from the diet or the stomach and, to a lesser extent, the environment. Underlying medical problems can contribute to influence the progress of tooth wear due to erosion and the patient may not be aware of these conditions. Moderate to severe tooth wear poses a significant clinical challenge to dental practitioners and may result in treatment that is more complex and costly to the patient, both in terms of finances and time spent in the dental chair. This paper provides an overview of aetiology and diagnosis of tooth wear, in particular tooth wear due to erosion, so that medical and dental practitioners may recognize tooth wear early, institute preventive measures and manage patients appropriately. PMID:25781289

  16. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice.

  17. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  18. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice. PMID:24387630

  19. Discuss the role of microorganisms in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periapical disease.

    PubMed

    Aw, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    The literature indicates that microorganisms have a critical role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. The advancement in microbiological study methods has allowed for the identification of newer species associated with the disease process. At our current understanding, however, the exact roles of specific microorganisms in apical periodontitis are not fully understood but the poly-microbial aetiology of the disease appears to be supported by the literature. The endodontic microbiota is comprised of a subset of microbiota present in the oral cavity, consisting of predominantly anaerobic bacterial species, some fungal and viral species. The pathogenesis of apical periodontitis is essentially the result of a complex interplay between bacterial and host factors, giving rise to a range of presentations depending on the balance of the interaction. The role of endodontic microbiota in the initiation and persistence of apical periodontitis means that the mainstay of endodontic treatment is the elimination of such bacteria. A challenge to the resolution of apical periodontitis after treatment lies in the inadequacy of treatment protocol in completely eradicating the pathogenic species and the inherent ability of certain species to survive the treatment. This issue should be the focus of future research as we continually search for more predictable treatment methods of achieving the resolution of apical periodontitis. PMID:27506189

  20. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  1. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  2. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Aetiology of Obesity: Proposed Mechanisms and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Edwards, Christine Ann; Shaikh, M. Guftar

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone. However, evidence from animal and human studies clearly indicates controversies in determining the cause or effect relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity. Metagenomics based studies indicate that functionality rather than the composition of gut microbiota may be important. Further mechanistic studies controlling for environmental and epigenetic factors are therefore required to help unravel obesity pathogenesis. PMID:27703805

  3. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  4. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  5. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  6. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  7. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  8. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  9. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  10. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  11. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 and three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Conclusions This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel and a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low. PMID:26821179

  12. Aetiological factors in cutaneous malignant melanomas seen at a UK skin clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C M; Jenkinson, C M; Murrells, T J; Skeet, R G; Everall, J D

    1987-01-01

    A clinic-based case-control study was set up in 1961 to examine a variety of aetiological factors in malignant melanoma cases compared with controls with other non-malignant skin conditions. The 268 cases and 1577 controls showed odds ratios of 1.9 for red hair, 2.0 for skin that burns in the sun, and no difference between indoor and outdoor workers or between Celts and other Europeans, consistent with the results of more recent studies. Exposure to 16 specific chemicals was recorded in the study and, among these, men exposed to cutting oils were found to have a significantly raised odds ratio of 1.91. Other statistically significant findings were an elevated risk among women diabetics, particularly in the postmenopausal age group, and a reduced risk of 0.7 among cigarette smokers. PMID:3455424

  13. Serotonin mediated immunoregulation and neural functions: Complicity in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preeti; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Rajamma, Usha

    2015-08-01

    Serotonergic system has long been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), since platelet hyperserotonemia is consistently observed in a subset of autistic patients, who respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Apart from being a neurotransmitter, serotonin functions as a neurotrophic factor directing brain development and as an immunoregulator modulating immune responses. Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates serotonin level in lymphoid tissues to ensure its proper functioning in innate and adaptive responses. Immunological molecules such as cytokines in turn regulate the transcription and activity of SERT. Dysregulation of serotonergic system could trigger signalling cascades that affect normal neural-immune interactions culminating in neurodevelopmental and neural connectivity defects precipitating behavioural abnormalities, or the disease phenotypes. Therefore, we suggest that a better understanding of the cross talk between serotonergic genes, immune systems and serotonergic neurotransmission will open wider avenues to develop pharmacological leads for addressing the core ASD behavioural deficits.

  14. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment. PMID:27713275

  15. Intestinal Schistosomiasis as Unusual Aetiology for Acute Appendicitis, Nowadays a Rising Disease in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    López de Cenarruzabeitia, I.; Landolfi, S.; Armengol Carrasco, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis as unusual aetiology for acute appendicitis, nowadays a rising disease in western countries. Recent changes in global migration has led to an immigration growth in our scenario, upsurging people coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Schistosomal appendicitis, seldom reported in developed countries, is now an expected incrising entity in our hospitals during the near future. Due to this circumstances, we believe that schistosomiasis should be consider as a rising source for acute appendicitis in western countries. In order to illustrate this point, we present a case of a 45-years-old black man, from Africa, was admitted via A&E because of acute abdominal pain, located in right lower quadrant. Acute appendicitis was suspected, and he underwent laparotomy and appendectomy. Pathological study by microscope revealed a gangrenous appendix with abscesses and parasitic ova into the submucosal layer of the appendix, suggesting Schistosomiasis. PMID:22792502

  16. Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer – Review of aetiology and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanina, S.; Vivekananthan, C.; Randhawa, R.; Bhattacharya, M.; Thomas, P.; Kavidasan, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside the case report, we provide a review of aetiology, mechanism and diagnosis with a brief summary of treatment options. PMID:26236602

  17. Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer - Review of aetiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hanina, S; Vivekananthan, C; Randhawa, R; Bhattacharya, M; Thomas, P; Kavidasan, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside the case report, we provide a review of aetiology, mechanism and diagnosis with a brief summary of treatment options.

  18. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  19. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  20. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  1. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.

  2. Geochemical variables as plausible aetiological cofactors in the incidence of some common environmental diseases in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid growth in research in the field of medical geology around the world, and we continue to encounter “new” and important correlations between certain environmental health conditions and factors related to our interactions with geological materials and processes. A review of the possible role of geochemical factors such as the circulation of Mg, Se and F and the physico-chemical composition of volcanic soil particles, on the aetiology of some common diseases in Africa, is presented. Such studies till now, have tended to emphasise only the deleterious health impacts due to geoenvironmental factors. This is justifiable, since a proper understanding of the negative health impacts has contributed significantly towards improvement in diagnosis and therapy. But there are also beneficial effects accrued from judiciously exploiting geological materials and processes, exemplified in this review, by the several important medical applications of African clays, the therapeutic gains associated with hot springs, and balneology of peat deposits. The criticality of the “optimal range” of intake for the nutrient elements Mg, Se and F in metabolic processes is also emphasised, and illustrations given of illnesses such as cardiovascular disorders and various cancers (all major causes of mortality in Africa) that can possibly occur on either side of this range. It is hoped that this review would help generate ideas for the formulation of experimental studies that take into account the role of the geochemical environment, in an attempt to establish precisely the obscure aetiology of some of the diseases treated, and uncover new pathways in their pathogenesis.

  3. Cross-space-time clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain: evidence for a common aetiology.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Stiller, Charles; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we identified space-time clustering in certain childhood cancers. This study aimed to determine whether there was cross-space-time clustering between different diagnostic groups. A total of 32,295 cases were diagnosed during 1969-1993. Cross-space-time clustering was analyzed by a second-order procedure based on Diggle's method. Locations were birth and diagnosis addresses. The following space-time combinations were examined: address and date of birth; address at birth and date of diagnosis; address and date of diagnosis. Cross-space-time clustering analyses considered clustering pairs of cases from two different diagnostic groups. Formal statistical significance was taken as p < 0.00067 and marginal significance 0.01 > p ≥ 0.00067. Based on address at birth and date of diagnosis, there was statistically significant cross-clustering between cases of HL and intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors (IIET), both aged 0-14 years (p < 0.0001). Based on address and date of birth, there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of lymphoid leukemia (LL) aged 5-14 years and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0019). Based on address and date of diagnosis there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of LL aged 1-4 years and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0041). Findings from this study are consistent with possible common aetiological factors between different diagnostic groups. They suggest a common aetiology for the following pairs of diagnostic groups: HL and IIET; older cases of LL and HL; younger cases of LL and STS. The possibility of common infectious mechanisms should be explored.

  4. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care. PMID:26878223

  5. Computed tomography evidence of dental restoration as aetiological factor for maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Connor, S E; Chavda, S V; Pahor, A L

    2000-07-01

    Maxillary sinusitis due to dental causes is usually secondary to periodontal disease or periapical infection and is commonly associated with mucosal thickening of the floor of the maxillary antrum. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the modality of choice for evaluating the extent of disease and any predisposing factors in patients with symptoms of chronic maxillary sinusitis, but it is unable to diagnose dental disease reliably. The presence of restorative dentistry is, however, easily seen at CT and is associated with both periapical and periodontal disease. We aimed to determine whether its presence at CT may predispose to maxillary sinusitis, and in particular to focal mucosal thickening of the sinus floor characteristic of dental origin. Three hundred and thirty maxillary sinus CT images in 165 patients were reviewed for the presence of restorative dentistry in the adjacent teeth, focal maxillary sinus floor mucosal thickening, any maxillary sinus disease (including complete opacification, air fluid levels, diffuse mucosal thickening, focal mucosal thickening) and evidence of a rhinogenic aetiology (osteomeatal complex pathology, mucosal thickening in other sinuses). One hundred and ninety two sinuses adjacent to restorative dentistry and 178 sinuses not adjacent to restorative dentistry were analysed. Focal floor thickening both with, and without, evidence of a rhinogenic aetiology, was significantly more common adjacent to restorative dentistry. Maxillary sinus disease overall was no more common adjacent to restorative dentistry. This work demonstrated that the presence of restorative dentistry predisposes to focal mucosal thickening in the floor of the maxillary sinus and its presence should prompt clinical and radiographical assessment to exclude dental disease as a source of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

  6. Hut lung: a domestically acquired pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology in rural women.

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, J P; Bateman, E D

    1991-01-01

    A form of pneumoconiosis in rural African women termed "Transkei silicosis" has been thought to be due to silica particles inhaled while they are hand grinding maize between rocks. Twenty five women were studied who were considered to have this condition according to the following criteria: rural domicile, radiographic and lung biopsy evidence of pneumoconiosis, no exposure to mining or industry and no evidence of active tuberculosis. They were assessed for radiological, pathological, physiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid features. Potential aetiological factors were assessed by determining levels of exposure to respirable quartz and non-quartz containing dusts and smoke in rural dwellings during maize grinding and cooking. Most of the women were symptomless. Radiological findings ranged from a miliary pattern to extensive fibrosis resembling progressive massive fibrosis. Histological features included simple "anthracosis" in 12, anthracosis with macules in six, and mixed dust fibrosis in seven. Cell numbers and their proportions in lavage fluid were normal. More than 60% of macrophages were heavily laden with inorganic inclusions. Respirable quartz concentrations and calculated cumulative time weighted exposures were below those recommended for industry during grinding with sandstone (100% quartz) and they were even lower during grinding with dolerite containing no quartz despite the presence of an appreciable amount of quartz in the ground maize. Total respirable dust and smoke concentrations were greater than the recommended safe levels. Three women had no exposure to maize grinding. It is concluded that the inhalation of non-quartz containing dust and smoke from biomass fuelled fires is more important in the aetiology of this condition than exposure to quartz dust. The term "hut lung" may be more appropriate. Images PMID:2068688

  7. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    PubMed

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD. PMID:25999052

  8. Time trends in the aetiology of prosthetic joint infections: a multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benito, N; Franco, M; Ribera, A; Soriano, A; Rodriguez-Pardo, D; Sorlí, L; Fresco, G; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Dolores Del Toro, M; Guío, L; Sánchez-Rivas, E; Bahamonde, A; Riera, M; Esteban, J; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Martínez-Alvarez, J; Jover-Sáenz, A; Dueñas, C; Ramos, A; Sobrino, B; Euba, G; Morata, L; Pigrau, C; Coll, P; Mur, I; Ariza, J

    2016-08-01

    It is important to know the spectrum of the microbial aetiology of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) to guide empiric treatment and establish antimicrobial prophylaxis in joint replacements. There are no available data based on large contemporary patient cohorts. We sought to characterize the causative pathogens of PJIs and to evaluate trends in the microbial aetiology. We hypothesized that the frequency of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in PJIs has increased in the recent years. We performed a cohort study in 19 hospitals in Spain, from 2003 to 2012. For each 2-year period (2003-2004 to 2011-2012), the incidence of microorganisms causing PJIs and multidrug-resistant bacteria was assessed. Temporal trends over the study period were evaluated. We included 2524 consecutive adult patients with a diagnosis of PJI. A microbiological diagnosis was obtained for 2288 cases (90.6%). Staphylococci were the most common cause of infection (1492, 65.2%). However, a statistically significant rising linear trend was observed for the proportion of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli, mainly due to the increase in the last 2-year period (25% in 2003-2004, 33.3% in 2011-2012; p 0.024 for trend). No particular species contributed disproportionally to this overall increase. The percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria PJIs increased from 9.3% in 2003-2004 to 15.8% in 2011-2012 (p 0.008), mainly because of the significant rise in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (from 5.3% in 2003-2004 to 8.2% in 2011-2012; p 0.032). The observed trends have important implications for the management of PJIs and prophylaxis in joint replacements. PMID:27181408

  9. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    PubMed

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD.

  10. Optimising case definitions of upper limb disorder for aetiological research and prevention – a review

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Experts disagree about the optimal classification of upper limb disorders (ULDs). To explore whether differences in associations with occupational risk factors offer a basis for choosing between case definitions in aetiological research and surveillance, we analysed previously published research. Methods Eligible reports (those with estimates of relative risk (RR) for >1 case definition relative to identical exposures were identified from systematic reviews of ULD and occupation and by hand-searching five peer-review journals published between January 1990 and June 2010. We abstracted details by anatomical site of the case and exposure definitions employed and paired estimates of RR, for alternative case definitions with identical occupational exposures. Pairs of case definitions were typically nested, a stricter definition being a subset of a simpler version. Differences in RR between paired definitions were expressed as the ratio of RRs, using that for the simpler definition as the denominator. Results We found 21 reports, yielding 320 pairs of RRs (82, 75 and 163 respectively at the shoulder, elbow, and distal arm). Ratios of RRs were frequently ≤1 (46%), the median ratio overall and by anatomical site being close to unity. In only 2% of comparisons did ratios reach ≥4. Conclusion Complex ULD case definitions (e.g. involving physical signs, more specific symptom patterns, and investigations) yield similar associations with occupational risk factors to those using simpler definitions. Thus, in population-based aetiological research and surveillance, simple case definitions should normally suffice. Data on risk factors can justifiably be pooled in meta-analyses, despite differences in case definition. PMID:22006938

  11. Intracerebral haemorrhage in a population-based stroke registry (LuSSt): incidence, aetiology, functional outcome and mortality.

    PubMed

    Palm, F; Henschke, N; Wolf, J; Zimmer, K; Safer, A; Schröder, R J; Inselmann, G; Brenke, C; Becher, H; Grau, A J

    2013-10-01

    Data on incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) vary widely. Population-based data on predictors of ICH survival and functional outcome are rare. The Ludwigshafen Stroke Study is a prospective, population-based stroke registry which started in January 2006. All residents of the city of Ludwigshafen, Germany, who suffer from acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack are registered. Patients with first-ever primary intracerebral haemorrhage (FE-pICH) between 2006 and 2010 were included in the present analysis. Between January 1st, 2006 and December 31st, 2010, 152 patients suffered a FE-pICH. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for FE-pICH were 18.7 (95 % CI 15.9-21.9) and 11.9 (95 % CI 10.2-14.0), respectively, and remained stable over time. Case-fatality rates for FE-pICH were 27.0, 34.9 and 44.1 % at days 28, 90 and 365, respectively. In 21 patients, an (21.3 %) early do-not resuscitate-order was documented. Excluding these patients from multivariate analyses, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.08-1.36), hypercholesterolemia (OR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.05-0.55) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prior to stroke (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.06-2.3) were independently associated with risk of 1-year mortality, whereas NIHSS (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.20-1.66) and leukocyte count on admission (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.16-1.89) were independently associated with good or moderate functional outcome (mRS ≤ 3) after 1 year. Incidence of FE-ICH is in the lower range of those reported from other registries and remained stable over the observation period. Higher treatment rates for hypertension might partly account for this. Stroke severity as indicated by NIHSS was independently associated with mortality and functional outcome after 1 year. We found no association between aetiology and outcome in ICH patients. PMID:23812642

  12. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  13. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  14. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  15. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  16. Different degrees of malnutrition and immunological alterations according to the aetiology of cirrhosis: a prospective and sequential study

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Wanda Regina; Strauss, Edna; Carrilho, Flair José; Laudanna, Antonio Atílio

    2003-01-01

    Objectives In this work we investigated how immunological dysfunction and malnutrition interact in alcoholic and viral aetiologies of cirrhosis. Methods To investigate the matter, 77 cirrhotic patients divided in three aetiologies [Alcohol, HCV and Alcohol + HCV) and 32 controls were prospectivelly and sequentially studied. Parameters of humoral immunity (Components 3 and 4 of seric complement and immunoglobulins A M, G and E) and of cellular immunity (total leukocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood, T lymphocytes subpopulations, CD4+ and CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity), as well as nutrititional parameters: anthropometric measures, serum albumin and transferrin were evaluated. Results Multiple statistical comparisons showed that IgM was higher in HCV group; IgG was significantly elevated in both HCV and Alcohol + HCV, whereas for the Alcohol group, IgE was found at higher titles. The analysis of T- lymphocytes subpopulations showed no aetiologic differences, but intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity did show greater frequency of anergy in the Alcohol group. For anthropometric parameters, the Alcohol +HCV group displayed the lowest triceps skinfold whereas creatinine – height index evaluation was more preserved in the HCV group. Body mass index, arm muscle area and arm fat area showed that differently from alcohol group, the HCV group was similar to control. Conclusion Significant differences were found among the main aetiologies of cirrhosis concerning immunological alterations and nutritional status: better nutrition and worse immunology for HCV and vice-versa for alcohol. PMID:14613508

  17. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  18. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  19. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  20. Examination of instruments used to rate quality of health information on the internet: chronicle of a voyage with an unclear destination

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Anna; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2002-01-01

    Objective This study updates work published in 1998, which found that of 47 rating instruments appearing on websites offering health information, 14 described how they were developed, five provided instructions for use, and none reported the interobserver reliability and construct validity of the measurements. Design All rating instrument sites noted in the original study were visited to ascertain whether they were still operating. New rating instruments were identified by duplicating and enhancing the comprehensive search of the internet and the medical and information science literature used in the previous study. Eligible instruments were evaluated as in the original study. Results 98 instruments used to assess the quality of websites in the past five years were identified. Many of the rating instruments identified in the original study were no longer available. Of 51 newly identified rating instruments, only five provided some information by which they could be evaluated. As with the six sites identified in the original study that remained available, none of these five instruments seemed to have been validated. Conclusions Many incompletely developed rating instruments continue to appear on websites providing health information, even when the organisations that gave rise to those instruments no longer exist. Many researchers, organisations, and website developers are exploring alternative ways of helping people to find and use high quality information available on the internet. Whether they are needed or sustainable and whether they make a difference remain to be shown. What is already known on this topicThe rapid growth of healthcare websites in the 1990s was accompanied by initiatives to rate their quality, including award-like symbols on websitesA systematic review of the reliability and validity of such rating instruments, published in 1998, showed that they were incompletely developedWhat this study addsFew of the rating instruments identified in 1998

  1. Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, T O; Ogunlesi, A O

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 70 insightful clinically stable out-patients with functional psychotic disorders and 70 accompanying relatives was carried out. They were interviewed about their beliefs concerning the cause of the illness, and their awareness of other possible aetiological factors. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were also elicited. Twelve (17.1%) patients and relatives, respectively, gave "medical" causal explanations; 16 (22.9%) patients and 13 (18.6%) relatives gave "psychosocial" causal explanations; 27 (38.6%) patients and 38 (54.3%) relatives were "uncertain" about the cause of their/relatives' illness (X2 = 5.08; df = 3: P = 0.16). Relatives reported a greater relevance of "heredity" (X2 = 11.58; P = 0.0006) and "supernatural" factors (X2 = 4.72: P = 0.029) as other possible causal factors, than patients. Patients with previous psychiatric hospitalisation reported higher prevalence of "psychosocial" and "supernatural" causal beliefs than those without (X2 = 9.15; P = 0.027). Also, patients with "medical" causal belief reported better treatment compliance than those with other beliefs (P = 0.031). Among relatives, "psychosocial" causal belief in comparison with other beliefs was associated with a longer duration of treatment in the hospital (h = 8.29; P = 0.04). For patients, knowledge about possible causal role of "heredity was significantly more prevalent among male than female patients (X2 = 6.55; P = 0.01) and admission of possible "supernatural" causation was associated with education below the secondary level (X2 = 6.68; P = 0.008). For relatives, knowledge about possible causal role of brain dysfunction was associated with longer duration of treatment (u = 3.93; P = 0.047), and knowledge of possible causal role of "psychosocial" stress was associated with urban place of residence rather than rural (X2 = 10.52; P = 0.0012). For both patients and relatives, the most acceptable aetiological proposition was the "supernatural" while the least

  2. Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Travis, Lois B; Demark Wahnefried, Wendy; Allan, James M; Wood, Marie E; Ng, Andrea K

    2013-05-01

    Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions. PMID:23529000

  3. The head and neck discomfort of autonomic failure: an unrecognized aetiology of headache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Kincaid, D. W.; Haile, V.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Information concerning the frequency, severity, character, location, duration, diurnal pattern of headache and ancillary symptoms were obtained in 25 patients with autonomic failure and 44 control subjects. Precipitating and ameliorating factors were identified. Autonomic failure patients had more head and neck discomfort than controls. Their discomfort was much more likely to localize in the occiput, nape of the neck and shoulder, compared with controls. There was a greater tendency for the discomfort to occur in the morning and after meals. It was sometimes less than 5 min in duration and was often associated with dimming, blurring, or tunnelling of vision. It was provoked by upright posture and relieved by lying down. Patients with severe autonomic failure and orthostatic hypotension often present with a posture-dependent headache or neck pain. Because the relationship of these symptoms to posture is often not recognized, the fact that these findings may signal an underlying autonomic disorder is underappreciated, and the opportunity to consider this aetiology for the headache may be missed.

  4. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer. PMID:27386716

  5. Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs.

    PubMed

    Arrol, L; Penderis, J; Garosi, L; Cripps, P; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Gonçalves, R

    2012-03-01

    The aetiology and outcome of dogs with juvenile-onset seizures were investigated. One hundred and thirty-six dogs whose first seizure occurred before the age of one year were investigated. One hundred and two dogs were diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), 23 with symptomatic epilepsy (SE), nine with reactive seizures (RS) and two with probable symptomatic epilepsy (pSE). The outcome was known in 114 dogs; 37 per cent died or were euthanased as a consequence of seizures. The mean survival time of this population of dogs was 7.1 years. Factors that were significantly associated with survival outcome included the diagnosis of SE and the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used before investigation. The use of one AED before investigation and a diagnosis of SE were associated with a negative outcome, whereas receiving no AED medications before referral was associated with a longer survival. For dogs with IE, survival time was shortened if the dog was a border collie or with a history of status epilepticus;receiving no AEDs before referral in the IE group was associated with a positive outcome. Seizure-free status was achieved in 22 per cent of dogs diagnosed with IE. While the survival times were longer than previously reported in canine epilepsy, similar remission rates to those reported in childhood epilepsy, where a 70 per cent remission rate is documented, were not seen in the canine juvenile population.

  6. Analysis of the aetiology of diarrhoea in outpatients in 2007, Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Cui, S; Lin, L; Xu, B; Zhao, J; Xia, S; Deng, W; Xie, Z; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Feng, Z; Yang, W; Ran, L

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aetiology of acute diarrhoea and improve knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in China. Faecal specimens from 1526 outpatients with diarrhoea were collected from 20 hospitals in Henan province and the prevalence of seven bacterial and five viral diarrhoeagenic pathogens were determined. Bacterial pathogens were recovered from 279/1526 (18·3%) stool specimens and viral pathogens were detected in 178/1526 (11·7%) stool specimens. The top five pathogenic species were diarrhoeagenic E. coli (n = 140, 9·2%), rotavirus (n = 79, 5·2%), Shigella spp. (n = 69, 4·5%), Salmonella spp. (n = 66, 4·3%) and norovirus (n = 56, 3·7%). The prevalence of pathogens showed correlation with age, season and clinical symptoms. Several dominant serotypes were identified in Shigella and Salmonella isolates, and high prevalence of multiple drug-resistant isolates was observed in both species. This important information will have a significant effect on public health policy development and resource prioritization practices. PMID:22677444

  7. Angiosarcoma of the liver: annual occurrence and aetiology in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Anthony, P P; Macsween, R N; Scheuer, P J

    1980-01-01

    The annual occurrence of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) in Britain from 1963 to 1977 was studied, including clinical and occupational details for those cases agreed as ASL by a panel of histopathologists. Thirty-five cases (28 men, six women, and one infant girl) were agreed as ASL. The increase in the incidence of ASL observed in recent years was attributable to Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) usage (eight cases) and exposure to vinyl chloride (two cases) in the past. In its clinical presentation and prognosis ASL resembled primary liver carcinoma, except that extrahepatic metastases were found in only eight (23%) cases, and haemoperitoneum ws more common in those cases due to Thorotrast. The results suggested a possible increased risk of ASL in the electrical and plastics fabrication industries, but information on exposure was inadequate to implicate specific chemicals. The clinical features of one case were indicative of arsenical intoxication, but medications in the other patients did not appear to be of aetiological importance. PMID:7191719

  8. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, A J M W; Uittenbogaard, L B; Hehenkamp, W J K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F

    2015-12-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon 'niche'. A 'niche' describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6-12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation.

  9. Consonant and syllable complexity of toddlers with Down syndrome and mixed-aetiology developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, SHARI B.; FEY, MARC E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether speech sound production of toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) is on par with or more severely impaired than that of mental age (MA) peers with developmental delay due to aetiologies other than Down syndrome at two points within an 18-month period near the onset of spoken word production. The utterances of 26 children with DS, aged 24–33 months, with a mean MA of 14.3 months, originally studied by Fey et al. (2006) and Warren et al. (2008) were compared to those of a group of 22 children with similar intellectual and communication delay but no DS (NDS). Phonological measures included the size of the consonant inventory, syllable shape complexity, and number of communication acts with canonical vocalizations. At Time 1, the DS group performed as well as or better than the NDS group on these measures of speech production. At Time 2, 18 months later, the DS group was behind the NDS group on the same measures. Results extended the pattern of more severe impairment in children with DS than NDS peers commonly noted in expressive language to measures of phonological development. PMID:24050845

  10. [Consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Martín, F; Baquero Artigao, F; de la Calle Cabrera, T; López Robles, M V; Ruiz Canela, J; Alfayate Miguelez, S; Moraga Llop, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Calvo Rey, C

    2012-11-01

    This is the consensus document on acute otitis media (AOM) of the Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediatrica (SEIP), Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria (SEPEAP), Sociedad Española de Urgencias Pediátricas (SEUP) and Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AEPAP). It discusses the aetiology of the disease and its potential changes after the introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent, 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines. A proposal is made based on diagnostic classification of otitis media as either confirmed or likely. AOM is considered confirmed if 3 criteria are fulfilled: acute onset, signs of occupation of the middle ear (or otorrhea) and inflammatory signs or symptoms, such as otalgia or severe tympanic hyperaemia. Oral amoxicillin is the antibiotic treatment of choice (80mg/kg/day divided every 8hours). Amoxicillin-clavulanate (80mg/kg/day) is indicated in the following cases: when the child is under 6 months, in infants with severe clinical manifestations (fever>39°C or severe pain), there is family history of AOM sequels, and after amoxiciline treatment failure.

  11. A Comparitive Study to Evaluate the Role of Serum Lipid Levels in Aetiology of Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipan; Sidhu, D S; Panag, K M D S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common occurring cancer in women worldwide. Various factors that have lead to change in lifestyle are thought to be associated with increase in breast cancer incidence in Asian countries. Several clinical studies suggest the prognostic significance of serum lipid levels in breast cancer. Present study was planned to confirm the association of lipids levels with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Lipid analyses was carried out on serum samples from 100 breast cancer patients and 100 control women, with a age group of 25 y and above. The case & control group included 50 premenopausal women and 50 postmenopausal women. Results: Patients of study group had high Low density lipoproteins (LDL) (p-value - 0.00), Triglycerides (TG) (p-value -0.001) and Total cholesterol (TC) (p-value -0.00) as compared to control group. There was no association of VLDL (p-value -0.436) and HDL (p-value -0.797) among study group and control group. There was no association of lipid levels in different grades of carcinoma. Conclusion: High levels of LDL, TG and TC were associated with breast cancer. However, no association was there in different grades of carcinoma. So it may be concluded that, LDL, TG and TC may be having some role in aetiology of breast cancer. Therefore, early detection and control of these factors may help in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and ultimately social and economic burden on society. PMID:25859487

  12. Chronic cortical visual impairment in children: aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Huo, R.; Burden, S.; Hoyt, C.; Good, W.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To evaluate prevalence, aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological and ophthalmological problems in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI).
METHODS—The records of 7200 outpatients seen in the paediatric ophthalmology practice over the past 15 years were reviewed in order to compile data concerning CVI. In addition, the authors devised and applied a system for grading visual recovery in order to assess prognosis.
RESULTS—CVI occurred in 2.4% of all patients examined. The four most common causes of CVI were perinatal hypoxia (22%), cerebral vascular accident (14%), meningitis (12%), and acquired hypoxia (10%). Most children with CVI had associated neurological abnormalities. The most common were seizures (53%), cerebral palsy (26%) hemiparesis (12%), and hypotonia (5%). Associated ophthalmological problems were esotropia (19%), exotropia (18%), optic nerve atrophy (16%), ocular motor apraxia (15%), nystagmus (11%), and retinal disease (3%). On average, CVI patients improved by two levels as measured by the authors' scale.
CONCLUSION—The majority of children with CVI showed at least some recovery. In this group of children, CVI is often accompanied by additional ophthalmological problems and is nearly always associated with other, serious neurological abnormalities.

 PMID:10340973

  13. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection.

  14. Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and aetiological agent.

    PubMed

    Sala, M R; Broner, S; Moreno, A; Arias, C; Godoy, P; Minguell, S; Martínez, A; Torner, N; Bartolomé, R; de Simón, M; Guix, S; Domínguez, A

    2014-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family includes norovirus and sapovirus, which both cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Currently, norovirus is the most common cause of AGE in all age groups in many countries. We analysed clinical differences in reported cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by caliciviruses (AGC) by age group and agent involved. We conducted a descriptive study of AGE outbreaks reported to the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (Spain) in 2010 and 2011. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between clinical symptoms and age. Clinical differences between the <15 years and ≥15 years age groups were statistically significant: children more frequently presented with vomiting (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.56-4.13), abdominal pain (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.60-4.12), fever (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.17-1.96) and nausea (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85). Comparing clinical manifestations of sapovirus and norovirus infection in children aged <15 years, cases caused by norovirus more frequently presented with vomiting and fever (p <0.001), and cases caused by sapovirus more frequently presented with diarrhoea (p 0.013). Determination of the clinical differences associated with cases in outbreaks according to the age of the majority of cases and the symptoms most frequently detected may aid decision making and guide aetiological investigations and the adoption of prevention and control measures.

  15. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer.

  16. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  17. Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Travis, Lois B; Demark Wahnefried, Wendy; Allan, James M; Wood, Marie E; Ng, Andrea K

    2013-05-01

    Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions.

  18. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. PMID:27387733

  19. Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

    1996-10-01

    The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

  20. Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits.

    PubMed

    Rabe, E; Pannier, F

    2012-03-01

    The first CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) consensus document was published after a consensus conference of the American Venous Forum, held at the sixth annual meeting of the AVF in February 1994 in Maui, Hawaii. In the following years the CEAP classification was published in many international journals and books which has led to widespread international use of the CEAP classification since 1995. The aim of this paper is to review the benefits and limits of CEAP from the available literature. In an actual Medline analysis with the keywords 'CEAP' and 'venous insufficiency', 266 publications using the CEAP classification in venous diseases are available. The CEAP classification was accepted in the venous community and used in scientific publications, but in most of the cases only the clinical classification was used. Limitations of the first version including a lack of clear definition of clinical signs led to a revised version. The CEAP classification is the gold standard of classification of chronic venous disorders today. Nevertheless for proper use some facts have to be taken into account: the CEAP classification is not a severity classification, C2 summarizes all kinds of varicose veins, in C3 it may be difficult to separate venous and other reasons for oedema, and corona phlebectatica is not included in the classification. Further revisions of the CEAP classification may help to overcome the still-existing deficits.

  1. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  2. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A.; Finucane, Hilary K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10−70) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10−12). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10−8), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  3. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10(-8)), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  4. Urinary biomarkers suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts may play a role in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Yang, Li; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Vose, Julie; Beseler, Cheryl; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Cavalieri, Ercole L.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that estrogens may induce non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The reaction of catechol estrogen quinones with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts is hypothesized to initiate this process. These adducts are released from DNA, shed from cells into the bloodstream and excreted in urine. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts might be involved in the aetiology of human NHL. Estrogen metabolites, conjugates and depurinating DNA adducts were identified and quantified in spot urine samples from 15 men with NHL and 30 healthy control men by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of estrogen-DNA adducts were significantly higher in the men with NHL than in the healthy control men. Thus, formation of estrogen-DNA adducts may play a critical role in the aetiology of NHL, and these adducts could be potential biomarkers of NHL risk. PMID:19863189

  5. The curious case of the disappearing IVC: A case report and review of the aetiology of Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Michael; Robson, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a previously well 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower limb pain. An ultrasound demonstrated extensive left sided deep vein thrombosis and computed tomography demonstrated inferior vena cava agenesis, leading to the diagnosis of inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis. The aetiology of inferior vena cava agenesis is explored in depth. PMID:24967034

  6. Aetiology and Outcome of Acute Liver Failure in Children: Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M W; Karim, A B; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was a retrospective review of medical records from November 2011 through October 2014. During this period a total of 35 patients were diagnosed to have ALF. Aetiology was established in 25(71.4%) cases, whereas in 10(28.6%) cases, no identifiable cause was found. Viral hepatitis was the underlying cause in 12(34.3%) cases. After treatment 15(43%) ALF patients survived, 8(23%) left hospital with risk bond (DORB), and 12(34%) patients died. The study showed that among the 12 death patients, 5(41.7%) had viral hepatitis, 3(25%) Wilson's disease, and in 4(33.3%) no cause could be identified. Viral hepatitis and Wilson disease were found to be two common causes of ALF in this study. Future studies with larger sample size are required to know the actual causes of acute liver failure in Bangladeshi children. PMID:27612896

  7. The role of the blood-brain barrier in the aetiology of permanent brain dysfunction in hyperphenylalaninaemia.

    PubMed

    Hommes, F A

    1989-01-01

    Calculations on the rate of entry of the neutral amino acids into the brain via the blood-brain barrier show that a considerable decrease in this rate, particularly for tryptophan and tyrosine, takes place in histidinaemia and tyrosinaemia, type II. These conditions are, however, not associated with mental retardation. It is therefore concluded that effects at the blood-brain barrier alone do not provide an adequate explanation for the aetiology of permanent brain dysfunction in hyperphenylalaninaemia.

  8. Aetiological role of viral and bacterial infections in acute adult lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Creer, D D; Dilworth, J P; Gillespie, S H; Johnston, A R; Johnston, S L; Ling, C; Patel, S; Sanderson, G; Wallace, P G; McHugh, T D

    2006-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a common reason for consulting general practitioners (GPs). In most cases the aetiology is unknown, yet most result in an antibiotic prescription. The aetiology of LRTI was investigated in a prospective controlled study. Methods Eighty adults presenting to GPs with acute LRTI were recruited together with 49 controls over 12 months. Throat swabs, nasal aspirates (patients and controls), and sputum (patients) were obtained and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assays were used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, influenza viruses (AH1, AH3 and B), parainfluenza viruses 1–3, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and enteroviruses. Standard sputum bacteriology was also performed. Outcome was recorded at a follow up visit. Results Potential pathogens were identified in 55 patients with LRTI (69%) and seven controls (14%; p<0.0001). The identification rate was 63% (viruses) and 26% (bacteria) for patients and 12% (p<0.0001) and 6% (p = 0.013), respectively, for controls. The most common organisms identified in the patients were rhinoviruses (33%), influenza viruses (24%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (19%) compared with 2% (p<0.001), 6% (p = 0.013), and 4% (p = 0.034), respectively, in controls. Multiple pathogens were identified in 18 of the 80 LRTI patients (22.5%) and in two of the 49 controls (4%; p = 0.011). Atypical organisms were rarely identified. Cases with bacterial aetiology were clinically indistinguishable from those with viral aetiology. Conclusion Patients presenting to GPs with acute adult LRTI predominantly have a viral illness which is most commonly caused by rhinoviruses and influenza viruses. PMID:16227331

  9. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent) neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training). Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6). As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football. PMID:20594296

  10. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas. Food, water, soil and agrochemicals from both areas were analysed for heavy metals. Results The age-standardised prevalence of CKDu was 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5% to 14.4%) in males and 16.9% (95% CI = 15.5% to 18.3%) in females. Severe stages of CKDu were more frequent in males (stage 3: males versus females = 23.2% versus 7.4%; stage 4: males versus females = 22.0% versus 7.3%; P < 0.001). The risk was increased in individuals aged >39 years and those who farmed (chena cultivation) (OR [odds ratio] = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376 and OR = 1.195, 95% CI = 1.007 to 1.418 respectively, P < 0.05). The risk was reduced in individuals who were male or who engaged in paddy cultivation (OR = 0.745, 95% CI = 0.562 to 0.988 and OR = 0.732, 95% CI = 0.542 to 0.988 respectively, P < 0.05). The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was significantly higher in those with CKDu (1.039 μg/g) compared with controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas (0.646 μg/g, P < 0.001 and 0.345 μg/g, P < 0.05) respectively. Urine cadmium sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 68.3% respectively (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.682, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.75, cut-off value ≥0.397 μg/g). A significant dose–effect relationship was seen between urine cadmium concentration and CKDu stage (P < 0.05). Urine cadmium and arsenic

  11. Infectious Aetiology of Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Role of Anti-Infective Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Salvatore; D’Elia, Gianna Maria; Annechini, Giorgia; Pulsoni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood. However, the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy for gastric MALT. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because it recapitulates cancer cured only by the antibacterial approach and it satisfies the Koch postulates of causation, establishing a causative relationship between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients with chronic HCV infection have 5 times higher risk to develop MZL, in particular, an association with splenic and nodal MZL has been shown in several studies. Moreover, there is evidence of lymphoma regression after antiviral therapy with interferon+ribavirin, thus raising hope that newly available drugs, extremely efficient against HCV replication, could improve outcome also in HCV-driven lymphomas. Another case-study are represented by those rare cases of MZL localized to orbital fat and eye conjunctivas that have been associated with Chlamydophila psittaci infection carried by birds. Efficacy of antibacterial therapy against C. psittaci are conflicting and generally poorer than gastric MALT. Finally, some case reports will cover the relationship between primary cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas and Borrelia Burgdorferi. PMID:26740867

  12. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48 %) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22 %) for rotavirus A, 36 (8 %) for Shigella spp., 17 (4 %) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2 %) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11 %) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5 %) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100 %), and 30 (83 %) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100 %) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94 %) isolates of E. coli and (78 %) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47 %) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44 %) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  13. The epidemiology and aetiology of Perthes' disease in Norway. A nationwide study of 425 patients.

    PubMed

    Wiig, O; Terjesen, T; Svenningsen, S; Lie, S A

    2006-09-01

    A nationwide study of Perthes' disease in Norway was undertaken over a five-year period from January 1996. There were 425 patients registered, which represents a mean annual incidence of 9.2 per 100 000 in subjects under 15 years of age, and an occurrence rate of 1:714 for the country as a whole. There were marked regional variations. The lowest incidence was found in the northern region (5.4 per 100 000 per year) and the highest in the central and western regions (10.8 and 11.3 per 100 000 per year, respectively). There was a trend towards a higher incidence in urban (9.5 per 100 000 per year) compared with rural areas (8.9 per 100 000 per year). The mean age at onset was 5.8 years (1.3 to 15.2) and the male:female ratio was 3.3:1. We compared 402 patients with a matched control group of non-affected children (n = 1 025 952) from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and analysed maternal data (age at delivery, parity, duration of pregnancy), birth length and weight, birth presentation, head circumference, ponderal index and the presence of congenital anomalies. Children with Perthes' disease were significantly shorter at birth and had an increased frequency of congenital anomalies. Applying Sartwell's log-normal model of incubation periods to the distribution of age at onset of Perthes' disease showed a good fit to the log-normal curve. Our findings point toward a single cause, either genetic or environmental, acting prenatally in the aetiology of Perthes' disease. PMID:16943476

  14. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli as aetiologic agents of sporadic and outbreak-associated diarrhoea in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Melissa A; Dos Santos, Luís F; Dias, Regiane C B; Camargo, Carlos H; Pinheiro, Sandra R S; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are important agents of diarrhoea in industrialized as well as developing countries, such as Brazil. The hallmark of EPEC pathogenesis is the establishment of attaching and effacing lesions in enterocytes, in which pedestal-like structures are formed underneath adherent bacteria. EPEC are divided into two subgroups, typical (tEPEC) and atypical (aEPEC), based on the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid in tEPEC and its absence in aEPEC. This study was designed to characterize 82 aEPEC isolates obtained from stool samples of diarrhoeic patients during 2012 and 2013 in Brazil. The majority of the aEPEC were assigned to the phylo-group B1 (48.8 %), and intimin subtypes θ (20.7 %), β1 (9.7 %) and λ (9.7 %) were the most prevalent among the isolates. The nleB and nleE genes were concomitantly detected in 32.9 % of the isolates, demonstrating the occurrence of the pathogenicity island O122 among them. The O157-plasmid genes (ehxA and/or espP) were detected in 7.3 % of the isolates, suggesting that some aEPEC could be derived from Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli that lost the stx genes while trafficking in the host. PFGE of 14 aEPEC of serotypes O2 : H16, O33 : H34, O39 : H9, O108 : H- and ONT : H19 isolated from five distinct outbreaks showed serotype-specific PFGE clusters, indicating a high degree of similarity among the isolates from the same event, thus highlighting these serotypes as potential aetiologic agents of diarrhoeal outbreaks in Brazil.

  15. Risk factors for metachronous contralateral breast cancer suggest two aetiological pathways.

    PubMed

    Vichapat, Voralak; Gillett, Cheryl; Fentiman, Ian S; Tutt, Andrew; Holmberg, Lars; Lüchtenborg, Margreet

    2011-09-01

    Although many studies show an increased risk of metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in women with a positive family history and young age at diagnosis of the initial breast cancer, the aetiological pathways are still enigmatic. In a cohort of 8478 primary breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2006, 558 cases of metachronous CBC were identified. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we analysed risk factors assessed at the time of the first primary tumour, including patient demographics, tumour characteristics and treatment among 4681 breast cancer patients for whom data on key variables were available. The analysis was performed separately in patients who developed CBC without and with prior recurrence(s). Risk of CBC without prior recurrent disease was increased by a positive family history [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.5)]; and decreased by endocrine treatment [RR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0)]. We found an increased risk of CBC with prior recurrent disease with younger age [RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.4-3.0)]; positive family history [RR 2.1 (95%CI 0.8-5.0)]; and extensive lymph node involvement [RR 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.6)]. Our results suggest that nodal status of the primary tumour may be as important a risk factor as family history or age, which indicates a high susceptibility to breast cancer or an impaired host defence mechanism. It may also imply that some CBCs are metastases from the first primary tumour, particularly in patients who present with recurrent disease before CBC. PMID:21658939

  16. Microbial aetiology, outcomes, and costs of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia; an observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome and especially costs of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in relation to microbial aetiology. This knowledge is indispensable to estimate cost-effectiveness of new strategies aiming to prevent and/or improve clinical outcome of CAP. Methods We performed our observational analysis in a cohort of 505 patients hospitalised with confirmed CAP between 2004 and 2010. Hospital administrative databases were extracted for all resource utilisation on a patient level. Resource items were grouped in seven categories: general ward nursing, nursing on ICU, clinical chemistry laboratory tests, microbiology exams, radiology exams, medication drugs, and other.linear regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predicting costs of hospitalisation for CAP. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most identified causative pathogen (25%), followed by Coxiella burnetii (6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (5%). Overall median length of hospital stay was 8.5 days, in-hospital mortality rate was 4.8%. Total median hospital costs per patient were €3,899 (IQR 2,911-5,684). General ward nursing costs represented the largest share (57%), followed by nursing on the intensive care unit (16%) and diagnostic microbiological tests (9%). In multivariate regression analysis, class IV-V Pneumonia Severity Index (indicative for severe disease), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumonia as causative pathogen, were independent cost driving factors. Coxiella burnetii was a cost-limiting factor. Conclusions Median costs of hospitalisation for CAP are almost €4,000 per patient. Nursing costs are the main cause of these costs.. Apart from prevention, low-cost interventions aimed at reducing length of hospital stay therefore will most likely be cost-effective. PMID:24938861

  17. A Systematic Review of Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Epidemiological, Prediction and Aetiological Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina; Lotta, Luca; Brosnan, Julia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Giabbanelli, Philippe; Nunez, Derek J.; Waterworth, Dawn; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood-based or urinary biomarkers may play a role in quantifying the future risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in understanding possible aetiological pathways to disease. However, no systematic review has been conducted that has identified and provided an overview of available biomarkers for incident T2D. We aimed to systematically review the associations of biomarkers with risk of developing T2D and to highlight evidence gaps in the existing literature regarding the predictive and aetiological value of these biomarkers and to direct future research in this field. Methods and Findings We systematically searched PubMed MEDLINE (January 2000 until March 2015) and Embase (until January 2016) databases for observational studies of biomarkers and incident T2D according to the 2009 PRISMA guidelines. We also searched availability of meta-analyses, Mendelian randomisation and prediction research for the identified biomarkers. We reviewed 3910 titles (705 abstracts) and 164 full papers and included 139 papers from 69 cohort studies that described the prospective relationships between 167 blood-based or urinary biomarkers and incident T2D. Only 35 biomarkers were reported in large scale studies with more than 1000 T2D cases, and thus the evidence for association was inconclusive for the majority of biomarkers. Fourteen biomarkers have been investigated using Mendelian randomisation approaches. Only for one biomarker was there strong observational evidence of association and evidence from genetic association studies that was compatible with an underlying causal association. In additional search for T2D prediction, we found only half of biomarkers were examined with formal evidence of predictive value for a minority of these biomarkers. Most biomarkers did not enhance the strength of prediction, but the strongest evidence for prediction was for biomarkers that quantify measures of glycaemia. Conclusions This study presents an extensive review of the current state of

  18. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B.; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). Materials and Methods This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10–14 and were monitored until delivery. Principle findings 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4–43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5–40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese

  19. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  20. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  1. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  2. Growth hormone abuse and bodybuilding as aetiological factors in the development of bilateral internal laryngocoeles. A case report.

    PubMed

    Moor, James W; Khan, M Iqbal J

    2005-07-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with hoarseness and stridor. He was an elite professional bodybuilder and admitted to having abusing anabolic steroids and growth hormone in the recent past. A CT scan showed bilateral laryngocoeles. The patient was initially managed with intravenous corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and the stridor resolved sufficiently to permit discharge from the hospital. He proceeded to undergo endoscopic marsupialisation of his laryngocoeles and to date has made a full recovery. This is the first reported case where anabolic steroid and growth hormone abuse combined with an elite bodybuilder's exercise regime has been implicated in the aetiology of bilateral laryngocoeles.

  3. [The remarkable debate during the beginning of the nineteenth century concerning the aetiology of scabies].

    PubMed

    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    The scabies mite (acarus or sarcoptes scabiei) was known already to Aristoteles, to the Arabic medicine during the early and to European physicians as well as laymen during the later Middle Ages, depicted in 1687 by Bonomo in Italy and by Schwiebe in Germany during the beginning of the eighteenth century. Later in the middle of the century three pupils to Linnaeus in their doctor's theses stated that the scabies mite (Acarus humanus subcutaneus) was the cause of scabies. The best pictures of the scabies-mite as well as of the flour- and cheese-mite was given by the Swedish entomologist Charles de Geer in 1778. In spite of all these facts the real aetiology of scabies seemed to be unknown in France and in most parts of Europe. This was probably due to the fact that no one had learned the rather simple method to extract the mite from the skin with a needle and thereby verify its existence. In the beginning of the twentieth century scabies was a real problem for the health authorities. In Paris l'Académie de Médecine even offered a reward to the person who could solve the enigma of the itch. Jean Chrysanthe Galés was the pharmacist at l'Hôpital St. Louis, the famous skin hospital in Paris, where at this time about 65 percent of the beds were occupied by patients suffering from scabies. Galés also studied medicine and wanted to write a doctor's thesis. As the theme of a dissertation he was given the cause of the itch. In 1812 he published his thesis ("Essai sur la Gale") including a plate with sketches of mites that he claimed to have extracted from vesicules on the skin of his scabies patients. His findings could not be verified by other investigators. Galés however refused to take part in any control experiments and left the hospital. The debate concerning the supposed cause of the itch continued for two decades both inside and outside the hospital. F.C. Raspail, a famous natural scientist, was interested. After having studied the literature and especially the

  4. The biomechanical variables involved in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome in distance runners - A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Louw, Maryke; Deary, Clare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify the biomechanical variables involved in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in distance runners. An electronic search was conducted using the terms "iliotibial band" and "iliotibial tract". The results showed that runners with a history of ITBS appear to display decreased rear foot eversion, tibial internal rotation and hip adduction angles at heel strike while having greater maximum internal rotation angles at the knee and decreased total abduction and adduction range of motion at the hip during stance phase. They further appear to experience greater invertor moments at their feet, decreased abduction and flexion velocities at their hips and to reach maximum hip flexion angles earlier than healthy controls. Maximum normalised braking forces seem to be decreased in these athletes. The literature is inconclusive with regards to muscle strength deficits in runners with a history of ITBS. Prospective research suggested that greater internal rotation at the knee joint and increased adduction angles of the hip may play a role in the aetiology of ITBS and that the strain rate in the iliotibial bands of these runners may be increased compared to healthy controls. A clear biomechanical cause for ITBS could not be devised due to the lack of prospective research.

  5. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  8. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  9. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  10. Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and physical and mental health in UK Biobank (N=112 151) and 24 GWAS consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Ritchie, S J; Marioni, R E; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Cullen, B; Malik, R; Worrall, B B; Sudlow, C L M; Wardlaw, J M; Gallacher, J; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    Causes of the well-documented association between low levels of cognitive functioning and many adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes, poorer physical health and earlier death remain unknown. We used linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring to test for shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders and physical health. Using information provided by many published genome-wide association study consortia, we created polygenic profile scores for 24 vascular–metabolic, neuropsychiatric, physiological–anthropometric and cognitive traits in the participants of UK Biobank, a very large population-based sample (N=112 151). Pleiotropy between cognitive and health traits was quantified by deriving genetic correlations using summary genome-wide association study statistics and to the method of linkage disequilibrium score regression. Substantial and significant genetic correlations were observed between cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many of the mental and physical health-related traits and disorders assessed here. In addition, highly significant associations were observed between the cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many polygenic profile scores, including coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, autism, major depressive disorder, body mass index, intracranial volume, infant head circumference and childhood cognitive ability. Where disease diagnosis was available for UK Biobank participants, we were able to show that these results were not confounded by those who had the relevant disease. These findings indicate that a substantial level of pleiotropy exists between cognitive abilities and many human mental and physical health disorders and traits and that it can be used to predict phenotypic variance across samples. PMID:26809841

  11. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  12. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  13. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  14. Chronic oral arsenic intoxication as a possible aetiological factor in idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis) in India.

    PubMed

    Datta, D V; Mitra, S K; Chhuttani, P N; Chakravarti, R N

    1979-05-01

    Estimates were made of the arsenic concentration in liver specimens from nine patients having idiopathic portal hypertension (IP), and in four livers these were found to be significantly higher than those in patients with cirrhosis and in control subjects. The splenovenogram revealed extensive portosystemic collateral circulation. Corrected sinusoidal pressure and blood flow studies showed higher levels in four patients than in normal subjects. Microscopic examination of liver tissues revealed periportal fibrosis. The higher hepatic arsenic levels that were found were due to the inadvertent drinking of water contaminated with arsenic, adulterated opium, and indigenous medicines. A history of opium intake was not forthcoming but two patients had drunk water contaminated with arsenic and two others had taken bhasams (Ayurvedic medicines prepared by repeated oxidation of ores). Though the aetiology of idiopathic portal hypertension is not known, it is possible that arsenic intake may be one of the factors.

  15. Fatal breakthrough infection with Fusarium andiyazi: new multi-resistant aetiological agent cross-reacting with Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kebabcı, Nesrin; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Ener, Beyza; Ersal, Tuba; Meijer, Martin; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ursavaş, Ahmet; Cetinoğlu, Ezgi D; Akalın, Halis

    2014-04-01

    Disseminated infections caused by members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) occur regularly in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present the first human case caused by FFSC-member Fusarium andiyazi. Fever, respiratory symptoms and abnormal computerised tomography findings developed in a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukaemia who was under posaconazole prophylaxis during his remission-induction chemotherapy. During the course of infection, two consecutive blood galactomannan values were found to be positive, and two blood cultures yielded strains resembling Fusarium species, according to morphological appearance. The aetiological agent proved to be F. andiyazi based on multilocus sequence typing. The sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region did not resolve the closely related members of the FFSC, but additional data on partial sequence of transcription elongation factor 1 alpha subunit did. A detailed morphological study confirmed the identification of F. andiyazi, which had previously only been reported as a plant pathogen affecting various food crops.

  16. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents.

    PubMed

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E; Cowley, Mark J; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.

  17. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  18. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents.

    PubMed

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E; Cowley, Mark J; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  19. Epigenetic influences in the aetiology of cancers arising from breast and prostate: a hypothesised transgenerational evolution in chromatin accessibility.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently supported the notion that environmental and/or dietary factors play a central role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast and prostate. However, for more than five decades investigators have failed to identify a single cause-and-effect factor, which could be implicated; identification of a causative entity would allow the implementation of an intervention strategy in at-risk populations. This suggests a more complex pathoaetiology for these cancer sites, compared to others. When one examines the increases or decreases in incidence of specific cancers amongst migrant populations, it is notable that disease arising in colon or stomach requires one or at most two generations to exhibit a change in incidence to match that of high-incidence regions, whereas for breast or prostate cancer, at least three generations are required. This generational threshold could suggest a requirement for nonmutation-driven epigenetic alterations in the F0/F1 generations (parental/offspring adopting a more westernized lifestyle), which then predisposes the inherited genome of subsequent generations to mutagenic/genotoxic alterations leading to the development of sporadic cancer in these target sites. As such, individual susceptibility to carcinogen insult would not be based per se on polymorphisms in activating/detoxifying/repair enzymes, but on elevated accessibility of crucial target genes (e.g., oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes) or hotspots therein to mutation events. This could be termed a genomic susceptibility organizational structure (SOS). Several exposures including alcohol and heavy metals are epigens (i.e., modifiers of the epigenome), whereas others are mutagenic/genotoxic, for example, heterocyclic aromatic amines; humans are continuously and variously exposed to mixtures of these agents. Within such a transgenerational multistage model of cancer development, determining the interaction between epigenetic modification to generate

  20. Epigenetic Influences in the Aetiology of Cancers Arising from Breast and Prostate: A Hypothesised Transgenerational Evolution in Chromatin Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently supported the notion that environmental and/or dietary factors play a central role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast and prostate. However, for more than five decades investigators have failed to identify a single cause-and-effect factor, which could be implicated; identification of a causative entity would allow the implementation of an intervention strategy in at-risk populations. This suggests a more complex pathoaetiology for these cancer sites, compared to others. When one examines the increases or decreases in incidence of specific cancers amongst migrant populations, it is notable that disease arising in colon or stomach requires one or at most two generations to exhibit a change in incidence to match that of high-incidence regions, whereas for breast or prostate cancer, at least three generations are required. This generational threshold could suggest a requirement for nonmutation-driven epigenetic alterations in the F0/F1 generations (parental/offspring adopting a more westernized lifestyle), which then predisposes the inherited genome of subsequent generations to mutagenic/genotoxic alterations leading to the development of sporadic cancer in these target sites. As such, individual susceptibility to carcinogen insult would not be based per se on polymorphisms in activating/detoxifying/repair enzymes, but on elevated accessibility of crucial target genes (e.g., oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes) or hotspots therein to mutation events. This could be termed a genomic susceptibility organizational structure (SOS). Several exposures including alcohol and heavy metals are epigens (i.e., modifiers of the epigenome), whereas others are mutagenic/genotoxic, for example, heterocyclic aromatic amines; humans are continuously and variously exposed to mixtures of these agents. Within such a transgenerational multistage model of cancer development, determining the interaction between epigenetic modification to generate

  1. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  2. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  3. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease-some answers, but questions remain.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Maguire, Graeme P

    2015-07-01

    Despite being preventable, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a significant global cause of cardiovascular disease. Echocardiographic screening for early detection of RHD has the potential to enable timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt progression to severe valvular disease. However, a number of issues remain to be addressed regarding its feasibility. The natural history of Definite RHD without a prior history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and Borderline RHD are both unclear. Even if they are variants of RHD it is not known whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis will prevent disease progression as it does in "traditionally" diagnosed RHD. False positives can also have a detrimental impact on individuals and their families as well as place substantial burdens on health care systems. Recent research suggests that handheld echocardiography (HAND) may offer a cheaper and more convenient alternative to standard portable echocardiography (STAND) in RHD screening. However, while HAND is sensitive for the detection of Definite RHD, it is less sensitive for Borderline RHD and is relatively poor at detecting mitral stenosis (MS). Given its attendant limited specificity, potential cases detected with HAND would require re-examination by standard echocardiography. For now, echocardiographic screening for RHD should remain a subject of research rather than routine health care. PMID:26835376

  4. Urine immunofixation electrophoresis remains important and is complementary to serum free light chain.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Stanley S

    2011-11-01

    Articles have debated whether or not urine analysis remains valuable for identifying monoclonal gammopathies. A general impression is that the newer serum free light chain (FLC) assay is more analytically sensitive, more quantitative and simpler to perform. Many laboratory directors may have seized on the idea of eliminating urine analysis because it is a tedious procedure and requires expert interpretation while most laboratories can perform automated serum FLC assay. Others have concluded that urine immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) optimizes the diagnostic sensitivity and should be included when there is a clinical indication. Here, I show that papers faulting urine analysis often used inappropriate urine methodology and this helps explain why there was misinterpretation. Moreover, the literature, shows urine IFE is often more sensitive for identifying low-level monoclonal FLC than the serum assay because urine IFE is as sensitive when performed appropriately and generally more specific. Besides, the reference range for serum FLC assay is unclear which is a great problem in assessing response to treatment and in identifying diseases when there is low concentration monoclonal FLC. I conclude that urine IFE remains important and is complementary to serum FLC assay, although the best algorithms for use remains to be elucidated.

  5. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  6. Psychological sweating: a systematic review focused on aetiology and cutaneous response.

    PubMed

    Harker, M

    2013-01-01

    Psychological sweating in response to emotive stimuli like stress, anxiety and pain occurs over the whole body surface, but is most evident on the palms, soles, face and axilla. This is primarily a consequence of high eccrine sweat gland densities at these body sites. Cholinergic innervation is the primary effector eliciting activation of eccrine sweat glands during periods of acute psychological stress. A dual innervation pathway for eccrine glands (adrenergic and cholinergic) may augment increased sweat output, but this remains to be substantiated. Circulating catecholamines appear not to mediate eccrine gland activity, but may play a role in the activation of apocrine sweat glands. Apocrine sweating is strongly regulated by psychological stimuli and localised to those body sites hosting apocrine glands, with adrenergic peripheral pathways being the primary effector. Accordingly, in the axilla psychological sweating leads to increased sweat output and malodour formation, although this form of sweating at this body site is not observed until puberty.

  7. Development and aetiology of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Jacinthe; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Auclair, Julie; Laberge, Luc; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudreault, Marco; Vachon, Patrick; Perron, Michel; Touchette, Évelyne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to describe the development of body dissatisfaction (BD), measured with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, between the ages of 14 and 18, and to identify factors associated with BD at age 18, among 413 adolescents. Between the ages of 14 and 18, the proportion of girls wanting to be thinner increased, although it remained unchanged among boys. A ratio of 1:2 girls and 1:5 boys reported having seriously tried to lose weight. Factors associated with BD in girls at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner, (2) body mass index (BMI), (3) weight control behaviours and (4) negative comments about weight. Factors associated with BD in boys at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner or bigger, (2) BMI, (3) having experienced sexual intercourse and (4) negative comments about weight. The high prevalence of BD and weight-related concerns suggest a need for early interventions. PMID:25931646

  8. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  9. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE TO SMALL HOPPER, GRAIN LEGS, AND CONVEYOR DRIVE SHAFT FROM TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  18. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  20. 33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL HEADING, ARIZONA DAM, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Mark Durben, December 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  2. 12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF SEVEN-PISTON UNDERFEED STOKER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  3. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  4. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  5. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  7. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  8. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  11. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  12. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  13. 6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF THE MILL TABLE IS VISIBLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  16. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  17. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  18. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  19. Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining stone inlay to provide traction surface. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  20. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  1. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  2. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  3. Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which drove the boiler stokes. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  4. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  5. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  6. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  7. Aetiology of acute paediatric gastroenteritis in Bulgaria during summer months: prevalence of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2015-03-01

    Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P[8] (46.3 %) and G2P[4] (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains.

  8. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  10. Fluvial transport of human remains in the lower Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Helen E; Manhein, Mary H

    2002-07-01

    The Mississippi River has claimed many lives over the last several decades. A better understanding of the universal dynamics of its fluvial system can help direct the production of a predictive model regarding the transportation of human remains in the river. The model may then be applied to situations where the location and the identification of water victims are necessarily part of the recovery process. Results from the preliminary phase of a longitudinal project involving the transport of human remains in the Mississippi River are presented and represent the analyses of 233 case files of river victims. A provisional model for fluvial transport of human remains in the Mississippi River is proposed and examined. This model indicates that time in the river and distance a body travels are related. Such a model may assist in pinpointing entry location for unidentified human remains found in the river or on its banks. Further, it has the potential to provide local and regional law enforcement agencies, the United States Coast Guard, and other search and rescue organizations with primary search areas when someone is missing in the river. Other results from this study indicate that a relationship exists between the side of the river where victims enter the water and the side of the river where the remains are recovered. Finally, relationships are established between the length of time before recovery of the remains and state of preservation exhibited by those remains. A secondary benefit from this study is a database of river victims that can be used by a variety of different agencies.

  11. Aetiology and epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis cases in Galicia (NW Spain), 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Abal-Fabeiro, J L; Maside, X; Llovo, J; Bartolomé, C

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium infects millions of people worldwide causing acute gastroenteritis, but despite its remarkable epidemiological and economic impact, information on the epidemiological trends of human cryptosporidiosis is still scarce in most countries. Here we investigate a panel of 486 cases collected in Galicia (NW Iberian Peninsula) between 2000 and 2008, which sheds new light on the epidemiology in this region of the South Atlantic European façade. Incidence rates in Galicia are one order of magnitude higher than those reported in other regions of Spain, suggesting that this parasite remains largely underdiagnosed in this country, and are also larger than those typical of other European countries with available data. Two species dominate our dataset, Cryptosporidium hominis (65%) and C. parvum (34%). The sex ratio of patients infected by either species was 0·5, but C. hominis was significantly more common in younger males. C. parvum infections were more acute and required more specialized medical attention, which suggests a differential adaptation of each species to human hosts. The parasites display strong seasonal and geographical variation. C. parvum incidence peaked during summer and was mainly detected in rural areas while C. hominis infections were more frequent in autumn and exhibited a more even geographical distribution. Such differences probably reflect their distinct sources of infection - C. parvum is mainly zoonotic and C. hominis anthroponotic - and the effects of climatic variables, like temperature and rainfall.

  12. Prospective study of pathogens in asymptomatic travellers and those with diarrhoea: aetiological agents revisited.

    PubMed

    Lääveri, T; Antikainen, J; Pakkanen, S H; Kirveskari, J; Kantele, A

    2016-06-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) remains the most frequent health problem encountered by visitors to the (sub)tropics. Traditional stool culture identifies the pathogen in only 15% of cases. Exploiting PCR-based methods, we investigated TD pathogens with a focus on asymptomatic travellers and severity of symptoms. Pre- and post-travel stools of 382 travellers with no history of antibiotic use during travel were analysed with a multiplex quantitative PCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and five diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli: enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC). The participants were categorized by presence/absence of TD during travel and on return, and by severity of symptoms. A pathogen was indentified in 61% of the asymptomatic travellers, 83% of those with resolved TD, and 83% of those with ongoing TD; 25%, 43% and 53% had multiple pathogens, respectively. EPEC, EAEC, ETEC and Campylobacter associated especially with ongoing TD symptoms. EAEC and EPEC proved more common than ETEC. To conclude, modern methodology challenges our perception of stool pathogens: all pathogens were common both in asymptomatic and symptomatic travellers. TD has a multibacterial nature, but diarrhoeal symptoms mostly associate with EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and Campylobacter. PMID:26970046

  13. Preeclampsia – Aetiology, Current Diagnostics and Clinical Management, New Therapy Options and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tallarek, A.-C.; Huppertz, B.; Stepan, H.

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease for which the exact causes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. However, in the past few years it has become clear that a placental imbalance between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins is the decisive pathogenetic factor for the occurrence of preeclampsia. With the possibility to measure these angiogenic factors (sFlt-1/PlGF ratio) in maternal blood full new diagnostic possibilities have been opened that enable the certain diagnosis or exclusion of the diseases as well as a short-term prognosis to be made. In secondary prevention the current data situation for ASA confirms a moderate but measurable utility. The management concept depends on gestational age. In the case of early clinical manifestations (< 34th week of pregnancy) the clinical management in a perinatal centre remains unchanged with foeto-maternal monitoring and induction of pulmonary maturation, symptomatic therapy under careful blood pressure lowering and determination of the optimal delivery time. A balance must be made here between foetal immaturity and maternal risks upon prolongations. The pathomechanism of anti-angiogenic overload with sFlt-1 provides a starting point for first therapeutic interventions. The present article gives an overview of current diagnostic options and presents possible future therapeutic perspectives for discussion. PMID:26640284

  14. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  15. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  16. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  17. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  18. The aetiological and psychopathological validity of borderline personality disorder in youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Marwaha, Steven; Thompson, Andrew; Eyden, Julie; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-03-01

    Controversy surrounds the diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in youth. This meta-analysis summarised evidence regarding the aetiological and psychopathological validity of youth BPD (the extent to which youth and adult BPD share common risk factors and psychopathology). We identified 61 studies satisfying predetermined inclusion criteria. Statistically significant pooled associations with youth (19 years of age and under) BPD were observed for sexual abuse (all youth: odds ratio=4.88; 95% confidence interval=3.30, 7.21; children: OR=3.97; 95% CI=1.51, 10.41; adolescents: OR=5.41; 95% CI=3.43, 8.53); physical abuse (all youth: 2.79 [2.03, 3.84]; children: 2.86 [1.98, 4.13]; adolescents: 2.60 [1.38, 4.90]); maternal hostility/verbal abuse (all youth: 3.28 [2.67, 4.03]; children: 3.15 [2.55, 3.88]; adolescents: 4.71 [1.77, 12.53]); and neglect (all youth: 3.40 [2.27, 5.11]; children: 2.87 [1.73, 4.73]; adolescents: 4.87 [2.24, 10.59]). Several psychopathological features were also associated with youth BPD, including comorbid mood (3.21 [2.13, 4.83]), anxiety (2.30 [1.44, 3.70]) and substance use (2.92 [1.60, 5.31]) disorders; self-harm (2.81 [1.61, 4.90]); suicide ideation (all youth: 2.02 [1.23, 3.32]; children: 6.00 [1.81, 19.84]; adolescents: 1.75 [1.20; 2.54]) and suicide attempt (2.10 [1.21, 3.66]). Results demonstrate that adult and youth BPD share common aetiological and psychopathological correlates. This offers some support for the diagnostic validity of youth BPD and indicates the need for clinical recognition in this age group. PMID:26709502

  19. On the question of infectious aetiologies for multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and the chronic fatigue syndrome and their treatment with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, B O

    2009-06-01

    Close similarities in the courses of multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia laid the theoretical ground for attempting to find a common infectious aetiology for the two diseases. Chlamydia pneumoniae, which belongs to the rickettsial family of microorganisms has been linked to both diseases. It is postulated that since rickettsial microorganisms are ubiquitous in human populations they and the human species normally live in peaceful coexistence. In rare cases, for unknown reasons, varieties of them may become aggressive and pathogenic. The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia has attracted much attention. It also seems to have initiated a paradigmatic shift from the hitherto prevailing serological research approach to one which focuses on immunological factors. An open clinical pilot study in which, during 2006, eight female and five male patients with psychotic symptoms were treated with a combination of antibiotics is presented, to which, in the beginning of 2007 two female patients suffering from severe and long standing chronic fatigue syndrome were added. On one year follow-up, six out of the eight female patients showed stable excellent treatment results, whereas two were rated as showing significant treatment results. Four of the five men who entered the study were suffering from chronic schizophrenia, whereas the fifth, was a case of severe acute catatonic schizophrenia. Two of the male patients showed significant treatment results, whereas three of them were rated as having had a slight to moderate improvement. No less than three of the women had suffered their first episode of psychosis after giving birth to their first (and only) child. This finding, as these women all responded excellently to treatment with antibiotics, indicates that post partum psychosis could be regarded as an infectious complication of childbirth of, as to the causative agent, unknown aetiology. High priority ought therefore be given to initiate controlled clinical trials with

  20. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  1. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25381919

  2. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  3. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  4. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown. PMID:27043343

  5. Role of hydrogen peroxide in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a stable, uncharged and freely diffusable reactive oxygen species (ROS) and second messenger. The generation of H(2)O(2) in the brain is relatively high because of the high oxygen consumption in the tissue. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the appearance of amyloid-beta (Abeta)-containing plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles. The pathology of Alzheimer's disease is also associated with oxidative stress and H(2)O(2) is implicated in this and the neurotoxicity of the Abeta peptide. The ability for Abeta to generate H(2)O(2), and interactions of H(2)O(2) with iron and copper to generate highly toxic ROS, may provide a mechanism for the oxidative stress associated with Alzheimer's disease. The role of heavy metals in Alzheimer's disease pathology and the toxicity of the H(2)O(2) molecule may be closely linked. Drugs that prevent oxidative stress include antioxidants, modifiers of the enzymes involved in ROS generation and metabolism, metal chelating agents and agents that can remove the stimulus for ROS generation. In Alzheimer's disease the H(2)O(2) molecule must be considered a therapeutic target for treatment of the oxidative stress associated with the disease. The actions of H(2)O(2) include modifications of proteins, lipids and DNA, all of which are effects seen in the Alzheimer's disease brain and may contribute to the loss of synaptic function characteristic of the disease. The effectiveness of drugs to target this component of the disease pathology remains to be determined; however, metal chelators may provide an effective route and have the added bonus in the case of clioquinol of potentially reducing the Abeta load. Future research and development of agents that specifically target the H(2)O(2) molecule or enzymes involved in its metabolism may provide the future route to Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  6. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  7. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Aetiological agents of cerebrospinal meningitis: a retrospective study from a teaching hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone still remains very high. Ghanaians of all ages and possibly other developing countries in the meningitis belt could benefit from the use of the pneumococcal vaccine. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens should also be considered in the management of patients presenting with meningitis. PMID:23035960

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  12. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  16. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  18. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Downsized Weather Satellite Program on Track, But Uncertainty Remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) was downsized after a review that was required when the program far exceeded its budget and schedule. A year later, NPOESS-a major civilian and military weather satellite program-appears to be proceeding well with its new schedule and budget. However, whether the program will remain on track is uncertain.

  20. Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

  1. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  2. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  3. Liposomes remain intact when complexed with polycationic brushes.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrei V; Schrinner, Marc; Ballauff, Matthias; Tsarkova, Larisa; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M

    2010-05-01

    Anionic liposomes adsorb onto the surface of spherical polymer particles bearing grafted linear cationic macromolecules. The size, shape, and encapsulation ability of the liposomes remain unchanged upon adsorption, thus providing immobilized self-organizing containers that have potential applications in the biomedical field. PMID:20387892

  4. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  5. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  6. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. MDs remain sceptical as chelation therapy goes mainstream in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, M

    1997-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan recently agreed to allow physicians to administer chelation therapy. Supporters, relying on anecdotal evidence, say it works wonders in overcoming heart disease, but many physicians remain profoundly sceptical. In Saskatchewan, the college decision has proved popular with patients but has drawn an angry reaction from doctors. PMID:9307563

  8. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  9. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. Congenital limb anomalies: frequency and aetiological factors: Data from the Edinburgh Register of the Newborn (1964-68)

    PubMed Central

    Rogala, E. J.; Wynne-Davies, R.; Littlejohn, A.; Gormley, J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed follow up of 156 patients with structural upper and lower limb anomalies, obtained from the Edinburgh Register of the Newborn (a registration of 52,029 consecutive births between 1964 and 1968). At the time of this survey the patients were between 4 and 9 years of age. The Register had noted probably 96% of all children born with limb defects in Edinburgh between 1964 and 1968. It was found that the diagnosis was completely accurate in only 26% of cases, and partially so in a further 42%. The frequency of each anomaly has been noted, subdivided into isolated anomalies; those that occurred with other limb anomalies, and those that formed part of a syndrome. Syndactyly of toes, post-axial polydactyly of the fingers, polysyndactyly, and brachydactyly were found to have a genetic basis. All `absence' defects, pre-axial polydactyly, and multiple limb deformities appeared to be sporadic. Amongst the sporadic group, the main aetiological factors noted were an excess of maternal toxaemia of pregnancy and of illegitimate children, when compared with the Register Control Data. PMID:4372353

  11. Klinefelter syndrome as a window on the aetiology of language and communication impairments in children: the neuroligin–neurexin hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy VM; Scerif, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the phenotype in Klinefelter syndrome (KS) with (i) specific language impairment (SLI) and (ii) XXX and XYY trisomies. Methods Phenotypes of KS, XXX and XYY were based on data from a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes plus a recent parent survey. Phenotype of SLI was based on a published survey of children attending a special school. Results There are close similarities between the KS phenotype and SLI. Furthermore, a minority of children with KS have features of autistic spectrum disorder. Similar language and communication problems are seen in the other two sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs), XXX and XYY. Conclusion We propose the neurexin–neuroligin hypothesis, based on the observation that neuroligin genes, which occur on both X and Y chromosomes, are involved in the same synaptic networks as neurexin genes with common variants that affect risk for SLI and autism. According to our hypothesis, the effect of a triple dose of neuroligin gene product will be particularly detrimental when it occurs in conjunction with specific variants of neurexin genes on other chromosomes. This speculative proposal demonstrates the potential of illuminating the aetiology of common neurodevelopmental disorders by studying children with SCTs. PMID:21418292

  12. Viral aetiology of common colds of outpatient children at primary care level and the use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Janete; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes; Bellei, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Although antibiotics are ineffective against viral respiratory infections, studies have shown high rates of prescriptions worldwide. We conducted a study in Brazil to determine the viral aetiologies of common colds in children and to describe the use of antibiotics for these patients. Children up to 12 years with common colds were enrolled from March 2008-February 2009 at a primary care level facility and followed by regular telephone calls and medical consultations. A nasopharyngeal wash was obtained at enrollment and studied by direct fluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction for nine different types of virus. A sample of 134 patients was obtained, median age 2.9 years (0.1-11.2 y). Respiratory viruses were detected in 73.9% (99/134) with a coinfection rate of 30.3% (30/99). Rhinovirus was the most frequent virus (53/134; 39.6%), followed by influenza (33/134; 24.6%) and respiratory syncytial virus (8/134; 13.4%). Antibiotic prescription rate was 39.6% (53/134) and 69.8% (37/53) were considered inappropriate. Patients with influenza infection received antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases when compared to respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections (p = 0.016). The rate of inappropriate use of antibiotics was very high and patients with influenza virus infection were prescribed antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases.

  13. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management

    PubMed Central

    Nnko, Soori; Bukenya, Dominic; Kavishe, Bazil Balthazar; Biraro, Samuel; Peck, Robert; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs) other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda. Methods Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs. Results We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years). CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy) suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management. Conclusion Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services. PMID:26555896

  14. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T; Borregaard, Niels; Modéer, Thomas U; Andersson, Mats L; Pütsep, Katrin L-A

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic accuracy revealed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.8%) for hCAP-18 ELISA. The correlation coefficient of the hCAP-18 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.831) and that of the peptide LL-37 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.405) (P < 0.001). Plasma hCAP-18 levels thus displayed high diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low in conditions in which the neutrophil antibacterial propeptide hCAP-18 is deficient, i.e. severe congenital neutropenia and neutrophil-specific granule deficiency, and in conditions in which bone marrow myelopoiesis is negatively affected. PMID:26119962

  15. Viral aetiology of common colds of outpatient children at primary care level and the use of antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Janete; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes; Bellei, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Although antibiotics are ineffective against viral respiratory infections, studies have shown high rates of prescriptions worldwide. We conducted a study in Brazil to determine the viral aetiologies of common colds in children and to describe the use of antibiotics for these patients. Children up to 12 years with common colds were enrolled from March 2008-February 2009 at a primary care level facility and followed by regular telephone calls and medical consultations. A nasopharyngeal wash was obtained at enrollment and studied by direct fluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction for nine different types of virus. A sample of 134 patients was obtained, median age 2.9 years (0.1-11.2 y). Respiratory viruses were detected in 73.9% (99/134) with a coinfection rate of 30.3% (30/99). Rhinovirus was the most frequent virus (53/134; 39.6%), followed by influenza (33/134; 24.6%) and respiratory syncytial virus (8/134; 13.4%). Antibiotic prescription rate was 39.6% (53/134) and 69.8% (37/53) were considered inappropriate. Patients with influenza infection received antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases when compared to respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections (p = 0.016). The rate of inappropriate use of antibiotics was very high and patients with influenza virus infection were prescribed antibiotics inappropriately in a greater proportion of cases. PMID:26560978

  16. Looking back: developments in our understanding of the occurrence, aetiology and prognosis of chronic pain 1954-2004.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, G J

    2005-12-01

    This article summarizes the work of the Arthritis Research Campaign Epidemiology Unit in the field of pain and soft tissue rheumatism during the 50 years 1954-2004. It reviews the information gathered on the occurrence of symptoms and its causes, which began with Kellgren and Lawrence's pioneering work during the 1950s in the coal fields and general population of Leigh, Greater Manchester. They studied the roles of posture, mechanical load and the physical environment (dampness) on back pain. This was followed by the Calderdale study in the 1980s examining the prevalence of disability and its causes in the population, which demonstrated the important role of regional pain in causing disability. More recent studies in the 1990s and at the beginning of the 21st century have allowed us to define the relative roles of mechanical (load) factors, individual (psychological) factors and the social environment, and the biological mechanisms by which they may result in symptoms. The further challenge over the coming decade is to use our knowledge of the aetiology and influences on outcome to design management strategies which demonstrate improved outcomes for patients.

  17. End Stage Renal Disease: Seroprevalence of Hepatitises B and C along with Associated Aetiology and Risk Factors in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Raza; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Alam, Muhammad Tanveer; Salim, Adnan; Hussain, Mehwish; Altaf, Areeba

    2015-01-01

    Background. End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) normally requires dialysis or transplantation for survival. Since ESRD patients are on long term dialysis, infections such as Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) are commonly reported. Methods. This was a retrospective study carried out at a government hospital during a 12-month period from January 2013 to December 2013. The data was collected using a predesigned pro forma to note the etiology, gender, age, and HBsAg and anti-HCV test result of each patient. Results. 444 children suffering from ESRD were included in our analysis. The mean age of sample was 12.7 ± 4.1 years. Sixty percent (n = 262) of the children were boys. The most common etiology of ESRD was kidney stones (n = 44, 29.3%). HBV was positive in 11 children (2.5%) while HCV was positive in 13 (2.9%). Conclusion. This study asserts the need for carrying out further work to confirm these findings and expand our recommendations. It is imperative to reliably determine the burden of HBV and HCV disease and to determine the aetiology of their spread especially in children with ESRD. PMID:26346273

  18. The Effects of Soil Texture on the Ability of Human Remains Detection Dogs to Detect Buried Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michael B; Hodges, Theresa K; Wescott, Daniel J; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    Despite technological advances, human remains detection (HRD) dogs still remain one of the best tools for locating clandestine graves. However, soil texture may affect the escape of decomposition gases and therefore the effectiveness of HDR dogs. Six nationally credentialed HRD dogs (three HRD only and three cross-trained) were evaluated on novel buried human remains in contrasting soils, a clayey and a sandy soil. Search time and accuracy were compared for the clayey soil and sandy soil to assess odor location difficulty. Sandy soil (p < 0.001) yielded significantly faster trained response times, but no significant differences were found in performance accuracy between soil textures or training method. Results indicate soil texture may be significant factor in odor detection difficulty. Prior knowledge of soil texture and moisture may be useful for search management and planning. Appropriate adjustments to search segment sizes, sweep widths and search time allotment depending on soil texture may optimize successful detection.

  19. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  20. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient's baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs' function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  1. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  2. Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Keith; Visser, Dawid; Evans, Brian; Vallat, Bernard

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate this commitment and maintain global freedom from rinderpest, World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries must report annually on rinderpest material held in their countries. The first official surveys, conducted during 2013-2015, revealed that rinderpest material was stored in an unacceptably high number of facilities and countries. PMID:26584400

  3. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  4. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  5. Commentary: Not just genes--reclaiming a role for environmental influences on aetiology and outcome in autism. A commentary on Mandy and Lai (2016).

    PubMed

    Charman, Tony; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2016-03-01

    Mandy and Lai (2015) do the field a service in 'reclaiming' the role of pre- and postnatal environmental influences on the aetiology and course of autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This follows several decades where now discredited theories about putative psychogenic and biological disease models held sway, not least in the public mind. We discuss issues that arise from their review; including the need to identify how large the environmental influences on ASC are likely to be; the specificity of these environmental influences to ASC as opposed to a broader range of neurodevelopmental conditions and outcomes; how best to study complex interactions between genetic and environmental influences; and the promise of novel insights into their mechanisms of action. The review highlights current research that aims to better our understanding of the role of environmental factors in the aetiology and course of ASC and, in the near future, may offer the potential for personalised medicine approaches to intervention based on these discoveries.

  6. Vitamin D and Pain: Vitamin D and Its Role in the Aetiology and Maintenance of Chronic Pain States and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.; Shipton, Elspeth E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new data suggests that the benefits of Vitamin D extend beyond healthy bones. This paper looks at Vitamin D and its role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. The interfaces between pain and Vitamin D and the mechanisms of action of Vitamin D on pain processes are explored. Finally the association between Vitamin D and pain comorbidities such as sleep and depression is investigated. The paper shows that Vitamin D exerts anatomic, hormonal, neurological, and immunological influences on pain manifestation, thereby playing a role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. More research is necessary to determine whether Vitamin D is useful in the treatment of various pain conditions and whether or not the effect is limited to patients who are deficient in Vitamin D. PMID:26090221

  7. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  8. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    PubMed

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  9. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  10. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  11. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  12. Pathway analysis of whole exome sequence data provides further support for the involvement of histone modification in the aetiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David

    2016-10-01

    Weighted burden pathway analysis was applied to whole exome sequence data for 2045 schizophrenic patients and 2045 controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant excess of pathways with more rare, functional variants in cases than in controls. Among the highest ranked were pathways relating to histone modification, as well as neuron differentiation and membrane and vesicle function. This bolsters the evidence from previous studies that histone modification pathways may be important in the aetiology of schizophrenia.

  13. Pathway analysis of whole exome sequence data provides further support for the involvement of histone modification in the aetiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David

    2016-10-01

    Weighted burden pathway analysis was applied to whole exome sequence data for 2045 schizophrenic patients and 2045 controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant excess of pathways with more rare, functional variants in cases than in controls. Among the highest ranked were pathways relating to histone modification, as well as neuron differentiation and membrane and vesicle function. This bolsters the evidence from previous studies that histone modification pathways may be important in the aetiology of schizophrenia. PMID:26981879

  14. Flail arm syndrome with cytoplasmic vacuoles in remaining anterior horn motor neurons: A peculiar variant of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shuji; Sasaki, Shoichi

    2015-12-01

    Flail arm (FA) syndrome, a minor subtype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive weakness and upper girdle wasting, but the associated pathological changes remain unclear. A 59-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a 3-year history of upper girdle weakness. Bulbar symptom and gait disturbance gradually developed, and he was clinically diagnosed with FA syndrome. After a 10-year disease course, he died of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Neuropathological examination revealed severe motor neuronal loss in the brain stem and anterior horn of the cervical spinal cord with bilateral pyramidal tract degeneration. The histological findings were consistent with typical ALS, including Bunina bodies and Lewy body-like and skein-like inclusions. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in the remaining anterior horn motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord. This is a unique autopsy case with a long-standing clinical course that suggests that FA syndrome is an atypical form of ALS.

  15. Cardiac work remains high after strength exercise in elderly.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, A C C; Kanegusuku, H; Chehuen, M R; Costa, L A R; Wallerstein, L F; Dias da Silva, V J; Mello, M T; Ugrinowitsch, C; Forjaz, C L M

    2013-05-01

    Moderate- to high-intensity strength training is recommended for healthy adults. In young subjects, a single session of strength training decreases blood pressure, while heart rate and cardiac work remain elevated afterwards. However, these effects have not been clearly demonstrated in elderly subjects. To investigate this issue, 16 elderly subjects each underwent a Control and an Exercise (3 sets, 8 RM, 9 exercises) session conducted in random order. Haemodynamic variables and heart rate variability were measured before and after the interventions. Systolic blood pressure did not change after the exercise session but did increase after the control session (+8.1±1.6 mm Hg, P≤0.05). Diastolic blood pressure, as well as systemic vascular resistance increased similarly after both sessions. Cardiac output and stroke volume decreased, while heart rate, rate-pressure product and the low- to high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased only after the exercise session ( - 0.5±0.1 L/min, - 9.3±2.0 ml,+3.8±1.6 bpm, +579.3±164.1 mmHg.bpm and +0.71±0.34, P≤0.05). Ambulatory blood pressure was similar after both sessions, while heart rate and rate pressure product remained higher after the exercise session for up to 4.5 h. After a single session of strength training, cardiac sympathetic modulation and heart rate remain elevated in elderly subjects, keeping cardiac work elevated for a long period of time.

  16. Latissimus dorsi flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Erez G; Perdikis, Galen; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Terkonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C

    2006-01-01

    Latissimus dorsi flap has been unfairly relegated to a second option in breast reconstruction. One hundred consecutive latissimus dorsi muscle flaps (LDMF) with tissue-expander reconstruction were studied, mean follow-up 34.5 months (range, 1-175), 50 immediate, 50 delayed. With attention to a few technical details, excellent esthetic, soft reconstructions were achieved. Complications included 1 partial flap loss; 2 patients required inframammary fold revision; and 6 patients required surgery for capsular contracture. Donor-site seroma occurred in 34 patients; 6 required operative revision. Results were similar in the immediate versus the delayed groups. LDMF remains an esthetic, reliable, safe reconstructive choice.

  17. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  18. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  19. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  20. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  1. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  2. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  3. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS. PMID:22272539

  4. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  5. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  6. Major remaining technical issues in coal-fired MHD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.; Johnson, T.R.; Petrick, M.; Redman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    A recent assessment of the current status of MHD technology has revealed significant progress in recent years toward establishing the technical base required for commercial coal-fired MHD power plants. The review also identified the many major technical issues that remain. Here attention is directed only to these major areas, to provide perspective regarding the diversity of additional development work required, and to indicate those aspects deserving priority. The underlying assumption is that a systematic development of a sound and broad technical base will be more cost-effective than initially building a large-scale integrated system to acquire operating experience.

  7. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  8. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  9. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  10. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  11. Why assisted suicide must remain illegal in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Vicky; Scott, Helen

    Many people with life-limiting disease are vulnerable to emotional distress associated with physical, spiritual, psychological and social stressors. Psychological stress and affective disorders have the potential to influence decision making, particularly at the end of life. This article discusses the main reasons why assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) should remain illegal in the UK. In particular, it explores the problems associated with safeguarding 'vulnerable' patient groups and assessing mental capacity. The article also examines guidance for nurses regarding what to do if a patient asks for assistance to die or for information on assisted suicide and PAS.

  12. The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n = 18), England (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Sweden (n = 4), both England and Wales (n = 2), and Scotland (n = 2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation. Conclusions Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use. PMID:24984881

  13. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions.

  14. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions. PMID:27137070

  15. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Odontological identification of human remains from mass graves in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Brkic, H; Strinovic, D; Kubat, M; Petrovecki, V

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results and methods of dental identification of 1000 human remains exhumed from mass graves in Croatia up to July 1998. Personal identification of the victims was performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Criminology at the School of Medicine in Zagreb. A forensic odontologist participated in the identification process by carrying out the dental identification. A total of 824 victims were positively identified, while 176 victims remained unidentified. Dental identification based on available dental antemortem data was achieved in 25% of the cases. Dental identification based on dental charts was achieved in 35%, on x-rays in 15%, on photographs of teeth in 22%, on interviews in 18%, and on confirmation by odontologists in 10% of the cases. Teeth, in combination with anthropological parameters, age, sex and height, as well as other specific characteristics such as tattoos, personal identification cards, clothes, jewellery and DNA, were helpful for identification of 64% of the victims, but the significance for the identification was not dominant. Only in 11% of the cases was identification achieved by other relevant means and teeth not used at all. Identification procedures in Croatia will continue until another 1700 people who are still missing or kept as prisoners of war since the aggression on Croatia in 1991 are found and/or identified. PMID:11197622

  17. Usefulness of protein analysis for detecting pathologies in bone remains.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Cristina; Prieto-Bonete, Gemma; Pérez-Cárceles, María D; Luna, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Forensic pathology often uses osteobiography, which involves biological profiles based on a determination of the age, sex, constitution, pathological states and other anomalies (paleopathology) of subjects for identification purposes. In this paper, proteins were analysed in bone remains. A total of 45 long bones from 45 different cadavers (29 males, 16 females) with a mean age of 66.31 years (S.D.=19.48, range 20-97) were used to search for pathological biomarkers which are closely related to several diseases. The bones were removed from the cement niches of a cemetery in Murcia (south-eastern Spain), where they had lain for between 18 and 45 years (mean time 25.84 years, S.D.=8.91). After a specific extraction using Tris-Urea buffer, were measured using HPLC/MS/MS. Our results show that proteins resulting from tumoral diseases and bacterial and viral pathogens can be detected and identified in the skeletal remains, making them useful pathological biomarkers for constructing biological profiles.

  18. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  19. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  20. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  1. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  2. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  3. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    DOE PAGES

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; et al

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents ismore » associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.« less

  4. Procedural performance following sleep deprivation remains impaired despite extended practice and an afternoon nap

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Cousins, James Nicholas; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). One of the TSD conditions included a one-hour nap opportunity (15:00). Compared to the condition in which sleep was permitted, a night of TSD resulted in poorer performance across 4 practices the following day (10:00–19:00). The deleterious effect of a single night of TSD on procedural performance, was neither clearly alleviated by an afternoon nap nor by multiple practice opportunities. Interestingly, significant gains in performance were observed in all conditions after a one-week delay. Recovery sleep on subsequent nights thus appeared to nullify the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation, underscoring the importance of offline consolidation on the acquisition of procedural skill. PMID:27782172

  5. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072555

  6. Aetiology of Dupuytren's contracture.

    PubMed

    Murrell, G A; Hueston, J T

    1990-04-01

    Dupuytren's contracture is a fascinating, deforming, fibrotic condition of the palmar fascia which has confounded clinicians and scientists for centuries. The aim of this paper is to place in perspective the longstanding associations of age, sex, race, hereditary factors, diabetes and alcohol consumption with the more recent novel investigations at the cellular level. In concert, the findings indicate that a number of factors may lead to the narrowing of palmar fascia microvessels, with localized ischaemia and oxygen free radical release. Oxygen free radicals are likely to damage the surrounding stroma, and stimulate fibroblast proliferation. Proliferating fibroblasts lay down collagen and contract in the lines of stress. The process is likely to encourage further microvessel ischaemia with a positive feedback effect that is consistent with the progressive nature of the condition. PMID:2322211

  7. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices.

  8. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  9. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners. PMID:20179305

  10. Remaining Creep Life Assessment Techniques Based on Creep Cavitation Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankit, Kumar

    2009-05-01

    The boiler and its components are built with assumed nominal design and reasonable life of operation about two to three decades (one or two hundred thousand hours). These units are generally replaced or life is extended at the end of this period. Under normal operating conditions, after the initial period of teething troubles, the reliability of these units remains fairly constant up to about two decades of normal operation. The failure rate then increases as a result of their time-dependent material damage. Further running of these units may become uneconomical and dangerous in some cases. In the following article, step-by-step methodology to quantify creep cavitation based on statistical probability analysis and continuum damage mechanics has been described. The concepts of creep cavity nucleation have also been discussed with a special emphasis on the need for development of a model based on creep cavity growth kinetics.

  11. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to <0.2%, yet a very high titer of 8 logs survived. Our FU-CJD brain results are in good accord with the only other report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  12. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  13. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  14. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  15. Estimation of body size and physique from hominin skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Porter, A M W

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of measuring stature from skeletal remains are reviewed: the reconstructed skeletal length, the correspondence of long bone length to stature and the regression of stature on long bone length. Each involves problems and difficulties. For the anthropologist, there is the additional problem of applying findings from extant taxa to extinct taxa with potentially different morphologies and limb proportions. Of the various studies involving regression of the stature the findings of Trotter and Gleser are judged the most robust and useful notwithstanding problems and limitations. The lumbar vertebrae are potentially important as stature predictors. Estimation of body mass from the skeleton is also beset with problems. Eight methods are reviewed: Hartwig-Scherer's taxon independent solution, four methods involving measurements from the weight-bearing appendicular skeleton, Ruff's method using the length of the reconstructed skeleton and an estimate of body breadth, estimates from the total skeletal mass and estimates from the body mass index when the stature is known approximately. Lumbar vertebrae provide reasonable estimates of both body mass and stature and thus by derivation the body mass index. At present both forensic scientists and anthropologists lack adequate data and methods to estimate body size and shape from hominin skeletons. A further large and well-designed study using magnetic resonance imaging is required.

  16. Rummaging through Earth's Attic for Remains of Ancient Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, John C.; Wells, Llyd E.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2002-11-01

    We explore the likelihood that early remains of Earth, Mars, and Venus have been preserved on the Moon in high enough concentrations to motivate a search mission. During the Late Heavy Bombardment, the inner planets experienced frequent large impacts. Material ejected by these impacts near the escape velocity would have had the potential to land and be preserved on the surface of the Moon. Such ejecta could yield information on the geochemical and biological state of early Earth, Mars, and Venus. To determine whether the Moon has preserved enough ejecta to justify a search mission, we calculate the amount of terran material incident on the Moon over its history by considering the distribution of ejecta launched from the Earth by large impacts. In addition, we make analogous estimates for Mars and Venus. We find, for a well-mixed regolith, that the median surface abundance of terran material is roughly 7 ppm, corresponding to a mass of approximately 20,000 kg of terran material over a 10×10-square-km area. Over the same area, the amount of material transferred from Venus is 1-30 kg and material from Mars as much as 180 kg. Given that the amount of terran material is substantial, we estimate the fraction of this material surviving impact with intact geochemical and biological tracers.

  17. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  18. Prions Adhere to Soil Minerals and Remain Infectious

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J; Phillips, Kristen E; Schramm, Peter T; McKenzie, Debbie; Aiken, Judd M; Pedersen, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs]) in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrPSc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrPSc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrPSc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrPSc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrPSc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrPSc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent. PMID:16617377

  19. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  20. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  1. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  2. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  3. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  4. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  5. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  6. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  7. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:25782433

  9. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  10. Analysis of adverse events of potential autoimmune aetiology in a large integrated safety database of AS04 adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Descamps, Dominique; David, Marie-Pierre; Zahaf, Toufik; Hardt, Karin; Izurieta, Patricia; Dubin, Gary; Breuer, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Newly licensed vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B (HBV), and several vaccines in development, including a vaccine against genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), contain a novel Adjuvant System, AS04, composed of 3-O-desacyl-4' monophosphoryl lipid A and aluminium salts. Given the background incidence of autoimmune disorders in some of the groups targeted for immunisation with these vaccines, it is likely that autoimmune events will be reported in temporal association with vaccination, even in the absence of a causal relationship. The objective of this integrated analysis was to assess safety of AS04 adjuvanted vaccines with regard to adverse events (AEs) of potential autoimmune aetiology, particularly in adolescents and young adults. All randomised, controlled trials of HPV-16/18, HSV and HBV vaccines were analysed in an integrated analysis of individual data (N = 68,512). A separate analysis of the HPV-16/18 vaccine trials alone was also undertaken (N = 39,160). All data were collected prospectively during the vaccine development programmes (mean follow-up of 21.4 months), and included in the analysis up to a pre-defined data lock point. Reporting rates of overall autoimmune events were around 0.5% and did not differ between the AS04 and control groups. The relative risk (AS04/control) of experiencing any autoimmune event was 0.98 (95% confidence intervals 0.80, 1.21) in the integrated analysis and 0.92 (0.70, 1.22) in the HPV-16/18 vaccine analysis. Relative risks calculated overall, for disease category or for individual events were close to 1, and all confidence intervals around the relative risk included 1, indicating no statistically significant difference in event rates between the AS04 and control groups. This integrated analysis of over 68,000 participants who received AS04 adjuvanted vaccines or controls demonstrated a low rate of autoimmune disorders, without evidence of an increase in relative risk associated with AS04 adjuvanted

  11. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development.

    PubMed

    Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  12. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  13. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  14. Mammalian gonocyte and spermatogonia differentiation: recent advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Manku, Gurpreet; Culty, Martine

    2015-03-01

    The production of spermatozoa relies on a pool of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), formed in infancy from the differentiation of their precursor cells, the gonocytes. Throughout adult life, SSCs will either self-renew or differentiate, in order to maintain a stem cell reserve while providing cells to the spermatogenic cycle. By contrast, gonocytes represent a transient and finite phase of development leading to the formation of SSCs or spermatogonia of the first spermatogenic wave. Gonocyte development involves phases of quiescence, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Spermatogonia, on the other hand, remain located at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules throughout their successive phases of proliferation and differentiation. Apoptosis is an integral part of both developmental phases, allowing for the removal of defective cells and the maintenance of proper germ-Sertoli cell ratios. While gonocytes and spermatogonia mitosis are regulated by distinct factors, they both undergo differentiation in response to retinoic acid. In contrast to postpubertal spermatogenesis, the early steps of germ cell development have only recently attracted attention, unveiling genes and pathways regulating SSC self-renewal and proliferation. Yet, less is known on the mechanisms regulating differentiation. The processes leading from gonocytes to spermatogonia have been seldom investigated. While the formation of abnormal gonocytes or SSCs could lead to infertility, defective gonocyte differentiation might be at the origin of testicular germ cell tumors. Thus, it is important to better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. This review summarizes and compares the present knowledge on the mechanisms regulating mammalian gonocyte and spermatogonial differentiation. PMID:25670871

  15. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  16. Fertility remains high in Guatemala despite increasing use of contraception.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    With a total fertility rate of 5.1, Guatemala has one of the highest levels of fertility in Latin America, according to findings from the 1995 DHS survey in Guatemala (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil--ENSMI-95). Fertility is lower among educated women, urban women, and Ladino women. The differences are most striking by education: on average, women with no formal education will have 7 children, compared with 2 or 3 children among women with at least some secondary education. Contraceptive use among currently married women increased from 23% in 1987 to 32% in 1995; however, this level of use is still low compared with other countries in the region. Almost half of contraceptive users (15%) rely on female sterilization; relatively few use the pill (4%) or the IUD (3%). It is estimated that 24% of married women want to space or limit their births but are not using a contraceptive method. The survey indicates that there have been improvements in most indicators of maternal and child health, but many challenges remain. Only about half of the women receive antenatal care and just one-third receive assistance at delivery from trained medical personnel. Less than half of the children aged 12-23 months have received all the recommended vaccinations, and half of the children under 5 years are malnourished (stunted). At the same time, infant mortality has shown a steady decline. In the 5-year period preceding the survey the infant mortality rate was 51/1000 live births (under-five mortality was 68/1000). The ENSMI-95 was implemented by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. A total of 12,403 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed. The final report and summary report are available in Spanish.

  17. Child health and survival remains poor in Malawi.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The results of the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Malawi show that Malawi still has one of the highest levels of mortality for less than 5 year old children in the world ( 5 mortality = 25%). During the last 10 years, an increase in postneonatal mortality has offset the modest decrease in neonatal mortality. Infant mortality has hovered around 135/1000 live births since the early 1980s. More children in Malawi suffer from chronic undernutrition (stunting) than in any African country surveyed by DHS. In fact, almost 50% of all less than 5 year old children are stunted. Another 6.7% suffer from wasting (acute undernutrition). Poor infant feeding practices contribute to undernutrition and increased vulnerability to death. Just 3% of less than 4 month old infants are exclusively breast fed. 75% of 2-3 month olds receive supplementary feedings. On the other hand, progress has occurred in the provision of basic maternal and child health services. Just 3% of 12-23 month old children have had no vaccinations. 85% have received all their vaccinations. 97% have received their BCG vaccine and the first dose of DPT and polio vaccine. A trained health professional has provided prenatal care to mothers for 90% of recent births. 86% of mothers have had at least 1 dose of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy. More than 50% of recent births occurred at a health facility. The maternal mortality ratio is still high (620/100,000 births). Even though contraceptive use is increasing and fertility is falling (1984-1992, 1-7% using a modern method and 7.5-6.7, respectively), fertility is still high. Ideal family size has fallen from 5 to 6 between 1984 and 1992. Age at first marriage and age at first birth have increased slightly. These findings suggest that Malawi is just entering the demographic transition. AIDS remains a serious public health problem with many people having little knowledge about it, about modes of transmission, and about means of prevention.

  18. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  19. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  20. DNA extraction: an anthropologic aspect of bone remains from sixth- to seventh-century ad bone remains.

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Saponetti, Sandro Sublimi; Scattarella, Vito; Emanuel, Patrizia; Baldassarra, Stefania Lonero; Volpe, Giuliano; Di Nunno, Cosimo

    2007-12-01

    In the archeological site of the early Christian Episcopal complex of Saint Peter, in Canosa di Puglia (Bari, Italy), during the operations of archaeological excavations, tombs were discovered. They were dated between the sixth and seventh centuries ad with carbon 14 methodology. Five skeletons were found in the 5 tombs: 28A: male individual, 43 years old. The height was 170 cm; the biomass was 65.7 kg. The analysis of the bones indicated several noteworthy pathologies, such as a number of hypoplasia lines of the enamel, the presence of Schmorl hernias on the first 2 lumbar vertebrae, and the outcome of subacromial impingement syndrome. 28E was a male individual, with a biologic age of death of between 44 and 60 years. The height was 177 cm. He had a posttraumatic fracture callus of the medial third of the clavicle, with an oblique fracture rima. 29B was a female individual, 44-49 years old. The height was 158.8 cm; the biomass was 64.8 kg. There was Wells bursitis on the ischial tuberosity on both sides. 29E was a male individual, 45-50 years old. The height was 169.47 cm; the biomass was 70.8 kg. The third and the fourth vertebrae showed Baastrup syndrome (compression of the vertebral spine). There were radiologic signs of deformity on the higher edge of the acetabula and results of frequent sprains of the ankles. 31A was a male individual, 47-54 years old. The height was 178.65 cm; the biomass was 81 kg. The vertebral index showed a heavy overloading in the thoracic lumbar region. There were bony formations under the periosteum on both on the higher and medium facets of the first metatarsus and on the higher and lateral facets of the fifth metatarsus on both sides. As the topography indicates, these small ossifications coincided with the contact points between the back of the foot and parts of the upper shoe. From the osseous remains, in particular from the teeth (central incisors), the DNA was extracted and typed to identify potential family ties among all the

  1. A partial skeleton of Proteopithecus sylviae (Primates, Anthropoidea): first associated dental and postcranial remains of an Eocene anthropoidean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Elwyn L.; Seiffert, Erik R.

    1999-12-01

    Recent excavation in the Late Eocene quarry L-41 (Fayum Depression, Egypt) revealed two tibiae and a femur in direct association with a mandible of Proteopithecus sylviae, arguably the most generalized African anthropoidean known from cranial remains. This discovery represents the first association of dental and postcranial material belonging to an Eocene anthropoidean, and provides new insights into the functional anatomy and phylogenetic position of Proteopithecus. The hindlimb morphology of Proteopithecus is most similar to small-bodied platyrrhines among living and extinct primates and is consistent with a locomotor repertoire that included a considerable amount of running and pronograde leaping. In certain dental and postcranial features, Proteopithecus differs from the other Fayum anthropoideansand shows a greater resemblance to living and extinct platyrrhines, but it is unclear whether these features are of particular phylogenetic significance.

  2. Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

    2013-11-01

    Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10-15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment.

  3. Revisiting the dystrophin-ATP connection: How half a century of research still implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy aetiology.

    PubMed

    Timpani, Cara A; Hayes, Alan; Rybalka, Emma

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disease that is characterised by dystrophin-deficiency and chronic Ca(2+)-induced skeletal muscle wasting, which currently has no cure. DMD was once considered predominantly as a metabolic disease due to the myriad of metabolic insufficiencies evident in the musculature, however this aspect of the disease has been extensively ignored since the discovery of dystrophin. The collective historical and contemporary literature documenting these metabolic nuances has culminated in a series of studies that importantly demonstrate that metabolic dysfunction exists independent of dystrophin expression and a mild disease phenotype can be expressed even in the complete absence of dystrophin expression. Targeting and supporting metabolic pathways with anaplerotic and other energy-enhancing supplements has also shown therapeutic value. We explore the hypothesis that DMD is characterised by a systemic mitochondrial impairment that is central to disease aetiology rather than a secondary pathophysiological consequence of dystrophin-deficiency. PMID:26365249

  4. Viral and atypical bacterial aetiologies of infection in hospitalised patients admitted with clinical suspicion of influenza in Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Heiman F L; Nadjm, Behzad; Thomas, Sherine; Malik, Suhud; Nguyen, Diep Ngoc Thi; Vu, Dung Viet Tien; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Van Nguyen, Chau Vinh; Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Tran, Sinh Thi; Phung, Thuy Bich Thi; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Nguyen, Uyen Hanh; Taylor, Walter; Truong, Khanh Huu; Ha, Tuan Manh; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; de Jong, Menno D; van Doorn, H Rogier; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza constitutes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is limited information about the aetiology of infection presenting clinically as influenza in hospitalised adults and children in South-East Asia. Such data are important for future management of respiratory infections. Objectives To describe the aetiology of infection presenting clinically as influenza in those hospitalised in South-East Asia. Methods Respiratory specimens archived from July 2008 to June 2009 from patients hospitalised with suspected influenza from Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam were tested for respiratory viruses and atypical bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 1222 patients’ samples were tested. Of 1222, 776 patients (63·5%) were under the age of 5. Viruses detected included rhinoviruses in 229 of 1222 patients (18·7%), bocaviruses in 200 (16·4%), respiratory syncytial viruses in 144 (11·8%), parainfluenza viruses in 140 (11·5%; PIV1: 32; PIV2: 12; PIV3: 71; PIV4: 25), adenovirus in 102 (8·4%), influenza viruses in 93 (7·6%; influenza A: 77; influenza B: 16) and coronaviruses in 23 (1·8%; OC43: 14; E229: 9). Bacterial pathogens were Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 33, 2·7%), Chlamydophila psittaci (n = 2), C. pneumoniae (n = 1), Bordetella pertussis (n = 1) and Legionella pneumophila (n = 2). Overall, in-hospital case fatality rate was 29 of 1222 (2·4%). Conclusion Respiratory viruses were the most commonly detected pathogens in patients hospitalised with a clinical suspicion of influenza. Rhinovirus was the most frequently detected virus, and M. pneumoniae, the most common atypical bacterium. The low number of detected influenza viruses demonstrates a low benefit for empirical oseltamivir therapy, unless during an influenza outbreak. PMID:25980749

  5. [Unclear pruritic and urticarial skin inflammation. Bed bug attack].

    PubMed

    Arayesh, A; Wieczorek, D; Kapp, A; Raap, U

    2013-03-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with severe pruritus for a few weeks and diffuse urticarial erythema with pinhead-sized papules over the entire body. The skin lesions occurred directly after a stay in her secondary residence in London. The medical history, clinical picture and histological feature of an arthropod reaction in the skin biopsy, coupled with patient offering a bed bug specimen as evidence, secured the diagnosis of a cimicosis. PMID:23223900

  6. Construct Maps: Do They Make the Unclear Clear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Becker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In his article "Construct Maps for Standard Setting," Adam E. Wyse provides a detailed review on the current use of construct maps in standard setting, including how they may be operationalized within a variety of standard-setting methods. The premise of the argument is that construct maps can serve as a useful tool for conducting a…

  7. The (Un)Clear Effects of Invalid Retro-Cues

    PubMed Central

    Gressmann, Marcel; Janczyk, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Studies with the retro-cue paradigm have shown that validly cueing objects in visual working memory long after encoding can still benefit performance on subsequent change detection tasks. With regard to the effects of invalid cues, the literature is less clear. Some studies reported costs, others did not. We here revisit two recent studies that made interesting suggestions concerning invalid retro-cues: One study suggested that costs only occur for larger set sizes, and another study suggested that inclusion of invalid retro-cues diminishes the retro-cue benefit. New data from one experiment and a reanalysis of published data are provided to address these conclusions. The new data clearly show costs (and benefits) that were independent of set size, and the reanalysis suggests no influence of the inclusion of invalid retro-cues on the retro-cue benefit. Thus, previous interpretations may be taken with some caution at present. PMID:27065894

  8. Literature Searching with Unclear Objectives: A New Approach Using Argumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that information retrieval based on semantic representation is not helpful for those searchers who do not have well-defined ideas of the target document type. Presents an alternative, complementary method for indexing and document retrieval based on attributes of argumentation, a characteristic of articles advancing a claim. (52 references)…

  9. Giant scrotal lymphedema of unclear etiology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Scrotal lymphedema is common in the tropics and subtropics. The giant variants can cause a lot of physical disability and psychological disturbances. Case presentation We present a 25-year-old Nigerian male with giant scrotal lymphedema with severe debilitating symptoms, immobility and emotional disturbance. He benefited from a modified Charles' procedure and reconstruction of the penile shaft using a split-thickness skin graft. Conclusion Giant scrotal lymphedema related to poverty, ignorance and neglect, is amenable to surgery. Surgery provides a cosmetically acceptable and functionally satisfying outcome. PMID:19830170

  10. Gas gangrene and related infection: classification, clinical features and aetiology, management and mortality. A report of 88 cases.

    PubMed

    Darke, S G; King, A M; Slack, W K

    1977-02-01

    The clinical features of gas gangrene and related infection seen in 88 patients over a 10-year period are described. It is suggested that clostridial infection could be simply classified as either 'gas-forming' or 'non-gas-forming'. The gas-forming group represents the more severe form of infection. Non-clostridial gas gangrene may present in a variety of forms. The anaerobic streptococcus was the organism most frequently responsible, but these cases were indistinguishable from clostridial infection on clinical grounds. The treatment of gas gangrene in this series of patients is reported. Emphasis is laid on the importance of adequate prophylaxis with penicillin in patients at risk. The value of antibiotics in established infection remains equivocal. The evidence supporting the value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is assessed and an attempt made to quantify the response to this treatment. Benefit was apparent in only a proportion of patients. A favourable response indicated clostridial infection and guaranteed immediate survival. Extensive debridement or amputation is unnecessary in this group. No response following hyperbaric oxygen therapy indicated widespread mixed clostridial and non-clostridial infection, or infection due to organisms other than clostridia. Urgent and extensive debridement and amputation remain the predominant measures in this group. PMID:196711

  11. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  12. Feasibility and Outcomes of Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification on Buccal Smears as a Screening Method for Microdeletions and Duplications among 300 Adults with an Intellectual Disability of Unknown Aetiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppink, D.; Douma-Kloppenburg, D. D.; de Rooij-Askes, E. S. P.; van Zoest, I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; van Hagen, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Determining the aetiology of intellectual disability (ID) enables anticipation of specific comorbidity and can thus be beneficial. Blood sampling, however, is considered stressful for people with ID. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a non-invasive screening technique of nine microdeletions/duplications among adults with ID of…

  13. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  14. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  15. Chromosome 21 non-disjunction and Down syndrome birth in an Indian cohort: analysis of incidence and aetiology from family linkage data.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Bhaumik, Pranami; Ghosh, Priyanka; Dey, Subrata Kumar

    2010-06-01

    We analysed the family linkage data obtained from short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of 212 unrelated Indian families having a single Down syndrome (DS) baby each, in order to explore the incidence and aetiology of this human aneuploidy in our cohort. The estimated values of maternal meiotic I and meiotic II non-disjunction (NDJ) errors of chromosome 21 (Ch 21) were approximately 78 and approximately 22%, respectively. Within the paternal outcome group, about 47 and 53% were accounted for NDJ at meiosis I and meiosis II, respectively. We estimated only approximately 2% post-zygotic mitotic errors. The comparison of average age of conception between controls and DS-bearing mothers revealed a significant difference (P<0.001) with DS-bearing women were on an average older than controls and meiotic II non-disjoined mothers were oldest among meiotic outcome groups. Our linkage analysis suggested an overall reduction in recombination by more than 50% on meiotic I non-disjoined maternal Ch 21 with error prone to susceptible chiasma formation within the approximately 5.1 kbp segment near the telomeric end. We stratified meiotic I non-disjoined women in three age groups, viz. young (or=35 years) and found linear decrease in the frequency of achiasmate meiosis from the young to the old group. In contrary, a linear increase in the multiple chiasma frequency from the young to the old group was observed. Considering these results together, we propose that the risk factors for Ch 21 NDJ are of two types, one being 'maternal age-independent' and the other being 'maternal age-dependent'. Moreover, a comparison of our present Indian dataset with that of other published data of ethnically different populations suggested that the genetics that underlies the NDJ of Ch 21 is probably universal irrespective of racial difference across human populations. The present study is the first population-based report on any DS cohort from the Indian

  16. Spatial distribution of Parkinson's disease mortality in Spain, 1989-1998, as a guide for focused aetiological research or health-care intervention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aetiologically, genetic and environmental factors having an uneven spatial distribution may underlie Parkinson's disease (PD). Undiagnosis of PD in selected regions might have limited access to treatment with levodopa and simultaneously, if present at death, determined PD underreporting at the death record. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse municipal mortality due to PD in Spain in aetiological and interventional perspective. Methods PD mortality at a municipal level was modelled using the Besag-York- Molliè autoregressive spatial model, combining demographic information with cause-of-death diagnostic data (International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) code 332.0). Municipal relative risks (RRs) were independently estimated for women, men and both sexes, and plotted on maps depicting smoothed RR estimates and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1. Results A south-north gradient, with large geographical areas suggesting clustered towns with high mortality, was seen in Asturias, the Basque Country, Balearic Islands and, particularly, in the Lower Ebro valley around Tarragona. Similarly, there was a suggestion that lowest mortality was clustered in the south-east and south-west. We identified some isolated or clustered municipalities with high mortality that were situated near industrial plants reported to be associated with environmental xenobiotic emissions. However, the same pattern was also observed for some cities with low mortality. Conclusion Municipal PD mortality in Spain was unevenly distributed. Patterns were roughly similar to reported provincial PD mortality and use of levodopa. While the overall pattern appears to result from spatially selective PD undiagnosis, and can not be ascribed to industrial emissions, it can not be excluded that selected "hot spots" reflect genetic factors and/or environmental exposures inducing parkinsonism. A few municipal populations, located in low

  17. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. PMID:22705441

  18. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  19. Social, behavioural and medical factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer: results from the UK study. UK Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although many risk factors have been proposed for the aetiology of testicular cancer, only a history of cryptorchidism is well established. All risk factors previously suggested have been explored in this study. This population-based case-control study was carried out in nine health regions in England and Wales and included 794 men, aged 15-49 years, diagnosed with a testicular germ cell tumour between 1 January 1984 and 30 September 1986, each with an individually age-matched control. Cases and controls were interviewed and data were abstracted from their general practitioner notes. Participation rates for cases and controls were 92.0% and 83.1% respectively. Where possible the mother of each interviewed man was sent a postal questionnaire for self-completion. Testicular trauma at least 2 years prior to diagnosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.61]. Ever having had a sexually transmitted disease was also associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.46-3.39). There was little evidence of an association with cigarette smoking. Sporting activity had a protective effect. Detailed exploration of testicular temperature (wearing of tight underpants, jeans or trousers, hot baths and central heating) failed to reveal any relationship with risk of testicular cancer. There were no clear occupational associations. PMID:8080739

  20. The aetiology behind torticollis and variable spine defects in patients with Müllerian duct/renal aplasia-cervicothoracic somite dysplasia syndrome: 3D CT scan analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the article is fourfold; firstly, to detect the aetiology of torticollis in patients with Müllerian duct/renal aplasia-cervicothoracic somite dysplasia syndrome; secondly, spine pathology in Müllerian duct/renal aplasia-cervicothoracic somite dysplasia syndrome varies considerably from one patient to another and there are remarkable differences in severity and localization; thirdly, mismanagement of congenital spine pathology is a frequent cause of morbid/fatal outcome; and fourthly, the application of prophylactic surgical treatment to balance the growth of the spine at an early stage is mandatory. Reformatted CT scans helped in exploring the craniocervical and the entire spine in these patients. The reason behind torticollis ranged between aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas, assimilation of the atlas and extensive fusion of the lower cervical vertebrae (bilateral failure of segmentation) in four patients; in one patient, in addition to the hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas, we observed ossification of the anterior and the posterior longitudinal spinal ligaments giving rise to a block vertebrae-like suggestive of early senile ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis (Forestier disease). Scoliosis at different spine levels was attributable to variable spine defects. Pelvic ultrasound showed the classical renal agenesis in four patients; whereas in one patient, the MRI showed pelvic cake kidney (renal fused ectopia) associated with ovarian, uterine and vaginal abnormalities. This is the first exploratory study on the craniocervical and the entire spine in a group of patients with MURCS association.

  1. Infectious prosthetic hip joint loosening: bacterial species involved in its aetiology and their antibiotic resistance profiles against antibiotics recommended for the therapy of implant-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Bogut, Agnieszka; Niedźwiadek, Justyna; Strzelec-Nowak, Dagmara; Blacha, Jan; Mazurkiewicz, Tomasz; Marczyński, Wojciech; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Reliable microbiological diagnosis along with surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy are key elements in the management of prosthetic-joint infections (PJIs). The purpose of this study was to characterize antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria involved in the aetiology of PJIs. A total of 33 bacterial isolates cultured from 31 patients undergoing exchange of total hip prostheses were analyzed. The diagnostic approach toward isolation of prosthesis- associated microorganisms included sonication of retrieved implants and conventional cultures of periprosthetic tissues and synovial fluid. The in vitro resistance profiles of bacterial isolates were determined in relation to antibiotics recommended for the therapy of PJIs using the disc diffusion method, E-tests(®) and broth microdilution system. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were predominant microorganisms followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae, Streptococcus mitis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Twenty out of 30 and 12 out of 30 staphylococcal isolates were methicillin- and multi-drug resistant, respectively. Only two isolates were rifampicinresistant. All staphylococci were susceptible to glycopeptides and linezolid. This paper stresses the pathogenic role of staphylococci in patients suffering from implant loosening and reports high methicillin- and multidrug-resistance rates in these bacteria. Hence, antimicrobial susceptibility tests of individual bacterial isolates must always be performed to guide selection of the optimal therapeutic option.

  2. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall be... minutes of remaining service life. (c) Timers shall be readable by sight and by touch during use by the... period of 7 seconds or more after the preset time has elapsed. (e) Remaining service-life indicators...

  3. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  4. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  5. 43 CFR 3809.332 - How long does my notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How long does my notice remain in effect... notice remain in effect? If you filed your complete notice on or after January 20, 2001, it remains in effect for 2 years, unless extended under § 3809.333, or unless you notify BLM beforehand that...

  6. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  7. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  8. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  9. 25 CFR 166.805 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 166.805 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same conduct identified in that...

  10. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  11. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  12. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  13. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  14. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  15. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  16. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  17. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases.

  18. Aetiology of diarrhoeal disease and evaluation of viral–bacterial coinfection in children under 5 years old in China: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.L.; Liu, N.; Humphries, E.M.; Yu, J.M.; Li, S.; Lindsay, B.R.; Stine, O.C.; Duan, Z.J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoeal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under 5 years old. Few case–control studies on the aetiology of diarrhoea have been conducted in China. A case–control study on 922 children under 5 years old who presented with diarrhoea and individually matched controls was conducted in China between May 2011 and January 2013. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze stool samples for 10 diarrhoeal pathogens. Potential enteric pathogens were detected in 377 (81.8%) of 461 children with diarrhoea and 215 controls (46.6%, p <0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII, Shigella and adenovirus were qualitatively associated with diarrhoea. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff threshold for defining a symptomatic individual was 72, 5840, and 104 copies per reaction for rotavirus (odds ratio 259), norovirus GII (odds ratio 10.6) and Shigella (odds ratio 5.1). The attributable fractions were 0.18 for rotavirus, 0.08 for norovirus GII, 0.01 for Shigella and 0.04 for adenovirus. Coinfections between pathogens were common. Two pairs, rotavirus and adenovirus, and norovirus GII and Salmonella were positively associated. The co-occurrence of rotavirus and sapovirus, astrovirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni only occurred in children with disease. Coinfection was not correlated with clinical symptoms. Quantitative data are critical. Our results indicate that increased pathogen loads increase the OR between diarrhoea and rotavirus, norovirus GII and Shigella. Coinfections with rotavirus and norovirus GII are common and occur in a nonrandom distribution. Despite testing for ten diarrhoeal pathogens, over two-thirds of cases do not have a recognized attributable cause. PMID:26724990

  19. Follow-up study of Gambian children with rickets-like bone deformities and elevated plasma FGF23: possible aetiological factors.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Vickie; Jarjou, Landing M A; Goldberg, Gail R; Jones, Helen; Pettifor, John M; Prentice, Ann

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported on a case-series of children (n=46) with suspected calcium-deficiency rickets who presented in The Gambia with rickets-like bone deformities. Biochemical analyses discounted vitamin D-deficiency as an aetiological factor but indicated a perturbation of Ca-P metabolism involving low plasma phosphate and high circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years after presentation to investigate possible associated factors and characterise recovery. 35 children were investigated at follow-up (RFU). Clinical assessment of bone deformities, overnight fasted 2 h urine and blood samples, 2-day weighed dietary records and 24 h urine collections were obtained. Age- and season-matched data from children from the local community (LC) were used to calculate standard deviation scores (SDS) for RFU children. None of the RFU children had radiological signs of active rickets. However, over half had residual leg deformities consistent with rickets. Dietary Ca intake (SDS-Ca=-0.52 (0.98) p=0.04), dietary Ca/P ratio (SDS-Ca/P=-0.80 (0.82) p=0.0008) and TmP:GFR (SDS-TmP:GFR=-0.48 (0.81) p=0.04) were significantly lower in RFU children compared with LC children and circulating FGF23 concentration was elevated in 19% of RFU children. Furthermore an inverse relationship was seen between haemoglobin and FGF23 (R(2)=25.8, p=0.004). This study has shown differences in biochemical and dietary profiles between Gambian children with a history of rickets-like bone deformities and children from the local community. This study provided evidence in support of the calcium deficiency hypothesis leading to urinary phosphate wasting and rickets and identified glomerular filtration rate and iron status as possible modulators of FGF23 metabolic pathways.

  20. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  1. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative. PMID:22049659

  2. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  3. Aetiology of growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Herber, S M; Kay, R

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed in an attempt to identify perinatal risk factors for the development of growth hormone deficiency. More of the affected children were boys, and their birth weights were significantly lower than those of the national average; there were also considerably more preterm and post-term deliveries among boys. PMID:3632025

  4. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... culturally unidentifiable human remains and associated funerary objects: (i) Within 90 days of receiving...

  5. Veteran Special Education Teachers' Perspectives on Factors that Influenced Them to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Literature indicates a shortage of qualified special educators in schools across the United States. This shortage is likely to grow if current trends of attrition continue. There remains an important gap in the current literature regarding the factors that influence veteran special educators to remain in their profession. This information is…

  6. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  7. Adaptive muscle plasticity of a remaining agonist following denervation of its close synergists in a model of complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Charline; Charest, Jérémie; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Kuczynski, Victoria; Grenier, Guillaume; Frigon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear whether the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion after spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 wk after denervation. Muscle histology was performed on LG and medial gastrocnemius (MG) bilaterally in four spinal and four intact cats. In spinal cats, cycle duration for the hindlimb ipsilateral or contralateral to the denervation could be significantly increased or decreased compared with predenervation values. Stance duration was generally increased and decreased for the contralateral and ipsilateral hindlimbs, respectively. The EMG amplitude of MG was significantly increased bilaterally after denervation and remained elevated 8 wk after denervation. In spinal cats the ipsilateral LG was significantly smaller than the contralateral LG, whereas the ipsilateral MG weighed significantly more than the contralateral MG. Histological characterizations revealed significantly larger fiber areas for type IIa fibers of the ipsilateral MG in three of four spinal cats. Microvascular density in the ipsilateral MG was significantly higher than in the contralateral MG. In intact cats, no differences were found for muscle weight, fiber area, or microvascular density between homologous muscles. Therefore, the remaining motor system after complete SCI retains the ability to produce adaptive muscle plasticity.

  8. Adaptive muscle plasticity of a remaining agonist following denervation of its close synergists in a model of complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Charline; Charest, Jérémie; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Kuczynski, Victoria; Grenier, Guillaume; Frigon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear whether the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion after spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 wk after denervation. Muscle histology was performed on LG and medial gastrocnemius (MG) bilaterally in four spinal and four intact cats. In spinal cats, cycle duration for the hindlimb ipsilateral or contralateral to the denervation could be significantly increased or decreased compared with predenervation values. Stance duration was generally increased and decreased for the contralateral and ipsilateral hindlimbs, respectively. The EMG amplitude of MG was significantly increased bilaterally after denervation and remained elevated 8 wk after denervation. In spinal cats the ipsilateral LG was significantly smaller than the contralateral LG, whereas the ipsilateral MG weighed significantly more than the contralateral MG. Histological characterizations revealed significantly larger fiber areas for type IIa fibers of the ipsilateral MG in three of four spinal cats. Microvascular density in the ipsilateral MG was significantly higher than in the contralateral MG. In intact cats, no differences were found for muscle weight, fiber area, or microvascular density between homologous muscles. Therefore, the remaining motor system after complete SCI retains the ability to produce adaptive muscle plasticity. PMID:27358318

  9. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  10. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  11. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  12. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds.

  13. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  14. Advances and remaining uncertainties in the epidemiology of Burkholderia pseudomallei and melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2008-03-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular studies of Burkholderia pseudomallei and the immunology of melioidosis. However, there remain large gaps in understanding of the epidemiology of this enigmatic disease. Identified global distribution boundaries of melioidosis continue to expand. Recent data suggest Australian strains of B. pseudomallei may be ancestral to those from Southeast Asia, but the ecology of this environmental bacterium remains elusive. Despite the potential for rapidly progressive septicaemia, the critical virulence factors in B. pseudomallei remain to be clarified. Inhalation following aerosolization of B. pseudomallei may account for the high mortality when melioidosis occurs after severe weather events.

  15. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  18. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  20. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  1. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  2. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  4. Development of Method for Remaining Life Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Tetsuro; Nakahara, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Kazuo; Urabe, Noboru; Itoh, Masayoshi

    This paper presents a method for remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformers using analyzable structured neural networks. Remaining life assessment of oil-immersed transformer is very important. Furfural method is conventionally used for such an assessment. In the furfural method, the average degree of polymerization is determined by considering the nonlinear correlation between the furfural and average degree of polymerization. The remaining life is estimated by considering the average degree of polymerization. However, a range of estimates of the remaining life is obtained when the furfural method is used, making accurate estimation difficult. The proposed method can be used to estimate the remaining life of an oil-immersed transformer accurately; this method involves analyzable structured neural networks and ensemble method. In the proposed method, not only furfural but also oil temperature, operational status, cooling type, etc., are considered. Since various factors are considered as input variables and a nonlinear model, i.e., artificial neural networks are used, accurate estimation of the remaining life has been realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical simulation using actual measured data.

  5. Post-burning fragmentation of calcined bone: implications for remains recovery from fatal fire scenes.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Kathryn

    2013-11-01

    This research assesses how short term delays in time-until-recovery can affect the quality and quantity of burnt bone recovered from a fatal fire scene. Knowledge of trends in post-burning remains fragmentation will enable investigators to prioritise remains recovery and implement recovery protocols appropriately. By comparing calcined bone fragments recovered 0, 24, 56 and 168 h (1 week) after experimental burns, this research describes remains fragmentation over time. Sus scrofa (domestic pig) limbs were burnt in a series of wood fuelled fires with calcined remains recovered at the specified time intervals. Bone fragments were sorted into 12 size based categories and the proportional weight of each category compared to observe differences in fragmentation over time. Results reveal marked increases in fragmentation when recovery is delayed by 24 h but less change in fragmentation between 24 and 56 h delay when breakage is reduced in the larger fragments. Between 56 and 168 h delay large increases in fragmentation occurred across all fragment sizes. These results indicate that short term recovery delays (24 h) can be detrimental to remains condition, but if remains recovery cannot be completed soon after the fire intermediate delays (56 h) are less significant. Longer term delays (168 h) are again potentially highly detrimental.

  6. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  7. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  8. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  9. Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening our understanding

    PubMed Central

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Cummings, Greta; Cranley, Lisa A; Ferron, Era Mae; Harvey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Title Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening ourunderstanding. Aim This paper is a report of a study to identify nurse reported determinants of intention to remain employed and to develop a model explaining determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed. Background A worsening shortage of nurses globally suggests that efforts must be made to promote retention of nurses. However, effective retention promotion strategies depend on understanding the factors influencing nurse retention. Methods A descriptive study using focus group methodology was implemented. Thirteen focus groups including 78 nurses were carried out in two Canadian provinces in 2007. Thematic analysis strategies were incorporated to analyse the data. Findings Eight thematic categories reflecting factors nurses described as influencing their intentions to remain employed emerged from focus groups: (1) relationships with co-workers, (2) condition of the work environment, (3) relationship with and support from one’s manager, (4) work rewards, (5) organizational support and practices, (6) physical and psychological responses to work, (7) patient relationships and other job content, and (8) external factors. A model of determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed is hypothesized. Conclusion Findings were both similar to and different from previous research. The overriding concept of job satisfaction was not found. Rather, nurse assessments of satisfaction within eight thematic categories were found to influence intentions to remain employed. Further testing of the hypothesized model is required to determine its global utility. Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can lead to development of strategies that strengthen nurse retention. Incorporation of this knowledge in nurse education programmes is essential. PMID:20423434

  10. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly. PMID:26691792

  11. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  12. Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gill, P; Ivanov, P L; Kimpton, C; Piercy, R; Benson, N; Tully, G; Evett, I; Hagelberg, E; Sullivan, K

    1994-02-01

    Nine skeletons found in a shallow grave in Ekaterinburg, Russia, in July 1991, were tentatively identified by Russian forensic authorities as the remains of the last Tsar, Tsarina, three of their five children, the Royal Physician and three servants. We have performed DNA based sex testing and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and confirm that a family group was present in the grave. Analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA reveals an exact sequence match between the putative Tsarina and the three children with a living maternal relative. Amplified mtDNA extracted from the remains of the putative Tsar has been cloned to demonstrate heteroplasmy at a single base within the mtDNA control region. One of these sequences matches two living maternal relatives of the Tsar. We conclude that the DNA evidence supports the hypothesis that the remains are those of the Romanov family.

  13. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  14. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex ("Genderplex") gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples.

  15. Cu-sil dentures – a novel approach to conserve few remaining teeth: Case reports

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Prabhu, C R Allama; Zahrane, Mohammed Al; Esawy, Mohammed Sayed Al; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Pal, Kapil Singh

    2015-01-01

    The present prime concern in dentistry is on preservation of remaining natural teeth. Presence of few teeth in oral cavity help in preserving alveolar ridge integrity, maintain the proprioception, and gives psychological benefit to the patient. Transitional denture provides us with alternative treatment plan for the patients willing to replace their missing teeth while retaining their very few remaining teeth. A relatively newer type of transitional denture is Cu-sil denture. A Cu-sil denture is a denture with holes, lined by a gasket of silicone rubber, the holes thus providing space for remaining natural teeth to emerge into the oral cavity through the denture. Cu-sil denture is the simplest removable partial denture, but its fabrication requires special armamentarium and material. This case report represents a simple chairside technique to fabricate Cu-sil dentures in usual dental set-up. PMID:26464557

  16. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  17. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  18. The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals and topical disinfectants on the microbial flora of human remains.

    PubMed

    Burke, P A; Sheffner, A L

    1976-10-01

    The antimicrobial activity of embalming chemicals an topical disinfectants was evaluated to determine the degree of disinfection achieved during the embalming of human remains. The administration of arterial and cavity embalming chemicals resulted in a 99% reduction of the postmortem microbial population after 2 hours of contact. This level of disinfection was maintained for the 24 hours test period. Topical disinfection of the body orifices was also observed. Therefore, it is probable that present embalming practices reduce the hazard from transmission of potentially infectious microbial agents within the immediate environment of embalmed human remains.

  19. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  20. Longitudinal Study of Institutional Downsizing: Effects on Individuals Who Remain in the Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.

    1998-01-01

    A four-year study investigated the effects of deinstitutionalization programs on 71 individuals who remained in institutions being downsized. Results found downsizing was associated with decreased community integration, decreased availability of therapy services, and many residential and day program moves within the institution. Per person…