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Sample records for aetiology remains unknown

  1. Characteristic Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Encephalitis of Infectious, Immune-Mediated, and Unknown Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Benedict D.; Griffiths, Michael J.; Granerod, Julia; Brown, David; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Borrow, Ray; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background Encephalitis is parenchymal brain inflammation due to infectious or immune-mediated processes. However, in 15–60% the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. Methods We measured 38 mediators in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients from the Health Protection Agency Encephalitis Study. Of serum from 78 patients, 38 had infectious, 20 immune-mediated, and 20 unknown aetiology. Of CSF from 37 patients, 20 had infectious, nine immune-mediated and eight unknown aetiology. Results Heat-map analysis of CSF mediator interactions was different for infectious and immune-mediated cases, and that of the unknown aetiology group was similar to the infectious pattern. Higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were found in infectious than immune-mediated cases, in serum and CSF (p = 0.01 and p = 0.006). Serum MPO was also higher in unknown than immune-mediated cases (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis selected serum MPO; classifying 31 (91%) as infectious (p = 0.008) and 17 (85%) as unknown (p = 0.009) as opposed to immune-mediated. CSF data also selected MPO classifying 11 (85%) as infectious as opposed to immune-mediated (p = 0.036). CSF neutrophils were detected in eight (62%) infective and one (14%) immune-mediated cases (p = 0.004); CSF MPO correlated with neutrophils (p<0.0001). Conclusions Mediator profiles of infectious aetiology differed from immune-mediated encephalitis; and those of unknown cause were similar to infectious cases, raising the hypothesis of a possible undiagnosed infectious cause. Particularly, neutrophils and MPO merit further investigation. PMID:26808276

  2. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  3. Pathological and virological findings in patients with persistent hypertransaminasaemia of unknown aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Berasain, C; Betes, M; Panizo, A; Ruiz, J; Herrero, J; Civeira, M; Prieto, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The histopathological spectrum and role of hepatitis viruses in cases of hypertransaminasaemia of unknown aetiology have not been correctly analysed in a sufficiently large number of patients.
METHODS—We studied 1075 consecutive patients referred for liver biopsy because of elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for more than six months. From this population we selected those cases in whom the aetiology could not be defined from clinical, biochemical, and serological data obtained before biopsy. In these patients liver biopsies were reviewed, and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA were assayed in serum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum hepatitis G virus (HGV)-RNA was determined by PCR in 74 patients.
RESULTS—Of 1075 patients studied, the cause of the increased serum ALT levels remained elusive after appropriate testing in 109 patients (10.1%). Liver biopsies from these patients showed non-specific changes in 32.7% of cases, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 15.8%, and chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis in 51.5%. HBV-DNA and/or HCV-RNA was detected more frequently in cryptogenic liver disease than in healthy blood donors (26.7% v 3.4%; p<0.001). HGV-RNA was found in only one patient. The proportion of cases with detectable HBV-DNA or HCV-RNA was 14.3% in patients with non-specific changes or NASH, 30.7% in patients with chronic hepatitis, and 61.5% in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was found more frequently in patients with positive HBV-DNA and/or HCV-RNA in serum than in those who tested negatively (p=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS—In our series, patients in whom biochemical and serological data did not determine the aetiology of the disease represented 10% of all cases referred for liver biopsy for persistent elevation of serum transaminases. Approximately 50% of patients had chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis and the remainder had NASH or non-specific changes. Occult viral infections were found in a

  4. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  5. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea. PMID:26930888

  6. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. PMID:27387733

  7. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males) from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p < 0.001), alcohol use (p = 0.003), hypertension (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (UTI) (p = 0.034) and consumption of water from wells in the fields (p = 0.025) were associated with microalbuminuria. In the binary logistic regression analysis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, drinking well water in the fields, smoking and pesticide spraying were found to be significant predictors of microalbuminuria. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated. PMID:21726464

  8. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    PubMed Central

    van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

  9. Aetiologic Agents of Fevers of Unknown Origin among Patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EGBE, Christopher Aye; ENABULELE, Onaiwu Idahosa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria parasitaemia is an important predictor of bacteremia, concomitant invasive bacterial infections and malaria parasitaemia are strongly associated with death. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 500 patients (281 males and 219 females) with fevers of unknown origin. The blood samples were processed to diagnose malaria and bacterial septicaemia using standard microbiological techniques. Results: The prevalence of concomitant bacterial septicaemia and malaria parasitaemia was 7.8%. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia alone (26.2%) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than that of bacterial septicaemia (13%). Patients 61 years old and older had higher prevalences of malaria parasitaemia, bacterial septicaemia, and concomitant infections. The most prevalent organism causing bacterial septicaemia were of the Klebsiella species, while ceftriaxone and ceftazidime were the most effective antibacterial agents. Conclusion: Overall prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, septicaemia and concomitant malaria parasitaemia, and bacterial septicaemia were 26.2%, 13%, and 7.8%, respectively. Bacteria from the Klebsiella species were the most common bacteria causing septicaemia. Although ceftriaxone and ceftazidime are the recommended treatments, there is need for urgent treatment of concomitant infections due to their poor prognosis. PMID:24639610

  10. Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although several studies indicate that meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) might affect every dog breed at every age, little is known about clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival between large and small/medium breed dogs diagnosed with MUA. One hundred and eleven dogs met the inclusion criteria. 28 (25 per cent) dogs were considered large breed dogs compared with 83 (75 per cent) small/medium breed dogs. Large breed dogs presented significantly more often with a decreased mentation. Age, gender, duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis, presence of seizures or cluster seizures, variables on complete blood count and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and all variables on MRI were not significantly different between small/medium and large breed dogs. Median survival time was 281 and 106 days for the large and small/medium breed dogs, respectively, with no significant difference in survival curves for both groups. Although considered not typically affected by MUA, 25 per cent of dogs included in this study were considered large breed dogs. Therefore, MUA should be included in the differential diagnosis for large breed dogs presenting with intracranial neurological signs. If diagnosed with MUA, large breed dogs also carried a guarded prognosis. PMID:27165997

  11. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  12. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    PubMed

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. PMID:26724561

  13. Feasibility and Outcomes of Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification on Buccal Smears as a Screening Method for Microdeletions and Duplications among 300 Adults with an Intellectual Disability of Unknown Aetiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppink, D.; Douma-Kloppenburg, D. D.; de Rooij-Askes, E. S. P.; van Zoest, I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; van Hagen, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Determining the aetiology of intellectual disability (ID) enables anticipation of specific comorbidity and can thus be beneficial. Blood sampling, however, is considered stressful for people with ID. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a non-invasive screening technique of nine microdeletions/duplications among adults with ID of…

  14. Myeloma aetiology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G J; Davies, F E; Linet, M

    2002-07-01

    Recently there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of the biology of myeloma. These findings have important implications for aetiological studies aimed at defining the causative factors for myeloma. Myeloma is closely related to monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), which is now recognized to be very common in the older population. The epidemiology of these conditions is presented and discussed in the context of the genetic factors governing both the risk of developing MGUS or of transformation to myeloma. Biological studies support a role for aberrant class switch recombination early in the natural history of myeloma suggesting that factors in the environment may interact with this mechanism to increase myeloma risk. Case-control and cohort studies have identified several known and suspected environmental exposures. These exposures include high doses of ionizing radiation, and occupational exposure in the farming and petrochemical industries. The data supporting these associations are presented and discussed in the context of the molecular mechanisms underlying these exposures. In particular DNA damage occurring as a consequence could readily interact with the class switch recombination process to increase the risk of chromosomal translocations, oncogene deregulation and malignant transformation. A further hypothesis, which has been extensively investigated, is the role of chronic immune/antigenic stimulation and the risk of myeloma. This concept is difficult to explain in the context of our current immunological concepts. The data supporting the association and how molecular epidemiological studies using genetic variants in cytokine genes are allowing us to revisit this concept are discussed in detail. PMID:12199621

  15. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  16. Aetiology of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, A W; Marnewick, J C

    2012-11-01

    The terms Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causative factors can be avoided, all oral health workers should be aware of the aetiology of OC so that sound preventive advice may be given to their patients. Infections and nutrition play a lesser but still important role in the aetiology of OC. This article reviews the importance of the aetiology of OC, with the emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. PMID:23957094

  17. Aetiology of chronic constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, S; Bonar, S; O'Neill, H; Hanly, P; Drury, I; Flanagan, M; Garrett, J

    1983-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 32 cases of chronic constrictive pericarditis treated by pericardiectomy during the past 25 years, four were attributable to rheumatoid disease, two to trauma, one to sarcoidosis, and four, at a maximum, to tuberculosis. In the remaining 21 cases of undetermined aetiology there was no evidence of tuberculosis. It appears, therefore, that tuberculosis was not a common cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis during the period under review, which included the 1950s and early 1960s when tuberculosis was widespread. PMID:6615663

  18. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  19. The aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R F; Cameron, D J; Barnes, G L; Holmes, I H; Ruck, B J

    1976-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common problem in newborn infants in hospital nurseries. In the past, sporadic diarrhoea was often attributed to dietary indiscretion by the mother, and epidemic diarrhoea was though to be caused by an unknown infectious agent. Techniques with which to locate non-cultivable viruses and untypable enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli allow reevaluation of the aetiology of diarrhoea in newborn infants. Preliminary results from Melbourne, Australia, suggest that most diarrhoea in newborn infants is induced by a specific infectious agent. During 1975 the agent most often identified from sporadic and epidemic diarrhoea in hospital nurseries was a reovirus-like particle ("duovirus"). Enterotoxin-producing strains of E. coli were rarely isolated. Future attempts to protect newborn infants from developing diarrhoea must be based on an accurate understanding of the aetiology of this disease. PMID:186236

  20. [Salivary stones: aetiology, composition and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Brand, H S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I

    2014-11-01

    Salivary stones or sialoliths, are calcified concrements which are most frequently located in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Their size and weight show considerable variation. The aetiology is unknown. It has been suggested that salivary stones could be related to an altered saliva composition, the anatomy of the ducts of the salivary gland and/or the fusion of microsialoliths. Salivary stones consist mainly of anorganic material such as hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and calciumphosphate, but they also contain organic components such as proteins and lipids. Treatment can consist of salivary gland massage combined with an acid diet, ultrasonic pulverisation, and surgical or sialendoscopical removal. PMID:26188478

  1. Comparison of the aetiology of stillbirth over five decades in a single centre: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wou, Karen; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Chen, Moy-Fong; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates and aetiologies of stillbirth over the past 50 years. Study design We reviewed all autopsy reports for stillbirths occurring between 1989 and 2009 at the McGill University Health Centre to determine the pathological aetiology of stillbirths. We also reviewed maternal characteristics. We compared our results with a previous study published in 1992 on aetiologies of stillbirth from 1961 to 1988 at the same institution. Results From among the 79 410 births between 1989 and 2009, 217 stillbirths were included in our study. The mean maternal age was 31.05 (±5.8) years. In 28.1% of cases, there was a history of subfertility. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32.69 (±5.58) weeks, with a birthweight of 1888 (±1084) g. The main causes of stillbirth were unknown (26.7%), placental factors (19.8%) and abruptio placentae (12.9%). Other causes included haematogenous or ascending infection (10.6%), fetal malformations (8.3%), maternal hypertension (3.2%), intrauterine growth restriction (2.8%), diabetes (1.8%) and intrapartum asphyxia (1.4%). Other fetal causes were found in 12.4% of cases. Conclusions Owing to detailed pathological examination of most stillbirth cases over the past five decades at our tertiary obstetrical centre, we could study the trends in the aetiology of stillbirths in a cohort of more than 150 000 births. In 50 years, the rate of stillbirth has decreased from 115 to 32 cases/10 000 births from the 1960s to 2000s, which represents a reduction of 72%. Stillbirth from unknown cause remains the most common contributor, with 40% of these cases occurring in late pregnancy. PMID:24902725

  2. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    PubMed

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.023) predicted unfavourable outcome. Stroke recurrence rate at 3 months was 2.7%. Previous stroke or TIA predicted recurrent cerebrovascular events (p = 0.012). In conclusion, most young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones. PMID:26067218

  3. Pyrexia: aetiology in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Laupland, Kevin B

    2016-01-01

    Elevation in core body temperature is one of the most frequently detected abnormal signs in patients admitted to adult ICUs, and is associated with increased mortality in select populations of critically ill patients. The definition of an elevated body temperature varies considerably by population and thermometer, and is commonly defined by a temperature of 38.0 °C or greater. Terms such as hyperthermia, pyrexia, and fever are often used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking hyperthermia refers to the elevation in body temperature that occurs without an increase in the hypothalamic set point, such as in response to specific environmental (e.g., heat stroke), pharmacologic (e.g., neuroleptic malignant syndrome), or endocrine (e.g., thyrotoxicosis) stimuli. On the other hand, pyrexia and fever refer to the classical increase in body temperature that occurs in response to a vast list of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies in association with an increase in the hypothalamic set point. In this review, we examine the contemporary literature investigating the incidence and aetiology of pyrexia and hyperthermia among medical and surgical patients admitted to adult ICUs with or without an acute neurological condition. A temperature greater than 41.0 °C, although occasionally observed among patients with infectious or noninfectious pyrexia, is more commonly observed in patients with hyperthermia. Most episodes of pyrexia are due to infections, but incidence estimates of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies are limited by studies with small sample size and inconsistent reporting of noninfectious aetiologies. Pyrexia commonly triggers a full septic work-up, but on its own is a poor predictor of culture-positivity. In order to improve culturing practices, and better guide the diagnostic approach to critically ill patients with pyrexia, additional research is required to provide more robust estimates of the incidence of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies

  4. The multiple aetiology of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is epidemiologically and immunologically distinct from serum hepatitis. The Australia antigen is related more specifically to serum hepatitis. The possible role of coronavirus—and paramyxovirus-like particles in the aetiology of some infections of the liver in man and in marmosets inoculated with human infectious hepatitis material is discussed and the difficulties in the interpretation of the currently available data are emphasized. The recent studies in Melbourne of a faecal antigen found in some patients with infectious hepatitis and the discovery of an antiserum in Milan which reacted with an antigen associated with epidemic hepatitis are discussed. Mention is made of the recent isolation in Detroit-6 cells of virus-like particles from patients with infectious hepatitis. It is concluded that viral hepatitis is an infection of multiple aetiology and that the successful cultivation in vitro of the agent or agents of hepatitis remains the outstanding and most urgent problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4327058

  5. Predicting the characteristics of the aetiological agent for Kawasaki disease from other paediatric infectious diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Y; Urabe, C; Nakamura, H; Hatano, N

    2016-02-01

    Although Kawasaki disease (KD), which was first reported in the 1960s, is assumed to be infectious, its aetiological agent(s) remains unknown. We compared the geographical distribution of the force of infection and the super-annual periodicity of KD and seven other paediatric infectious diseases in Japan. The geographical distribution of the force of infection, which was estimated as the inverse of the mean patient age, was similar in KD and other paediatric viral infections. This similarity was due to the fact that the force of infection was determined largely by the total fertility rate. This finding suggests that KD shares a transmission route, i.e. sibling-to-sibling infection, with other paediatric infections. The super-annual periodicity, which is positively associated with the sum of an infectious disease's incubation period and infectious period, was much longer for KD and exanthema subitum than other paediatric infectious diseases. The virus for exanthema subitum is known to persist across the host's lifespan, which suggests that the aetiological agent for KD may also be capable of persistent infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the aetiological agent for KD is transmitted through close contact and persists asymptomatically in most hosts. PMID:26201398

  6. Aetiology of auditory dysfunction in amusia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause’s frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. Methods Design: systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Setting: Retrospective medical database review. Main outcome measures: evidence yielded from the systematic review process. Results The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Conclusion Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required. PMID:23618339

  7. Epidemiology and aetiology of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ziaeian, Boback; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a rapidly growing public health issue with an estimated prevalence of >37.7 million individuals globally. HF is a shared chronic phase of cardiac functional impairment secondary to many aetiologies, and patients with HF experience numerous symptoms that affect their quality of life, including dyspnoea, fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, and fluid retention. Although the underlying causes of HF vary according to sex, age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and environment, the majority of cases remain preventable. HF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and confers a substantial burden to the health-care system. HF is a leading cause of hospitalization among adults and the elderly. In the USA, the total medical costs for patients with HF are expected to rise from US$20.9 billion in 2012 to $53.1 billion by 2030. Improvements in the medical management of risk factors and HF have stabilized the incidence of this disease in many countries. In this Review, we provide an overview of the latest epidemiological data on HF, and propose future directions for reducing the ever-increasing HF burden. PMID:26935038

  8. Studies on the aetiology of byssinosis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Geoffrey; Massoud, A. A. E.; Lucas, F.

    1971-01-01

    Taylor, G., Massoud, A. A. E., and Lucas, F. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 143-151. Studies on the aetiology of byssinosis. A condensed polyphenol based on leucocyanidin has been extracted from the cotton plant. The reaction between this material and human serum has been demonstrated using both a precipitin and a passive agglutination technique. Sera from 196 cardroom workers not suffering from byssinosis, 177 byssinotic cardroom workers, and 203 controls were tested for reactivity with the condensed polyphenol using the passive agglutination technique. Significant differences in mean titres were obtained between cardroom workers and controls and between byssinotic and non-byssinotic cardroom workers. It was shown that while the mean titre in non-byssinotic cardroom workers remains relatively constant with respect to duration of employment, the titre in those cardroom workers suffering from byssinosis shows a progressive rise with duration of cardroom exposure. Inhalation of solutions of the condensed polyphenol by normal control subjects and by non-byssinotic cardroom workers produced neither symptoms nor changes in FEV1·0 or FVC. On the other hand, inhalation of the material by byssinotic cardroom workers induced symptoms identical with those experienced on exposure in the cardroom on Mondays. Because of the subjective nature of byssinosis, this inhalational study was repeated as a double-blind trial which completely confirmed the above observations. PMID:5572682

  9. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  10. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  11. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  12. Anorexia nervosa--diagnosis, aetiology, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, D.

    1995-01-01

    The aetiology, assessment and treatment of anorexia nervosa are reviewed in the light of the classical accounts of Morton, Lasègue and Gull. The core symptoms are deliberate weight loss, disturbed body image and amenorrhoea, and complications may include cardiac failure, electrolyte disturbances, hypothermia and osteoporosis. Common clinical findings are described. Disturbed brain serotonin activity is implicated in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa, but there is little support for the use of pharmacological treatments. Psychological theories of aetiology are discussed with reference to Bruch, Crisp, Palazzoli and Minuchin: the common theme is the reaction of the patient and her family to the physical and social changes of puberty. Individual and/or family psychotherapy is seen as central to the treatment of anorexia nervosa, and the relevant clinical research is reviewed. The roles of general practitioners, general psychiatrists and eating disorder specialists are discussed in the light of recent consensus treatment guidelines. Images Figure 1 PMID:8552532

  13. New aetiology of patellofemoral pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chas, Julie; Mariot, Philippe; Tassart, Marc; Pialoux, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old man with more than 100 different male sexual partners per year. He reported using cocaine, ecstasy, γ-hydroxybutyric acid and crystal mephedrone and presented with bilateral gonalgia resistant to standard analgesia. He had no noteworthy medical history, and physical examination and laboratory tests were uninformative. MRI showed marked intra-articular effusion but no meniscus or ligament damage. The aetiological diagnosis in this case was made by excluding other potential causes. Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common and challenging injuries. In this first case reported, the aetiology was found to be mechanical, due to the position adopted during fellatio with multiple male partners. PMID:24859542

  14. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism. PMID:27213061

  15. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  16. A large outbreak of food poisoning of unknown aetiology associated with Stilton cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, H. C.; Boyle, M.; Lewis, M. J.; Pankhurst, J.; Wieneke, A. A.; Jacob, M.; Bruce, J.; O'Mahony, M.

    1991-01-01

    Between November 1988 and January 1989, a total of 155 people in 36 reported outbreaks suffered gastrointestinal symptoms associated with eating Stilton cheese, produced from unpasteurized cow's milk in the English midlands. Symptoms were suggestive of a staphylococcal illness but extensive laboratory testing of cheeses implicated in several of the outbreaks failed to detect any pathogen, toxin or chemical. Control measures were implemented, and included a voluntary withdrawal of the implicated Stilton cheese from sale on 23 January 1989 and a subsequent decision to use pasteurized milk in production of the cheese. PMID:2050204

  17. Parental quality of life in complex paediatric neurologic disorders of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    van Nimwegen, K J M; Kievit, W; van der Wilt, G J; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Donders, A R T; Verhaak, C M; Grutters, J P C

    2016-09-01

    Complex paediatric neurology (CPN) patients generally present with non-specific symptoms, such as developmental delay, impaired movement and epilepsy. The diagnostic trajectory in these disorders is usually complicated and long-lasting, and may be burdensome to the patients and their parents. Additionally, as caring for a chronically ill child can be stressful and demanding, parents of these patients may experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aims to assess parental HRQoL and factors related to it in CPN. Physical and mental HRQoL of 120 parents was measured and compared to the general population using the SF-12 questionnaire. Parents also completed this questionnaire for the measurement of patient HRQoL. Additional questionnaires were used to measure parental uncertainty (Visual Analogue Scale) and worry phenomena (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and to obtain socio-demographic data. A linear mixed model with random effect was used to investigate which of these variables were associated with parental HRQoL. As compared to the general population, HRQoL of these parents appeared diminished. Fathers showed both lowered physical (51.76, p < 0.05) and mental (49.41, p < 0.01) HRQoL, whereas mothers only showed diminished mental (46.46, p < 0.01) HRQoL. Patient HRQoL and parental worry phenomena were significantly correlated with overall and mental parental HRQoL. The reduction in parental mental HRQoL is alarming, also because children strongly rely on their parents and parental mental health is known to influence children's health. Awareness of these problems among clinicians, and supportive care if needed are important to prevent exacerbation of the problems. PMID:27321953

  18. Notes concerning the peritonitis of urinary aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Bratu, 0; Ilie, C; Madan, V

    2008-01-01

    Urinary peritonitis (the uroperitoneum) is categorized as a difficult to diagnose clinical entity due to its poor manifestations. Vesical trauma following pelvis bone fracture is the most frequently involved in the uroperitoneum aetiology, followed by spontaneous vesical rupture and intraoperative iatrogenic lesions. One of the most important and constant signs that can occur is diffuse abdominal tension, without tenderness. The imagistic procedure that sets the diagnosis is retrograde cystography showing intraperitoneal urine effusion. Vesical rupture is a surgical emergency. The uroperitoneum is a particular type of peritonitis that has hidden and misleading symptoms which can delay the diagnosis long enough to endanger the patient's life. PMID:20108482

  19. Homage to an unknown photographer.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Dávila, F

    1993-01-01

    The Daguerreotype is an integral part of modern history as artifact and witness to great events and forms the basis on which the first surgical photograph of an amputation was taken in North America, during the Mexican-American War between 1846 and 1847; however, its photographer remains unknown. PMID:8273540

  20. Myopic anisometropia: ocular characteristics and aetiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J; Read, Scott A; Carney, Leo G

    2014-07-01

    Anisometropia represents a unique example of ocular development, where the two eyes of an individual, with an identical genetic background and seemingly subject to identical environmental influences, can grow asymmetrically to produce significantly different refractive errors. This review provides an overview of the research examining myopic anisometropia, the ocular characteristics underlying the condition and the potential aetiological factors involved. Various mechanical factors are discussed, including corneal structure, intraocular pressure and forces generated during near work that may contribute to development of anisomyopia. Potential visually guided mechanisms of unequal ocular growth are also explored, including the influence of astigmatism, accommodation, higher-order aberrations and the choroidal response to altered visual experience. The association between binocular vision, ocular dominance and asymmetric refraction is also considered, along with a review of the genetic contribution to the aetiology of myopic anisometropia. Despite a significant amount of research into the biomechanical, structural and optical characteristics of anisometropic eyes, there is still no unifying theory, which adequately explains how two eyes within the same visual system grow to different endpoints. PMID:24939167

  1. A putative role for Toxocara species in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Theorell, Töres

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of unknown aetiology. The finding of monoclonal antibodies in MS has been attributed to various infectious agents. Nematodes, such as Toxocara species have not been explored as possible aetiologic agents of MS. Some epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to stress and household pets prior to the diagnosis of MS. In a case known to the authors, slight malaise and eosinophilia in peripheral blood preceded the diagnosis of MS by one year in a middle-aged man who lived in rural surroundings with cats in the household. The ubiquitary parasite Toxocara catis or canis is prevalent and serum antibodies are found regularly in populations examined. It is able to develop into the larval stage in human beings. The hypothesis presented here is that MS could be initiated by such infections in previously unexposed subjects under conditions of long-term stress. PMID:15193348

  2. Does dermatoneuro syndrome have a viral aetiology?

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Mughal, A A; Paulus, J; Salamat, A; Howarth, S

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxoedema is a rare disease characterized by a generalized papular and sclerodermoid cutaneous eruption. It is associated with fibroblast proliferation and mucin deposition in the dermis. Most patients have a monoclonal gammopathy, defined by the presence of IgG. Treatment of scleromyxoedema is challenging, but there is mounting evidence to support the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Individual reports of systemic complications have been described. Dermatoneuro syndrome (DNS) is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation, which consists of a triad of fever, coma and seizures preceded by a flu-like illness. We describe a patient with scleromyxoedema who developed DNS. Our case highlights interesting findings suggesting that DNS may have a viral aetiology. In addition, this case demonstrates a favourable response of the cutaneous features of scleromyxoedema to IVIg. PMID:26175017

  3. Midline diastema and its aetiology--a review.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Treating the midline diastema is a matter of concern for practitioners, as many different aetiologies are reported to be associated with it. The appearance of midline diastema as part of the normal dental development makes it difficult for practitioners to decide whether to intervene or not at an early stage. The aim of this article is to review the possible aetiology and management options which will help the clinician to diagnose, intercept and to take effective action to correct the midline diastema. The available data shows that an early intervention is desirable in cases with large diastemas. Treatment modality, timing and retention protocol depends on the aetiology of the diastema. Therefore, priority needs to be given to diagnosing the aetiology before making any treatment decisions. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to determine and evaluate the aetiology and possible treatment options of midline diastema. PMID:25073229

  4. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  5. Importance of cervical length in dysmenorrhoea aetiology.

    PubMed

    Zebitay, Ali G; Verit, Fatma F; Sakar, M Nafi; Keskin, Seda; Cetin, Orkun; Ulusoy, A Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this prospective case-control study was to determine whether uterine corpus and cervical length measurements have a role in dysmenorrhoea aetiology in virgins. Patients with severe primary dysmenorrhoea with visual analog scale scores of ≥7 composed the dysmenorrhoea group (n = 51), while the control group (n = 51) was of women with painless menstrual cycles or with mild pain. Longitudinal and transverse axes of the uterine cervix and uterine corpus were measured. Correlation between severity of dysmenorrhoea and uterine cervix and corpus axes was calculated. Longitudinal and transverse axes of uterine cervix as well as uterine cervix volume were significantly higher in the dysmenorrhoea group compared to the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between severity of dysmenorrhoea and the length of cervical longitudinal and transverse axes and uterine cervical volume. Our findings reveal longer cervical length and greater cervical volume in young virgin patients with dysmenorrhoea and severe pain compared to those with no or less pain. PMID:27012227

  6. Transthoracic lung aspiration for the aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia: 25 years of experience from The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Ideh, R C; Howie, S R C; Ebruke, B; Secka, O; Greenwood, B M; Adegbola, R A; Corrah, T

    2011-06-01

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children worldwide. Global pneumonia control depends on a good understanding of the aetiology of pneumonia. Percutaneous transthoracic aspiration culture is much more sensitive than blood culture in identifying the aetiological agents of pneumonia. However, the procedure is not widely practised because of lack of familiarity with it and concerns about potential adverse events. We review the diagnostic usefulness and safety of this procedure over 25 years of its use in research and routine practice at the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), The Gambia, and give a detailed description of the procedure itself. Published materials were identified from the MRC's publication database and systematic searches using the PubMed/Medline and Google search engines. Data from a current pneumonia aetiology study in the unit are included together with clinical experience of staff practising at the unit over the period covered in this review. A minimum of 500 lung aspirates were performed over the period of review. Lung aspiration produces a greater yield of diagnostic bacterial isolates than blood culture. It is especially valuable clinically when pathogens not covered by standard empirical antibiotic treatment, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, are identified. There have been no deaths following the procedure in our setting and a low rate of other complications, all transient. Lung aspiration is currently the most sensitive method for diagnosing pneumonia in children. With appropriate training and precautions it can be safely used for routine diagnosis in suitable referral hospitals. PMID:21477423

  7. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW FROM RAILROAD TRACKS LOOKING NORTHWEST - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  8. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population. PMID:27348992

  9. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  10. Breast augmentation with an unknown substance

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

  11. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  12. Bone marrow depletion with haemorrhagic diathesis in calves in Germany: characterization of the disease and preliminary investigations on its aetiology.

    PubMed

    Kappe, Eva C; Halami, Mohammad Yahya; Schade, Benjamin; Alex, Michaela; Hoffmann, Doris; Gangl, Armin; Meyer, Karsten; Dekant, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Bernd-Andreas; Johne, Reimar; Buitkamp, Johannes; Böttcher, Jens; Müller, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Since 2007 a new fatal haemorrhagic diathesis in calves has been observed in all areas of Germany. Analysis of 56 cases submitted for necropsy allowed its characterization. Calves fell ill within the first month of life independent of breed and sex. Only single or a few animals per herd were affected. Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages in many organs and tissues, particularly in skin, subcutis and gastrointestinal tract, were major findings in all animals. Microscopically a severe depletion of bone marrow cells was always observed. Lymphocytic depletion (43%) and inflammatory lesions (46%) were less frequently observed. Blood analysis of five animals indicated an aplastic pancytopenia. The resulting thrombocytopenia is regarded as major pathomechanism of this Haemorrhagic Disease Syndrome (HDS). Pedigree analysis gave no indication of hereditary disease. Tests for specific toxins such as S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), furazolidone, or mycotoxins resulting in bone marrow depletion were negative. Bacterial infections, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, and Bluetongue Virus were ruled out as cause of the disease. HDS shares similarities with a circoviral infection in chickens (chicken infectious anaemia). A broad-spectrum PCR allowed detection of circoviral DNA in 5 of 25 HDS cases and in 1 of 8 non-HDS cases submitted for necropsy. Sequencing of the whole viral genome revealed a high similarity (up to 99%) with Porcine Circovirus type 2b. Single bone marrow cells stained weakly positive for PCV2 antigen by immunohistochemistry in 1 of 8 tested HDS animals. This is the first report of circovirus detection in cattle in Germany. The exact cause of HDS still remains unknown. A multifactorial aetiology involving infection, poisoning, immunopathy, or a genetic predisposition is conceivable. Additional research is necessary to clarify the pathogenesis and the potential role of PCV2 in HDS. PMID:20135908

  13. 66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  14. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  15. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  16. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-I #9, MOVING CAMP. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. Anaerobes: a new aetiology in cavitary pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, J M; Hitado, J; Gea, G; Colmeiro, A; Lanza, A M; Muñoz, J A; Mosquera, J A

    1982-01-01

    The role of mycobacteria in the cavitation of large pneumoconiotic masses is well established. In other cases softness is attributed to an ischaemic or aseptic necrosis. Five cases are described in which cavitation of the pulmonary masses was caused by anaerobic bacteria, confirmed by the growth of such bacterial in cultures after transtracheal or transpleural puncture. Repeated cultures for mycobacteria gave negative results. Two cases were acute, having serious complications such as bronchopleural fistula, empyema, and serious respiratory insufficiency. The role of anaerobes in cavitary pneumoconiosis has not been recognised previously, probably because of the special conditions required to culture these bacteria and the infrequent use of transtracheal puncture in the diagnosis of this entity. The prevalence of anaerobes as agents capable of cavitating pneumoconiotic masses remains to be established. Images PMID:6128024

  19. Pachydermodactyly: An Unknown Entity.

    PubMed

    Tolis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Mavrogenis, Andreas; Spyridonos, Sarantis

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare benign disease that usually affects the dorsal skin and subcutaneous tissue of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers; the thumb is usually spared. Hyperkeratosis on the dorsal side of the affected areas is common. We present a case of a 19-year-old man who was diagnosed with pachydermodactyly after evaluation of a painless, progressive swelling and hyperkeratosis at the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers, bilaterally, for 6 years before presentation. Conservative treatment was prescribed and the patient remains asymptomatic. Given the benign and nonprogressive course of the disease, symptomatic treatment alone is all that is usually required. PMID:27325556

  20. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  1. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  2. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

  3. 50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photographer unknown Date unknown HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ABANDONED PORTION OF HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTED 1935 ACROSS RIVER CONNECTING WITH NEW SMITH PT. BR., 1-HUM-1A #203. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  4. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  5. Provenance of unknown plutonium material.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, G

    2008-10-01

    The determination of the provenance of 'unknown' plutonium material is demonstrated through a simulation study based on an isotopic fingerprinting approach. Plutonium of known provenance was considered as the 'unknown' nuclear material in order to evaluate the potential of the approach and verify its predictive capabilities. Factor analysis was used to compare the Pu isotopic composition of the 'unknown' material with Pu isotopic compositions simulating well known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations. The provenance of the 'unknown material' is assigned to the commercial fuel with which exhibits the highest degree of similarity with respect to the Pu composition. The approach appears promising since it accurately predicted the provenance of the one 'unknown' sample considered; nevertheless, the approach is still at the development stage. Important challenging issues related to the simulation uncertainties and its testing on real laboratory samples have to be explored prior to evaluating the potential of the approach. PMID:18639370

  6. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  7. Systemic Review of Dry Socket: Aetiology, Treatment, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Lubna Ahmed; Umair, Ayesha; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Hanouneh, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Our systemic review is to make a comprehensive review about the aetiology, treatment and the prevention of dry socket, the inclusion criteria were all the studies that discuss the dry socket and its etiology, treatment and prevention and exclusion criteria were all the studies that discuss the other complications of tooth extraction, the materials and methods used for this systemic review was to search in the Pub Medline database between 2008 to 2013, using specific words “dry socket, aetiology, treatment and prevention” and published in the English language, the articles were screened by abstract for relevance to aetiology, treatment and prevention of dry socket, 82 papers were identified in pub med but a total of 36 out of Publications were included in the final systemic review according to the specific keywords and materials mentioned above. The occurrence of dry socket in an everyday oral surgery or dental practice is unavoidable. The risk factors are smoking, surgical trauma, single extractions, age, sex, medical history, systemic disorder, extraction site, amount of anaesthesia, operator experience, antibiotics use prior to surgery, difficulty of the surgery and the previous surgical site infection in addition to oral Contraceptives, menstrual cycle and immediate postextraction socket irrigation with normal saline. The traditional options of treatment are directed toward palliative care, such as the irrigation of the surgical site, avoiding curetting the extraction socket, Packing with a zinc oxide– eugenol paste on iodoform gauze can be considered to relieve acute pain episodes, there is also new agents in the market can accelerate the healing of the socket such as PRGF and GECB. The prevention methods include avoiding smoking before and after surgery and a traumatic surgery, the use of antibiotics, such as, azithromycin, can be considered, the other preventive measures such as chlorhecidine rinse or gel can be effective in the reduction of dry socket

  8. Systemic review of dry socket: aetiology, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Tarakji, Bassel; Saleh, Lubna Ahmed; Umair, Ayesha; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Hanouneh, Salah

    2015-04-01

    Our systemic review is to make a comprehensive review about the aetiology, treatment and the prevention of dry socket, the inclusion criteria were all the studies that discuss the dry socket and its etiology, treatment and prevention and exclusion criteria were all the studies that discuss the other complications of tooth extraction, the materials and methods used for this systemic review was to search in the Pub Medline database between 2008 to 2013, using specific words "dry socket, aetiology, treatment and prevention" and published in the English language, the articles were screened by abstract for relevance to aetiology, treatment and prevention of dry socket, 82 papers were identified in pub med but a total of 36 out of Publications were included in the final systemic review according to the specific keywords and materials mentioned above. The occurrence of dry socket in an everyday oral surgery or dental practice is unavoidable. The risk factors are smoking, surgical trauma, single extractions, age, sex, medical history, systemic disorder, extraction site, amount of anaesthesia, operator experience, antibiotics use prior to surgery, difficulty of the surgery and the previous surgical site infection in addition to oral Contraceptives, menstrual cycle and immediate postextraction socket irrigation with normal saline. The traditional options of treatment are directed toward palliative care, such as the irrigation of the surgical site, avoiding curetting the extraction socket, Packing with a zinc oxide- eugenol paste on iodoform gauze can be considered to relieve acute pain episodes, there is also new agents in the market can accelerate the healing of the socket such as PRGF and GECB. The prevention methods include avoiding smoking before and after surgery and a traumatic surgery, the use of antibiotics, such as, azithromycin, can be considered, the other preventive measures such as chlorhecidine rinse or gel can be effective in the reduction of dry socket

  9. Aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea in Labrador.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G J

    1981-01-01

    To determine the aetiology of spheroidal degeneration of the cornea (Labrador keratopathy), total population surveys were conducted in 5 communities in coastal Labrador and northern Newfoundland. For 4 years records were also kept on all clinic patients aged 40 or more throughout the region. Both methods gave a peak prevalence at latitudes 55 degrees--56 degrees north. The greatest severity and earliest age of onset occurred around the same latitudes. Of the proposed environmental causative agents only ultraviolet radiation, reflected from ice and snow, explains the distribution of the disease. The high cumulative UV dosage is due to the unique geographical and climatic features of the region. Images PMID:7236572

  10. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  11. [The psychosomatics of chronic back pain. Classification, aetiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Henningsen, P

    2004-05-01

    An overview is given on the current classification, description and treatment of chronic pain with causally relevant psychological factors. It is based on the "practice guidelines on somatoform disorders" and on a thematically related meta-analysis. The classificatory problems, especially of the demarcation of somatoform and other chronic pain, are presented. Additional descriptive dimensions of the relevant psychosocial factors are: pain description, other organically unexplained pain- and non-pain-symptoms, anxiety and depression, disease conviction and illness behaviour, personality and childhood abuse. A modified psychotherapy for (somatoform) chronic pain is outlined. Finally, this aetiologically oriented psychosomatic-psychiatric approach is compared to psychological coping models for chronic pain. PMID:15138684

  12. Fever in the tropics: aetiology and case-fatality - a prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe aetiology and case fatality of fever among inpatients in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods This was an observational, prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Between July 2nd 2007 and August 2nd in 2007, adult patients admitted to the hospital with temperature ≥ 38.0°C were included consecutively and followed during the hospitalisation period. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analysed for each patient. Associations were sought between death and various clinical and demographic variables. Results One hundred patients were included, 61 male and 39 female. Mean age was 37.5 (range: 16 to 84) years. Mean fever duration was 5.4 (range: 0.1 to 42.9) weeks. The following infectious aetiologies were recorded: tuberculosis (19%), lower respiratory infection (11%) including three with sepsis, urinary tract infection (10%) including three with E. coli sepsis, Plasmodium falciparum malaria (5%) including three patients with mixed P. vivax infection, scrub typhus (5%), typhoid fever (4%), cryptococcal meningitis (4%) including three HIV positive patients, endocarditis (3%) including two patients with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, spleen abscess (2%), amoebic liver abscess (2%), sepsis undefined focus (1%), HIV infection (1%), hepatitis B (1%), rubella (1%), peritonitis (1%) and cholecystitis (1%). Non-infectious causes of fever were diagnosed in 15%, including systemic lupus erythematosus in four and malignancy in six patients. Cause of fever remained unknown in 13%. Case fatality during hospitalisation was 7% (7/100). Six of those who died were male. Five fatalities had bacterial sepsis, one spleen abscess and malignancy, and one had lymphomalignant disorder. Diabetes and increasing age were significant risk factors for fatal outcome in unadjusted analyses, but only increasing age was a risk factor for death in adjusted analysis

  13. Aetiology and Pathogenesis of Trigeminal Neuralgia: a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabalys, Gintautas; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of present paper was to discuss issues related to trigeminal neuralgia with strong emphasis on the aetiology and pathogenesis of this problem. Material and Methods An electronic search of 5 databases (1965 - Oct 2012) and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed. In addition, experience acquired from treating 3263 patients in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, were also summarized. Results Generally, aetiological factors can be classified into 3 most popular theories that were based on: 1) Related to other disease, 2) Direct injury to the trigeminal nerve, and 3) Propagates the polyetiologic origin of the disease. In addition, two pathogenesis mechanisms of trigeminal neuralgia were proposed. First: the peripheral pathogenetic mechanism that is often induced by progressive dystrophy around the peripheral branches of the trigeminal nerve. Second, central pathogenetic mechanism which often triggered by peripheral pathogen that causes long-lasting afferent impulsation and the formation of a stable pathologic paroxysmal type irritation focus on the central nerve system (CNS). Conclusions Patients with susceptive trigeminal neuralgia should be examined carefully by specialists who have expertise in assessing and diagnosing of possible pathological processes and be able to eliminate the contributing factors so the trigeminal neuralgia can be properly managed. PMID:24422020

  14. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Causal Inference Regarding Infectious Aetiology of Chronic Conditions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Orrskog, Sofia; Medin, Emma; Tsolova, Svetla; Semenza, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The global burden of disease has shifted from communicable diseases in children to chronic diseases in adults. This epidemiologic shift varies greatly by region, but in Europe, chronic conditions account for 86% of all deaths, 77% of the disease burden, and up to 80% of health care expenditures. A number of risk factors have been implicated in chronic diseases, such as exposure to infectious agents. A number of associations have been well established while others remain uncertain. Methods and Findings We assessed the body of evidence regarding the infectious aetiology of chronic diseases in the peer-reviewed literature over the last decade. Causality was assessed with three different criteria: First, the total number of associations documented in the literature between each infectious agent and chronic condition; second, the epidemiologic study design (quality of the study); third, evidence for the number of Hill's criteria and Koch's postulates that linked the pathogen with the chronic condition. We identified 3136 publications, of which 148 were included in the analysis. There were a total of 75 different infectious agents and 122 chronic conditions. The evidence was strong for five pathogens, based on study type, strength and number of associations; they accounted for 60% of the associations documented in the literature. They were human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus, and Chlamydia pneumoniae and were collectively implicated in the aetiology of 37 different chronic conditions. Other pathogens examined were only associated with very few chronic conditions (≤3) and when applying the three different criteria of evidence the strength of the causality was weak. Conclusions Prevention and treatment of these five pathogens lend themselves as effective public health intervention entry points. By concentrating research efforts on these promising areas, the human, economic, and societal burden arising from

  16. Mapping ongoing European research activities examining the infectious aetiology of chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Semenza, J C; Svederud, I; Medin, E; Orrskog, S; Tsolova, S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic conditions contribute to the majority of the mortality and morbidity burden in Europe. The extent to which infectious agents are responsible for the chronic disease burden remains elusive. The complex nature of the natural history of chronic conditions calls for an overview of ongoing research activities linking infectious agents with these conditions in order to guide research endeavours, direct research funding, steer prevention efforts, and point health policy towards promising interventions. A selection of websites hosted by institutions either financing or conducting research within the European Union was screened for ongoing research activities examining infectious aetiology of chronic conditions. The searches were conducted until September 2011, applying search strategies and inclusion criteria predefined in a study protocol. In total, 25 research activities met the inclusion criteria. Of those, ten activities were focused to investigate infectious aetiology of cancer, four focused on type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 11 focused on a wide spectrum of other chronic conditions. The identified research projects did not cover areas such as mental and behavioural disorders. Infectious agents analysed included enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, human rhinoviruses, P. gingivalis, human papillomaviruses, cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter spp. and human parvovirus. Only three projects specifically addressed therapeutic interventions. Ultimately, linking infectious agents with chronic conditions may translate into prevention efforts with vaccinations or treatment strategies with antimicrobial agents, and could, thus, eventually reduce the heavy disease burden from chronic conditions. However, little translational research on therapeutic interventions was found in our search and should be fostered, particularly for more established infectious-chronic disease associations. PMID:23046318

  17. Known and unknown unknowns: uncertainty estimation in satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, A. C.; Grainger, R. G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses a best-practice representation of uncertainty in satellite remote sensing data. An estimate of uncertainty is necessary to make appropriate use of the information conveyed by a measurement. Traditional error propagation quantifies the uncertainty in a measurement due to well-understood perturbations in a measurement and in auxiliary data - known, quantified "unknowns". The under-constrained nature of most satellite remote sensing observations requires the use of various approximations and assumptions that produce non-linear systematic errors that are not readily assessed - known, unquantifiable "unknowns". Additional errors result from the inability to resolve all scales of variation in the measured quantity - unknown "unknowns". The latter two categories of error are dominant in under-constrained remote sensing retrievals, and the difficulty of their quantification limits the utility of existing uncertainty estimates, degrading confidence in such data. This paper proposes the use of ensemble techniques to present multiple self-consistent realisations of a data set as a means of depicting unquantified uncertainties. These are generated using various systems (different algorithms or forward models) believed to be appropriate to the conditions observed. Benefiting from the experience of the climate modelling community, an ensemble provides a user with a more complete representation of the uncertainty as understood by the data producer and greater freedom to consider different realisations of the data.

  18. Incidence of primary liver cancer and aetiological aspects: a study of a defined population from a low-endemicity area.

    PubMed Central

    Kaczynski, J.; Hansson, G.; Wallerstedt, S.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of primary liver cancer (PLC) varies throughout the world. It has been attributed to variations in incidence of the predominant histological type, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The incidence of PLC types other than HCC such as cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) is far less known, especially in low-incidence areas. The aetiology of HCC and other PLC types is obscure, with the exception of the association between HCC and cirrhosis as well as chronic viral hepatitis. The present retrospective incidence and aetiology study concerns a well-defined population from a period with a high autopsy frequency. Preserved biopsy specimens were re-evaluated histopathologically and patient records were studied. Among 590 histologically verified cases of PLC, HCC constituted 90%, CCC 8% and a mixed form of these types 1%. At the end of the study period the annual age-standardised incidence rate of HCC was 3.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Other PLC types were hepatoblastoma (n = 3), fibrolamellar carcinoma (n = 2), angiosarcoma (n = 1) and infantile haemangioendothelioma (n = 1), each constituting less than 1% of the PLC cases. Comparing HCC with CCC we found that cirrhosis (70%) and alcoholism (21%) was significantly more frequent in HCC, and cholelithiasis was significantly more common (60%) in patients with CCC. In the majority of the PLC cases with liver cirrhosis this disorder was unknown before diagnosis of the tumour. PMID:8554975

  19. Comparative pathology in bivalves: Aetiological agents and disease processes.

    PubMed

    Carella, F; Feist, S W; Bignell, J P; De Vico, G

    2015-10-01

    Comparative pathology as a scientific discipline studies animal diseases in relation to their aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis. Among the main aspects of this discipline, regressive changes, host defense responses with pathological implications and progressive changes, represent the majority of the possible responses of cells and tissues to pathogens and exposure to chemicals. One of the most persistent issues in the field of invertebrate pathology is the variability in terminology and definition, which has led to confusion in scientific communication. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the pathological basis of bivalve disease (defensive, regressive and progressive phenomena) and contribute to the standardised terminology for bivalve molluscan disease in the context of comparative pathology. PMID:26215472

  20. Prevalence, aetiology, and care of severe and profound hearing loss.

    PubMed Central

    Baille, M F; Arnaud, C; Cans, C; Grandjean, H; du Mazaubrun, C; Rumeau-Rouquette, C

    1996-01-01

    Severe and profound hearing loss (> 70 dB) were analysed in a retrospective study of 226 children, born between 1976 and 1985, and recruited from three French administrative departments. The prevalence was 0.54 per 1000 children under 9 years old, with no decrease over the study period. A hereditary origin was identified in 20.8% of cases and an infectious origin in 11.5%. Perinatal risk factors were present in 11.5%, while the aetiology was undetermined in more than half the cases. In 85.8% of the children there was no other severe impairment. Marked learning difficulties were observed: 36% of the children were two years behind their age group and 28% were more than two years behind. The age of initial care decreased over the study period but is still too advanced. Systematic neonatal screening would enable earlier care, which should limit the social and educational impact of hearing loss. PMID:8869193

  1. Russell W Brain and the aetiology of multiple sclerosis--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pakpoor, J; Ramagopalan, S V

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of British neurologist Russell Walter Brain (1895-1966) to the field of neurology is difficult to overestimate and his seminal work continues to influence modern neurological education and practice. In a landmark review published in the Quarterly Review of Medicine in 1930, he gives a critically important account summarising ideas of the time thought to underlie the then called 'disseminated sclerosis', a disease he notes to be, 'after syphilis, the most frequent disease of the nervous system' in the UK. Across a century and a half, vast progress has been made in attempting to elucidate the as yet unknown cause of MS, which is unravelling to be multifactorial, highly complex and likely dependent on both genetic and environmental risk factors. Brain's observations highlight the changing epidemiology of MS over the last century which are likely to provide the platform in striving towards elucidating MS causation, notably a seemingly reduced latitudinal gradient of MS incidence, an increasing female-to-male sex ratio and an increasing disease rate in dark-skinned compared to light-skinned individuals. In this report we aim to evaluate the relevance today of what we believe to have been an important review demonstrating a perspective on MS far ahead that of its time, with a focus on Brain's ideas on the aetiology of MS; many of which have stood the test of time. PMID:24440927

  2. Aetiology of uveitis in Sierra Leone, west Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Ronday, M J; Stilma, J S; Barbe, R F; McElroy, W J; Luyendijk, L; Kolk, A H; Bakker, M; Kijlstra, A; Rothova, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1992, non-onchocercal uveitis caused 9% of blindness, 8% of visual impairment, and 11% of uniocular blindness among patients visiting an eye hospital in Sierra Leone, west Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the aetiology of uveitis in this population. METHODS: General and ophthalmic examination complemented by serum and aqueous humour analyses for various infectious agents was performed for 93 uveitis patients and compared with serum (n = 100) and aqueous humour (n = 9) analysis of endemic controls. RESULTS: At the initial examination, 45 patients (48%) proved to be severely visually handicapped. After clinical and laboratory analyses, an aetiological diagnosis was established for 49 patients (52%). Toxoplasma gondii was the most important cause of uveitis (40/93; 43%). Anti-toxoplasma IgM antibodies were detected in serum samples of seven of 93 patients (8%) compared with one of 100 controls (1%, p < 0.05). At least six patients (15%) with ocular toxoplasmosis had acquired the disease postnatally. Antibodies against Treponema pallidum were detected in 18 of 92 patients (20%) and in 21 controls (21%). Other causes of uveitis were varicella zoster virus (one patient), herpes simplex virus (two patients), and HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis with ankylosing spondylitis (one patient), while one patient had presumed HTLV-I uveitis. CONCLUSIONS: In a hospital population in Sierra Leone, west Africa, uveitis was associated with severe visual handicap and infectious diseases. Toxoplasmosis proved to be the most important cause of the uveitis. Although the distribution of congenital versus acquired toxoplasmosis in this population could not be determined, the results indicate an important role of postnatally acquired disease. The results further suggested minor roles for HIV, tuberculosis, toxocariasis, and sarcoidosis as causes of uveitis in this population. PMID:8976721

  3. Mild Intellectual Disability in Children in Lahore, Pakistan: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaqoob, M.; Bashir, A.; Zaman, S.; Ferngren, H.; von Dobeln, U.; Gustavson, K.-H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main objectives of studying intellectual disability (ID) in children is to explore its causes. A specific aetiological diagnosis is important in determining the prognosis, nature and extent of services needed to support affected children. Aetiology and risk factors in mild ID were studied in a cohort of longitudinally followed children…

  4. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Massive ascites of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Massive ascites of unknown origin is an uncommon condition, which represent a diagnostic challenge. Patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment may have a poor prognosis. A 22-year-old female was referred to this hospital due to a 4-year progressive abdominal distension with massive ascites of unknown origin. By thorough investigations, she was eventually diagnosed as chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. She received pericardiectomy and had an uneventful postoperative course. With a few day paracentesis, ascites did not progress any more. She was doing well at 5-month follow-up and has returned to work. Extracardiac manifestations, such as massive ascites and liver cirrhosis, were rare in patients with constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy can be a radical solution for the treatment of chronic constrictive pericarditis. In order to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment, physicians have to bear in mind this rare manifestation of chronic calcified constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24600502

  6. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  7. Aetiology of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in hospitalised adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Andreas; Stark, Klaus; Kunkel, Jan; Schreier, Eckart; Ignatius, Ralf; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Werber, Dirk; Göbel, Ulf B; Zeitz, Martin; Schneider, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. Our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult hospitalized patients to support the clinical management of these patients. Methods From August 2005 to August 2007, we conducted a prospective cohort study among patients ≥18 y hospitalized with community-acquired gastroenteritis in a university hospital in Berlin, Germany. Stool specimens were examined for 26 gastrointestinal pathogens, supplemented by serologic tests for antibodies to Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., and Entamoeba histolytica. Patient data on demographics and clinical presentation were recorded and analyzed. Coexisting medical conditions were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results Of 132 patients presenting with acute community-acquired gastroenteritis, 104 were included in the study. A non-infectious aetiology was diagnosed in 8 patients (8%). In 79 (82%) of the remaining 96 patients at least one microorganism was identified. Campylobacter spp. (35%) was detected most frequently, followed by norovirus (23%), Salmonella spp. (20%), and rotavirus (15%). In 46% of the patients with Campylobacter spp. infection, the diagnosis was made solely by serology. More than one pathogen was found in seventeen (22%) patients. Simultaneous infection was significantly more likely in patients with rotavirus and salmonella infections (RR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8–7.4; RR 2.5; 95%CI: 1.2–5.5). Length of hospital stay (median: 5.5 days) was independent of the pathogen, but was associated with coexisting medical conditions (OR 4,8; 95%CI:2,0–11,6). Conclusion Known enteric pathogens were detected in 82% of adult patients who were hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. We found that currently used culture-based methods may miss a substantial proportion of Campylobacter infections, and additional serological testing for

  8. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) related injuries have been recognized among health care professionals. However, few studies have provided detailed information on injuries to the head, neck and face regions in Chinese women. As abused Chinese women are generally unwilling to disclose IPV and there are differences in socio-demographic characteristics, societal norms and behaviours, the women may exhibit different patterns, aetiology and risk factors of IPV-related HNF injuries. This study aims to examine the patterns of head, neck and face injuries presenting to Accident and Emergency departments, including the anatomical regions, types, severity, aetiology and demographic and non-demographic risk factors of injuries inflicted by intimate partners in Chinese context. Methods Medical charts of 223 women presented to the Accident and Emergency departments of two regional hospitals in Hong Kong between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Results Head, neck and face injuries remained the most common injuries found in abused Chinese women (77.6%), and punching with a fist was the most common aetiology (60.2%). In particular, punching with a fist was significantly associated on the upper third of the maxillofacial region (p = .01) and the back part of the head (p = .03). Moreover, cohabiting and separated women were more likely to have multiple injuries than those who were married (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4, 7.8; OR = 2.1, 95% CI = .4, 11.9). Conclusions The findings enhance the understanding of head, neck and face injuries and inform clinicians about the linkage among injuries and risks in abused Chinese women. PMID:24410868

  9. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome - Aetiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition that typically involves substantial pain, movement restriction, and considerable morbidity. Although function improves overtime, full and pain free range, may not be restored in everyone. Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis, however the evidence for capsular adhesions is refuted and arguably, this term should be abandoned. The aim of this Masterclass is to synthesise evidence to provide a framework for assessment and management for Frozen Shoulder. Although used in the treatment of this condition, manipulation under anaesthetic has been associated with joint damage and may be no more effective than physiotherapy. Capsular release is another surgical procedure that is supported by expert opinion and published case series, but currently high quality research is not available. Recommendations that supervised neglect is preferable to physiotherapy have been based on a quasi-experimental study associated with a high risk of bias. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom have developed dedicated care pathways that provide; assessment, referral for imaging, education, health screening, ultrasound guided corticosteroid and hydro-distension injections, embedded within physiotherapy rehabilitation. The entire pathway is provided by physiotherapists and evidence exists to support each stage of the pathway. Substantial on-going research is required to better understand; epidemiology, patho-aetiology, assessment, best management, health economics, patient satisfaction and if possible prevention. PMID:25107826

  10. Moisture-associated skin damage: aetiology, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, David

    The concept of excessive moisture causing damage to the skin is not a new one, and provides a rationale for many fundamental nursing interventions. Although traditionally thought of as a specific problem of continence care, it is a common problem encountered in many different patient groups. As a consequence the umbrella term moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) has been introduced to describe the spectrum of damage that occurs in response to the prolonged exposure of a patient's skin to perspiration, urine, faeces or wound exudate. It is generally accepted that MASD consists of four main separate conditions, each having slightly different aetiologies, all of which will be explored in this paper. Careful assessment can help distinguish between the four and enable appropriate prevention and treatment interventions to be implemented. Whatever causes the excessive moisture, effective interventions should consist of the adoption of a structured skin care regime to cleanse and protect, methods to keep the skin dry, controlling the source of the excessive moisture and treating any secondary infection. PMID:22585263

  11. Aetiology, classification and pathogenesis of pulp and periapical disease.

    PubMed

    López-Marcos, Joaquín F

    2004-01-01

    At present, the majority of the treatments that are performed in the clinic are due to disease entities involving the dental pulp and periapex. Dental pulp is a richly vascularized and innervated tissue, enclosed by surrounding tissues that are incapable of expanding, such as dentin. It has terminal blood flow and small-gauge circulatory access the periapex. All of these characteristics severely constrain the defensive capacity of the pulp tissue when faced with the different aggressions it may be subjected to. Pulp tissue can also be affected by a retrograde infection, arising from the secondary canaliculi, from the periodontal ligament or from the apex during the course of periodontitis. Due to the fact that periapical disease is almost inevitably preceded by pulp disease, we shall begin by describing the causes of pulp disease and will then proceed to a discussion of the causes of periapical disease. The course of illness and classification of these pathological entities will depend on the aetiology involved. We will analyse pulp necrosis and pulp degeneration that are capable of triggering reversible apical periodontitis or irreversible apical periodontitis. PMID:15580137

  12. Aetiology of obstructive azoospermia in Chinese infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Liu, S; Zhou, X-G; Tian, L; Zhang, X-D

    2016-09-01

    To explore the aetiology of obstructive azoospermia (OA) in Chinese infertility patients, 133 OA patients was included in this study diagnosed and evaluated by one major specialist trained urological infertility. We retrospected the medical records to collect relative information. All of the patients had been underwent physical examination, ultrasound scan to the urogenital system, serum hormone tests, genetic tests and two separate semen analyses. The mean age of all 133 patients was 32.7 ± 6.8 years. A total of 266 reproductive tract units (two/patient) were classified into four categories: no causes (Idiopathic) for 74 units (27.8%), single cause for 173 units (65.0%), double causes for 17 units (6.4%) and triple causes for two units (0.8%). As to single cause of OA, there were four types: trauma for 0 unit (0%), infection for 125 units (47.0%), dysplasia for 11 units (4.1%) and surgeries for 37 units (13.9%). As to total cause of OA, there were five types: infection for 144 units (54.1%), orchitis for 51 units (19.2%), epididymitis for 54 units (20.3%), gonorrhoea for 28 units (10.5%) and inguinal hernia repair surgery for 18 units (6.8%). The most frequent cause of obstructive azoospermia was infection revealed in these Chinese infertility populations, followed by idiopathic reason. PMID:26688510

  13. Salivary hypofunction: an update on aetiology, diagnosis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Saliva is of paramount importance for the maintenance of oral and general homeostasis. Salivary hypofunction predispose patients to disorders such as dysgeusia, pain and burning mouth, caries and other oral infectious diseases, dysphagia and dysphonia. The aim of this study was to provide an update on the aetiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic strategies for the management of hyposalivation and xerostomia. The present paper describes subjective and objective methods for the diagnosis of salivary dysfunctions; moreover a number of drugs, and systemic disorders associated with decreased salivary flow rate are listed. We also focused on the underlying mechanisms to radiotherapy-induced salivary damage. Therapeutics for hyposalivation and xerostomia were discussed and classified as preventive, symptomatic, topical and systemic stimulants, disease-modifying agents, and regenerative. New therapeutic modalities have been studied and involve stem cells transplantation, with special attention to regeneration of damage caused by ionizing radiation to the salivary glands. More studies in this area are needed to provide new perspectives in the treatment of patients with salivary dysfunctions. PMID:25463902

  14. At the borders of medical reasoning: aetiological and ontological challenges of medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) remain recalcitrant to the medical profession, proving less suitable for homogenic treatment with respect to their aetiology, taxonomy and diagnosis. While the majority of existing medical research methods are designed for large scale population data and sufficiently homogenous groups, MUS are characterised by their heterogenic and complex nature. As a result, MUS seem to resist medical scrutiny in a way that other conditions do not. This paper approaches the problem of MUS from a philosophical point of view. The aim is to first consider the epistemological problem of MUS in a wider ontological and phenomenological context, particularly in relation to causation. Second, the paper links current medical practice to certain ontological assumptions. Finally, the outlines of an alternative ontology of causation are offered which place characteristic features of MUS, such as genuine complexity, context-sensitivity, holism and medical uniqueness at the centre of any causal set-up, and not only for MUS. This alternative ontology provides a framework in which to better understand complex medical conditions in relation to both their nature and their associated research activity. PMID:24006875

  15. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    PubMed

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-01

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge. PMID:23694921

  16. Metastases of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Thomas, L C

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that effective therapy does not currently exist for the majority of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary site, the last decade has witnessed significant advances in the approach to this heterogeneous disease. The use of modern pathologic techniques that frequently provide better diagnostic precision and the recognition of specific subgroups with a favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment has improved the outcome for some patients. Currently the diagnostic strategy should emphasize the rapid identification of patients likely to benefit from available therapy, whereas clinical research should focus on the development of more effective treatments for those patients with unresponsive tumors. In the future, continued improvements in the molecular characterization of these tumors will likely enhance understanding of the metastatic process, allow for more specific definitions of cell lineage, and provide insights for better therapy. PMID:8569295

  17. Hepatitis of viral origin in Leporidae: introduction and aetiological hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E

    1991-06-01

    In less than ten years, two very serious viral hepatic diseases have spread through Leporidae populations (rabbits and hares) in numerous countries. In May 1989, the Office International des Epizooties designated this new disease of rabbits "viral haemorrhagic disease" and entered it as a List B disease in the International Animal Health Code. Clinically, the disease is very similar to the European brown hare syndrome. However, numerous uncertainties prevail today on the true nature of the viruses of the two species. Although they are related, the viruses appear to be different and cross infection between species has given contradictory results. Hepatitis of Leporidae have probably existed in Europe for several years, although their viral aetiology has been demonstrated only recently. The acute form has occurred in hares in Northern Europe since approximately 1980, while the inapparent (or ignored) form has been present in rabbits in Czechoslovakia since 1975. These diseases of Leporidae are true viral hepatitis which, in their fulminating forms, bear a remarkable resemblance to human viral hepatitis (B and non-A non-B) with regard to clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and mode of transmission. The dominant faecal-oral transmission observed for types A and E hepatitis would explain the particular susceptibility of family-kept rabbits, as they are fed potentially contaminated fodder. As the clinically similar fulminating hepatitis in human beings is caused by a diversity of viruses (both RNA and DNA), the disease in Leporidae might also be caused by different viruses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1760579

  18. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Korppi, M; Kiekara, O; Heiskanen-Kosma, T; Soimakallio, S

    1993-04-01

    Sixty-one children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar (n = 27) or interstitial (n = 34) pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral (n = 20), mixed viral-bacterial (n = 21) or bacterial (n = 20) infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7 (26%), mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 (30%) and bacterial infection alone in 12 (44%) of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13 (38%), 13 (38%) and 8 (24%) for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l (a screening limit for viral and bacterial infections) in 15 (56%) of the patients with alveolar and in 11 (32%) of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. Our results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. We conclude that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. PMID:8318803

  19. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  20. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  1. Shoe-makers' polyneuropathy in Italy: the aetiological problem.

    PubMed Central

    Abbritti, G; Siracusa, A; Cianchetti, C; Coli, A; Curradi, F; Perticoni, G F; De Rosa, F

    1976-01-01

    Since 1957, when the first cases of the so-called shoe-makers' toxic polyneuropathy were reported, nearly 400 cases have been described in the Italian literature. The substance that was considered to be responsible for the disease was triorthocresylphosphate (TOCP) contained in glues, artificial leathers, and some types of paints. However numerous chemical analyses of glues and leathers taken from factories where cases of the disease occurred have shown that in almost all instances little or no TOCP was present. In addition the disease manifests itself more frequently during winter and spring and this is not consistent with the absorption of the causative agent through the skin and/or gastrointestinal tract. In order to clarify the aetiology of the disease 122 workers in the shoe industry affected by toxic polymeuropathy during the period 1971-74 were studied. Workplaces where cases of polyneuropathy had occurred were visited and samples of glues and solvents were taken for chemical analysis. The polyneuropathy chiefly affects workers engaged in glueing and in the cleaning process, but it also affects those who do not have direct contact with glues or solvents. The disease is more common in women (68%) than in men (32%) and, in its more severe form begins with overwhelming prevalence during winter and early spring regardless of the job performed. No direct relationship has been found between the severity of the disease and the number of years of work in the shoe industry or of specific exposure (that is the number of years of work in the activity performed at the onset of the disease). The polyneuropathy is found almost exclusively among workers of the artisam type in small shoe factories, where standards of hygiene are low. Chemical analysis of glues and cleaning fluids collected from five different factories, where 20 cases of polyneuropathy occurred, showed the presence of paraffin hydrocarbons with a low boiling point (pentane, 2-methyl-pentane, 3-methyl

  2. Role of aetiology in the progression, regression, and parenchymal remodelling of liver disease: implications for liver biopsy interpretation.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Alberto; Alves, Venancio A; Balabaud, Charles; Bhathal, Prithi S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Crawford, James M; Dhillon, Amar P; Ferrell, Linda; Guido, Maria; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Paradis, Valerie; Snover, Dale C; Theise, Neil D; Thung, Swan N; Tsui, Wilson M S; van Leeuwen, Dirk J

    2016-06-01

    Clinicopathological concepts on acute and chronic liver disease have evolved rapidly during the last few years, with advances in general and specific treatment options and improved patient outcomes. The old paradigm of 'irreversibility' of cirrhosis had been challenged in major ways, and the validity of the usage of the term 'cirrhosis' has come into question. This paper addresses aetiology-based clinicopathological concepts and features that may deserve attention because they may determine disease outcome and, specifically, patterns of regression and remodelling. A variety of therapeutic interventions may influence remaining disease features after elimination of damaging agents (virus, alcohol, etc.), and determine the final clinical outcome including the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). New concepts create new responsibilities and opportunities for the pathologist to contribute to the understanding of liver pathology and communicate this with clinical colleagues and researchers. PMID:26918878

  3. Computer Aided Grading of Quantitative Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, D. E.; Lytle, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of fair grading of unknowns is discussed. An approach is presented to answer some of the important questions concerning faulty procedures, level of accuracy and precision, recognition of bad unknowns,'' and dry labing. (DF)

  4. Aetiology of biliary atresia: what is actually known?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease of unknown etiology and unpredictable outcome, even when there has been timely diagnosis and exemplary surgery. It has been the commonest indication for liver transplantation during childhood for the past 20 years. Hence much clinical and basic research has been directed at elucidating the origin and pathology of BA. This review summarizes the current clinical variations of BA in humans, its occasional appearance in animals and its various manifestations in the laboratory as an experimental model. PMID:23987231

  5. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys, 1994-2014.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kathryn P; Berry, Brett; Park, Andrew; Kemp, Dustin W; Kemp, Keri M; Lipp, Erin K; Porter, James W

    2016-03-01

    We propose 'the moving target hypothesis' to describe the aetiology of a contemporary coral disease that differs from that of its historical disease state. Hitting the target with coral disease aetiology is a complex pursuit that requires understanding of host and environment, and may lack a single pathogen solution. White pox disease (WPX) affects the Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Acroporid serratiosis is a form of WPX for which the bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) has been established. We used long-term (1994-2014) photographic monitoring to evaluate historical and contemporary epizootiology and aetiology of WPX affecting A. palmata at eight reefs in the Florida Keys. Ranges of WPX prevalence over time (0-71.4%) were comparable for the duration of the 20-year study. Whole colony mortality and disease severity were high in historical (1994-2004), and low in contemporary (2008-2014), outbreaks of WPX. Acroporid serratiosis was diagnosed for some historical (1999, 2003) and contemporary (2012, 2013) outbreaks, but this form of WPX was not confirmed for all WPX cases. Our results serve as a context for considering aetiology as a moving target for WPX and other coral diseases for which pathogens are established and/or candidate pathogens are identified. Coral aetiology investigations completed to date suggest that changes in pathogen, host and/or environment alter the disease state and complicate diagnosis. PMID:26880837

  6. On the question of infectious aetiologies for multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and the chronic fatigue syndrome and their treatment with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, B O

    2009-06-01

    Close similarities in the courses of multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia laid the theoretical ground for attempting to find a common infectious aetiology for the two diseases. Chlamydia pneumoniae, which belongs to the rickettsial family of microorganisms has been linked to both diseases. It is postulated that since rickettsial microorganisms are ubiquitous in human populations they and the human species normally live in peaceful coexistence. In rare cases, for unknown reasons, varieties of them may become aggressive and pathogenic. The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia has attracted much attention. It also seems to have initiated a paradigmatic shift from the hitherto prevailing serological research approach to one which focuses on immunological factors. An open clinical pilot study in which, during 2006, eight female and five male patients with psychotic symptoms were treated with a combination of antibiotics is presented, to which, in the beginning of 2007 two female patients suffering from severe and long standing chronic fatigue syndrome were added. On one year follow-up, six out of the eight female patients showed stable excellent treatment results, whereas two were rated as showing significant treatment results. Four of the five men who entered the study were suffering from chronic schizophrenia, whereas the fifth, was a case of severe acute catatonic schizophrenia. Two of the male patients showed significant treatment results, whereas three of them were rated as having had a slight to moderate improvement. No less than three of the women had suffered their first episode of psychosis after giving birth to their first (and only) child. This finding, as these women all responded excellently to treatment with antibiotics, indicates that post partum psychosis could be regarded as an infectious complication of childbirth of, as to the causative agent, unknown aetiology. High priority ought therefore be given to initiate controlled clinical trials with

  7. Aetiologic diagnosis of hearing loss in children identified through newborn hearing screening testing.

    PubMed

    Forli, F; Giuntini, G; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes and early diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems, the need has clearly emerged to implement and carry out a systematic and coordinated protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", it has been decided to consider the problems relative to aetiological diagnosis of child PHI within UNHS programmes. The specific objective was to apply a shared diagnostic protocol that can identify the cause in at least 70% of cases of PHI. For this part of the project, four main recommendations were identified that can be useful for an efficient aetiological diagnosis in children affected by PHI and that can offer valid suggestions to optimise resources and produce positive changes for third-level audiologic centres. PMID:27054388

  8. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  9. The impact of different aetiologies on the cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; Bolsover, Fay; Lecce, Francesca; White, Mark; Spanò, Barbara; Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological group study methodology is considered one of the primary methods to further understanding of the organisation of frontal ‘executive’ functions. Typically, patients with frontal lesions caused by stroke or tumours have been grouped together to obtain sufficient power. However, it has been debated whether it is methodologically appropriate to group together patients with neurological lesions of different aetiologies. Despite this debate, very few studies have directly compared the performance of patients with different neurological aetiologies on neuropsychological measures. The few that did included patients with both anterior and posterior lesions. We present the first comprehensive retrospective comparison of the impact of lesions of different aetiologies on neuropsychological performance in a large number of patients whose lesion solely affects the frontal cortex. We investigated patients who had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), high (HGT) or low grade (LGT) tumour, or meningioma, all at the post-operative stage. The same frontal ‘executive’ (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, Stroop Colour-Word Test, Letter Fluency-S; Trail Making Test Part B) and nominal (Graded Naming Test) tasks were compared. Patients' performance was compared across aetiologies controlling for age and NART IQ scores. Assessments of focal frontal lesion location, lesion volume, global brain atrophy and non-specific white matter (WM) changes were undertaken and compared across the four aetiology. We found no significant difference in performance between the four aetiology subgroups on the ‘frontal’ executive and nominal tasks. However, we found strong effects of premorbid IQ on all cognitive tasks and robust effects of age only on the frontal tasks. We also compared specific aetiology subgroups directly, as previously reported in the literature. Overall we found no significant differences in the performance of CVA and tumour patients, or LGT and HGT

  10. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  11. Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum associated with pancytopenia of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Wolska, Katarzyna; Michalska-Jakubus, Małgorzata; Pucuła, Joanna; Chodorowska, Grażyna; Dzida, Grzegorz; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Prystupa, Andrzej; Podhorecka, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown origin. Clinically it starts with a pustule, nodule or bulla that rapidly progresses and turns into a painful ulcer with raised, undermined borders. The etiopathogenesis of PG remains unknown. However it is frequently associated with systemic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), haematological disorders or arthritis. The latest multicentric retrospective analysis published by Ghazal et al. shows that anaemia has been observed very often in German patients suffering from PG (in 45.6% of 259) so this disorder is supposed to be a possible cofactor in the pathogenesis of PG. According to its progressive course, patients require intensive diagnostic procedures and rapid initiation of the treatment. In this article, we report a case of bullous pyoderma gangrenosum in association with pancytopenia of unknown origin, according to its diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. PMID:25254015

  12. Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

  13. Behavioural Phenotypes and Special Educational Needs: Is Aetiology Important in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of genetic conditions with associated intellectual disability and/or special educational needs have increasingly well-defined behavioural phenotypes. Thus, the concept of "behavioural phenotype" and aetiology of intellectual disability may be important with regard to school-based interventions. Method: The evidence for…

  14. Value of rapid aetiological diagnosis in optimization of antimicrobial treatment in bacterial community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mareković, Ivana; Plecko, Vanda; Boras, Zagorka; Pavlović, Ladislav; Budimir, Ana; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Puretić, Hrvoje; Zele-Starcević, Lidija; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-06-01

    In 80 adult patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) conventional microbiological methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were performed and the appropriateness of the empirical antimicrobial treatment was evaluated according to bacterial pathogen detected. The aetiology was determined in 42 (52.5%) patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common pathogen. PCR applied to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) provided 2 and PCR on sputum samples 1 additional aetiological diagnosis of CAP The mean CRP values in the S. pneumoniae group were not significantly higher than in the group with other aetiological diagnoses (166.89 mg/L vs. 160.11 mg/L, p = 0.457). In 23.8% (10/42) of patients with determined aetiology, the empirical antimicrobial treatment was inappropriate. PCR tests need further investigation, particularly those for the atypical pathogens, as they are predominant in inappropriately treated patients. Our results do not support the use of CRP as a rapid test to guide the antimicrobial treatment in patients with CAP. PMID:22856222

  15. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  16. The incidence and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children in Norway between 1999 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Gaute Reier; Hovland, Eirik; Bangstad, Hans-Jacob; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Bjerre, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim Primary acute kidney injury (AKI) is a direct cause of hospitalisation in children, but can also result from other conditions. There is limited information on the epidemiology of this condition. Our aim was to describe the national incidence rate and aetiology of acute kidney injury in children under the age of 16 in Norway from 1999 to 2008. Methods We carried out a retrospective study of medical records provided by all 18 of the paediatric hospital departments that specialise in treating paediatric patients with AKI. Results We identified 315 cases of AKI (53% male), with an estimated average annual incidence rate of 3.3 cases per 100 000 children and a median annual occurrence of 33 cases. Most cases (43%) were in children under five. We identified 53 aetiologies and classified these into 30 aetiological groups: 24% of the cases were prerenal (n = 75), 74% were intrinsic/renal (n = 234) and 2% were postrenal (n = 5). Nephritic syndromes was the major cause (44%) of AKI, followed by haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) (15%). Conclusion Nephritic syndromes and HUS are the most common aetiologies of AKI in Norway. Although our results could indicate a low incidence of paediatric AKI in Norway, the lack of other national studies makes comparisons difficult. PMID:25039408

  17. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  18. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  19. Thermal imaging of objects with unknown emissivities

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, J.; Kurosaki, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This study presents a new thermal imaging system using conventional thermography and the principle of two-color thermometry to determine the temperatures of multiple objects having unknown emissivity data. System demonstration was successful when applied to two objects having different temperatures and unknown emissivities, since more suitable thermal images were obtained than those using a conventional thermograph.

  20. [Identification of an exhumed unknown infant through DNA analysis].

    PubMed

    Jopp, Eilin; Püschel, Klaus; Warschke, Christian; Kaufmann, Richard; Krebs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and subsequent DNA analysis of the skeletal remains of an unknown male newborn from 1988. Molecular biological methods confirmed the maternity of a woman who was already convicted of infanticide. Since homicide could not be clearly proven and manslaughter becomes barred by the statute of limitation after 20 years, the woman cannot be held accountable for the alleged killing of her first child. PMID:25004622

  1. Otosclerosis--do we have a viral aetiology?

    PubMed

    Singh, Mini Pritam; Ratho, Radha Kanta; Panda, Naresh; Mishra, Baijayantimala

    2005-12-01

    The etiology of otosclerosis remains an enigma though there are evidences suggesting a viral involvement. This study aimed to find out the relationship between viral infections and otosclerosis. Twenty two patients with otosclerosis and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. IgM antibodies to varicella zoster virus (VZV), measles, rubella, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were detected using micro ELISA. Paul Bunnel Davidsohn test was performed to rule out Ebstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Overall, 5(22.7%) patients showed antibodies to one or more viruses. IgM antibodies against measles and VZV could be demonstrated in 4(18.1%) and 1(4.5%) patients respectively. None of the samples were found to be positive for HSV, HCMV, rubella and EBV antibodies. Controls were negative for all the viruses tested. The difference in seropositivity between the patient and control group was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Thus, this study suggests that otosclerosis is not commonly associated with a systemic viral infection. PMID:16519080

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of iron deficiency anaemia of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Helena; Forné, Montserrat; Esteve, Maria; Rosinach, Mercé; Loras, Carme; Espinós, Jorge C; Viver, Josep M; Salas, Antonio; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the aetiological role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adult patients with iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) with H. pylori infection and a negative standard work-up were prospectively evaluated. All of them had either iron refractoriness or iron dependency. Response to H. pylori eradication was assessed at 6 and 12 mo from follow-up. H. pylori infection was considered to be the cause of the anaemia when a complete anaemia resolution without iron supplements was observed after eradication. RESULTS: H. pylori was eradicated in 88 of the 89 patients. In the non-eradicated patient the four eradicating regimens failed. There were violations of protocol in 4 patients, for whom it was not possible to ascertain the cause of the anaemia. Thus, 84 H. pylori eradicated patients (10 men; 74 women) were available to assess the effect of eradication on IDA. H. pylori infection was considered to be the aetiology of IDA in 32 patients (38.1%; 95%CI: 28.4%-48.8%). This was more frequent in men/postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (75% vs 23.3%; P < 0.0001) with an OR of 9.8 (95%CI: 3.3-29.6). In these patients, anaemia resolution occurred in the first follow-up visit at 6 mo, and no anaemia or iron deficiency relapse was observed after a mean follow-up of 21 ± 2 mo. CONCLUSION: Gastric H. pylori infection is a frequent cause of iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin in adult patients. PMID:23864779

  3. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  4. Chronic urticaria: aetiology, management and current and future treatment options.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Martina M A; Sabroe, Ruth A

    2004-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common condition that can be very disabling when severe. A cause for chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is only infrequently identified. Potential causes include reactions to food and drugs, infections (rarely) and, apart from an increased incidence of thyroid disease, uncomplicated urticaria is not usually associated with underlying systemic disease or malignancy. About one-third of patients with CIU have circulating functional autoantibodies against the high affinity IgE receptor or against IgE, although it is not known why such antibodies are produced, or how the presence of such antibodies alters the course of the disease or response to treatment. There are only a few publications relating to childhood urticaria, but it is probably similar to the adult form, except that adult urticaria is more common. The diagnosis is based on patient history and it is vital to spend time documenting this in detail. Extensive laboratory tests are not required in the vast majority of patients. Chronic urticaria resolves spontaneously in 30-55% of patients within 5 years, but it can persist for many years. Treatment is aimed firstly at avoiding underlying causative or exacerbating factors. Histamine H1 receptor antagonists remain the mainstay of oral treatment for all forms of urticaria. The newer low-sedating antihistamines desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine and mizolastine should be tried first. Sedating antihistamines have more adverse effects but are useful if symptoms are causing sleep disturbance. Low-dose dopexin is effective and especially suitable for patients with associated depression. There is controversy as to whether the addition of an histamine H2 receptor antagonist or a leukotriene antagonist is helpful. For CIU, second-line agents include ciclosporin (cyclosporine) [which is effective in approximately 75% of patients], short courses of oral corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis, although the last two were

  5. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW LOOKING UP POWELL STREET FROM MARKET STREET - Powell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. The contribution of twin studies to the understanding of the aetiology of asthma and atopic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Simon F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases has increased markedly during the past decades and the reasons for this are not fully understood. Asthma is still increasing in many parts of the world, notably in developing countries, and this emphasizes the importance of continuing research aimed at studying the aetiological factors of the disease and the causes of its increase in prevalence. Twin studies enable investigations into the genetic and environmental causes of individual variation in multifactorial diseases such as asthma. Thorough insight into these causes is important as this will ultimately guide the development of preventive strategies and targeted therapies. This review explores the contribution of twin studies to the understanding of the aetiology of asthma and atopic diseases. PMID:26672957

  7. Charting the landscape of priority problems in psychiatry, part 2: pathogenesis and aetiology.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Klaas E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Breakspear, Michael; Dayan, Peter; Johnstone, Eve C; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schnyder, Ulrich; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Bach, Dominik R; Fletcher, Paul C; Flint, Jonathan; Frank, Michael J; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M; Montague, P Read; Owen, Michael J; Friston, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of two companion papers proposing priority problems for research on mental disorders. Whereas the first paper focuses on questions of nosology and diagnosis, this Personal View concerns pathogenesis and aetiology of psychiatric diseases. We hope that this (non-exhaustive and subjective) list of problems, nominated by scientists and clinicians from different fields and institutions, provides guidance and perspectives for choosing future directions in psychiatric science. PMID:26573969

  8. Aetiology of a diagnosis: the key to success in treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Kristopher, Krimi

    2014-01-01

    Aetiology is the cause of a diagnosis. The essential key for the determination ofaetiology is a thorough examination: the history of the problems, the crucial elements in function, and habits. Our case report involves progression of a malocclusion and aggravation of the gum recessions which resolved following root planing and fixed orthodontic correction for the underlying cause, malocclusion, without any gum graft procedures. PMID:25109053

  9. Eosinophilia in an Acutely Limping Child: An Easy Guess of Rare Systemic Aetiology!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Harshita; Ahmed, Maaz; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Painful limping child is often considered due to septic arthritis. Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is rare in adults and children. The aetiology is often related to tuberculosis of spine. Hereby we report a case of staphylococcal IPA where incidental evaluations led to obvious diagnosis of a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome called Job syndrome or hyperimmunoglobulin E and Eosinophilia Syndrome (HIES). This was the first case of IPA in a case of immunodeficiency syndrome including HIES. PMID:27504370

  10. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  11. The role of toothpaste in the aetiology and treatment of dentine hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; West, N X

    2013-01-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a common, painful dental condition with a multi-factorial aetiology. The hydrodynamic mechanism theory to explain dentine sensitivity also appears to fit DH: lesions exhibiting large numbers of open dentinal tubules at the surface and patent to the pulp. By definition, DH can only occur when dentine becomes exposed (lesion localisation) and tubules opened (lesion initiation), thus permitting increased fluid flow in tubules on stimulation. Erosion, particularly from dietary acids appears to play a dominant role in both processes. Toothbrushing with most toothpaste products alone cause clinically insignificant wear of enamel but are additive, even synergistic, to erosive enamel loss. Additionally, toothbrushing with toothpaste is implicated in 'healthy' gingival recession. Toothbrushing with most toothpastes removes the smear layer to expose tubules and again can exacerbate erosive loss of dentine. These findings thereby implicate toothbrushing with toothpaste in the aetiology of DH. Management of the condition should have secondary prevention at the core of treatment and therefore, must consider first and foremost the aetiology. Fluoride toothpaste at present appears to provide little primary or secondary preventive benefits to DH; additional ingredients can provide therapeutic benefits. Potassium-based products to block pulpal nerve response have caused much debate and are considered by many as unproven, which should not translate to ineffective. Several toothpaste technologies formulated to block tubules are from studies in vitro, in situ and controlled clinical trials considered proven for the treatment of DH. PMID:23817061

  12. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  13. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  14. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24467355

  15. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S.; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out. PMID:26085582

  16. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions. PMID:27137070

  17. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290

  18. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  19. Burden and viral aetiology of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infection in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Napoli, Giuseppe; Mammina, Caterina; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cala', Cinzia; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the viral aetiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) among patients requiring intensive care unit admission. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out in Sicily over a 4-year period. A total of 233 respiratory samples of patients with ILI/ARTI admitted to intensive care units were molecularly analyzed for the detection of a comprehensive panel of aetiologic agents of viral respiratory infections. About 45% of patients was positive for at least one pathogen. Single aetiology occurred in 75.2% of infected patients, while polymicrobial infection was found in 24.8% of positive subjects. Influenza was the most common aetiologic agent (55.7%), especially among adults. Most of patients with multiple aetiology (76.9%) were adults and elderly. Mortality rates among patients with negative or positive aetiology did not significantly differ (52.4% and 47.6%, respectively). Highly transmissible respiratory pathogens are frequently detected among patients with ILI/ARTI admitted in intensive care units, showing the occurrence of concurrent infections by different viruses. The knowledge of the circulation of several types of microorganisms is of crucial importance in terms of appropriateness of therapies, but also for the implication in prevention strategies and hospital epidemiology. PMID:26706819

  20. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  1. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  2. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  3. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  4. Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

  5. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  6. Aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Donald; Jawad, Issrah; Ahmad, Aziez; Lukšić, Ivana; Nair, Harish; Zgaga, Lina; Theodoratou, Evropi; Rudan, Igor; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background 99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review describes and analyses the bacterial aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in developing countries. Methods A search of Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Knowledge, limited to post-1980, found 27 relevant studies. Data on aetiology were extracted, tabulated and analysed along with data on incidence, risk factors, case fatality rates and antimicrobial sensitivity. Results The most prevalent pathogens overall were Staphylococcus aureus (14.9%), Escherichia coli (12.2%), and Klebsiella species (11.6%). However, variations were observed both between global regions and age-of-onset categories. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were most prevalent in Africa, while Klebsiella was highly prevalent in South-East Asia. A notably higher prevalence of Group B Streptococcus was present in neonates aged 7 days or less. The highest case fatality rates were recorded in South-East Asia. Klebsiella species showed highest antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion Data on community-acquired neonatal sepsis in developing countries are limited. Future research should focus on areas of high disease burden with relative paucity of data. Research into maternal and neonatal vaccination strategies and improved diagnostics is also needed. All of this could contribute to the formulation of community-based care packages, the implementation of which has significant potential to lower overall neonatal mortality and hence advance progress towards the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4. PMID:23198116

  7. Lack of Evidence for a Role of Islet Autoimmunity in the Aetiology of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Grimelius, Lars; von Euler, Henrik; Sundberg, Katarina; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lobell, Anna; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lernmark, Åke; Kämpe, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. Results None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. Conclusions/Interpretations Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus. PMID:25153886

  8. Saucer-Shaped Sandstone Intrusions: Facts, Inferences and Unknowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuse, M.; Cartwright, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Saucer-shaped and conical sandstone intrusions occur in abundance within Paleogene claystones of the North Sea Basin and within Paleogene-Neogene claystones of the Faroe-Shetland and More Basins along the NW European Atlantic Margin. The dimensions of individual saucers range from 50-300m height, 0.5-2 km width, and 0.5-4 km length, with sandstone volumes up to some 0.5 cubic kilometres. Clusters of saucers may contain composite intruded volumes up to several cubic kilometres and may form significant reservoir bodies for hydrocarbon accumulations. Conical sandstone intrusions have similar dimensions, though their width, length and volumes are limited by their downward tapering geometry with a central pointy apex, lacking a horizontal segment in the centre. Whilst their occurrence, dimensions and significance within their known host basins are no longer in doubt, virtually all the parameters relating to their genesis are poorly constrained and either inferred or declared unknown in the existing literature. These include: source of the intruded sand, timing of intrusion (both duration and age), depth of emplacement, triggering mechanism(s), relation with underlying structures and/or structures within and the rheology of the host claystones, etc. It is also largely unknown whether intrusions occurred largely synchronously or during a multitude of events within their host basins. Without a rigorous analysis of which parameters are known and which are inferred or essentially unknown, any analysis of the origin of sandstone intrusions remains speculation and may be highly misleading. This paper presents examples and highlights the facts, inferences and unknowns for each of the case studies drawn from the northern North Sea and the Faroe-Shetland Basin and summarises the implications of these uncertainties for the analysis of the origin of the intrusions.

  9. Immunohistochemical Profile for Unknown Primary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Sasajima, Yuko; Ando, Masashi; Yonemori, Kan; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Furuta, Koh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of tailored treatment based on immunohistochemical profiles (IPs) of tumors for cancers of unknown primary is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an algorithm based on primary known adenocarcinoma for testing sensitivity and specificity. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 71 patients of unfavorable subsets of unknown primary adenocarcinoma were obtained. We examined 15 molecular markers using the algorithm incorporating these IPs and classified the tumours into 9 subsets based on the primary tumour site. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm were 80.3% and 97.6%, respectively. Apparent primary sites were lung in 17 patients, digestive organs in 13, gynecological organs in 9, prostate in 7, liver or kidney in 6, breast in 4, urothelial organ in 2, biliary tract and pancreatic profile in none, and unclassified in 13. The response rate to chemotherapy was highest for the gynecological IPs. Patients with gynecological or lung cancer IPs had longer median progression-free survival than those with others: 11.2 months for gynecological IPs (p<0.001) and 6.8 months for lung IPs (p = 0.05). Lung, digestive, prostate, and gynecological profiles were associated with significantly longer median survival time than the other profiles. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the IPs were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions/Significance The IPs identified in this study can be used to further stratify patient prognosis for unfavorable subsets of unknown primary adenocarcinoma. PMID:22299055

  10. Neurofunctional Signature of Hyperfamiliarity for Unknown Faces

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Elisa; D’Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Coriasco, Mario; Ferrio, Federica; Celeghin, Alessia; Diano, Matteo; Rubino, Elisa; de Gelder, Beatrice; Rainero, Innocenzo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces is a rare selective disorder that consists of the disturbing and abnormal feeling of familiarity for unknown faces, while recognition of known faces is normal. In one such patient we investigated with a multimodal neuroimaging design the hitherto undescribed neural signature associated with hyperfamiliarity feelings. Behaviorally, signal detection methods revealed that the patient’s discrimination sensitivity between familiar and unfamiliar faces was significantly lower than that of matched controls, and her response criterion for familiarity decisions was significantly more liberal. At the neural level, while morphometric analysis and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed the atrophy and hypofunctioning of the left temporal regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that hyperfamiliarity feelings were selectively associated to enhanced activity in the right medial and inferior temporal cortices. We therefore characterize the neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces as related to the loss of coordinated activity between the complementary face processing functions of the left and right temporal lobes. PMID:26154253

  11. A Study on the Epidemiology and Aetiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in Adult Patients Presenting at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tirana, Albania

    PubMed Central

    Stroni, Gentian P.; Dhimolea, Majlinda M.; Pipero, Pëllumb S.; Kraja, Dhimiter V.; Sallavaci, Suela Y.; Bino, Silva F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common cause of hospital emergency room visits in Albania. However, the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalization in adults frequently remains unclear. Aims: Our objective was to study the epidemiology and causes of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult patients presenting to hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2012, among patients ≥15 years old with community-acquired gastroenteritis presenting to the emergency room of the University Hospital “Mother Theresa” in Tirana, Albania. Stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from the patients for microbiological testing. Results: The median age of the study patients was 33 (15–88) years and 577 (58%) were females. The median age of males was 35 (15–87) years. The vast majority of cases occurred in urban area (849, 85%), p<0.01. Patients were admitted throughout the year with peak admissions for patients infected by bacterial pathogens in summer and those affected by viral pathogens in autumn. A total of 917 (91.7%) patients underwent a laboratory examination. The overall isolation rate was 51%. Bacterial pathogens were found in 29%, viral pathogens in 19% and protozoal pathogens in 2.5% of patients. No aetiological agent or other cause of acute diarrhoea was found in 449 (49%) patients. Twenty-nine (3.2%) patients were hospitalized. Conclusion: Despite extensive laboratory investigations, enteropathogens were detected in only 51% of adult patients who presented to the hospital ER with acute gastroenteritis. Viral infections ranked as the second most common cause of gastroenteritis in adults. PMID:25625016

  12. Catholic Identity Remains a Public Relations Asset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    The massive sex scandal that rocked the Roman Catholic Church raises a question as to whether Catholic identity remains an asset that the nation's 8,000 Catholic schools should continue to promote. This case study found that continuing to promote Catholic identity has had no adverse effect on recruitment and enrollment at four Omaha, Nebraska,…

  13. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  14. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  15. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  16. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  17. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

  18. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  19. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice. PMID:24387630

  20. ENDOCRINOLOGY OF PREGNANCY: Gestational diabetes mellitus: definition, aetiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Baz, Baz; Riveline, Jean-Pierre; Gautier, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset during pregnancy. This review aims to revisit the pathogenesis and aetiology of GDM in order to better understand its clinical presentation and outcomes. During normal pregnancy, insulin sensitivity declines with advancing gestation. These modifications are due to placental factors, progesterone and estrogen. In a physiological situation, a compensatory increase in insulin secretion maintains a normal glucose homeostasis. GDM occurs if pancreatic β-cells are unable to face the increased insulin demand during pregnancy. GDM is most commonly a forerunner of type 2 diabetes (T2D) - the most prevalent form of diabetes. These women share similar characteristics with predisposed subjects to T2D: insulin resistance before and after pregnancy, and carry more T2D risk alleles. Auto-immune and monogenic diabetes are more rare aetiologies of GDM. Adverse pregnancy outcomes of GDM are mainly related to macrosomia caused by fetal hyperinsulinism in response to high glucose levels coming from maternal hyperglycaemia. Screening recommendations and diagnosis criteria of GDM have been recently updated. High risk patients should be screened as early as possible using fasting plasma glucose, and if normal, at 24-28 weeks of gestation using 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The treatment of GDM is based on education with trained nurses and dieticians, and if necessary insulin therapy. PMID:26431552

  1. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  2. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  3. Political determinants of variable aetiology resonance: explaining the African AIDS epidemics.

    PubMed

    Hunsmann, M

    2009-12-01

    Notwithstanding the massive social and economic disruptions caused by HIV/AIDS in many sub-Saharan countries, the epidemic does not pose a serious political threat to African governments. Based on an analysis of today's dominant aetiologic framing of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper argues that the behaviour-centred explanatory approach contributes to the political domestication of the epidemic. The behavioural aetiology suffers from a double reductionism: It concentrates on sexual transmission only and, within sexual transmission, it focuses exclusively on the immediate cause of transmission (unprotected sex), omitting that biological co-factors increase populations' vulnerability to infection. By overlooking these non-behaviour-related determinants of sexual HIV transmission, this explanatory approach implicitly blames individual behaviours for the spread of the virus. Conversely, the likely underestimation (if not the outright denial) of iatrogenic HIV transmission exonerates governments and donor agencies. The variable political resonance of different explanatory approaches is not random and the translation of the available bio-medical and epidemiological evidence into prevention measures is politically mediated. PMID:19948897

  4. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care. PMID:24912830

  5. Discuss the role of microorganisms in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periapical disease.

    PubMed

    Aw, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    The literature indicates that microorganisms have a critical role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. The advancement in microbiological study methods has allowed for the identification of newer species associated with the disease process. At our current understanding, however, the exact roles of specific microorganisms in apical periodontitis are not fully understood but the poly-microbial aetiology of the disease appears to be supported by the literature. The endodontic microbiota is comprised of a subset of microbiota present in the oral cavity, consisting of predominantly anaerobic bacterial species, some fungal and viral species. The pathogenesis of apical periodontitis is essentially the result of a complex interplay between bacterial and host factors, giving rise to a range of presentations depending on the balance of the interaction. The role of endodontic microbiota in the initiation and persistence of apical periodontitis means that the mainstay of endodontic treatment is the elimination of such bacteria. A challenge to the resolution of apical periodontitis after treatment lies in the inadequacy of treatment protocol in completely eradicating the pathogenic species and the inherent ability of certain species to survive the treatment. This issue should be the focus of future research as we continually search for more predictable treatment methods of achieving the resolution of apical periodontitis. PMID:27506189

  6. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: An update in the genetic aetiologies of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, Frederic; Reynaud, Rachel; Saveanu, Alexandru; Jullien, Nicolas; Quentien, Marie Helene; Rochette, Claire; Barlier, Anne; Enjalbert, Alain; Brue, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, new actors involved in the pathogenesis of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans have been reported: they included a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein and ciliary G protein-coupled receptors, as well as new transcription factors and signalling molecules. New modes of inheritance for alterations of genes encoding transcription factors have also been described. Finally, actors known to be involved in a very specific phenotype (hypogonadotroph hypogonadism for instance) have been identified in a wider range of phenotypes. These data thus suggest that new mechanisms could explain the low rate of aetiological identification in this heterogeneous group of diseases. Taking into account the fact that several reviews have been published in recent years on classical aetiologies of CPHD such as mutations of POU1F1 or PROP1, we focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge. PMID:26733480

  7. Dental Erosion and Medical Conditions An Overview of Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Paryag, A; Rafeek, R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth wear or tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process and occurs throughout life but is considered pathological when the degree of destruction is excessive or the rate of loss is rapid, causing functional, aesthetic or sensitivity problems. The importance of tooth wear as a dental problem has been increasingly recognized. The findings of a study in Trinidad indicate that the prevalence of tooth wear in a Trinidadian population is comparable to the United Kingdom (UK) and, indeed, that the level of moderate and severe wear is nearly twice as high. The aetiology of tooth wear is attributed to four causes: erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is generally considered to be the most prevalent cause of tooth wear in the UK and Europe. Acids that cause dental erosion originate mainly from the diet or the stomach and, to a lesser extent, the environment. Underlying medical problems can contribute to influence the progress of tooth wear due to erosion and the patient may not be aware of these conditions. Moderate to severe tooth wear poses a significant clinical challenge to dental practitioners and may result in treatment that is more complex and costly to the patient, both in terms of finances and time spent in the dental chair. This paper provides an overview of aetiology and diagnosis of tooth wear, in particular tooth wear due to erosion, so that medical and dental practitioners may recognize tooth wear early, institute preventive measures and manage patients appropriately. PMID:25781289

  8. Genetic Evidence Implicates the Immune System and Cholesterol Metabolism in the Aetiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamshere, Marian L.; Harold, Denise; Moskvina, Valentina; Ivanov, Dobril; Pocklington, Andrew; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Pahwa, Jaspreet Singh; Jones, Nicola; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad R.; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K.; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle S.; Passmore, Peter A.; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Peters, Oliver; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison M.; Kauwe, John S. K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panos; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Rüther, Eckhard; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Hardy, John; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes. Methodology We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD GWAS dataset. The principal findings were then tested in an independent GWAS dataset. Principal Findings We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune response in both of the two largest genome-wide association studies for LOAD. Significance Processes related to cholesterol metabolism and the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. Our independent evidence from two large studies now demonstrates that these processes are aetiologically relevant, and suggests that they may be suitable targets for novel and existing therapeutic approaches. PMID:21085570

  9. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take. PMID:3540171

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  11. Remains of Comet-Shoemaker/Levy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration of the Comet-Shoemaker/Levy collision shows the first piece of the remains of the comet crashing into Jupiter. This event occurred in 1994 after tidal forces from Jupiter caused the comet to break up into 21 separate pieces. Although on a very different scale, the physical mechanism for the breakup of Shoemaker/Levy also caused the tidal disruption of the star in RX J1242-11. (Illustration: SEDS/D. Seal (edited by CXC/M. Weiss)

  12. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  13. Epidemiology, aetiology and management of childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia in developing countries--a review.

    PubMed

    Falade, A G; Ayede, A I

    2011-12-01

    Childhood acute community-acquired pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In children who have not received prior antibiotic therapy, the main bacterial causes of clinical pneumonia in developing countries are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the main viral cause is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but estimates of their relative importance vary in different settings. The only vaccines for the prevention of bacterial pneumonia (excluding vaccines for pertussis and measles) are Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). In children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, bacterial infection remains a major cause of pneumonia mortality; however, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are important causes of pneumonia in them. Studies of bacterial aetiology of acute pneumonia in severely malnourished children have implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and H. influenzae, with very few data on the role of respiratory viruses and tuberculosis. Studies of neonatal sepsis suggest that Gram-negative enteric organisms, particularly Klebsiella spp., and Gram-positive organisms, mainly pneumococcus, group b Streptococcus and S. aureus are causes of neonatal pneumonia. Many of the developing countries that ranked high in pneumonia mortality are preparing to introduce new pneumonia vaccines with support from Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunization (GAVI Alliance), plan for the expansion of community-based case management and have ambitious plans for strengthening health systems. Assurance that these plans are implemented will require funding and continued public attention to pneumonia, which will help contribute to a substantial decline in childhood pneumonia deaths. PMID:22783679

  14. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  15. The identification of submerged skeletonized remains.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Both, Katrin; Simpson, Ellie

    2008-03-01

    Examination was undertaken of skeletonized remains contained within 2 rubber boots dredged by a fishing boat from a depth of 145 m, approximately 185 km off the southern Australian coast in the Great Australian Bight. The boots had been manufactured in Australia in July 1993 and were of a type commonly used by local fishermen. Examination of the lower legs and feet revealed well-preserved bones with arthritic changes in keeping with an older male. DNA analyses using reference samples taken from relatives of fishermen who had disappeared in the area resulted in the identification of the victim as a 52-year-old prawn fisherman who had been swept off a boat over a decade earlier. DNA stability had been maintained by the low light, cold temperatures, and alkaline pH of the ocean floor. Integration of pathologic, anthropologic, and biologic analyses with police investigations enabled a positive identification to be made despite the unusual nature of the location of the remains and the time lapse since the disappearance of the victim. PMID:19749621

  16. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. PMID:24612293

  17. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  18. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them. PMID:26971523

  19. AB232. The aetiology and efficacy of the treatment of persistent and recurrent hemospermia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hengjun; Yan, Weixin; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Xin; Pu, Xiao-Yong; Li, Dong; Qiu, Yong-Chao; Weng, Zhi-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the aetiology and efficacy of the treatment of persistent and recurrent hemospermia as a novel technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Methods The clinical data of 290 patients with persistent and recurrent hemospermia (a course of hemospermia persisting more than 6 months) from multiple medical center of South China were analyzed retrospectively. The age ranged from 16 to 69 years (mean 31 years). The definite etiologies of persistent and recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by physical examination including digital rectal examination (DRE), tailored investigations such as blood PSA and clotting time, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), CT or MRI. Of those with persistent and recurrent hemospermia, 269 patients were successfully performed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy since July 2008. The aetiology of the other 21 cases with persistent hemospermia were attributable to cystadenoma of the seminal vesicle [1], tuberculosis of tractus genitalis [1], bleeding risk secondary to liver cirrhosis [3], benign prostatic hyperplasia [12] and prostate cancer [4] confirmed by urogenital instrumentation or prostate biopsy. Results All the patients with persistent and recurrent hemospermia were confirmed by transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (162 seminal vesiculitis and 108 seminal stone secondary to them, 91 ejaculatory ducts obstruction incompletely, 42 Mullerian cyst, 16 cysts of seminal vesicle, 3 cysts of ejaculatory duct and 12 benign prostatic hyperplasia). The mean operative time was 21 min (range, 5–90 min). There were no complications including injury of urethra and seminal vesicle and postoperative discomforts in the perineal region. The mean follow-up period was 24 months (range, 3–72 months). In those 269 cases, 11 patients were out of follow-up. Hematospermia in 235 cases disappeared and 23 patients respectively recurred in 5 to 60 months after receiving transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy. Of those 23 cases with

  20. A retrospective study on the aetiology, management, and outcome of brain abscess in an 11-year, single-centre study from China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain abscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brain abscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brain abscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brain abscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brain abscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brain abscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brain abscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brain abscess. PMID:24903315

  1. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  2. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  3. An Access To The Unknown Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, Francoise

    2007-10-01

    The size distribution in the Kuiper Belt is unknown for faint objects. Current differential size distribution estimates give a slope of 4.5+- 0.2 for large end until mR=26 (Petit et al., 2007) but the population of fainter objects (small and far) is unknown. Observations with the HST (Bernstein et al., 2004) with a limiting magnitude de 28.5 could indicate a very shallow size distribution for small KBOs. The estimated slope would much smaller than expected from collisional equilibrium. It would also be smaller than the estimation of small KBOs numbers deduced from analyse of Triton cratering (Stern and McKinnon, 2000). It will be very difficult to improve these contradictory results from direct observations. The next advance could come from occultations of background targets. Three independant observations have announced occultations detections of KBOs. Observations of the bright X target Scorpius X1 by the satellite RXTE reveals 12 events compatible with KBOs occultations (Chang et al. 2007). Several occultations detections have been announced by Georgevits et al. (2006). The conditions of these two observations do not allow to measure the distance of the occulting objects. Three events were detected by Roques et al, 2006 but none is in the known Kuiper region. Occultation is a non reproductible phenomenon. Reliable results can only be obtained from simultaneous detection from two nearby telescope, or by signature of diffraction (expected with a very small target star and good temporal definition of the light curve) or by statistical signature of a large events data set (correlation with direction of observation or with the ecliptic latitude). Moreover, it is very difficult to compare results from different instruments in differents configurations. Results from three research campaigns with Ultracam are presented with an attempt of comparison with other results and some remarks about instruments best adapted for occultations works.

  4. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  5. Tularemia vaccines: recent developments and remaining hurdles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, J Wayne

    2011-04-01

    Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and other mammals. Its inhaled infectious dose is very low and can result in very high mortality. Historically, subsp. tularensis was developed as a biological weapon and there are now concerns about its abuse as such by terrorists. A live attenuated vaccine developed pragmatically more than half a century ago from the less virulent holarctica subsp. is the sole prophylactic available, but it remains unlicensed. In recent years several other potential live, killed and subunit vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in mice for their efficacy against respiratory challenge with subsp. tularensis. This article will review these vaccine candidates and the development hurdles they face. PMID:21526941

  6. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  7. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 and three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Conclusions This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel and a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low. PMID:26821179

  8. [Somnolence of unknown origin--illness or drug problem?].

    PubMed

    Hug, B L

    2006-12-01

    A 64 year old female patient with previously known temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was admitted to the emergency department (ED) for further investigation of somnolence of unknown origin. Differential diagnosis remained puzzling after exclusion of an intracranial process and status epilepticus. Quantitative and qualitative fluctuations of consciousness are well known to take place in TLE as well as that these patients often are receiving several drugs for their illness. Drug history and measuring serum drug levels are helpful. Adverse Drug Events (ADE) are not rare in EDs: approximately 5% of ED patients are suffering an ADE and about 3% of patients admitted to hospitals are admitted because of an ADE. It is important to realize that three out of four ADEs are estimated to be preventable. PMID:17133299

  9. Drug leads for interactive protein targets with unknown structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-04-01

    The disruption of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) remains a challenge in drug discovery. The problem becomes daunting when the structure of the target protein is unknown and is even further complicated when the interface is susceptible to disruptive phosphorylation. Based solely on protein sequence and information about phosphorylation-susceptible sites within the PPI, a new technology has been developed to identify drug leads to inhibit protein associations. Here we reveal this technology and contrast it with current structure-based technologies for the generation of drug leads. The novel technology is illustrated by a patented invention to treat heart failure. The success of this technology shows that it is possible to generate drug leads in the absence of target structure. PMID:26484433

  10. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies – Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene. PMID:15912188

  11. Aetiological factors in cutaneous malignant melanomas seen at a UK skin clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C M; Jenkinson, C M; Murrells, T J; Skeet, R G; Everall, J D

    1987-01-01

    A clinic-based case-control study was set up in 1961 to examine a variety of aetiological factors in malignant melanoma cases compared with controls with other non-malignant skin conditions. The 268 cases and 1577 controls showed odds ratios of 1.9 for red hair, 2.0 for skin that burns in the sun, and no difference between indoor and outdoor workers or between Celts and other Europeans, consistent with the results of more recent studies. Exposure to 16 specific chemicals was recorded in the study and, among these, men exposed to cutting oils were found to have a significantly raised odds ratio of 1.91. Other statistically significant findings were an elevated risk among women diabetics, particularly in the postmenopausal age group, and a reduced risk of 0.7 among cigarette smokers. PMID:3455424

  12. Sweet's syndrome following surgery: cutaneous trauma as a possible aetiological co-factor in neutrophilic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Rashi; Sebaratnam, Deshan F; Choi, James Yj

    2015-08-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with an acute, cutaneous eruption of exquisitely painful papules at the operative site 4 weeks after a right tibial osteotomy. Initially this was managed as a postoperative wound infection; however the exacerbation and spread of the cutaneous eruption prompted further investigation. Histopathology and clinical findings were consistent with the development of Sweet's syndrome and resolution was obtained after the initiation of dapsone. We propose that surgery may produce an acute inflammatory response in a similar manner to pathergy reactions, which play an aetiological role in other neutrophilic dermatoses, such as pyoderma gangrenosum. We conclude that there may be greater overlap between these neutrophilic dermatoses than previously appreciated. PMID:24611758

  13. Chronic Cough in Musculoskeletal disorders: Using high resolution oesophageal manometry in search of an Aetiology.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Jackson, Warren; Morice, Alyn H

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom carrying significant morbidity which can occur as a result of oesophageal dysmotility. Here we report 2 patients with musculoskeletal disease presenting with chronic cough to our tertiary cough clinic. Prior to referral both patients had been extensively investigated to determine the basis of their cough, with no cause found. Oesophageal studies, using high resolution oesophageal manometry, demonstrated oesophageal dysmotility with consequent airway reflux. Anti-reflux therapy resulted in a good response in both patients. These are the first reports of the recently developed technique of high resolution manometry aiding the diagnosis of chronic cough. This technique may provide important clues into aetiological mechanism in patients with conditions predisposing to reflux into the airways. PMID:23021351

  14. Chronic Cough in Musculoskeletal disorders: Using high resolution oesophageal manometry in search of an Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom carrying significant morbidity which can occur as a result of oesophageal dysmotility. Here we report 2 patients with musculoskeletal disease presenting with chronic cough to our tertiary cough clinic. Prior to referral both patients had been extensively investigated to determine the basis of their cough, with no cause found. Oesophageal studies, using high resolution oesophageal manometry, demonstrated oesophageal dysmotility with consequent airway reflux. Anti-reflux therapy resulted in a good response in both patients. These are the first reports of the recently developed technique of high resolution manometry aiding the diagnosis of chronic cough. This technique may provide important clues into aetiological mechanism in patients with conditions predisposing to reflux into the airways. PMID:23021351

  15. Trends in the aetiology of urogenital fistula: a case of 'retrogressive evolution'?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Paul

    2016-06-01

    It has long been held as conventional wisdom that urogenital fistulae in low-income and middle-income countries are almost exclusively of obstetric aetiology, related to prolonged neglected obstructed labour, whereas those seen in high-income countries are largely iatrogenic in nature. There is, however, a growing perception amongst those working in the field that an increasing proportion of urogenital fistulae in low-income and middle-income countries may be iatrogenic, resulting from caesarean section. Recent studies suggest that adverse patterns of care may also be emerging in high-income countries; an increase in the risk of both vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulae following hysterectomy has been reported, concurrently with the reduction in overall use of the procedure. These apparent secular trends are discussed in the context of evolution of practice, teaching and training in obstetrics and gynaecology. PMID:26744338

  16. Aetiology, Clinical Presentation, and Outcome of Meningitis in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Smita; Naidoo, Kogieleum

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective review of confirmed HIV-TB coinfected patients previously enrolled as part of the SAPiT study in Durban, South Africa. Patients with suspected meningitis were included in this case series. From 642 individuals, 14 episodes of meningitis in 10 patients were identified. For 8 patients, this episode of meningitis was the AIDS defining illness, with cryptococcus (9/14 episodes) and tuberculosis (3/14 episodes) as the commonest aetiological agents. The combination of headache and neck stiffness (78.6%) was the most frequent clinical presentation. Relapsing cryptococcal meningitis occurred in 3/7 patients. Mortality was 70% (7/10), with 4 deaths directly due to meningitis. In an HIV TB endemic region we identified cryptococcus followed by tuberculosis as the leading causes of meningitis. We highlight the occurrence of tuberculous meningitis in patients already receiving antituberculous therapy. The development of meningitis heralded poor outcomes, high mortality, and relapsing meningitis despite ART. PMID:22216407

  17. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  18. Aetiology and Severity of Gingival Recession in an Adult Population Sample in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods: The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: The majority (79.4%) of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1st and 2nd molars (35.3%) and the mandibular 1st and 2nd molars (28.7%) were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P <60; 0.05), malpositioned teeth (P <60; 0.001), horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P <60; 0.001) and brushing once daily (P <60; 0.001) appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession. PMID:22013465

  19. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    PubMed

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD. PMID:25999052

  20. A comparison of phenylketonuria with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: do markedly different aetiologies deliver common phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M; McNaughton, N

    2013-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-defined metabolic disorder arising from a mutation that disrupts phenylalanine metabolism and so produces a variety of neural changes indirectly. Severe cognitive impairment can be prevented by dietary treatment; however, residual symptoms may be reported. These residual symptoms appear to overlap a more prevalent childhood disorder: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the aetiology of ADHD is a vast contrast to PKU: it seems to arise from a complex combination of genes; and it has a substantial environmental component. We ask whether these two disorders result from two vastly different genotypes that converge on a specific core phenotype that includes similar dysfunctions of Gray's (Gray, 1982) Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), coupled with other disorder-specific dysfunctions. If so, we believe comparison of the commonalities will allow greater understanding of the neuropsychology of both disorders. We review in detail the aetiology, treatment, neural pathology, cognitive deficits and electrophysiological abnormalities of PKU; and compare this with selected directly matching aspects of ADHD. The biochemical and neural pathologies of PKU and ADHD are quite distinct in their causes and detail; but they result in the disorder in the brain of large amino acid levels, dopamine and white matter that are very similar and could explain the overlap of symptoms within and between the PKU and ADHD spectra. The common deficits affect visual function, motor function, attention, working memory, planning, and inhibition. For each of PKU and ADHD separately, a subset of deficits has been attributed to a primary dysfunction of behavioural inhibition. In the case of ADHD (excluding the inattentive subtype) this has been proposed to involve a specific failure of the BIS; and we suggest that this is also true of PKU. This accounts for a substantial proportion of the parallels in the superficial symptoms of both disorders and

  1. Pathogenesis of ascites in broilers raised at low altitude: aetiological considerations based on echocardiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Abbott, J A; Classen, H L

    2005-05-01

    This study reports novel insight into the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. The scope of measurements was focused on anatomical and functional parameters, and blood flow patterns in leghorns (resistant to ascites), fast-growing broilers (susceptible to ascites), broilers developing ascites, and ascitic broilers evaluated in vivo using echocardiography, and further examined in the context of postmortem findings. Both, in vivo observed features and postmortem findings, showed clear differences between broilers and leghorns, and between normal and ascitic broilers. Abnormalities in the heart chamber geometry and blood flow patterns were detected upon echocardiographic examination in all ascitic broilers. Right and left atrio-ventricular (AV) valve regurgitation were common findings in ascitic broilers and some apparently normal broilers, with left AV valve insufficiency being a predominant feature with respect to degree and frequency of occurrence. Blood flow disturbances were not detected in leghorns. Left ventricular fractional shortening (functional parameter) was considerably reduced (P < 0.01) in ascitic birds (mean: 21.7 +/- 2.0 SE) in comparison with normal broilers (mean: 39.1 +/- 3.6 SE), or leghorns (mean: 43.3 +/- 2.4 SE). The presented findings indicate that pathological and functional changes in the left ventricle and atrium play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ascites in broilers. Severe dilation of the left atrium and pulmonary veins seen on postmortem examination, as well as regurgitant blood flow in the left atrium, demonstrated by Doppler study in ascitic birds, provide evidence that chronically elevated pressure in the left atrium is involved in the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension and ascites in fast-growing broilers. PMID:15882400

  2. Time trends in the aetiology of prosthetic joint infections: a multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benito, N; Franco, M; Ribera, A; Soriano, A; Rodriguez-Pardo, D; Sorlí, L; Fresco, G; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Dolores Del Toro, M; Guío, L; Sánchez-Rivas, E; Bahamonde, A; Riera, M; Esteban, J; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Martínez-Alvarez, J; Jover-Sáenz, A; Dueñas, C; Ramos, A; Sobrino, B; Euba, G; Morata, L; Pigrau, C; Coll, P; Mur, I; Ariza, J

    2016-08-01

    It is important to know the spectrum of the microbial aetiology of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) to guide empiric treatment and establish antimicrobial prophylaxis in joint replacements. There are no available data based on large contemporary patient cohorts. We sought to characterize the causative pathogens of PJIs and to evaluate trends in the microbial aetiology. We hypothesized that the frequency of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in PJIs has increased in the recent years. We performed a cohort study in 19 hospitals in Spain, from 2003 to 2012. For each 2-year period (2003-2004 to 2011-2012), the incidence of microorganisms causing PJIs and multidrug-resistant bacteria was assessed. Temporal trends over the study period were evaluated. We included 2524 consecutive adult patients with a diagnosis of PJI. A microbiological diagnosis was obtained for 2288 cases (90.6%). Staphylococci were the most common cause of infection (1492, 65.2%). However, a statistically significant rising linear trend was observed for the proportion of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli, mainly due to the increase in the last 2-year period (25% in 2003-2004, 33.3% in 2011-2012; p 0.024 for trend). No particular species contributed disproportionally to this overall increase. The percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria PJIs increased from 9.3% in 2003-2004 to 15.8% in 2011-2012 (p 0.008), mainly because of the significant rise in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (from 5.3% in 2003-2004 to 8.2% in 2011-2012; p 0.032). The observed trends have important implications for the management of PJIs and prophylaxis in joint replacements. PMID:27181408

  3. Geochemical variables as plausible aetiological cofactors in the incidence of some common environmental diseases in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid growth in research in the field of medical geology around the world, and we continue to encounter “new” and important correlations between certain environmental health conditions and factors related to our interactions with geological materials and processes. A review of the possible role of geochemical factors such as the circulation of Mg, Se and F and the physico-chemical composition of volcanic soil particles, on the aetiology of some common diseases in Africa, is presented. Such studies till now, have tended to emphasise only the deleterious health impacts due to geoenvironmental factors. This is justifiable, since a proper understanding of the negative health impacts has contributed significantly towards improvement in diagnosis and therapy. But there are also beneficial effects accrued from judiciously exploiting geological materials and processes, exemplified in this review, by the several important medical applications of African clays, the therapeutic gains associated with hot springs, and balneology of peat deposits. The criticality of the “optimal range” of intake for the nutrient elements Mg, Se and F in metabolic processes is also emphasised, and illustrations given of illnesses such as cardiovascular disorders and various cancers (all major causes of mortality in Africa) that can possibly occur on either side of this range. It is hoped that this review would help generate ideas for the formulation of experimental studies that take into account the role of the geochemical environment, in an attempt to establish precisely the obscure aetiology of some of the diseases treated, and uncover new pathways in their pathogenesis.

  4. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care. PMID:26878223

  5. Intracerebral haemorrhage in a population-based stroke registry (LuSSt): incidence, aetiology, functional outcome and mortality.

    PubMed

    Palm, F; Henschke, N; Wolf, J; Zimmer, K; Safer, A; Schröder, R J; Inselmann, G; Brenke, C; Becher, H; Grau, A J

    2013-10-01

    Data on incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) vary widely. Population-based data on predictors of ICH survival and functional outcome are rare. The Ludwigshafen Stroke Study is a prospective, population-based stroke registry which started in January 2006. All residents of the city of Ludwigshafen, Germany, who suffer from acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack are registered. Patients with first-ever primary intracerebral haemorrhage (FE-pICH) between 2006 and 2010 were included in the present analysis. Between January 1st, 2006 and December 31st, 2010, 152 patients suffered a FE-pICH. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for FE-pICH were 18.7 (95 % CI 15.9-21.9) and 11.9 (95 % CI 10.2-14.0), respectively, and remained stable over time. Case-fatality rates for FE-pICH were 27.0, 34.9 and 44.1 % at days 28, 90 and 365, respectively. In 21 patients, an (21.3 %) early do-not resuscitate-order was documented. Excluding these patients from multivariate analyses, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.08-1.36), hypercholesterolemia (OR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.05-0.55) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prior to stroke (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.06-2.3) were independently associated with risk of 1-year mortality, whereas NIHSS (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.20-1.66) and leukocyte count on admission (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.16-1.89) were independently associated with good or moderate functional outcome (mRS ≤ 3) after 1 year. Incidence of FE-ICH is in the lower range of those reported from other registries and remained stable over the observation period. Higher treatment rates for hypertension might partly account for this. Stroke severity as indicated by NIHSS was independently associated with mortality and functional outcome after 1 year. We found no association between aetiology and outcome in ICH patients. PMID:23812642

  6. Body size prediction from juvenile skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    There are currently no methods for predicting body mass from juvenile skeletal remains and only a very limited number for predicting stature. In this study, stature and body mass prediction equations are generated for each year from 1 to 17 years of age using a subset of the Denver Growth Study sample, followed longitudinally (n = 20 individuals, 340 observations). Radiographic measurements of femoral distal metaphyseal and head breadth are used to predict body mass and long bone lengths are used to predict stature. In addition, pelvic bi-iliac breadth and long bone lengths are used to predict body mass in older adolescents. Relative prediction errors are equal to or smaller than those associated with similar adult estimation formulae. Body proportions change continuously throughout growth, necessitating age-specific formulae. Adult formulae overestimate stature and body mass in younger juveniles, but work well in 17-year-olds from the sample, indicating that in terms of body proportions they are representative of the general population. To illustrate use of the techniques, they are applied to the juvenile Homo erectus (ergaster) KNM-WT 15000 skeleton. New body mass and stature estimates for this specimen are similar to previous estimates derived using other methods. Body mass estimates range from 50 to 53 kg, and stature was probably slightly under 157 cm, although a precise stature estimate is difficult to determine due to differences in linear body proportions between KNM-WT 15000 and the Denver reference sample. PMID:17295297

  7. Chandra Reveals Remains of Giant Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo taken by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory that reveals the remains of an explosion in the form of two enormous arcs of multimillion-degree gas in the galaxy Centaurus A that appear to be part of a ring 25,000 light years in diameter. The size and location of the ring suggest that it could have been an explosion that occurred about 10 million years ago. A composite image made with radio (red and green), optical (yellow-orange), and X-ray data (blue) presents a sturning tableau of a turbulent galaxy. A broad band of dust and cold gas is bisected at an angle by opposing jets of high-energy particles blasting away from the supermassive black hole in the nucleus. Lying in a plane perpendicular to the jets are the two large arcs of x-ray emitting multi-million degree gas. This discovery can help astronomers better understand the cause and effect of violent outbursts from the vicinity of supermassive black holes of active galaxies. The Chandra program is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  8. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown. PMID:27043343

  9. Computational prospecting the great viral unknown.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Bonnie L; U'Ren, Jana M; Youens-Clark, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in host-driven biological processes by controlling bacterial population size, horizontally transferring genes between hosts and expressing host-derived genes to alter host metabolism. Metagenomics provides the genetic basis for understanding the interplay between uncultured bacteria, their phage and the environment. In particular, viral metagenomes (viromes) are providing new insight into phage-encoded host genes (i.e. auxiliary metabolic genes; AMGs) that reprogram host metabolism during infection. Yet, despite deep sequencing efforts of viral communities, the majority of sequences have no match to known proteins. Reference-independent computational techniques, such as protein clustering, contig spectra and ecological profiling are overcoming these barriers to examine both the known and unknown components of viromes. As the field of viral metagenomics progresses, a critical assessment of tools is required as the majority of algorithms have been developed for analyzing bacteria. The aim of this paper is to offer an overview of current computational methodologies for virome analysis and to provide an example of reference-independent approaches using human skin viromes. Additionally, we present methods to carefully validate AMGs from host contamination. Despite computational challenges, these new methods offer novel insights into the diversity and functional roles of phages in diverse environments. PMID:27030726

  10. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    PubMed Central

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  11. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  12. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  13. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  14. The Unknown Detective Career of Isaac Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Thomas

    2010-03-17

    Isaac Newton's fame is such that it would seem that almost nothing remains to be discovered about his deeds or his methods. But very little attention has been paid to the three decades Newton spent in charge of the Royal Mint, and especially to the first of those years, in which he supervised the remaking of England's entire silver money supply, all the while investigating, prosecuting, and executing the nation's currency criminals. That story provides unique perspectives on both his own habits of mind and on how what has come to be called the scientific revolution played out, not just in the minds of the great, but on the mean streets of London.

  15. Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242

  16. Community-onset bacteraemia of unknown origin: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, C; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Feher, C; Morata, L; De La Calle, C; Marco, F; Almela, M; Soriano, A; Mensa, J; Del Rio, A; Martinez, J A

    2014-11-01

    Bacteraemia of unknown origin is prevalent and has a high mortality rate. However, there are no recent reports focusing on this issue. From 2005 to 2011, all episodes of community onset bacteraemia of unknown origin (CO-BSI), diagnosed at a 700-bed university hospital were prospectively included. Risk factors for Enterobactericeae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCR-E), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp, and predictors of mortality were assessed by logistic regression. Out of 4,598 consecutive episodes of CO-BSI, 745 (16.2 %) were of unknown origin. Risk factors for S. aureus were male gender (OR 2.26; 1.33-3.83), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.71; 1.01-2.91) and intravenous drug addiction (OR 17.24; 1.47-202); for P. aeruginosa were male gender (OR 2.19; 1.10-4.37) and health-care associated origin (OR 9.13; 3.23-25.83); for 3GCR-E was recent antibiotic exposure (OR 2.53; 1.47-4.35), while for enterococci, it was recent hospital admission (OR 3.02; 1.64-5.55). Seven and 30-day mortality were 8.1 % and 13.4 %, respectively. Age over 65 years (OR 2.13; 1.28-3.55), an ultimately or rapidly fatal underlying disease (OR 4.15; 2.23-7.60), bone marrow transplantation (OR 4.07; 1.24-13.31), absence of fever (OR 4.45; 2.25-8.81), shock on presentation (OR 10.48; 6.05-18.15) and isolation of S. aureus (OR 2.01; 1.00-4.04) were independently associated with mortality. In patients with bacteraemia of unknown origin, a limited number of clinical characteristics may be useful to predict its aetiology and to choose the appropriate empirical treatment. Although no modifiable prognostic factors have been found, management optimization of S. aureus should be considered a priority in this setting. PMID:24907852

  17. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  18. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain. PMID:26851411

  19. Viral Aetiology of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance Cases, before and after Vaccine Policy Change from Oral Polio Vaccine to Inactivated Polio Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy Subramaniam, T. S.; Apandi, Mohd Apandi; Jahis, Rohani; Samsudin, Mohd Samsul; Saat, Zainah

    2014-01-01

    Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period. PMID:24772175

  20. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  1. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  2. 14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  3. 17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  4. 12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view from roadway - Siuslaw River Bridge, Spanning Siuslaw River at Oregon Coast Highway, Florence, Lane County, OR

  5. 16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of north approach to bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  6. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. First attack of acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 – 2003: incidence, aetiological classification, procedures and mortality – a register study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    SMR declined with increasing patient age. Although the prognosis for patients with FAAP has improved it remains an important health problem. Aetiological classification at index stay and timing of cholecystectomy should be improved. PMID:19265519

  17. Hard lives and evil winds: illness aetiology and the search for healing amongst Ciskeian villagers.

    PubMed

    Segar, J

    1997-05-01

    This paper examines the explanations for illness used by Ciskeian villagers to account for conditions ranging from diarrhoea and tuberculosis to anxiety and hypertension. Explanations recognise the links between illness and hard physical labour, poor working conditions and poverty whilst also acknowledging supernatural grounds for affliction. The healing resources available to villagers, which are outlined here, include state-run health facilities, a large number of private biomedical practitioners, a variety of indigenous therapists-including religious healers-and a store of common knowledge. In keeping with recent developments within critical medical anthropology, this paper seeks to analyse illness aetiology and health seeking behaviour within the broad social and economic context of individual lives. In Ciskei, one of South Africa's former nominally independent homelands, that context includes high levels of unemployment, dependence on migrant labour earnings and on welfare payments, lack of infrastructure such as water supply and transportation and a significant degree of economic differentiation between households. Against this backdrop, individual case studies will be examined which will illustrate how degrees of powerlessness and lack of disposable income affect both explanations of illness causation and health seeking behaviour among Ciskeian villagers. PMID:9160448

  18. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10(-8)), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  19. Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs.

    PubMed

    Arrol, L; Penderis, J; Garosi, L; Cripps, P; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Gonçalves, R

    2012-03-01

    The aetiology and outcome of dogs with juvenile-onset seizures were investigated. One hundred and thirty-six dogs whose first seizure occurred before the age of one year were investigated. One hundred and two dogs were diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), 23 with symptomatic epilepsy (SE), nine with reactive seizures (RS) and two with probable symptomatic epilepsy (pSE). The outcome was known in 114 dogs; 37 per cent died or were euthanased as a consequence of seizures. The mean survival time of this population of dogs was 7.1 years. Factors that were significantly associated with survival outcome included the diagnosis of SE and the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used before investigation. The use of one AED before investigation and a diagnosis of SE were associated with a negative outcome, whereas receiving no AED medications before referral was associated with a longer survival. For dogs with IE, survival time was shortened if the dog was a border collie or with a history of status epilepticus;receiving no AEDs before referral in the IE group was associated with a positive outcome. Seizure-free status was achieved in 22 per cent of dogs diagnosed with IE. While the survival times were longer than previously reported in canine epilepsy, similar remission rates to those reported in childhood epilepsy, where a 70 per cent remission rate is documented, were not seen in the canine juvenile population. PMID:22266685

  20. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  1. The head and neck discomfort of autonomic failure: an unrecognized aetiology of headache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Kincaid, D. W.; Haile, V.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Information concerning the frequency, severity, character, location, duration, diurnal pattern of headache and ancillary symptoms were obtained in 25 patients with autonomic failure and 44 control subjects. Precipitating and ameliorating factors were identified. Autonomic failure patients had more head and neck discomfort than controls. Their discomfort was much more likely to localize in the occiput, nape of the neck and shoulder, compared with controls. There was a greater tendency for the discomfort to occur in the morning and after meals. It was sometimes less than 5 min in duration and was often associated with dimming, blurring, or tunnelling of vision. It was provoked by upright posture and relieved by lying down. Patients with severe autonomic failure and orthostatic hypotension often present with a posture-dependent headache or neck pain. Because the relationship of these symptoms to posture is often not recognized, the fact that these findings may signal an underlying autonomic disorder is underappreciated, and the opportunity to consider this aetiology for the headache may be missed.

  2. Consonant and syllable complexity of toddlers with Down syndrome and mixed-aetiology developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, SHARI B.; FEY, MARC E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether speech sound production of toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) is on par with or more severely impaired than that of mental age (MA) peers with developmental delay due to aetiologies other than Down syndrome at two points within an 18-month period near the onset of spoken word production. The utterances of 26 children with DS, aged 24–33 months, with a mean MA of 14.3 months, originally studied by Fey et al. (2006) and Warren et al. (2008) were compared to those of a group of 22 children with similar intellectual and communication delay but no DS (NDS). Phonological measures included the size of the consonant inventory, syllable shape complexity, and number of communication acts with canonical vocalizations. At Time 1, the DS group performed as well as or better than the NDS group on these measures of speech production. At Time 2, 18 months later, the DS group was behind the NDS group on the same measures. Results extended the pattern of more severe impairment in children with DS than NDS peers commonly noted in expressive language to measures of phonological development. PMID:24050845

  3. Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and aetiological agent.

    PubMed

    Sala, M R; Broner, S; Moreno, A; Arias, C; Godoy, P; Minguell, S; Martínez, A; Torner, N; Bartolomé, R; de Simón, M; Guix, S; Domínguez, A

    2014-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family includes norovirus and sapovirus, which both cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Currently, norovirus is the most common cause of AGE in all age groups in many countries. We analysed clinical differences in reported cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by caliciviruses (AGC) by age group and agent involved. We conducted a descriptive study of AGE outbreaks reported to the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (Spain) in 2010 and 2011. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between clinical symptoms and age. Clinical differences between the <15 years and ≥15 years age groups were statistically significant: children more frequently presented with vomiting (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.56-4.13), abdominal pain (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.60-4.12), fever (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.17-1.96) and nausea (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85). Comparing clinical manifestations of sapovirus and norovirus infection in children aged <15 years, cases caused by norovirus more frequently presented with vomiting and fever (p <0.001), and cases caused by sapovirus more frequently presented with diarrhoea (p 0.013). Determination of the clinical differences associated with cases in outbreaks according to the age of the majority of cases and the symptoms most frequently detected may aid decision making and guide aetiological investigations and the adoption of prevention and control measures. PMID:24382267

  4. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  5. Insulin as the main regulator of cellular glucose utilization--aetiological aspects of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tatoń, Jan; Czech, Anna; Piatkiewicz, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    This review presents the advances in the molecular biology and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance with emphasis on disturbances in cellular glucose transport. New scientific information about the structure and function of glucotransporters from the GLUT4 and SLGT families underline their significance in endocrinopathies and metabolic disease pathogenesis as related to insulin resistance. The new discoveries in this area also contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of insulin receptor and post-receptor reactivity by hormones and by drugs. They refer to the regulation of glycaemia and to its disturbances in diabetes mellitus, particularly of type 2, to metabolic syndrome, and, in general, to the pathogenesis of many syndromes and clinical disturbances caused by insulin resistance. Impairment of cellular glucose transport may be one of the primary aetiological factors in this respect. Therefore, studies of cellular glucotransporters expression and function promise new clinical and pharmacotherapeutic developments. Progress in this area has already been transformed into many practical proposals which are improving clinical practice. PMID:20806184

  6. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development

    PubMed Central

    Vervoort, A.J.M.W.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Hehenkamp, W.J.K.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Huirne, J.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon ‘niche’. A ‘niche’ describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6–12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation. PMID:26409016

  7. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer. PMID:27386716

  8. The epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infancy in southern Vietnam: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Katherine L.; Thompson, Corinne N.; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Van; Nguyet, Nguyen Minh; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Van, Nguyen Thi Hong; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ha, Phan Thi Thanh; Lien, Le Bich; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Baker, Stephen; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Previous studies indicate a high burden of diarrhoeal disease in Vietnamese children, however longitudinal community-based data on burden and aetiology are limited. The findings from a large, prospective cohort study of diarrhoeal disease in infants in southern Vietnam are presented herein. Methods Infants were enrolled at birth in urban Ho Chi Minh City and a semi-rural district in southern Vietnam, and followed for 12 months (n = 6706). Diarrhoeal illness episodes were identified through clinic-based passive surveillance, hospital admissions, and self-reports. Results The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal illness in the first year of life was 271/1000 infant-years of observation for the whole cohort. Rotavirus was the most commonly detected pathogen (50% of positive samples), followed by norovirus (24%), Campylobacter (20%), Salmonella (18%), and Shigella (16%). Repeat infections were identified in 9% of infants infected with rotavirus, norovirus, Shigella, or Campylobacter, and 13% of those with Salmonella infections. Conclusions The minimum incidence of diarrhoeal disease in infants in both urban and semi-rural settings in southern Vietnam was quantified prospectively. A large proportion of laboratory-diagnosed disease was caused by rotavirus and norovirus. These data highlight the unmet need for a rotavirus vaccine in Vietnam and provide evidence of the previously unrecognized burden of norovirus in infants. PMID:25813553

  9. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A.; Finucane, Hilary K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10−70) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10−12). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10−8), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  10. The Information Available to a Moving Observer on Shape with Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Chandraker, Manmohan

    2016-07-01

    Psychophysical studies show motion cues inform about shape even with unknown reflectance. Recent works in computer vision have considered shape recovery for an object of unknown BRDF using light source or object motions. This paper proposes a theory that addresses the remaining problem of determining shape from the (small or differential) motion of the camera, for unknown isotropic BRDFs. Our theory derives a differential stereo relation that relates camera motion to surface depth, which generalizes traditional Lambertian assumptions. Under orthographic projection, we show differential stereo may not determine shape for general BRDFs, but suffices to yield an invariant for several restricted (still unknown) BRDFs exhibited by common materials. For the perspective case, we show that differential stereo yields the surface depth for unknown isotropic BRDF and unknown directional lighting, while additional constraints are obtained with restrictions on the BRDF or lighting. The limits imposed by our theory are intrinsic to the shape recovery problem and independent of choice of reconstruction method. We also illustrate trends shared by theories on shape from differential motion of light source, object or camera, to relate the hardness of surface reconstruction to the complexity of imaging setup. PMID:26415156

  11. Urinary biomarkers suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts may play a role in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Yang, Li; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Vose, Julie; Beseler, Cheryl; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Cavalieri, Ercole L.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that estrogens may induce non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The reaction of catechol estrogen quinones with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts is hypothesized to initiate this process. These adducts are released from DNA, shed from cells into the bloodstream and excreted in urine. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts might be involved in the aetiology of human NHL. Estrogen metabolites, conjugates and depurinating DNA adducts were identified and quantified in spot urine samples from 15 men with NHL and 30 healthy control men by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of estrogen-DNA adducts were significantly higher in the men with NHL than in the healthy control men. Thus, formation of estrogen-DNA adducts may play a critical role in the aetiology of NHL, and these adducts could be potential biomarkers of NHL risk. PMID:19863189

  12. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller. PMID:24238360

  13. Dietary potassium-sodium imbalance as a factor in the aetiology of primary ruminal tympany in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Turner, M A

    1981-12-01

    Results of an investigation into the chemical composition of pasture herbage on twelve New Zealand dairy farms, with contrasting incidences of primary ruminal tympany (bloat), are presented. The data suggest that dietary K;Na ratio may be an important factor in the aetiology of bloat; a factor that does not seem to have been recognised in the past. Other supportive evidence for this hypothesis is briefly discussed. PMID:7201718

  14. Prior outpatient antibiotic use as predictor for microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Endeman, Henrik; van Hemert, Remco N; Voorn, G Paul; Deneer, Vera HM; Leufkens, Hubert GM; van den Bosch, Jules MM; Biesma, Douwe H

    2007-01-01

    Objective The causative micro-organism in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often difficult to predict. Different studies have examined chronic morbidity and clinical symptoms as predictors for microbial aetiology of pneumonia. The aim of our study was to assess whether prior outpatient antimicrobial treatment is predictive for determining the microbial aetiology of CAP. Methods This was a hospital-based prospective observational study including all patients admitted with CAP between 1 October 2004 and 1 August 2006. Microbial investigations included sputum, blood culture, sputum PCR, antigen testing and serology. Exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospital admission was ascertained through community pharmacy dispensing records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess whether prior outpatient antimicrobial treatment is a predictor of microbial aetiology. Patient demographics, co-morbidities and pneumonia severity were considered to be other potential predictors. Results Overall, 201 patients were included in the study. The microbial aetiology was determined in 64% of the patients. The five most prevalent pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Heamophilus influenzae, Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Influenza virus A+B. Forty-seven of the patients (23%) had received initial antimicrobial treatment as outpatients. Multivariate analyses revealed that initial outpatient beta-lactam treatment was associated with a threefold increased chance of finding atypical pathogens and a threefold decreased probability of pneumococcal infection; the corresponding odds ratios were 3.51 (95% CI 1.25–9.99) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.10–0.90), respectively. Patients who received macrolides prior to hospitalisation had an increased probability of viral pneumonia. Conclusion Prior outpatient antimicrobial therapy has a predictive value in the diagnostic workup aimed at identifying the causative pathogen and planning corresponding antimicrobial

  15. Aetiology and Outcome of Acute Liver Failure in Children: Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M W; Karim, A B; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was a retrospective review of medical records from November 2011 through October 2014. During this period a total of 35 patients were diagnosed to have ALF. Aetiology was established in 25(71.4%) cases, whereas in 10(28.6%) cases, no identifiable cause was found. Viral hepatitis was the underlying cause in 12(34.3%) cases. After treatment 15(43%) ALF patients survived, 8(23%) left hospital with risk bond (DORB), and 12(34%) patients died. The study showed that among the 12 death patients, 5(41.7%) had viral hepatitis, 3(25%) Wilson's disease, and in 4(33.3%) no cause could be identified. Viral hepatitis and Wilson disease were found to be two common causes of ALF in this study. Future studies with larger sample size are required to know the actual causes of acute liver failure in Bangladeshi children. PMID:27612896

  16. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T; Misra, Raju V; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  17. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J.; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T.; Misra, Raju V.; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  18. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  19. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent) neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training). Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6). As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football. PMID:20594296

  20. Characterising the aetiology of severe acute gastroenteritis among patients visiting a hospital in Qatar using real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remains a common cause of clinic visits and hospitalizations, though its aetiology has not been determined in Qatar. Methods We performed a prospective, emergency department–based study of 288 children and adults with AGE. Stool specimens were collected at presentation from June to November 2009. Faecal specimens were tested, using real-time PCR, for a panel of four viral (norovirus, adenovirus, astrovirus and rotavirus) and bacterial pathogens. Results Viral and bacterial pathogens were detected in 131 (45.5%) and 34 (12.2%) of the 288 patients recruited. The most commonly detected pathogens were norovirus (28.5%), rotavirus (10.4%), followed by adenovirus (6.25%) and astrovirus (0.30%). Norovirus was the most commonly detected viral pathogen amongst all the age groups with an almost even distribution in all age groups. Rotavirus and adenovirus were more common in children under 5 yr of age. Astrovirus was found in only one person. Conclusions Viruses, especially noroviruses, are associated with severe diarrhoea in children and adults in Qatar. Further studies to confirm the findings and to explore the causes of illness among patients from whom a pathogen cannot be determined are needed. PMID:23865805

  1. Poor Cerebral Inflammatory Response in eIF2B Knock-In Mice: Implications for the Aetiology of Vanishing White Matter Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Michal; Marom, Liraz; Chetrit, David; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Elroy-Stein, Orna

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutations in any of the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) can lead to an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease of unknown aetiology termed leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM). VWM is one of the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders, which markedly deteriorates after inflammation or exposure to other stressors. eIF2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. A previous study demonstrated that Eif2b5R132H/R132H mice suffer delayed white matter development and fail to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, although eIF2B enzymatic activity in the mutant brain is reduced by merely 20%. Principal Findings Poor astrogliosis was observed in Eif2b5R132H/R132H mice brain in response to systemic stress induced by peripheral injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Even with normal rates of protein synthesis under normal conditions, primary astrocytes and microglia isolated from mutant brains fail to adequately synthesise and secrete cytokines in response to LPS treatment despite proper induction of cytokine mRNAs. Conclusions The mild reduction in eIF2B activity prevents the appropriate increase in translation rates upon exposure to the inflammatory stressor LPS. The data underscore the importance of fully-functional translation machinery for efficient cerebral inflammatory response upon insults. It highlights the magnitude of proficient translation rates in restoration of brain homeostasis via microglia-astrocyte crosstalk. This study is the first to suggest the involvement of microglia in the pathology of VWM disease. Importantly, it rationalises the deterioration of clinical symptoms upon exposure of VWM patients to physiological stressors and provides possible explanation for their high phenotypic variability. PMID:23056417

  2. Pathological and bacteriological characterization of neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jenny; Aspán, Anna; Lindberg, Ronny; Grandon, Rodrigo; Båverud, Viveca; Fall, Nils; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal porcine diarrhoea of uncertain aetiology has been reported from a number of countries. This study investigated 50 diarrhoeic and 19 healthy piglets from 10 affected Swedish herds. The piglets were blood-sampled for analysis of serum γ-globulin and necropsied, and the intestines were sampled for histopathology and cultured for Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 276) were examined by PCR for virulence genes encoding LT, STa, STb, EAST1, VT2e, F4, F5, F6, F18, F41, AIDA-I, intimin, and for the genes aaiC and aggR. Selected isolates were analysed for additional virulence genes by a microarray and subjected to O-typing. Clostridium perfringens isolates (n = 152) were examined by PCR for genes encoding major toxins, enterotoxin and beta2-toxin. There was no difference in serum γ-globulin concentration between diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets, and pathological lesions in the intestines were generally mild. Porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, a common cause of piglet diarrhoea, was only found in two piglets. Further, the virulence gene profiling did not suggest involvement of other diarrhoeogenic pathotypes of Escherichia coli. Growth of Clostridium perfringens did not differ between diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets. All isolates were type A, all were negative for enterotoxin, and 151 of 152 isolates were beta2-toxin positive. In pigs ≥ 2  days old, moderate to profuse growth of Clostridium difficile was more common in the controls. In conclusion, it was not possible to relate Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens type A and C or Clostridium difficile to neonatal porcine diarrhoea in any of the investigated herds. PMID:26272503

  3. Coronary heart disease: interplay between changing concepts of aetiology, risk distribution, and social strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Epidemic diseases move in grand cycles, accompanying changes in culture, social organization, and environment. Coronary heart disease (CHD), a mass disease of twentieth century industrialized society, has a predominantly environmental aetiology. Although the major biomedical risk factors appear to have been identified over the past 40 years of epidemiological research, we are not certain why CHD is now on the wane in most Western nations. In Australia, CHD death rates have, since 1968, declined much more in professional and white-collar men than in blue-collar men. Any substantial reduction in CHD rates will require a generalized population shift towards a lower CHD risk profile. Numerically, the greatest gains should come from reducing the CHD risk of the bulk of the population, who are currently at medium risk of CHD. Notions of risk need, in the first instance, to be based on up-to-date knowledge of biomedical risk factors and mechanisms in order to develop optimal intervention strategies. A population-based strategy can be achieved via community education and structural modification of the social environment. The latter approach will require public health research into broader questions of the social-environmental influences on population cardiovascular health: for example, research into the social, political, and economic determinants of national food and nutrition policies; and into the various environmental (including workplace) changes that will facilitate risk-lowering behaviour. Hopefully, intervention strategies in such areas, set within a community development context, will be developed within the incipient National Program for Better Health.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661131

  4. Gingival recession at the University College Hospital, Ibadan--prevalence and effect of some aetiological factors.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, M O

    2000-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-one consecutive patients comprising 259 (52.7%) males and 232 (47.3%) females who attended the periodontology clinic of the University College Hospital Dental Centre between May 1995 and May 1996, were recruited into this study. One hundred and thirty-seven patients comprising 101 males and 36 females were found to have gingival recession of at least one tooth surface representing 27.7%. The age range of the patients investigated was 16 years to 82 years; mean age was 39.2 +/- 14.4 for males and 34.1 +/- 14.4 for females. The peak incidence of gingival recession was in the 46-55 year age group. The incidence of gingival recession increases with advancing age with 0.04% in the 16-25 year age groups as compared to 58.5% in the 56-65 year age group. The aetiologic factors which appeared to be related to gingival recession were found in the following order of frequency: malalignment; chewing stick trauma; toothbrush trauma; calculus. Eighty-eight percent (88.8%) of malaligned teeth in the age range 66 years and above had recession. A higher percentage of the subjects who used chewing stick had recession (29.4%) when compared to those who used toothbrush alone (22%) P < 0.05--this is statistically significant. Of great concern is the prevalence of recession (58%) among those subjects who used toothbrush and chewing stick together, with majority of them having generalized gingival recession. The possible reasons for these different prevalence rates of recession are discussed, measures by which incidence of gingival recession can be reduced are briefly summarized. PMID:11714002

  5. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48 %) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22 %) for rotavirus A, 36 (8 %) for Shigella spp., 17 (4 %) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2 %) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11 %) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5 %) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100 %), and 30 (83 %) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100 %) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94 %) isolates of E. coli and (78 %) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47 %) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44 %) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  6. Network Topologies and Convergent Aetiologies Arising from Deletions and Duplications Observed in Individuals with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hyun Ji; Ponting, Chris P.; Boulding, Hannah C.; Meader, Stephen; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Pinto, Dalila; Marshall, Christian R.; Lionel, Anath C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Webber, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable and characterised by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. Considering four sets of de novo copy number variants (CNVs) identified in 181 individuals with autism and exploiting mouse functional genomics and known protein-protein interactions, we identified a large and significantly interconnected interaction network. This network contains 187 genes affected by CNVs drawn from 45% of the patients we considered and 22 genes previously implicated in ASD, of which 192 form a single interconnected cluster. On average, those patients with copy number changed genes from this network possess changes in 3 network genes, suggesting that epistasis mediated through the network is extensive. Correspondingly, genes that are highly connected within the network, and thus whose copy number change is predicted by the network to be more phenotypically consequential, are significantly enriched among patients that possess only a single ASD-associated network copy number changed gene (p = 0.002). Strikingly, deleted or disrupted genes from the network are significantly enriched in GO-annotated positive regulators (2.3-fold enrichment, corrected p = 2×10−5), whereas duplicated genes are significantly enriched in GO-annotated negative regulators (2.2-fold enrichment, corrected p = 0.005). The direction of copy change is highly informative in the context of the network, providing the means through which perturbations arising from distinct deletions or duplications can yield a common outcome. These findings reveal an extensive ASD-associated molecular network, whose topology indicates ASD-relevant mutational deleteriousness and that mechanistically details how convergent aetiologies can result extensively from CNVs affecting pathways causally implicated in ASD. PMID:23754953

  7. Prospective study of the aetiology of infusion phlebitis and line failure during peripheral parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    May, J; Murchan, P; MacFie, J; Sedman, P; Donat, R; Palmer, D; Mitchell, C J

    1996-08-01

    Four techniques of administering peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) were examined prospectively to investigate the role of mechanical trauma in the development of infusion phlebitis. Patients in group 1 (n = 15) were fed via a standard 18-G Teflon cannula which was removed on completion of the infusion and was rotated to the contralateral arm every day. Group 2 patients (n = 15) had a similar catheter sited in each forearm simultaneously, with rotation of the side of infusion each day. Patients in group 3 (n = 17) had a 15-cm Silastic rubber catheter inserted into a forearm vein and a standard cannula sited in the contralateral forearm, with alternation of infusion each day. Those in group 4 (n = 13) had a fine-bore 23-G silicone catheter sited in one arm only. Patients in groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed over 12-h cycles and those in group 4 for a 24-h continuous cycle. A total of 408 patient-days of PPN were given. Mean duration of PPN in groups 1-4 was 7.5, 9, 5.5 and 5 days respectively. Infusion phlebitis was not recorded in patients who had a daily change of cannula (group 1), but occurred in four patients in group 2, eight in group 3 and eight in group 4. Phlebitis scores were 0, 9, 15 and 12 for groups 1-4 respectively. Severe phlebitis and line occlusion occurred more frequently in patients with a 15-cm catheter (group 3) and in those fed continuously over 24 h (group 4). These results suggest that mechanical trauma is an important factor in the aetiology of infusion phlebitis. This can be minimized by reducing the time for which the vein wall is exposed to nutrient infusion and by reducing the amount of prosthetic material within the vein. PMID:8869311

  8. Epstein Barr virus: a prime candidate of breast cancer aetiology in Sudanese patients.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Zeinab A; Adam, Ameera Am; Elgizouli, Magdeldin; Hussein, Ayman; Masri, Mai A; Kamal, Mayada; Mohamed, Hiba S; Alzaki, Kamal; Elhassan, Ahmed M; Hamad, Kamal; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in Sudanese women. Reported genetic alterations in the form of mutations in tumor suppressors are low in frequencies and could not explain the peculiarities of the diseases including its focal nature. Potential contributors disease aetiology include oncogenic viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an established culprit of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, one of the most frequent cancers in Sudan.In this study, DNA was extracted from malignant tissue samples and healthy tumour-free tissue from the same breast. Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) was used to amplify two genes encoding for EBV viral proteins. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus and its cellular localization was confirmed by in situ hybridization (ISH) for Epstein-Barr encoded small RNAs (EBERs). Given the reported low frequency of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Sudanese breast cancer patients, the methylation status of six tumor suppressor genes was investigated using methylation specific PCR. EBV genome was detected in 55.5% (n = 90) of breast cancer tissues as compared to 23% in control tissue samples (p = 0.0001). Using ISH, EBV signal was detected in all 18 breast cancer biopsies examined while all five normal breast tissue biopsies tested were negative for EBV. Of six tumour suppressor genes investigated BRCA1, BRCA2, and p14 appeared to be under strong epigenetic silencing.In conclusion, we present evidence of a strong association between EBV and breast carcinoma in Sudanese patients, and considerable epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressors that may likely be an outcome or an association with viral oncogenesis. PMID:24607238

  9. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables) and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993). For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998). Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents. PMID:22738416

  10. Space-time clustering of childhood leukaemia in Greece: evidence supporting a viral aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Petridou, E.; Revinthi, K.; Alexander, F. E.; Haidas, S.; Koliouskas, D.; Kosmidis, H.; Piperopoulou, F.; Tzortzatou, F.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method introduced by Knox for evaluation of space-time clustering has been applied to 872 cases of childhood (0-14 year old) leukaemia diagnosed in Greece over the 10 year period 1980-89. Greek towns are characterised by substantial population mixing due to internal migration, whereas there is relative isolation in mountainous rural areas. Predetermined space (5 km) and time (1 year) limits were used on the basis of previous reports in order to define the clustering cell. There is highly significant evidence for clustering of childhood leukaemia in Greece as a whole, the observed number of pairs that are close in both spaces and time exceeding the expected number by 5.2% (P = 0.004). The excess is particularly evident for leukaemia cases in 0 to 4-year-old children, among whom the observed number of pairs that are close in both space and time exceeded the expected number by 9.4% (P = 0.004). There is no evidence of space-time clustering for leukaemia cases older than 5 years. The overall pattern is descriptively similar in urban and semiurban areas and is especially marked for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at the childhood peak ages (2-4 years) with an excess of 19% (P = 0.0006). In the rural population there is evidence for clustering of cases belonging to older and broader age groups, a phenomenon compatible with a delay in the development of herd immunity against putative infectious aetiological agents. The findings of the present study provide support for the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of cases of childhood leukaemia may arise as a rare sequel to exposure to an agent or agents, most probably viral in nature. PMID:8630293

  11. Infectious Aetiology of Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Role of Anti-Infective Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Salvatore; D’Elia, Gianna Maria; Annechini, Giorgia; Pulsoni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood. However, the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy for gastric MALT. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because it recapitulates cancer cured only by the antibacterial approach and it satisfies the Koch postulates of causation, establishing a causative relationship between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients with chronic HCV infection have 5 times higher risk to develop MZL, in particular, an association with splenic and nodal MZL has been shown in several studies. Moreover, there is evidence of lymphoma regression after antiviral therapy with interferon+ribavirin, thus raising hope that newly available drugs, extremely efficient against HCV replication, could improve outcome also in HCV-driven lymphomas. Another case-study are represented by those rare cases of MZL localized to orbital fat and eye conjunctivas that have been associated with Chlamydophila psittaci infection carried by birds. Efficacy of antibacterial therapy against C. psittaci are conflicting and generally poorer than gastric MALT. Finally, some case reports will cover the relationship between primary cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas and Borrelia Burgdorferi. PMID:26740867

  12. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 2. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1893 Train shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1893 Train shed under construction - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, Broad Street Station, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  16. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  17. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  18. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  19. Considering Unknown Unknowns: Reconstruction of Nonconfoundable Causal Relations in Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  20. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  1. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  2. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  3. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  4. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  5. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  6. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47.305-5 Section 47.305-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1)...

  7. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47.305-5 Section 47.305-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1)...

  8. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  9. 15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  10. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  11. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed tomore » characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.« less

  12. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Elke J A H; Balm, Alfons J M; Nieweg, Omgo E; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Lohuis, Peter J F M; Klop, W Martin C

    2015-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP), in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2) METHODS: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck) or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1-2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (loco)regional recurrence and survival rates; (3) RESULTS: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000). In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4) CONCLUSION: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11%) supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65%) and overall (78%) at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group. PMID:26266423

  13. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Elke J. A. H.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Nieweg, Omgo E.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Klop, W. Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    (1) Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP), in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2) Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck) or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (loco)regional recurrence and survival rates; (3) Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000). In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4) Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11%) supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65%) and overall (78%) at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group. PMID:26266423

  14. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B.; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). Materials and Methods This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10–14 and were monitored until delivery. Principle findings 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4–43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5–40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese

  15. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  16. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  17. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  20. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  1. 54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle pier, Wheeler Creek Bridge, Pinnacles Road, mile two. Taken from under bridge, looking up." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  2. 47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. 52. photographer unknown 9 October 1935 CURING CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. photographer unknown 9 October 1935 CURING CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR BASE OF SOUTH HALF OF SPILLWAY DAM. INSPECTION TUNNEL FORM IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, unknown photographer, about 1900, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, unknown photographer, about 1900, VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF FRONT ENTRANCE. - Widow Anthony Angell House, Louisquisset Pike (State Route 146), Saylesville, Kent County, RI

  5. 22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 AT LEFT. DARK AREAS ARE LANDSCAPED. - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  6. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR THE POWDER MILL ROAD INTERCHANGE. (NPS/NCR (cn) 9995-C) - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  8. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  9. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  10. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  11. 23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. photographer unknown 15 October 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING PROGRESS ON LOWER GATE RECESSES. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING SHEEP IN SHED NEAR WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF SACRISTY LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURRING AND METAL LATH PUT IN DURING 1974 RESTORATION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  2. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Unknown Draftsman Circa 1910 WORKING DRAWING OF SOUTHWEST ELEVATION From the Collection of the Shreve Memorial Library - U.S. Post Office & Courthouse, Marshall & Texas Streets, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  3. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright owners... RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS...

  4. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright owners... RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS...

  5. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  6. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  7. 81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 100. photographer unknown 29 March 1940 PREPARATIONS FOR POURING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. photographer unknown 29 March 1940 PREPARATIONS FOR POURING CONCRETE AROUND PIT LINER OF UNIT NO 3. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 6. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 193641 ALTERATIONS TO SOUTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy, photographer unknown, c. 1936-41 ALTERATIONS TO SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOF, LOOKING EAST - White Deer Lake Camp, Beaver Cabin, Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Champion, Marquette County, MI

  11. 43. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1960). VIEW WEST, EAST SIDE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  12. 41. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown. Shows trolley with Trolley Barn and Administration Building in background. VIEW NORTHEAST - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  13. 254. Photocopy of photograph from Parish's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1893 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    254. Photocopy of photograph from Parish's Artwork Photographer unknown, 1893 803 WHITAKER STREET, 'RESIDENCE OF J.S. WOOD' - Savannah Victorian Historic District, Bounded by Gwinnett, East Broad, West Broad Street & Anderson Lane, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. 61. Photographic copy of photograph (1898). Photographer unknown. West side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Photographic copy of photograph (1898). Photographer unknown. West side of bridge in 1893, looking southeast - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

  16. 19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW OF KEY WEST WITH FORT TAYLOR IN THE BACKGROUND LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST - Fort Taylor, Whitehead Spit Vicinity, Key West, Monroe County, FL

  17. 31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  18. 35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of map (from Benicia Historical Society) Delineator unknown May 1, 1894, revised to Mar. 27, 1918 'MAP OF BENICIA ARSENAL RESERVATION' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  20. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. 26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO DETERMINE RIVER-BOTTOM CONTOURS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 22. Photocopy of drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1931 Wright Studio, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of drawing Delineator unknown, ca. 1931 Wright Studio, photographer View from Kellogg Blvd. - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  4. 38. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD BRADFORD ISLAND. CRIB UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON WAYS IN RIVER AWAITING PLACEMENT. STEEL SHEET PILES DRIVEN ALONG RIGHT FACE OF COFFERDAM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 36. photographer unknown 7 October 1940 AERIAL VIEW OF BONNEVILLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. photographer unknown 7 October 1940 AERIAL VIEW OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT LOOKING WEST. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 32. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 11 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 11 ON WAYS JUST PRIOR TO LAUNCHING. CRIB SHOWS WET SIDE SHEATHING, BLOCKING, FILLER BLOCKS, AND VERTICALS. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT WITH LOCK AND ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE NEARLY COMPLETE AND SPILLWAY UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 34. photographer unknown September 1937 ROOSEVELT ARRIVING FOR DEDICATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown September 1937 ROOSEVELT ARRIVING FOR DEDICATION OF BONNEVILLE DAM. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 39. photographer unknown undated ALL CRIBS PLACED AND SUNK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. photographer unknown undated ALL CRIBS PLACED AND SUNK IN UPSTREAM LEG OF FIRST COFFERDAM. TRUCKS CARRYING CRIB FILL. ONE DOWNSTREAM CRIB BEING ERECTED IN WAYS. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. photographer unknown undated DREDGING OVERBURDEN FROM CRIB EXCAVATION AREAS IN MAIN CHANNEL FOR FIRST STEP COFFERDAM. BRADFORD ISLAND IN BACKGROUND. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 40. photographer unknown undated ALL CRIBS PLACED AND SUNK IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. photographer unknown undated ALL CRIBS PLACED AND SUNK IN UPSTREAM LEG OF FIRST COFFERDAM. TRUCKS CARRYING CRIB FILL. ONE DOWNSTREAM CRIB BEING ERECTED IN WAYS. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 37. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. photographer unknown undated VIEW OF SOUTH COFFERDAM LOOKING TOWARD BRADFORD ISLAND. CRIB UNDER CONSTRUCTION ON WAYS IN RIVER AWAITING PLACEMENT. STEEL SHEET PILES DRIVEN ALONG RIGHT FACE OF COFFERDAM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  20. 58. photographer unknown undated TWO POTHOLES LOCATED AT POWERHOUSE SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. photographer unknown undated TWO POTHOLES LOCATED AT POWERHOUSE SITE, TO BE FILLED WITH CONCRETE. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

    2009-12-01

    This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

  2. 26. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown) from collection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown) from collection of Byron Delavan, Canandaigua, New York. HORSE, SLEIGH, AND CARRIAGE HOUSE - Hiram Lay Carriage House, Mays Point Road, Tyre, Seneca County, NY

  3. 43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). COMPLETED BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  4. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  6. Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Origin Presenting as Small Bowel Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Alkabie, Samir; Bello, Brian; Martinez, Roberto F.; Geis, W. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic malignant tumors that originate from occult primaries are defined as “cancers of unknown origin.” We herein present the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with small bowel perforation secondary to metastatic adenocarcinoma of an unknown primary site. Imaging exhibited two pulmonary nodules, neither of which was dominant, along with mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical profiling of the small bowel biopsy specimens revealed the tumor was most likely pulmonary in origin. PMID:26425638

  7. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  9. Aetiologies of Acute Undifferentiated Febrile illness in Adult Patients – an Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sohaib; Agarwal, R K; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Manish; Sharma, Shiwani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is a common clinical entity in most of the hospitals. The fever can be potentially fatal if the aetiology is not recognized and appropriately treated early. Aim To describe the aetiology of fever among patients in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Materials and Methods A one-year retro-prospective, observational study was conducted in adults (age>18years) presenting with undifferentiated febrile illness (of duration 5-14 days). Diagnosis was confirmed by suitable laboratory tests after exhaustive clinical examination. Results A total of 2547 patients with AUFI were evaluated. Of these, 1663 (65.3%) were males and 884 (34.7%) were females. Dengue (37.54%); enteric fever (16.5%); scrub typhus (14.42%); bacterial sepsis (10.3%); malaria (6.8%); hepatitis A (1.9%); hepatitis E (1.4%); leptospirosis (0.14%); were the main infections while no specific diagnosis could be delineated in 11%. Mixed infections were noted in 48 (1.9%) patients. Conclusion A good clinical acumen supported by the basic investigations can help diagnose the cause of fever with reasonable certainty. PMID:26816892

  10. Aetiology of Bacteraemia as a Risk Factor for Septic Shock at the Onset of Febrile Neutropaenia in Adult Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2014-01-01

    Septic shock (SS) at the onset of febrile neutropaenia (FN) is an emergency situation that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The impact of the specific aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the development of SS at the time of FN is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the aetiology of BSIs and SS at the time of FN in hospitalised adult cancer patients. This prospective cohort study was performed at a single tertiary hospital from October 2009 to August 2011. All adult cancer patients admitted consecutively to the haematology ward with FN were evaluated. A stepwise logistic regression was conducted to verify the association between the microbiological characteristics of BSIs and SS at the onset of FN. In total, 307 cases of FN in adult cancer patients were evaluated. There were 115 cases with documented BSI. A multivariate analysis showed that polymicrobial bacteraemia (P = 0.01) was associated with SS. The specific blood isolates independently associated with SS were viridans streptococci (P = 0.02) and Escherichia coli (P = 0.01). Neutropaenic cancer patients with polymicrobial bacteraemia or BSI by viridans streptococci or Escherichia coli are at increased risk for SS at the time of FN. PMID:24804223

  11. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years: A systematic review and meta–analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; McLean, Kenneth; Campbell, Harry; Nair, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) remains a major cause of childhood hospitalization and mortality in young children and the causal attribution of respiratory viruses in the aetiology of ALRI is unclear. We aimed to quantify the absolute effects of these viral exposures. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review (across 7 databases) of case–control studies published from 1990 to 2014 which investigated the viral profile of 18592 children under 5 years with and without ALRI. We then computed a pooled odds ratio and virus–specific attributable fraction among the exposed of 8 common viruses – respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza (IFV), parainfluenza (PIV), human metapneumovirus (MPV), adenovirus (AdV), rhinovirus (RV), bocavirus (BoV), and coronavirus (CoV). Findings From the 23 studies included, there was strong evidence for causal attribution of RSV (OR 9.79; AFE 90%), IFV (OR 5.10; AFE 80%), PIV (OR 3.37; AFE 70%) and MPV (OR 3.76; AFE 73%), and less strong evidence for RV (OR 1.43; AFE 30%) in young children presenting with ALRI compared to those without respiratory symptoms (asymptomatic) or healthy children. However, there was no significant difference in the detection of AdV, BoV, or CoV in cases and controls. Conclusions This review supports RSV, IFV, PIV, MPV and RV as important causes of ALRI in young children, and provides quantitative estimates of the absolute proportion of virus–associated ALRI cases to which a viral cause can be attributed. PMID:26445672

  12. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  13. Pica in People with Intellectual Disability: A Literature Review of Aetiology, Epidemiology and Complications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Zainab

    2001-01-01

    The epidmiology, etiology, and complications of pica in people with intellectual disability is reviewed. Studies of the prevalence of pica in institutional and community settings show lower rates in the community, although rates remain high in institutional programs. The psychological, cultural, and medical theories on etiology are explored.…

  14. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  15. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Martin, Alison; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of “anemia of unknown etiology” and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. Methods This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient’s anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities. Conclusions We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology. PMID:27310832

  16. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Sara M.; Fischer-Walker, Christa L.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Hall, Aron J.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Duarte, Ana S. R.; Black, Robert E.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the global and regional incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases caused by nine pathogens that are commonly transmitted through foods. Methods and Findings We abstracted data from systematic reviews and, depending on the overall mortality rates of the country, applied either a national incidence estimate approach or a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) approach to estimate the aetiology-specific incidence and mortality of diarrhoeal diseases, by age and region. The nine diarrhoeal diseases assessed caused an estimated 1.8 billion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.1–3.3 billion) cases and 599,000 (95% UI 472,000–802,000) deaths worldwide in 2010. The largest number of cases were caused by norovirus (677 million; 95% UI 468–1,153 million), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (233 million; 95% UI 154–380 million), Shigella spp. (188 million; 95% UI 94–379 million) and Giardia lamblia (179 million; 95% UI 125–263); the largest number of deaths were caused by norovirus (213,515; 95% UI 171,783–266,561), enteropathogenic E. coli (121,455; 95% UI 103,657–143,348), ETEC (73,041; 95% UI 55,474–96,984) and Shigella (64,993; 95% UI 48,966–92,357). There were marked regional differences in incidence and mortality for these nine diseases. Nearly 40% of cases and 43% of deaths caused by these nine diarrhoeal diseases occurred in children under five years of age. Conclusions Diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens are responsible for a large disease burden, particularly in children. These aetiology-specific burden estimates can inform efforts to reduce diarrhoeal diseases caused by these nine pathogens commonly

  17. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Ma, Song-She

    2008-02-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system. The scheme only requires a single laser beam. It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons, e.g. a thermal motion. Furthermore, it works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency. Thus, the teleportation speed is greatly increased, which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect. This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  19. A Challenge for School Leaders: Gender Equity Issues Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Joyce C.; Hatcher, Denise L.; Thomas, Jerald A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Gender roles in North American education remain a pertinent and dynamic source of discourse. Many questions concerning gender bias remain. This study attempts to characterize a nine-year period of college students' recall of episodes of gender bias from their pre-college experiences. The survey instrument used in this research consisted of a nine…

  20. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  1. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  2. When the human viral infectome and diseasome networks collide: towards a systems biology platform for the aetiology of human diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection is a major challenge towards the discovery of new antiviral drugs and susceptibility factors of human diseases. New advances in the field are expected from systems-level modelling and integration of the incessant torrent of high-throughput "-omics" data. Results Here, we describe the Human Infectome protein interaction Network, a novel systems virology model of a virtual virus-infected human cell concerning 110 viruses. This in silico model was applied to comprehensively explore the molecular relationships between viruses and their associated diseases. This was done by merging virus-host and host-host physical protein-protein interactomes with the set of genes essential for viral replication and involved in human genetic diseases. This systems-level approach provides strong evidence that viral proteomes target a wide range of functional and inter-connected modules of proteins as well as highly central and bridging proteins within the human interactome. The high centrality of targeted proteins was correlated to their essentiality for viruses' lifecycle, using functional genomic RNAi data. A stealth-attack of viruses on proteins bridging cellular functions was demonstrated by simulation of cellular network perturbations, a property that could be essential in the molecular aetiology of some human diseases. Networking the Human Infectome and Diseasome unravels the connectivity of viruses to a wide range of diseases and profiled molecular basis of Hepatitis C Virus-induced diseases as well as 38 new candidate genetic predisposition factors involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions The Human Infectome and Diseasome Networks described here provide a unique gateway towards the comprehensive modelling and analysis of the systems level properties associated to viral infection as well as candidate genes potentially involved in the molecular aetiology of human diseases. PMID

  3. Aetiology of Diarrhoea and Virulence Properties of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli among Patients and Healthy Subjects in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are one of the most important causes of illness and death all over the world. In Nigeria, the aetiology of diarrhoeagenic bacteria and the virulence of various Escherichia coli pathotypes have not been well-studied because most currently-published data were from the southwestern axis of the country. In total, 520 stool samples were collected from infants, young children, and other age-groups with acute diarrhoeal diseases in Enugu and Onitsha, southeastern Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from 250 apparently-healthy individuals, with similar age distribution and locality, who were considered control subjects. The stool samples were screened for diarrhea-causing bacterial agents. E. coli strains were isolated from both the groups and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 16 virulence genes. Of the 520 stool samples in the diarrhoea group, 119 (44.74%) were E. coli. Fifty (49.02%) were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 22 (21.57%) were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) while 7.84% was enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Sex had no effect on the distribution of diarrhoeagenic bacteria, except for EIEC. The E. coli strains isolated from the diarrhoea and healthy asymptomatic age-matched control groups examined by PCR for 16 virulence genes indicate that the detection of EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC was significantly associated with diarrhoea (p=0.0002). The study confirmed that several bacterial pathogens, such as E. coli, play an important role in the aetiology of acute diarrhoea in southeastern Nigeria. A routine surveillance, especially for diarrhoeagenic E. coli, would be useful in identifying outbreaks and help identify the potential reservoirs and transmission routes. PMID:20635635

  4. Epigenetic Influences in the Aetiology of Cancers Arising from Breast and Prostate: A Hypothesised Transgenerational Evolution in Chromatin Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently supported the notion that environmental and/or dietary factors play a central role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast and prostate. However, for more than five decades investigators have failed to identify a single cause-and-effect factor, which could be implicated; identification of a causative entity would allow the implementation of an intervention strategy in at-risk populations. This suggests a more complex pathoaetiology for these cancer sites, compared to others. When one examines the increases or decreases in incidence of specific cancers amongst migrant populations, it is notable that disease arising in colon or stomach requires one or at most two generations to exhibit a change in incidence to match that of high-incidence regions, whereas for breast or prostate cancer, at least three generations are required. This generational threshold could suggest a requirement for nonmutation-driven epigenetic alterations in the F0/F1 generations (parental/offspring adopting a more westernized lifestyle), which then predisposes the inherited genome of subsequent generations to mutagenic/genotoxic alterations leading to the development of sporadic cancer in these target sites. As such, individual susceptibility to carcinogen insult would not be based per se on polymorphisms in activating/detoxifying/repair enzymes, but on elevated accessibility of crucial target genes (e.g., oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes) or hotspots therein to mutation events. This could be termed a genomic susceptibility organizational structure (SOS). Several exposures including alcohol and heavy metals are epigens (i.e., modifiers of the epigenome), whereas others are mutagenic/genotoxic, for example, heterocyclic aromatic amines; humans are continuously and variously exposed to mixtures of these agents. Within such a transgenerational multistage model of cancer development, determining the interaction between epigenetic modification to generate

  5. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. VIEW FROM BOW SHOWING MAIN DECK AND PILOTHOUSE. NOTE BUOYS STORED ON PIER AT RIGHT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  10. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  11. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  12. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE VIEW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  16. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BRIDGE RAILWAY SAN FRANCISCO LOOP; DETAILS OF VIADUCT; FINAL REPORT; DRG. NO. 92 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING...

  3. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES'...

  4. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES'...

  5. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES'...

  6. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; SPANS YBI TO El - E9 TO El ; TYPICAL CROSSSECTION; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 82 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES AND ATTACHMENTS - WEST BAY CROSSING; SPLAY CASTINGS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; ANCHORAGE TUNNELS; CONTRACT NO. 5; DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES & ATTACHMENTS WEST BAY CROSSING; CABLE BANDS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. Severe Scratcher-Reaction: An Unknown Health Hazard?

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  20. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  1. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  2. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, April 13, 1964. View south of drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) with the destroyer U.S.S Vesole (DD-878) undergoing a fleet moderinzation and repair modernization (frame). - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6849, photographer unknown, now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6-8-49, photographer unknown, now in possession of Director, Los Angeles National Cemetery, Los Angeles, CA) MAIN ENTRANCE WITH GATEHOUSE AND WALLS, LOS ANGELES NATIONAL CEMETERY, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST ON CONSTITUTION AVENUE FROM SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD - Los Angeles National Cemetery, Gate, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  7. 24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph sketch, Artist and photographer unknown, circa 1930. Original sketch can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. ARTIST'S RENDERING OF CHANCE CONE, HUDSON COAL COMPANY, SCRANTON, PA. - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  8. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 16 September 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "VIEW OF LOG BOOM COMPOSED OF TIMBER CUT DURING CLEARING OPERATIONS OF THE RESERVOIR SITE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  10. 39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "View of control dam after failure." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  11. 38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 26 March 1915 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). " Dredge after failure of control dam." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  12. 24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. photographer unknown 28 November 1935 LOCK CHAMBER NEAR COMPLETION, SHOWING FILLING AND EMPTYING PORTS IN FLOOR AND PLACING OF STOP LOGS IN LOWER GATE RECESS. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  14. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE E. SMITH (RIGHT), ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDERS OF THE VERDE RIVER SHEEP BRIDGE AND HIS SON, B. L. 'LES' SMITH. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER JUST AS WORK ON THE DAM IS BEGINNING. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-03-16

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  18. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES RATES AND TERMS FOR DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND THE REPRODUCTION OF EPHEMERAL RECORDINGS...

  19. 2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad) photographer unknown, 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1915 PRIOR TO REMODELING - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  20. 9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  1. 6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  2. 7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  3. 5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  4. 4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  5. 8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  6. 1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Railroad), photographer unknown, 1915 HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT BEFORE REMODELING, WITH ORIGINAL FREIGHT DEPOT BEYOND - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  7. 3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915 DURING REMODELING OF DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  8. 10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic photograph (from Illinois Central Gulf Railroad), photographer unknown, ca. 1915 INTERIOR OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT, CA. 1915, AFTER REMODELING OF SECOND PASSENGER DEPOT - Illinois Central Railroad, Passenger Depot No. 2, North of First Street, east of Union Street, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  9. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  10. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  11. 10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: WEST FRONT AT NIGHT, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH: DOMED CEILING OF AUDITORIUM, Date unknown. from FOURTH CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST ARCHIVE (used with permission) E. S. Cheney and R. B. Bird, Photographers, Cheney Photo Adv. Co., Oakland, California. - Fourth Church of Christ, Scientist, 1330 Lakeshore Avenue, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  15. 42. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1950). Shows Trolley Barn in background and Administration Building on right. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  17. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  20. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  1. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING SUBSCRIPTION SERVICES'...

  2. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  5. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1940 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1940 (original print located at F.E. Warren Air Force Base Archives, Cheyenne, Wyoming). GYMNASIUM SOON AFTER COMPLETION. VIEW TO EAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  11. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  12. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 30 October 1935 TANNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 30 October 1935 TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT COMPLETE, AWAITING INSTALLATION OF RAILROAD TRACKS. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated COLLAPSIBLE FORM FOR CONCRETE AREA ON TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. NOTE: PRINT FROM 8X10 NEGATIVE - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 20. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown undated GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF AUDITORIUM BUILDING, FACING EAST. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. NOTE: PRINT FROM 8X10 NEGATIVE - Bonneville Project, Auditorium, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 3 May 1935 PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 3 May 1935 PART OF 1.4 MILLION POUNDS OF REINFORCING STEEL USED IN THE TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 28 March 1935 PIERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown 28 March 1935 PIERS AND ARCHES FOR TANNER CREEK RAILROAD VIADUCT ACROSS HATCHERY GROUNDS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. Original historic photograph located at the Bonneville Powerhouse, Bonneville, Oregon. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 15 October 1913 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Pile driver driving piling for core-wall. Moving for the next pile." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  19. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-1 #12, NEW HIGHWAY DISPLACING OLD COUNTY ROAD, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  1. 7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "A VIEW OF METHOD OF DAM CONSTRUCTION" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, August 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING DAM AFTER REMOVING OF TRESTLE" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  4. 17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  6. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF ROOF FRAMING AND TRUSSES From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  8. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF DOOR DETAILS From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown draftsman June 1908 BROWN LINE OF ORIGINAL DRAWING OF FRONT ELEVATION From the Collection of Dan Peterson, A.I.A. Architect - Santa Rosa Post Office & Federal Building, 401 Fifth Street (moved to Seventh Street), Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

  10. 48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  11. 46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE WITH NEW COMMEMORATIVE PLATE INSTALLED IN 1934. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  12. 42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  13. 45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). AIRPLANE STUNT DURING DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  14. Breast Pain: Clinical Pattern and Aetiology in a Breast Clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Egwuonwu, Ochonma A; Anyanwu, Stanley NC; Chianakwana, Gabriel U; Ihekwoaba, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with breast pain are likely to be very worried because some consider pain in the breast as an indication of malignancy. Objective: To highlight the causes of pain in the patients are presenting to our breast clinic. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of all consenting patients with breast disease presenting to the breast clinic was conducted from January 2004 to December 2008. Results: A total of 664 patients presented to the breast clinic during the study period. Of this number, 127 presented with breast pain either as the sole symptom or in association with other symptoms. The presenting complaints were a pain, pain with lump, and pain with nipple discharge in 63 (49.6%), 59 (46.4%), and 5 (4.0%) patients, respectively. The pain was noncyclical in 96 (75.6%) patients. The site of the pain was whole breast in 87 (68.5%) patients and a lump in 40 (31.5%). The clinical diagnosis in 31 (24.4%) cases was fibrocystic disease, 28 (22.0%) cancer, 23 (18.1%) unknown, 10 (7.9%) fibroadenoma, 8 (6.3%) duct ectasia, 6 (4.7%) normal breast, and others 21 (16.5%) cases benign diseases were diagnosed. The histological diagnosis was fibrocystic changes, carcinoma, and fibroadenoma in 15 (42.9%), 10 (28.6%), and 5 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Others were benign phyllodes, abscess, duct ectasia, chronic mastitis, and lipoma, each constituting 1 (2.9%) case. Conclusion: Breast pain constitutes a small proportion of complaints to our breast clinic. Fibrocystic changes were the most common cause of breast pain both clinically and histologically. PMID:27013851

  15. Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of roofline with view of remaining cupola in background; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  17. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  18. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542