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Sample records for aetiology remains unknown

  1. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  2. Characteristic Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Encephalitis of Infectious, Immune-Mediated, and Unknown Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Benedict D.; Griffiths, Michael J.; Granerod, Julia; Brown, David; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Borrow, Ray; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background Encephalitis is parenchymal brain inflammation due to infectious or immune-mediated processes. However, in 15–60% the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. Methods We measured 38 mediators in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients from the Health Protection Agency Encephalitis Study. Of serum from 78 patients, 38 had infectious, 20 immune-mediated, and 20 unknown aetiology. Of CSF from 37 patients, 20 had infectious, nine immune-mediated and eight unknown aetiology. Results Heat-map analysis of CSF mediator interactions was different for infectious and immune-mediated cases, and that of the unknown aetiology group was similar to the infectious pattern. Higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were found in infectious than immune-mediated cases, in serum and CSF (p = 0.01 and p = 0.006). Serum MPO was also higher in unknown than immune-mediated cases (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis selected serum MPO; classifying 31 (91%) as infectious (p = 0.008) and 17 (85%) as unknown (p = 0.009) as opposed to immune-mediated. CSF data also selected MPO classifying 11 (85%) as infectious as opposed to immune-mediated (p = 0.036). CSF neutrophils were detected in eight (62%) infective and one (14%) immune-mediated cases (p = 0.004); CSF MPO correlated with neutrophils (p<0.0001). Conclusions Mediator profiles of infectious aetiology differed from immune-mediated encephalitis; and those of unknown cause were similar to infectious cases, raising the hypothesis of a possible undiagnosed infectious cause. Particularly, neutrophils and MPO merit further investigation. PMID:26808276

  3. Lactase deficiency: a potential novel aetiological factor in chronic pruritus of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Sonja A; Stratmann, Ewelina; Brehler, Randolf; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2011-10-01

    Chronic pruritus, which is associated with a wide variety of underlying diseases, represents a challenge in diagnostics and treatment in dermatology and general medicine. The cause of pruritus remains unknown in up to 45% of patients. In this study, 718 patients with chronic pruritus were analysed concerning lactase deficiency, demographic data, aetiology, duration and intensity of pruritus. A total of 154 patients were tested positive for lactase deficiency and 38.3% showed a significant anti-pruritic response to a lactose-free diet (minimum 4 weeks). The best results were observed in patients with pruritus of mixed or unknown origin (n = 91; 64% response). Age, sex, localization or duration had no significant influence on the anti-pruritic effect of a lactose-free diet. Lactase deficiency might be an independent causal factor in the elicitation of chronic pruritus. Thus, screening for lactase deficiency represents a rational step in the diagnostic work-up of chronic pruritus. In case of a positive test result, a lactose-free diet offers a low-cost, efficient and specific therapy in patients with chronic pruritus.

  4. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  5. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  6. Prognostic factors for 1-week survival in dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; Van Ham, L; De Decker, S

    2016-08-01

    Although long-term outcomes of meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) in dogs have been evaluated, little is known about short-term survival and initial response to therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible prognostic factors for 7-day survival after diagnosis of MUA in dogs. Medical records were reviewed for dogs diagnosed with MUA between 2006 and 2015. Previously described inclusion criteria were used, as well as 7-day survival data for all dogs. A poor outcome was defined as death within 1 week. Of 116 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 30 (26%) died within 7 days of diagnosis. Assessed variables included age, sex, bodyweight, duration of clinical signs and treatment prior to diagnosis, venous blood glucose and lactate levels, white blood cell count on complete blood count, total nucleated cell count/total protein concentration/white blood cell differentiation on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, presence of seizures and cluster seizures, mentation at presentation, neuroanatomical localisation, imaging findings and treatment after diagnosis. Multivariate analysis identified three variables significantly associated with poor outcome; decreased mentation at presentation, presence of seizures, and increased percentage of neutrophils on CSF analysis. Despite initiation of appropriate treatment, more than a quarter of dogs died within 1 week of diagnosis of MUA, emphasising the need for evaluation of short-term prognostic factors. Information from this study could aid clinical staff to provide owners of affected dogs with prognostic information. PMID:27387733

  7. Prospective screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in children with mental retardation of unknown aetiology: the Amsterdam experience

    PubMed Central

    van Karnebeek, C D M; Koevoets, C; Sluijter, S; Bijlsma, E; Smeets, D; Redeker, E; Hennekam, R; Hoovers, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements in patients with unexplained mental retardation (MR) is uncertain, as most studies have been retrospective and case retrieval may have been biased towards cases more likely to have a chromosome anomaly. To ascertain the frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, including subtelomeric rearrangements, we prospectively screened a consecutive cohort of cases with unexplained MR in an academic tertiary centre. Methods: Inclusion criteria were: age <18 years at referral, IQ<85, no aetiological diagnosis after complete examination, which included karyotyping with high resolution banding (HRB). Results: In 266 karyotyped children, anomalies were detected in 20 (7.5%, seven numerical, 13 structural); 39 cases were analysed by FISH for specific interstitial microdeletions, and anomalies were found in nine (23%). FISH analyses for subtelomeric microdeletions were performed in 184 children (44% moderate-profound MR, 51% familial MR), and one rearrangement (0.5%) was identified in a non-familial MR female with mild MR (de novo deletion 12q24.33-qter). The number of probable polymorphisms was considerable: 2qter (n=7), Xpter (n=3), and Ypter (n=1). A significantly higher total number of malformations and minor anomalies was present in the cytogenetic anomaly group compared to the group without cytogenetic anomalies. Conclusions: The total frequency of cytogenetic anomalies in this prospective study was high (1:10), but the frequency of subtelomeric rearrangements was low. The most likely explanations are the high quality of HRB cytogenetic studies and the lack of clinical selection bias. Conventional cytogenetic analyses, combined with targeted microdeletion testing, remain the single most effective way of additional investigation in mentally retarded children, also in a tertiary centre. PMID:12161591

  8. Aetiologic Agents of Fevers of Unknown Origin among Patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EGBE, Christopher Aye; ENABULELE, Onaiwu Idahosa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria parasitaemia is an important predictor of bacteremia, concomitant invasive bacterial infections and malaria parasitaemia are strongly associated with death. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 500 patients (281 males and 219 females) with fevers of unknown origin. The blood samples were processed to diagnose malaria and bacterial septicaemia using standard microbiological techniques. Results: The prevalence of concomitant bacterial septicaemia and malaria parasitaemia was 7.8%. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia alone (26.2%) was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher than that of bacterial septicaemia (13%). Patients 61 years old and older had higher prevalences of malaria parasitaemia, bacterial septicaemia, and concomitant infections. The most prevalent organism causing bacterial septicaemia were of the Klebsiella species, while ceftriaxone and ceftazidime were the most effective antibacterial agents. Conclusion: Overall prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, septicaemia and concomitant malaria parasitaemia, and bacterial septicaemia were 26.2%, 13%, and 7.8%, respectively. Bacteria from the Klebsiella species were the most common bacteria causing septicaemia. Although ceftriaxone and ceftazidime are the recommended treatments, there is need for urgent treatment of concomitant infections due to their poor prognosis. PMID:24639610

  9. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  10. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail. PMID:25516860

  11. Feasibility and Outcomes of Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification on Buccal Smears as a Screening Method for Microdeletions and Duplications among 300 Adults with an Intellectual Disability of Unknown Aetiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppink, D.; Douma-Kloppenburg, D. D.; de Rooij-Askes, E. S. P.; van Zoest, I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Gille, J. J. P.; van Hagen, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Determining the aetiology of intellectual disability (ID) enables anticipation of specific comorbidity and can thus be beneficial. Blood sampling, however, is considered stressful for people with ID. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a non-invasive screening technique of nine microdeletions/duplications among adults with ID of…

  12. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  13. Incidence, aetiology, and outcome of non-traumatic coma: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C; Forsyth, R; Kelly, T; Eyre, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine the incidence, presentation, aetiology, and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children aged between 1 month and 16years.
METHODS—In this prospective, population based, epidemiological study in the former Northern NHS region of the UK, cases were notified following any hospital admission or community death associated with non-traumatic coma. Coma was defined as a Glasgow Coma Score below 12 for more than six hours.
RESULTS—The incidence of non-traumatic coma was 30.8 per 100 000 children under 16 per year (6.0 per 100 000 general population per year). The age specific incidence was notably higher in the first year of life (160 per 100 000 children per year). CNS specific presentations became commoner with increasing age. In infants, nearly two thirds of presentations were with non-specific, systemic signs. Infection was the commonest overall aetiology. Aetiology remained unknown in 14% despite extensive investigation and/or autopsy. Mortality was highly dependent on aetiology, with aetiology specific mortality rates varying from 3% to 84%. With follow up to approximately 12 months, overall series mortality was 46%.

 PMID:11207161

  14. Aetiology of chronic constrictive pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Blake, S; Bonar, S; O'Neill, H; Hanly, P; Drury, I; Flanagan, M; Garrett, J

    1983-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 32 cases of chronic constrictive pericarditis treated by pericardiectomy during the past 25 years, four were attributable to rheumatoid disease, two to trauma, one to sarcoidosis, and four, at a maximum, to tuberculosis. In the remaining 21 cases of undetermined aetiology there was no evidence of tuberculosis. It appears, therefore, that tuberculosis was not a common cause of chronic constrictive pericarditis during the period under review, which included the 1950s and early 1960s when tuberculosis was widespread. PMID:6615663

  15. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  16. Comparison of the aetiology of stillbirth over five decades in a single centre: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wou, Karen; Ouellet, Marie-Pier; Chen, Moy-Fong; Brown, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the rates and aetiologies of stillbirth over the past 50 years. Study design We reviewed all autopsy reports for stillbirths occurring between 1989 and 2009 at the McGill University Health Centre to determine the pathological aetiology of stillbirths. We also reviewed maternal characteristics. We compared our results with a previous study published in 1992 on aetiologies of stillbirth from 1961 to 1988 at the same institution. Results From among the 79 410 births between 1989 and 2009, 217 stillbirths were included in our study. The mean maternal age was 31.05 (±5.8) years. In 28.1% of cases, there was a history of subfertility. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32.69 (±5.58) weeks, with a birthweight of 1888 (±1084) g. The main causes of stillbirth were unknown (26.7%), placental factors (19.8%) and abruptio placentae (12.9%). Other causes included haematogenous or ascending infection (10.6%), fetal malformations (8.3%), maternal hypertension (3.2%), intrauterine growth restriction (2.8%), diabetes (1.8%) and intrapartum asphyxia (1.4%). Other fetal causes were found in 12.4% of cases. Conclusions Owing to detailed pathological examination of most stillbirth cases over the past five decades at our tertiary obstetrical centre, we could study the trends in the aetiology of stillbirths in a cohort of more than 150 000 births. In 50 years, the rate of stillbirth has decreased from 115 to 32 cases/10 000 births from the 1960s to 2000s, which represents a reduction of 72%. Stillbirth from unknown cause remains the most common contributor, with 40% of these cases occurring in late pregnancy. PMID:24902725

  17. Aetiology of childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Eden, Tim

    2010-06-01

    The acute leukaemias account for about 30% of all malignancy seen in childhood across the Western world. A peak incidence of precursor B cell ALL has emerged as socio-economic conditions have improved in countries worldwide. From twin studies and the use of neonatal blood spots it has been possible to back track the first initiating genetic events within critical haemopoietic cells to foetal development in utero for most precursor B cell ALL and some cases of AML. These events may occur as part of normal foetal development. Whether other factors (environmental or constitutional) are involved to increase the chance of these first genetic changes happening is unclear. For some leukaemias (e.g. infant MLL positive ALL) the first event appears adequate to create a malignant clone but for the majority of ALL and AML further 'genetic' changes are required, probably postnatal. Many environmental factors have been proposed as causative for leukaemia but only ionising irradiation and certain chemicals, e.g. benzene and cytotoxics (alkylators and topoisomerase II inhibitors) have been confirmed and then principally for acute myeloid leukaemia. It appears increasingly likely that delayed, dysregulated responses to 'common' infectious agents play a major part in the conversion of pre-leukaemic clones into overt precursor B cell ALL, the most common form of childhood leukaemia. Constitutional polymorphic alleleic variants in immune response genes (especially the HLA Class II proteins) and cytokines may play a role in determining the type of immune response. High penetrance germ-line mutations are involved in only about 5% of childhood leukaemias (more in AML than ALL). There is little evidence to support any role of viral transformation in causation, unlike in animals. Other environmental factors for which some evidence exists include non-ionising electromagnetic radiation and electric fields, although their mode of action in leukaemogenesis remains unclear. There is no single

  18. Pyrexia: aetiology in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Laupland, Kevin B

    2016-01-01

    Elevation in core body temperature is one of the most frequently detected abnormal signs in patients admitted to adult ICUs, and is associated with increased mortality in select populations of critically ill patients. The definition of an elevated body temperature varies considerably by population and thermometer, and is commonly defined by a temperature of 38.0 °C or greater. Terms such as hyperthermia, pyrexia, and fever are often used interchangeably. However, strictly speaking hyperthermia refers to the elevation in body temperature that occurs without an increase in the hypothalamic set point, such as in response to specific environmental (e.g., heat stroke), pharmacologic (e.g., neuroleptic malignant syndrome), or endocrine (e.g., thyrotoxicosis) stimuli. On the other hand, pyrexia and fever refer to the classical increase in body temperature that occurs in response to a vast list of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies in association with an increase in the hypothalamic set point. In this review, we examine the contemporary literature investigating the incidence and aetiology of pyrexia and hyperthermia among medical and surgical patients admitted to adult ICUs with or without an acute neurological condition. A temperature greater than 41.0 °C, although occasionally observed among patients with infectious or noninfectious pyrexia, is more commonly observed in patients with hyperthermia. Most episodes of pyrexia are due to infections, but incidence estimates of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies are limited by studies with small sample size and inconsistent reporting of noninfectious aetiologies. Pyrexia commonly triggers a full septic work-up, but on its own is a poor predictor of culture-positivity. In order to improve culturing practices, and better guide the diagnostic approach to critically ill patients with pyrexia, additional research is required to provide more robust estimates of the incidence of infectious and noninfectious aetiologies

  19. The multiple aetiology of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Infectious hepatitis is epidemiologically and immunologically distinct from serum hepatitis. The Australia antigen is related more specifically to serum hepatitis. The possible role of coronavirus—and paramyxovirus-like particles in the aetiology of some infections of the liver in man and in marmosets inoculated with human infectious hepatitis material is discussed and the difficulties in the interpretation of the currently available data are emphasized. The recent studies in Melbourne of a faecal antigen found in some patients with infectious hepatitis and the discovery of an antiserum in Milan which reacted with an antigen associated with epidemic hepatitis are discussed. Mention is made of the recent isolation in Detroit-6 cells of virus-like particles from patients with infectious hepatitis. It is concluded that viral hepatitis is an infection of multiple aetiology and that the successful cultivation in vitro of the agent or agents of hepatitis remains the outstanding and most urgent problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4327058

  20. Prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of bronchiectasis: a retrospective study on 144 symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Scala, R; Aronne, D; Palumbo, U; Montella, L; Giacobbe, R; Martucci, P; Del Prato, B

    2000-04-01

    The incidence of bronchiectasis (BCT) has probably decreased in developed countries in recent years, but reliable statistical data on its occurrence are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence, age distribution and aetiology of BCT, diagnosed in a selected series of symptomatic patients of a Western country by using bronchography. The authors analysed the main known predisposing and associated conditions (PACs), and the occurrence and age distribution of BCT in 144 consecutive patients who underwent bronchological examination (fibreoptic bronchoscopy and bronchography) in the years 1987-1994 because of recurrent purulent bronchitis and/or haemoptysis. The overall prevalence of BCT was 34% (49/144); its age distribution was: 17.2% (0-10 yrs), 43.7% (11-20 yrs), 38% (21-30 yrs), 37.5% (31-40 yrs), 33.3% (41-50 yrs), 40% (51-60 yrs), and 20% (61-70 yrs). Thirty-one PACs were found in 29/144 patients of the whole study group. The prevalence of BCT was significantly higher in the subgroup of 29 patients with PACs than in the subgroup of 115 patients without PACs (75.9% versus 23.5%; p < 0000001). The aetiology of BCT was mainly unexplained, as it was only possible to detect 24 PACs in 22/49 patients with BCT (44.9%): congenital, genetic and immune disorders (eight), localized airways obstructive diseases (five), pulmonary infections (three), bronchial asthma (two), pulmonary lobar fibrosis (two), ulcerative colitis (two), dermatomiositis (one), and toxin inhalation (one). The authors conclude that bronchiectasis still occurs in a large percentage of symptomatic patients of a developed country in the post-antimicrobial era, especially in the second to sixth decades, as well as in the presence of predisposing and associated conditions; its aetiology remains unknown in more than half of cases.

  1. 21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown TWO RUSSIAN CANNONS OUTSIDE OF FORT ENTRANCE - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown EXTERIOR CORNER WALLS SHOWING RAMPART AND CANNONS - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Omental cakes: unusual aetiologies and CT appearances.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark Daniel; Vansonnenberg, Eric; Shankar, Sridhar; Silverman, Stuart G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Omental cakes typically are associated with ovarian carcinoma, as this is the most common malignant aetiology. Nonetheless, numerous other neoplasms, as well as infectious and benign processes, can produce omental cakes. METHODS: A broader knowledge of the various causes of omental cakes is valuable diagnostically and to direct appropriate clinical management. RESULTS: We present a spectrum of both common and unusual aetiologies that demonstrate the variable computed tomographic appearances of omental cakes. CONCLUSION: The anatomy and embryology are discussed, as well as the importance of biopsy when the aetiology of omental cakes is uncertain.

  4. Softball injuries. Aetiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Janda, D H; Wild, D E; Hensinger, R N

    1992-04-01

    Over 40 million individuals nationally participate in organised softball leagues, playing an estimated 23 million games per year in the United States. It has also been estimated that softball causes more injuries leading to emergency room visits in the United States than any other sport. Between 1983 and 1989, over 2.6 million injuries were documented through selected emergency rooms throughout the United States. In addition, the potential costs of these injuries can be staggering, therefore, prevention is of utmost importance. Prior to implementation of any preventative measures, the aetiology and distribution of injuries must be ascertained. Softball-related injuries can be grouped into 3 categories: (a) sliding-related injuries--the most common injury scenario; (b) collision-related injuries; and (c) falls sustained by the player. Various preventative approaches have been utilised to reduce the incidence of these recreational sports injuries and the associated health care costs. In regard to sliding-related injuries, breakaway bases have been utilised and have been found to reduce sliding-related injuries by approximately 98%. In reference to collision injuries, deformable walls and padded back stops and field maintenance have been found to prevent the majority of injuries secondary to collisions and falls. In addition, better coaching techniques as well as stretching and conditioning programmes have all been found to benefit players in the prevention of their injuries. As physicians, trainers and individuals involved with sporting activities, it is imperative that we turn and focus our attention on prevention. The cornerstone to diminished injuries and subsequent prevention of an injury is a safer environment for the recreational softball player to participate in.

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Alvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-10-23

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  7. [Advances in the identification of the aetiology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González, Gabriel; Raggio, Víctor; Boidi, María; Tapié, Alejandra; Roche, Leda

    2013-09-01

    Despite the advances made in the field of genetics, neuroimaging and metabolic diseases, half the children with mental retardation remain without an aetiological diagnosis. A genetic base is estimated to be present in 40% of cases, environmental teratogens and prematurity in 20%, metabolic diseases in 1-5% and multifactor causes in 3-12%. The family history, the detailed medical records required by dysmorphology and the neurological examination will make it possible to establish or suspect a diagnosis in two thirds of the cases and, in the others, scanning tests will be able to confirm an aetiology. The order of the studies will be guided by the clinical picture: karyotype if a chromosome pathology is suspected, neuroimaging if there is some abnormality in the neurological examination and specific genetic or neurometabolic studies to confirm the clinical presumption. The estimated diagnostic performance of the different techniques is: karyotype, 9%; fragile X, 5%; subtelomeric abnormalities, 4%; neurometabolic diseases, 1%, and new microarray techniques, 19%. As a result of the higher performance and cost-benefit ratio, today the recommended procedure, as the first line of treatment for unexplainable cases of mental retardation, is the study of microarrays. Although the outcomes of these tests are complex and require confirmation and careful interpretation by a specialist in medical genetics, the advances in their technological development and resolution, together with lower costs make this technique a fundamental tool in the identification of the aetiology in these children.

  8. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  9. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  10. Aetiology, pathogenesis, and pathology of cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Arends, M J; Buckley, C H; Wells, M

    1998-01-01

    Early epidemiological studies of cervical neoplasia suggested a causal relation with sexual activity and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have emerged as prime suspects as venerally transmitted carcinogens. HPVs fall into two broad camps: low risk types, associated with cervical condylomas and CIN 1; and high risk types (mostly 16 and 18), found in 50-80% of CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions, and 90% of cancers. This association with cancer is very strong, with odds ratios of > 15 (often much higher) in case-control studies that are methodologically sound. An infrequently detected third group of intermediate risk type HPVs is associated with all grades of CIN and occasionally with cancers. HPVs have also been detected in a wide range of asymptomatic controls, indicating that other events are required for development of neoplasia such as viral persistence and/or altered expression of viral genes, often following integration of the viral genome. This leaves the two major viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, directly coupled to viral enhancers and promoters, allowing their continued expression after integration. High risk HPV E7 proteins bind and inactivate the Rb protein, whereas E6 proteins bind p53 and direct its rapid degradation. A range of putative cofactors has been implicated in progression: HLA type, immunosuppression, sex steroid hormones, and smoking; most of these cofactors appear to influence progression to CIN 3. The natural history includes progression to CIN 3 in 10% of CIN 1 and 20% of CIN 2 cases, whereas at least 12% of CIN 3 cases progress to invasive carcinoma. Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) often coexists with squamous CIN, and the premalignant potential of high grade CGIN is not in doubt, but the natural history of low grade CGIN remains uncertain. A high proportion of CGIN lesions and adenocarcinomas are HPV positive, and HPV18 has been implicated more in glandular than in squamous lesions. A strong clinical case for the application of HPV

  11. Aetiology of colorectal cancer and relevance of monogenic inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Ponz de Leon, M; Benatti, P; Borghi, F; Pedroni, M; Scarselli, A; Di Gregorio, C; Losi, L; Viel, A; Genuardi, M; Abbati, G; Rossi, G; Menigatti, M; Lamberti, I; Ponti, G; Roncucci, L

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Although diet and lifestyle are associated with the development of colorectal malignancies, the only clearly identified aetiological factors in colorectal cancer are inheritance (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial polyposis), inflammatory bowel diseases, papillomavirus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our aim was to determine what proportion of colorectal neoplasms could be attributed to these specific factors. Patients and methods: Data from a colorectal cancer registry were analysed over a 15 year period, during which nearly 2500 cases were recorded. In patients with suspected HNPCC, microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical expression of proteins encoded by the main DNA mismatch repair genes were assessed. In families with unstable neoplasms, constitutional mutations of the mismatch repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, and hMSH6 were evaluated by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Results: Inflammatory bowel diseases, familial polyposis, and AIDS were rare causes of colorectal cancer (three, three, and one case, respectively). Anal squamous carcinoma developed in 27 patients (1.0%) and could be attributed to papillomavirus infection. In 58 patients (from 34 families) a clinical diagnosis of HNPCC was established (2.4%). In total, cases with a known aetiology were 92 (3.7% of all patients). Microsatellite instability was detected in 15 cancers from HNPCC families, and germline mutations in six families (12 patients, 0.5% of the total). Families with unstable tumours, with or without mutations, were clinically similar, suggesting the involvement of the mismatch repair system even when mutations were not detected. Conclusions: The study suggests that the aetiology of colorectal malignancies remains elusive in the large majority of cases. Among specific causes, HNPCC represents the most frequent. However, with a population based approach, constitutional mutations of the

  12. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    PubMed

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome. PMID:15941725

  13. Unusual aetiology of malignant spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Boland, Jason; Rennick, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is an oncological emergency requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment to prevent irreversible spinal cord injury and disability. A case is described in a 45-year-old male with renal cell carcinoma in which the presentation of the MSCC was atypical with principally proximal left leg weakness with no evidence of bone metastasis. This was due to an unusual aetiology of the MSCC as the renal carcinoma had metastasised to his left psoas muscle causing a lumbosacral plexopathy and infiltrated through the intervertebral disc spaces, initially causing left lateral cauda equina and upper lumbar cord compression, before complete spinal cord compression. This case illustrates the varied aetiology of MSCC and reinforces the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion of the possibility of spinal cord compression. PMID:24644568

  14. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism. PMID:27213061

  15. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

  16. The aetiology of deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malone, P C; Agutter, P S

    2006-09-01

    Most ideas about the pathogenesis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are dominated by a 'consensus model' first articulated around 1962. This model invokes 'Virchow's triad' and attributes thrombogenesis in veins to some combination of 'hypercoagulability', 'stasis' and 'intimal injury'. This arose as a by-product of studies on the mechanisms of haemostasis and bleeding diatheses that were at best only indirectly relevant to thrombosis, and there are reasons for doubting the causal significance of 'hypercoagulability' and 'stasis' in the aetiology of DVT. Proponents of the consensus model make little reference to a substantial literature, mostly historical, that: (a) emphasizes the significance of the venous valve pockets (VVP) and blood rheology in DVT pathogenesis; and (b) describes morphological features specific to venous thrombi that a valid aetiological model must explain. This literature provides the basis for an alternative hypothesis of DVT aetiology, published some 30 years ago, which has been experimentally corroborated and is compatible with recent cell and molecular biological studies of the venous endothelium. We review this alternative hypothesis, considering its potential value for future research on DVT and embolism, and its significance for clinical practice.

  17. Parental quality of life in complex paediatric neurologic disorders of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    van Nimwegen, K J M; Kievit, W; van der Wilt, G J; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Donders, A R T; Verhaak, C M; Grutters, J P C

    2016-09-01

    Complex paediatric neurology (CPN) patients generally present with non-specific symptoms, such as developmental delay, impaired movement and epilepsy. The diagnostic trajectory in these disorders is usually complicated and long-lasting, and may be burdensome to the patients and their parents. Additionally, as caring for a chronically ill child can be stressful and demanding, parents of these patients may experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aims to assess parental HRQoL and factors related to it in CPN. Physical and mental HRQoL of 120 parents was measured and compared to the general population using the SF-12 questionnaire. Parents also completed this questionnaire for the measurement of patient HRQoL. Additional questionnaires were used to measure parental uncertainty (Visual Analogue Scale) and worry phenomena (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and to obtain socio-demographic data. A linear mixed model with random effect was used to investigate which of these variables were associated with parental HRQoL. As compared to the general population, HRQoL of these parents appeared diminished. Fathers showed both lowered physical (51.76, p < 0.05) and mental (49.41, p < 0.01) HRQoL, whereas mothers only showed diminished mental (46.46, p < 0.01) HRQoL. Patient HRQoL and parental worry phenomena were significantly correlated with overall and mental parental HRQoL. The reduction in parental mental HRQoL is alarming, also because children strongly rely on their parents and parental mental health is known to influence children's health. Awareness of these problems among clinicians, and supportive care if needed are important to prevent exacerbation of the problems. PMID:27321953

  18. A putative role for Toxocara species in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Theorell, Töres

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of unknown aetiology. The finding of monoclonal antibodies in MS has been attributed to various infectious agents. Nematodes, such as Toxocara species have not been explored as possible aetiologic agents of MS. Some epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to stress and household pets prior to the diagnosis of MS. In a case known to the authors, slight malaise and eosinophilia in peripheral blood preceded the diagnosis of MS by one year in a middle-aged man who lived in rural surroundings with cats in the household. The ubiquitary parasite Toxocara catis or canis is prevalent and serum antibodies are found regularly in populations examined. It is able to develop into the larval stage in human beings. The hypothesis presented here is that MS could be initiated by such infections in previously unexposed subjects under conditions of long-term stress. PMID:15193348

  19. Aetiology of bovine abortion in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Moore, D P; Odeón, A C; Cipolla, A L; Odriozola, E

    2003-07-01

    Necropsies were performed on 354 fetuses from dairy and beef herds submitted from 1994 to 2000 to the diagnostic laboratories at Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Balcarce, Argentina. Samples from the fetuses were examined for pathogenic organisms and processed for microscopic examination. An aetiological diagnosis was made for 161 (45.5%) of the fetuses. No diagnosis was made for 193 (54.5%) fetuses. Infectious agents were isolated from 122 (34.4%) of the fetuses, bacterial agents being involved in 80 (22.6%) of these. The most common bacterial agents isolated from the fetuses were Brucella abortus in 28 fetuses, Campylobacter fetus in 26 cases, and Escherichia coli in 9 cases. Bovine herpesvirus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus were found in 9 and 6 cases, respectively. Neospora caninum was detected by an immunohistochemical technique in 26 cases (7.3%). Congenital abnormalities, dystocia and mummifications were found in 8, 19 and 11 cases, respectively.

  20. Does dermatoneuro syndrome have a viral aetiology?

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Mughal, A A; Paulus, J; Salamat, A; Howarth, S

    2016-01-01

    Scleromyxoedema is a rare disease characterized by a generalized papular and sclerodermoid cutaneous eruption. It is associated with fibroblast proliferation and mucin deposition in the dermis. Most patients have a monoclonal gammopathy, defined by the presence of IgG. Treatment of scleromyxoedema is challenging, but there is mounting evidence to support the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Individual reports of systemic complications have been described. Dermatoneuro syndrome (DNS) is a rare but sometimes fatal manifestation, which consists of a triad of fever, coma and seizures preceded by a flu-like illness. We describe a patient with scleromyxoedema who developed DNS. Our case highlights interesting findings suggesting that DNS may have a viral aetiology. In addition, this case demonstrates a favourable response of the cutaneous features of scleromyxoedema to IVIg.

  1. Peptidoglycan: a major aetiological factor for psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Baker, Barbara S; Powles, Anne; Fry, Lionel

    2006-12-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), a major cell-wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, has been detected within antigen-presenting cells in various inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. The additional presence of T-helper 1 cells specific for streptococcal or staphylococcal PG in psoriasis skin lesions implicates PG as an important T-cell stimulator for the disease. PG is a major target for the innate immune system, and associations between genetic polymorphisms of recognition receptors for PG and various auto-inflammatory diseases have been identified. The location of these genes within four linkage sites for psoriasis raises the possibility that an altered innate recognition of PG might contribute to the enhanced T-cell response to the bacterial antigen. These observations suggest that PG is a major aetiological factor for psoriasis and emphasize the importance of PG in bacterial-infection-induced inflammatory disease.

  2. Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Soile; Grosche, Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Arsenic, one of the most significant hazards in the environment affecting millions of people around the world, is associated with several diseases including cancers of skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney and liver. Groundwater contamination by arsenic is the main route of exposure. Inhalation of airborne arsenic or arsenic-contaminated dust is a common health problem in many ore mines. This review deals with the questions raised in the epidemiological studies such as the dose-response relationship, putative confounders and synergistic effects, and methods evaluating arsenic exposure. Furthermore, it describes the metabolic pathways of arsenic, and its biological modes of action. The role of arsenic in the development of cancer is elucidated in the context of combined epidemiological and biological studies. However, further analyses by means of molecular epidemiology are needed to improve the understanding of cancer aetiology induced by arsenic.

  3. Midline diastema and its aetiology--a review.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Treating the midline diastema is a matter of concern for practitioners, as many different aetiologies are reported to be associated with it. The appearance of midline diastema as part of the normal dental development makes it difficult for practitioners to decide whether to intervene or not at an early stage. The aim of this article is to review the possible aetiology and management options which will help the clinician to diagnose, intercept and to take effective action to correct the midline diastema. The available data shows that an early intervention is desirable in cases with large diastemas. Treatment modality, timing and retention protocol depends on the aetiology of the diastema. Therefore, priority needs to be given to diagnosing the aetiology before making any treatment decisions. Clinical Relevance: This article aims to determine and evaluate the aetiology and possible treatment options of midline diastema.

  4. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up.

  5. Aetiology and presentation of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: report of 23 cases from Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Seidu Adebayo; Aluko Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Abayomi Ademola; Ajike, Sunday O

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reviewed the management of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but only a few focused on the aetiology and clinical features. We retrospectively studied the aetiology and clinical features of patients with ankylosis of the TMJ who presented to the Maxillofacial Unit, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2009. There were 13 male and 10 female patients, M:F ratio 1.3:1, age range 6-62, mean (SD) 20 (13) years. The aetiological factors were trauma (n=11) that comprised falls (n=6), untreated fractures of the zygomatic arch (n=4) and myositis ossificans (n=1); infection (n=9), that comprised cancrum oris (n=3) and ear infection (n=6); congenital or unknown (n=2), and coronoid hyperplasia (n=1). The maximum interincisal distance at presentation ranged from 0 to 25 mm (mean (SD) 6.7 (7.2) mm). Seventeen had facial deformities. The diagnoses recorded were as follows: left extracapsular ankylosis, (n=8); right intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=6); left intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4); bilateral intracapsular bony ankylosis, (n=4), and bilateral intracapsular fibrous ankylosis (n=1). Extreme poverty was the main predisposing factor. There is a need for a concerted effort among healthcare providers, policy makers, and the world in general to eradicate poverty and improve healthcare to limit the incidence of ankylosis of the TMJ.

  6. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  7. Nocturia: aetiology and treatment in adults.

    PubMed

    Dani, Hasan; Esdaille, Ashanda; Weiss, Jeffrey P

    2016-10-01

    Nocturia is an extremely common condition that has major sequelae for affected patients. Through disruption of sleep, nocturia impairs quality of life and worsens health outcomes, and is associated with a variety of morbidities including diabetes, coronary artery disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and depression. Unsurprisingly, several studies have also linked nocturia with reduced survival. Nocturia is not simply a consequence of lower urinary tract disease; rather, it is a multifactorial disorder that is often a manifestation of an underlying renal or systemic disease. Through the use of the frequency volume chart, clinicians can accurately quantify nocturia and determine its aetiology. Evaluation of quality of life and sleep using simple measures is essential in order to assess the impact of nocturia on a patient. Numerous treatment options for nocturia exist, but most are associated with minor benefit or lack sufficient evidence supporting their use. By systematically analysing an individual's causes of nocturia, clinicians can design appropriate treatment strategies to most effectively treat this condition.

  8. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  9. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  10. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  11. Pyrexia of unknown origin: causes, investigation and management.

    PubMed

    Beresford, R W; Gosbell, I B

    2016-09-01

    Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) is a syndrome that has long tested the skills of physicians to achieve a diagnosis in affected patients. By definition, patients included in this syndrome will be more difficult to diagnose as they have already resisted classification during baseline investigations. Furthermore, investigation of PUO requires knowledge of many diseases across a range of clinical specialties, as well as knowledge of less commonly used investigative tools. As both society and medicine continue to change, the aetiology and epidemiology of the diseases that cause PUO also change. For these reasons, it is important for physicians to approach PUO in a logical manner, and for the causes and approach to PUO to be continuously reviewed. In this article, we review the aetiology of PUO and the diagnostic strategies that may be used to investigate it. PMID:27633467

  12. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  13. 32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, Date unknown STEEL WORK DETAILS, WEST END OF BANKING ROOM, STAIR LANDINGS - Anglo & London Paris National Bank, One Sansome Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW FROM RAILROAD TRACKS LOOKING NORTHWEST - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  15. Acquired hemophilia a: diagnosis, aetiology, clinical spectrum and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Bhave, Manali; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2011-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per million/year with a high mortality rate of more than 20%. The disease occurs due to autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) which neutralize its procoagulant function and result in severe, often life-threatening bleeding. The antibodies arise in individuals with no prior history of hemophilia A. AHA may be associated with pregnancy, autoimmune diseases, malignancy, infections or medication and occurs most commonly in the elderly. Approximately 50% of the patients remain idiopathic with no known underlying pathological condition. Clinical manifestations include spontaneous hemorrhages into the skin, muscles or soft tissues or excessive bleeding during surgery. Hemarthrosis which is the hallmark of congenital severe hemophilia A seldom occurs in AHA. The diagnosis of AHA is based on the isolated prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) which does not normalize after the addition of normal plasma along with reduced FVIII levels. The treatment involves two aspects-eradication of antibodies and maintaining effective hemostasis during a bleeding episode. The protocols for eradication of antibodies include immunoadsorption, immunosuppression or immune tolerance induction (ITI). The treatment of acute bleeding episodes involves use of different bypassing agents like recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC, (FEIBA®) in case of patients with high titer inhibitors or with antifibrinolytics,1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) or FVIII concentrates in low titer inhibitor patients. The anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, has shown very good results either singly or in combination with immunosuppressive regimens in patients who do not respond to standard immunosuppressors. The present review summarizes the diagnostic, aetiological, clinical and treatment aspects of AHA focusing

  16. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  17. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nayan; Johnson, Karlon; Ghaly, Sabry

    2003-11-01

    This is a case study of a 26-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an initial complaint of fevers, chills and generalized weakness for three weeks. Patient reported a classical history of diurnal fever with temperature spikes as high as 105.8F after returning from a trip to Guatemala. His symptoms had waxed and waned for 3 weeks. This case study will focus on the initial presentation, value of complete history and physical exam, use of laboratory data and use of specialized diagnostic procedures in the outpatient setting. This case proves to be highly relevant to primary care in the context of treating patients with fevers of unknown etiology. Primary care physicians should be alert for unusual diseases in patients who are returning from foreign travel. Malaria is a potentially fatal disease that can be acquired by travelers to certain areas of the world, primarily developing nations. Transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, malaria usually presents with fever and a vague systemic illness. The disease is diagnosed by demonstration of Plasmodium organisms on a specially prepared blood film. This case study speaks to the importance of prompt work up and treatment of fever of unknown origin that presents in an unusual clinical picture or that is not readily explainable.

  18. Aetiology and treatment of chylous ascites.

    PubMed

    Browse, N L; Wilson, N M; Russo, F; al-Hassan, H; Allen, D R

    1992-11-01

    A series of 45 patients with chylous ascites has been reviewed. The age at presentation ranged from 1 to 80 (median 12) years; 23 patients were aged < or = 15 years. Thirty-five patients had an abnormality of the lymphatics (primary chylous ascites); in the remaining ten, the ascites was secondary to other conditions, principally non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (six patients). Two principal mechanisms of ascites formation were identified using lymphangiography and inspection at laparotomy: leakage from retroperitoneal megalymphatics, usually through a visible lymphoperitoneal fistula (14 patients); and leakage from dilated subserosal lymphatics of the small intestine, invariably associated with leaking lacteals causing protein-losing enteropathy (24 patients). Both sites of leakage were present in a further five patients. In the remaining two patients, chyle was leaking from normal mesenteric lymphatics, in one via a ruptured mesenteric lymph cyst and in the other from the site of a previous lymph node biopsy. Other associated lymphatic abnormalities were present in 36 patients, lymphoedema of the leg being the commonest (26 patients). All patients were initially treated conservatively with dietary manipulation; this was the most satisfactory treatment for those with leaking small bowel lymphatics. Surgery (fistula closure, bowel resection or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt) was performed in 30 patients. Closure of a retroperitoneal fistula, when present, was the most successful operation, curing seven of the 12 patients so treated.

  19. Worn Down by Toothwear? Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management Revisited.

    PubMed

    Yule, Pamela L; Barclay, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of toothwear in the population is increasing, as is the number of referrals regarding this problem to secondary care dental hospital consultants and specialists. This paper outlines current theories in aetiology, diagnosis and management of localized and generalized toothwear, as well as describing clinical tips for assessing such patients.

  20. [AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS GASTRO-DUODENALES ULCERATIVE LESIONS IN ELDERLY].

    PubMed

    Chernekhovskaya, N E; Povalayev, A V; Layshenko, G A

    2015-01-01

    In review today conceptions of view to aetiology and pathogenesis gastro-duodenales ulcerative lesions in elderly. Atherosclerosis, ischemic disease of the heart and hypertension are reasons of acute ulcers and erosions in elderly. The breaking of microcirculation are very importance.

  1. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  2. Gas in the urinary tract: its aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J

    1988-01-01

    Gas within the urinary tract may be an incidental finding or it may be detected in the course of investigating a patient with urinary or abdominal symptoms. In the immediate postoperative period it is unlikely to be of any significance, but at any other time it is a sign of serious underlying pathology. In this article its aetiology and management are discussed.

  3. Pregnancy of unknown location.

    PubMed

    Schuneman, Margaret; Von Wald, Tiffany; Hansen, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The development of highly sensitive and accurate human chorionic gonadotropin assays as well as the improvement of vaginal ultrasound have allowed for the early detection of pregnancy and have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic gestations. One of the byproducts of this increased sensitivity is pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), a term which is used to describe pregnancy in a woman with a positive pregnancy test but no signs of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy. A PUL can include an early intrauterine pregnancy, a failing intrauterine/extrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. Modern medical management has improved the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. In the hemodynamically stable patient with PUL, expectant management has been shown to be safe and allows for confirmatory studies before proceeding with therapy.

  4. Incidence, aetiology and epidemiology of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Okolo, Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumour of the female genital tract. However, their true prevalence is probably under-estimated, as the incidence at histology is more than double the clinical incidence. Recent longitudinal studies have estimated that the lifetime risk of fibroids in a woman over the age of 45 years is more than 60%, with incidence higher in blacks than in whites. The cause of fibroids remains unclear and their biology poorly understood. No single candidate gene has been detected for commonly occurring uterine fibroids. However, the occurrence of rare uterine fibroid syndromes, such as multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis, has been traced to the gene that codes for the mitochondrial enzyme, fumarate hydratase. Cytogenetic abnormalities, particularly deletions of chromosome 7, which are found in up to 50% of fibroid specimens, seem to be secondary rather than primary events, and investigations into the role of tumour suppressor genes have yielded conflicting results. The key regulators of fibroid growth are ovarian steroids, both oestrogen and progestogen, growth factors and angiogenesis, and the process of apoptosis. Black race, heredity, nulliparity, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes and hypertension are associated with increased risk of fibroids, and there is emerging evidence that familial predisposition to fibroids is associated with a distinct pattern of clinical and molecular features compared with fibroids in families without this prevalence.

  5. 44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-I #9, MOVING CAMP. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  6. 66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  7. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  8. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  9. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  12. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-09-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

  13. 6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE DURING MOVE SHOWING HOUSE RAISED - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE BEFORE HOUSE MOVED SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES IN FOREGROUND - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  15. Contemporary management of aortic stenosis: surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; Blumenstein, Johannes; van Linden, Arnaud; Kempfert, Jörg

    2012-11-01

    Aortic valve disease is the most frequent acquired heart valve lesion in humans. In western communities, approximately 90% of patients present with aortic stenosis (AS), predominantly of a calcific degenerative aetiology. The remaining approximately 10% of patients predominantly present with aortic valve incompetence.

  16. Aetiological role of viral and bacterial infections in acute adult lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Creer, D D; Dilworth, J P; Gillespie, S H; Johnston, A R; Johnston, S L; Ling, C; Patel, S; Sanderson, G; Wallace, P G; McHugh, T D

    2006-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a common reason for consulting general practitioners (GPs). In most cases the aetiology is unknown, yet most result in an antibiotic prescription. The aetiology of LRTI was investigated in a prospective controlled study. Methods Eighty adults presenting to GPs with acute LRTI were recruited together with 49 controls over 12 months. Throat swabs, nasal aspirates (patients and controls), and sputum (patients) were obtained and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) assays were used to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, influenza viruses (AH1, AH3 and B), parainfluenza viruses 1–3, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and enteroviruses. Standard sputum bacteriology was also performed. Outcome was recorded at a follow up visit. Results Potential pathogens were identified in 55 patients with LRTI (69%) and seven controls (14%; p<0.0001). The identification rate was 63% (viruses) and 26% (bacteria) for patients and 12% (p<0.0001) and 6% (p = 0.013), respectively, for controls. The most common organisms identified in the patients were rhinoviruses (33%), influenza viruses (24%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (19%) compared with 2% (p<0.001), 6% (p = 0.013), and 4% (p = 0.034), respectively, in controls. Multiple pathogens were identified in 18 of the 80 LRTI patients (22.5%) and in two of the 49 controls (4%; p = 0.011). Atypical organisms were rarely identified. Cases with bacterial aetiology were clinically indistinguishable from those with viral aetiology. Conclusion Patients presenting to GPs with acute adult LRTI predominantly have a viral illness which is most commonly caused by rhinoviruses and influenza viruses. PMID:16227331

  17. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  18. Pachydermodactyly: An Unknown Entity.

    PubMed

    Tolis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Mavrogenis, Andreas; Spyridonos, Sarantis

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare benign disease that usually affects the dorsal skin and subcutaneous tissue of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers; the thumb is usually spared. Hyperkeratosis on the dorsal side of the affected areas is common. We present a case of a 19-year-old man who was diagnosed with pachydermodactyly after evaluation of a painless, progressive swelling and hyperkeratosis at the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers, bilaterally, for 6 years before presentation. Conservative treatment was prescribed and the patient remains asymptomatic. Given the benign and nonprogressive course of the disease, symptomatic treatment alone is all that is usually required. PMID:27325556

  19. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  20. Epidemiology and aetiology of maternal bacterial and viral infections in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Velu, Prasad Palani; Gravett, Courtney A.; Roberts, Tom K.; Wagner, Thor A.; Zhang, Jian Shayne F.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries has remained exceedingly high. However, information on bacterial and viral maternal infections, which are important contributors to poor pregnancy outcomes, is sparse and poorly characterised. This review aims to describe the epidemiology and aetiology of bacterial and viral maternal infections in low- and middle-income countries. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted and data on aetiology and epidemiology of maternal infections was extracted from relevant studies for analysis. Searches were conducted in parallel by two reviewers (using OVID) in the following databases: Medline (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010) and Global Health (1973 to 2010). Results Data from 158 relevant studies was used to characterise the epidemiology of the 10 most extensively reported maternal infections with the following median prevalence rates: Treponema pallidum (2.6%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1.5%), Chlamydia trachomatis (5.8%), Group B Streptococcus (8.6%), bacterial vaginosis (20.9%), hepatitis B virus (4.3%), hepatitis C virus (1.4%), Cytomegalovirus (95.7% past infection), Rubella (8.9% susceptible) and Herpes simplex (20.7%). Large variations in the prevalence of these infections between countries and regions were noted. Conclusion This review confirms the suspected high prevalence of maternal bacterial and viral infections and identifies particular diseases and regions requiring urgent attention in public health policy planning, setting research priorities and donor funding towards reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:23198117

  1. Aetiological factors of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Afredj, Nawel; Guessab, Nawal; Nani, Abdelbasset; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Ouled Cheikh, Ibtissem; Kerbouche, Rafik; Hannoun, Djouhar; Amir, Zine Charef; Ait Kaci, Hayet; Bentabak, Kamel; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Valerie; Denninger, Marie-Hélène; Boucekkine, Tadjeddine; Debzi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical presentation of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and identify the aetiologies of this disease in Algeria. METHODS: Patients with BCS, hospitalised in our unit from January 2004 until June 2010 were included and the aetiological factors were assessed. Patients presenting a BCS in the setting of advanced-stage cirrhosis or a liver transplantation were excluded from the study. The diagnosis was established when an obstruction of hepatic venous outflow (thrombosis, stenosis or compression) was demonstrated. We diagnosed myeloproliferative disease (MPD) by bone marrow biopsy and V617F JAK2 mutation. Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APLS) was detected by the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2 glycoprotein antibodies and Lupus anticoagulant. We also detected paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) by flow cytometry. Celiac disease and Behçet disease were systematically investigated in our patients. Hereditary anticoagulant protein deficiencies were also assessed. We tested our patients for the G20210A mutation at Beaujon Hospital. Imaging procedures were performed to determine a local cause of BCS, such as a hydatid cyst or a liver tumour. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Mean follow up: 32.12 mo. Mean age: 34.41 years, M/F = 0.64. Chronic presentation was frequent: 63.5%. The revealing symptoms for the BCS were ascites (74.8%) and abdominal pain (42.6%). The most common site of thrombosis was the hepatic veins (72.2%). Involvement of the inferior vena cava alone was observed in 3 patients. According to the radiological investigations, BCS was primary in 94.7% of the cases (n = 109) and secondary in 5.2% (n = 6). An aetiology was identified in 77.4% of the patients (n = 89); it was multifactorial in 27% (n = 31). The predominant aetiology of BCS in our patients was a myeloproliferative disease, observed in 34.6% of cases. APLS was found in 21.7% and celiac disease in 11.4%. Other acquired conditions were: PNH (n

  2. 7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW (SOUTHEAST) FROM ORIGINAL SITE SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES (FOREGROUND) AND NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF HOUSE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE (ENTRANCE STAIRS FROM ORIGINAL SOUTH FRONT MOVED TO PRESENT WEST FRONT) - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  3. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1987-08-01

    Frontal sinuses of Japanese skulls were radiographically examined from the view point of identifying individuals. The system of classification of sinus was proposed, basing on the area size, the bilateral asymmetry, the superiority of side, the outline of upper borders, the partial septa and the supraorbital cells. Frontal sinus patterns could be divided into above 20,000 possible combinations by combining the class numbers in each classification item described above. The frontal sinus pattern of a given person was formulated as a code number which was determined by arranging the class numbers in each classification item as serial numbers. This identification system by the frontal sinus pattern should allow one to characterize each person. The application of this identification system to an actual criminal case was also described.

  4. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  5. 414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; TYPICAL SECTIONS; SHEET NO. 5; DRAWING NO. C-4028-5R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS I; DRG. NO. 68 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; CONTINUOUS SPANS - LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS; SHEET NO. 18; DRAWING NO. C-4028-18R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS II; DRG. NO. 69 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER E-6 TO E-23; TYPICAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 52 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER-E3; GENERAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 47 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; GENERAL PLAN; TOWER E-9; DRG. NO. 59 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  13. Antenatal brain injury: aetiology and possibilities of prevention.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, H; Mallard, C

    2000-02-01

    Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of corticosteroids to cases with pending preterm birth, and treatment of maternal/fetal infections would also reduce the incidence of injury. Mothers can decrease the risk of injury by maintaining a good diet, avoiding smoking, alcohol intake and exposure to TORCH infections during pregnancy. PMID:10802749

  14. [Consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Martinez Campos, L; Albañil Ballesteros, R; de la Flor Bru, J; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Cervera, J; Baquero Artigao, F; Alfayate Miguelez, S; Moraga Llop, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Calvo Rey, C

    2013-11-01

    The Spanish National Consensus (Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, Spanish Society of Pediatric Outpatient and Primary Care, Spanish Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervical-Facial Pathology) on Sinusitis is presented. Rhinosinusitis is a difficult to diagnose and often unrecognised disease. The document discusses the aetiology, the clinical signs and symptoms, and the diagnostic criteria. A proposal for treatment is made based on the epidemiological situation in our country. Oral amoxicillin is the treatment of choice (80mg/kg/day divided every 8hours). Alternative treatment is proposed in special cases and when amoxicillin is not sufficient. The main complications are reviewed.

  15. Chronotropic Incompetence During Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes: Aetiology, Assessment Methodology, Prognostic Impact and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Keytsman, Charly; Dendale, Paul; Hansen, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    During incremental exercise tests, chronotropic incompetence (CI), which is the inability of the heart rate (HR) to rise in proportion to an increase in metabolic demand, is often observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite the fact that CI is associated with exercise intolerance and elevated risks of development of cardiovascular disease and premature death, this clinical anomaly is often ignored or overlooked by clinicians and physiologists. CI is, however, a significant clinical abnormality that deserves further attention, examination and treatment. The aetiology of CI in T2DM remains poorly understood and is complex. Certain T2DM-related co-morbidities or physiological anomalies may contribute to development of CI, such as altered blood catecholamine and/or potassium levels during exercise, structural myocardial abnormalities, ventricular and/or arterial stiffness, impaired baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Clinicians should thus be aware of the potential presence of yet undetected anomalies or diseases in T2DM patients who experience CI during exercise testing. However, an effective treatment for CI in T2DM is yet to be developed. Exercise training programmes seem to be the only potentially effective and feasible interventions for partial restoration of the chronotropic response in T2DM, but it remains poorly understood how these interventions lead to restoration of the chronotropic response. Studies are thus warranted to elucidate the aetiology of CI and develop an effective treatment for CI in T2DM. In particular, the impact of (different) exercise interventions on CI in T2DM deserves greater attention in future studies.

  16. A Systematic Review of Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes: An Overview of Epidemiological, Prediction and Aetiological Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahlqvist, Anna-Stina; Lotta, Luca; Brosnan, Julia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Giabbanelli, Philippe; Nunez, Derek J.; Waterworth, Dawn; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    the literature to inform the strategy for future interrogation of existing and newly described biomarkers for T2D. Many biomarkers have been reported to be associated with the risk of developing T2D. The evidence of their value in adding to understanding of causal pathways to disease is very limited so far. The utility of most biomarkers remains largely unknown in clinical prediction. Future research should focus on providing good genetic instruments across consortia for possible biomarkers in Mendelian randomisation, prioritising biomarkers for measurement in large-scale cohort studies and examining predictive utility of biomarkers for a given context. PMID:27788146

  17. The Class V lesion--aetiology and restoration.

    PubMed

    Tyas, M J

    1995-06-01

    The aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions is discussed. These have been variously described as 'abrasion', 'erosion', 'abrasion/erosion', and 'idiopathic cervical'. However, many lesions do not fit the classical appearance or location of an erosive and/or abrasive origin, and there is increasing interest in the possible role of occlusal stress in their aetiology. Non-carious cervical lesions often require restoration, and there are essentially three options using tooth-coloured materials: a restorative glass ionomer cement, a liner/base glass ionomer cement overlayed with a resin composite, or a resin composite bonded by an enamel/dentine-adhesive. The materials and techniques used in these options are discussed, indicating their advantages and disadvantages. Results of available clinical trials of these systems are given, and the link with the stress theory of cervical tooth loss is described. The preferred restorative approaches in order are: resin-modified restorative glass ionomer; resin-modified liner/base glass ionomer with a microfine resin composite overlay; enamel/dentine bonding agent with a microfine resin composite.

  18. Malignant epithelial tumours in children: incidence and aetiology.

    PubMed

    al-Sheyyab, M; Muir, K R; Cameron, A H; Raafat, F; Pincott, J R; Parkes, S E; Mann, J R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the incidence of carcinomas in children, changes in incidence over a 30-year period, and to identify features of possible aetiological significance. A total of 173 cases were identified, but after review of the histopathology, 30 patients were excluded because they were considered to have benign epithelial tumours or malignant tumours of nonepithelial origin. Seven other cases were excluded because pathology material was not available. Overall, in 28% of cases, the diagnoses were changed by pathology review. Thus, 136 children in the West Midlands Region diagnosed 1957-1986 were included, with carcinoid tumours (44) and tumours of skin (22), nasopharynx (14), salivary gland (13), adrenal cortex (13), thyroid (9), large bowel (5), other (16). Excluding carcinoids, the age-standardised incidence rate was 2.4 x 10(6) per year. Male:female ratio was 0.7:1 and 66% were aged > 10 years. Incidence increased from 1.5 to 3.3 x 10(6) per year. Genetic factors predisposing to carcinoma included tyrosinosis, MEN II and III, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and basal cell naevus syndrome. There was a case of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and several other patients had relevant family histories. Probable "environmental" causes included antenatal exposure to stilboestrol or hydroxyprogesterone hexanoate, stilboestrol given for premature menarche, neonatal hepatitis and prior radiotherapy. The aetiology of carcinomas in children is multifactorial, both genetic and environmental factors being important. The incidence is increasing.

  19. 415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; Y.B. ANCHORAGE - FLOOR BEAMS YA-5 AND BENT 3; SHEET NO. 22; DRAWING NO. C-4028-22R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Study of Aetiology and Outcome in Acute Febrile Illness Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muthaiah, Bhanukumar; Kondareddy, Srinivas; Chikkegowda, Prathima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute febrile illness with Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) carries significant morbidity and mortality despite standard therapy in intensive care settings. Infections are the most common cause of MODS followed by polytrauma. Present study was undertaken in medical intensive care units of a tertiary hospital to study the aetiology and outcome among patients with acute febrile illness developing MODS. Aim 1) To study the aetiology of acute febrile illness in patients developing MODS. 2) To study the final outcome among these patients. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Mysuru, Karnataka, India, over a period of 6 months from July 2013 to December 2013. The Institutional Ethics Committee Approval (IEC) was obtained before the commencement of the study. A total of 213 cases admitted in intensive care unit with acute febrile illness with two or more organ dysfunction were screened for the inclusion and exclusion criterias. Results A total of 213 cases of acute febrile illness with one or more organ dysfunction were screened. Of the screened patients 75 patients were finally included in the study out of which 46 (61.3%) patients were males and 29 (38.7%) patients were females. Aetiology for acute febrile illness with MODS could be established in 49 (65.3%) patients and it was obscure in 26 (34.7%) patients despite repeated investigations. Dengue infection (29.3%) was the commonest cause of febrile illness with MODS followed by leptospirosis (22.7%). Majority of these patients had haematological derangements (78.7%) and liver function test abnormalities (68%). Out of these 75 cases, 54 (72%) patients recovered completely and 21 (28%) patients died. Among males (N=46), 35 (76.1%) patients recovered and 11 (23.9%) patients died where as among females (N=29), 19 (65.5%) patients recovered and 10 (34.5%) patients died. Mortality was proportionate with the number of organ dysfunction, especially Central

  1. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Prevalence, aetiology, and care of severe and profound hearing loss.

    PubMed Central

    Baille, M F; Arnaud, C; Cans, C; Grandjean, H; du Mazaubrun, C; Rumeau-Rouquette, C

    1996-01-01

    Severe and profound hearing loss (> 70 dB) were analysed in a retrospective study of 226 children, born between 1976 and 1985, and recruited from three French administrative departments. The prevalence was 0.54 per 1000 children under 9 years old, with no decrease over the study period. A hereditary origin was identified in 20.8% of cases and an infectious origin in 11.5%. Perinatal risk factors were present in 11.5%, while the aetiology was undetermined in more than half the cases. In 85.8% of the children there was no other severe impairment. Marked learning difficulties were observed: 36% of the children were two years behind their age group and 28% were more than two years behind. The age of initial care decreased over the study period but is still too advanced. Systematic neonatal screening would enable earlier care, which should limit the social and educational impact of hearing loss. PMID:8869193

  3. Dermatoglyphics in childhood leukaemia: a guide to prognosis and aetiology?

    PubMed

    Till, M; Larrauri, S; Smith, P G

    1978-06-01

    The results of analysis of the dermatoglyphics of 152 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (and the first-degree relatives of 54 of them) contrast with those of 31 children with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) (and the first-degree relatives of 25 of them). In ALL our findings suggest that neither genetic susceptibility nor an environmental factor, effective during the early antenatal period, is of aetiological importance; but the response to treatment, assessed as length of first remission, was found to be related to the amount of fingertip pattern. This may have clinical application. In AML there is evidence of a genetically determined factor carrying a high risk of the development of the disease, in that a member of each of 5 different families of the 25 studied bore a rare hypothenar pattern, compared with none in 75 control families. No dermatoglyphic features were of prognostic significance in AML.

  4. Symptoms following mild head injury: expectation as aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Mittenberg, W; DiGiulio, D V; Perrin, S; Bass, A E

    1992-01-01

    An affective, somatic, and memory check-list of symptoms was administered to subjects who had no personal experience or knowledge of head injury. Subjects indicated their current experiences of symptoms, then imagined having sustained a mild head injury in a motor vehicle accident, and endorsed symptoms they expected to experience six months after the injury. The checklist of symptoms was also administered to a group of patients with head injuries for comparison. Imaginary concussion reliably showed expectations in controls of a coherent cluster of symptoms virtually identical to the postconcussion syndrome reported by patients with head trauma. Patients consistently underestimated the premorbid prevalence of these symptoms compared with the base rate in controls. Symptom expectations appear to share as much variance with postconcussion syndrome as head injury itself. An aetiological role is suggested. PMID:1564481

  5. Aetiologic factors in male infertility: clinical, microbiological and hormonal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nalini, K; Sethi, B K; Sharma, M; Dash, R J

    1992-03-01

    Seventy two infertile men were studied. History of small pox and mumps infection was noted in 4 and 3 patients respectively. Seven patients had varicocele (9.2%), and small atrophic testes were found in 9 (12.5%). Azoospermia was reported in 41 (58.3%) and oligospermia in 17 (23.6%), and 14 patients (19.4%) had normal sperm counts. Mycoplasma were grown from urethral swabs in 25 (35%) patients. Mean LH and FSH were elevated in azoospermics (p less than 0.001), E2-17B in oligospermics (p less than 0.001) and FSH in normospermic (p less than 0.01) patients. Hypergonadotropism suggestive of primary testicular failure was recorded in 43 (59.7%) patients. Hypogonadotropism was noted in 3 (4%) and hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary microadenoma induced infertility in only one patient. No aetiology could be determined in 11 (16%) patients.

  6. Pulmonary cavitary lesion and haemoptysis: rare aetiology on biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, John; Thomashow, Byron; Saqi, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare form of malignancy that can present similarly to other necrotising cavitary lung diseases. We present a case of a Caucasian woman who presented with recurrent haemoptysis and a right upper lobe cavitary lesion on CT scan. She underwent selective embolisation of the right bronchial artery by interventional radiology to control her haemoptysis. Positron emission tomography/CT scan was performed which showed significant fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the right upper lobe cavitary lesion. There was a discussion among her providers about the aetiology of this lesion including infection and malignancy. Cultures from bronchoalveolar lavage and blood were negative for infection as the patient underwent right upper lobectomy which showed invasive sarcomatoid pleomorphic carcinoma with a minor component of acinar adenocarcinoma. She was diagnosed with stage IB (T2aN0M0) sarcomatoid pleomorphic carcinoma and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy after her lobectomy with recurrence and metastasis to her stomach and pancreas. PMID:27507695

  7. Elucidating the Aetiology of Human Campylobacter coli Infections

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Francois; Sproston, Emma; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Bessell, Paul; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the determinants of Campylobacter coli infection, despite its contributing up to 10% of human Campylobacter infections. A case-control and two case-case study methods explored the aetiology of C. coli over a one year period across Scotland. The case-control multivariate model found an increased risk of C. coli infection in people older than 19 years (O.R. = 3.352), and during the summer months (O.R. = 2.596), while residing in an urban area decreased the risk (O.R. = 0.546). The first case-case study compared C. coli and C. jejuni cases and also showed a higher risk of C. coli during the summer (O.R. = 1.313) and in people older than 19 years (O.R. = 0.791). Living in an urban area was associated with a reduced risk of infection (O.R. = 0.769). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) indicated that sheep and chicken C. coli sequence types (STs) were most frequently found in humans whilst those from cattle and pigs were rarer. MLST diversity was high in isolates from pigs and chicken, intermediate in human isolates, and low in ruminant isolates. The second case-case study used MLST data to ascribe putative sources of infection to the cases. The putative source for 40% of cases was chicken, with 60% acquired from other sources (ruminants 54% and pigs 6%). The case-case analysis also showed that female gender was a risk factor (O.R. = 1.940), which may be explained by females being more likely to prepare poultry in the home. These findings indicate differences between the aetiology of C. coli and C. jejuni infections: this should be taken into account by public health professionals when developing strategies to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:23734204

  8. Mild Intellectual Disability in Children in Lahore, Pakistan: Aetiology and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaqoob, M.; Bashir, A.; Zaman, S.; Ferngren, H.; von Dobeln, U.; Gustavson, K.-H.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main objectives of studying intellectual disability (ID) in children is to explore its causes. A specific aetiological diagnosis is important in determining the prognosis, nature and extent of services needed to support affected children. Aetiology and risk factors in mild ID were studied in a cohort of longitudinally followed children…

  9. Shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and physical and mental health in UK Biobank (N=112 151) and 24 GWAS consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Davies, G; Hill, W D; Liewald, D C M; Ritchie, S J; Marioni, R E; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Cullen, B; Malik, R; Worrall, B B; Sudlow, C L M; Wardlaw, J M; Gallacher, J; Pell, J; McIntosh, A M; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    Causes of the well-documented association between low levels of cognitive functioning and many adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes, poorer physical health and earlier death remain unknown. We used linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring to test for shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders and physical health. Using information provided by many published genome-wide association study consortia, we created polygenic profile scores for 24 vascular–metabolic, neuropsychiatric, physiological–anthropometric and cognitive traits in the participants of UK Biobank, a very large population-based sample (N=112 151). Pleiotropy between cognitive and health traits was quantified by deriving genetic correlations using summary genome-wide association study statistics and to the method of linkage disequilibrium score regression. Substantial and significant genetic correlations were observed between cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many of the mental and physical health-related traits and disorders assessed here. In addition, highly significant associations were observed between the cognitive test scores in the UK Biobank sample and many polygenic profile scores, including coronary artery disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, autism, major depressive disorder, body mass index, intracranial volume, infant head circumference and childhood cognitive ability. Where disease diagnosis was available for UK Biobank participants, we were able to show that these results were not confounded by those who had the relevant disease. These findings indicate that a substantial level of pleiotropy exists between cognitive abilities and many human mental and physical health disorders and traits and that it can be used to predict phenotypic variance across samples. PMID:26809841

  10. Fever of unknown origin in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J

    2016-05-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. PMID:26995082

  11. Learning from the Unknown Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Gerstenschlager, Natasha E.; Harmon, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three instructional situations demonstrate the value of using an "unknown" student's work to allow the advancement of students' mathematical thinking as well as their engagement in the mathematical practice of critiquing the reasoning of others: (1) introducing alternative solution strategies; (2) critiquing inaccuracies…

  12. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  14. Polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): clinical and aetiological studies.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, M E; Müller, H; Kaleta, E F

    1989-08-01

    In order to get insight into the aetiology of French Moult (FM) and Budgerigar Fledgling Disease (BFD), and to determine relationships between the two diseases, 298 budgerigars from 49 different breeding flocks were examined. From all birds with BFD and from several birds with FM, viruses were isolated which produced characteristic cytopathic changes in chicken embryo fibroblasts. They were insensitive to chloroform treatment, and their replication was inhibited in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuridine. One of these isolates, from a bird exhibiting clinical signs of BFD, was determined by biochemical and biophysical methods to be a polyomavirus (BFDV). Nestling budgerigars 3 to 10 days of age, were inoculated with this BFDV isolate. They developed an acute systemic disease with high mortality rates, similar to naturally occurring infections. In this regard, BFDV differs markedly from all the other polyomaviruses known until now which only cause clinically asymptomatic, persistent infections in their natural hosts. Most of the birds examined with clinical signs of BFD or FM exhibited low titers of antibodies neutralizing the BFDV isolate, whereas in clinically healthy birds from flocks that never had any problems with FM or BFD, no antibodies against BFDV could be detected. On account of the results of our experiments described here we suspect that FM might be a milder, more protracted form of a BFDV infection. PMID:2552708

  15. Multivariate refutation of aetiological hypotheses in non-experimental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Maclure, M

    1990-12-01

    Extension of Karl Popper's logic of refutation from the realm of contingency tables to multivariate modelling leads to the conclusion that rigorously scientific multivariate analysis in non-experimental epidemiology differs from the traditional quasi-scientific approach. Instead of aiming for high sensitivity in detecting aetiological agents, the goal in refutation is high specificity--to give the best defence of the 'innocence' of every exposure hypothesized as being a cause. Instead of 'forward selection' or 'backward elimination', multivariate refutation uses the method of 'forward elimination'. This entails a likelihood approach (which may be complemented by, but should be demarcated from, Bayesian methods) not only for statistical inference but also, by analogy, for study design and conduct: one starts with the conclusion (the estimate or hypothesis) and works backwards to the observations (the likelihood of the data or the design of the study). Differences in practice can sometimes be large, as illustrated by a study of hypothesized triggers of myocardial infarction. Multivariate refutation should replace the concept of multivariate modelling in non-experimental epidemiology.

  16. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome - Aetiology, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition that typically involves substantial pain, movement restriction, and considerable morbidity. Although function improves overtime, full and pain free range, may not be restored in everyone. Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis, however the evidence for capsular adhesions is refuted and arguably, this term should be abandoned. The aim of this Masterclass is to synthesise evidence to provide a framework for assessment and management for Frozen Shoulder. Although used in the treatment of this condition, manipulation under anaesthetic has been associated with joint damage and may be no more effective than physiotherapy. Capsular release is another surgical procedure that is supported by expert opinion and published case series, but currently high quality research is not available. Recommendations that supervised neglect is preferable to physiotherapy have been based on a quasi-experimental study associated with a high risk of bias. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom have developed dedicated care pathways that provide; assessment, referral for imaging, education, health screening, ultrasound guided corticosteroid and hydro-distension injections, embedded within physiotherapy rehabilitation. The entire pathway is provided by physiotherapists and evidence exists to support each stage of the pathway. Substantial on-going research is required to better understand; epidemiology, patho-aetiology, assessment, best management, health economics, patient satisfaction and if possible prevention. PMID:25107826

  17. Exercise associated hyponatraemia: quantitative analysis to understand the aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Montain, S J; Cheuvront, S N; Sawka, M N

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of symptomatic hyponatraemia consequent on participation in marathon and ultraendurance races has led to questions about its aetiology and prevention. Objectives To evaluate: (a) the assertion that sweat sodium losses cannot contribute to the development of hyponatraemia during endurance exercise; (b) the adequacy of fluid replacement recommendations issued by the International Marathon Medical Directors Association (IMMDA) for races of 42 km or longer; (c) the effectiveness of commercial sports drinks, compared with water, for attenuating plasma sodium reductions. Methods A mathematical model was used to predict the effects of different drinking behaviours on hydration status and plasma sodium concentration when body mass, body composition, running speed, weather conditions, and sweat sodium concentration were systematically varied. Results Fluid intake at rates that exceed sweating rate is predicted to be the primary cause of hyponatraemia. However, the model predicts that runners secreting relatively salty sweat can finish ultraendurance exercise both dehydrated and hyponatraemic. Electrolyte‐containing beverages are predicted to delay the development of hyponatraemia. The predictions suggest that the IMMDA fluid intake recommendations adequately sustain hydration over the 42 km distance if qualifiers—for example, running pace, body size—are followed. Conclusions Actions to prevent hyponatraemia should focus on minimising overdrinking relative to sweating rate and attenuating salt depletion in those who excrete salty sweat. This simulation demonstrates the complexity of defining fluid and electrolyte consumption rates during athletic competition. PMID:16431994

  18. Hamstring injuries. Proposed aetiological factors, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Agre, J C

    1985-01-01

    Injuries to the hamstring muscles can be devastating to the athlete because these injuries frequently heal slowly and have a tendency to recur. It is thought that many of the recurrent injuries to the hamstring musculotendinous unit are the result of inadequate rehabilitation following the initial injury. The severity of hamstring injuries is usually of first or second degree, but occasionally third-degree injuries (complete rupture of the musculotendinous unit) do occur. Most hamstring strain injuries occur while running or sprinting. Several aetiological factors have been proposed as being related to injury of the hamstring musculotendinous unit. They include: poor flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and/or endurance, dyssynergic muscle contraction during running, insufficient warm-up and stretching prior to exercise, awkward running style, and a return to activity before complete rehabilitation following injury. Treatment for hamstring injuries includes rest and immobilisation immediately following injury and then a gradually increasing programme of mobilisation, strengthening, and activity. Permission to return to athletic competition should be withheld until full rehabilitation has been achieved (complete return of muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility in addition to a return of co-ordination and athletic agility). Failure to achieve full rehabilitation will only predispose the athlete to recurrent injury. The best treatment for hamstring injuries is prevention, which should include training to maintain and/or improve strength, flexibility, endurance, co-ordination, and agility.

  19. Hepatitis of viral origin in Leporidae: introduction and aetiological hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E

    1991-06-01

    In less than ten years, two very serious viral hepatic diseases have spread through Leporidae populations (rabbits and hares) in numerous countries. In May 1989, the Office International des Epizooties designated this new disease of rabbits "viral haemorrhagic disease" and entered it as a List B disease in the International Animal Health Code. Clinically, the disease is very similar to the European brown hare syndrome. However, numerous uncertainties prevail today on the true nature of the viruses of the two species. Although they are related, the viruses appear to be different and cross infection between species has given contradictory results. Hepatitis of Leporidae have probably existed in Europe for several years, although their viral aetiology has been demonstrated only recently. The acute form has occurred in hares in Northern Europe since approximately 1980, while the inapparent (or ignored) form has been present in rabbits in Czechoslovakia since 1975. These diseases of Leporidae are true viral hepatitis which, in their fulminating forms, bear a remarkable resemblance to human viral hepatitis (B and non-A non-B) with regard to clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and mode of transmission. The dominant faecal-oral transmission observed for types A and E hepatitis would explain the particular susceptibility of family-kept rabbits, as they are fed potentially contaminated fodder. As the clinically similar fulminating hepatitis in human beings is caused by a diversity of viruses (both RNA and DNA), the disease in Leporidae might also be caused by different viruses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1760579

  20. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  1. Septal aperture aetiology: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Myszka, A

    2015-01-01

    Many theories have been suggested in order to explain the aetiology of septal aperture. The influence of genes, the size and shape of ulna processes, joint laxity, bone robusticity, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis has been discussed; however, the problem has not yet been solved. The aim of the study was to examine the correlations between musculoskeletal stress markers, humeral robusticity and septal aperture. Additionally, the frequency of septal aperture according to sex, age, and skeletal side had been analysed. The skeletal material had come from a medieval cemetery in Cedynia, Poland. Skeletons of 201 adults (102 males, 99 females) had been examined and septal aperture had been scored. Six muscle attachment sites of upper limb bones had been analysed. Humeral robusticity had been calculated by use of the humeral robusticity index. The frequency of septal aperture among the population from Cedynia is 7.5%. There are no differences in septal aperture prevalence between males and females, the skeletal sides or age groups. In the analysed material, males with less developed muscle markers of right upper bones proved a higher predictable rate in having septal aperture (R = -0.34). On the left bones and among females, the converse correlation had also been found, but it is not statistically significant. The correlation between septal aperture and humeral robusticity is converse, yet small and insignificant. These results can confirm the theory of joint laxity and suggest that stronger bones (heavier muscles, more robust bones) increase joint tightness, and therefore protect the humeral lamina from septal aperture formation. But this theory needs a further detailed analysis.

  2. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  3. At the borders of medical reasoning: aetiological and ontological challenges of medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) remain recalcitrant to the medical profession, proving less suitable for homogenic treatment with respect to their aetiology, taxonomy and diagnosis. While the majority of existing medical research methods are designed for large scale population data and sufficiently homogenous groups, MUS are characterised by their heterogenic and complex nature. As a result, MUS seem to resist medical scrutiny in a way that other conditions do not. This paper approaches the problem of MUS from a philosophical point of view. The aim is to first consider the epistemological problem of MUS in a wider ontological and phenomenological context, particularly in relation to causation. Second, the paper links current medical practice to certain ontological assumptions. Finally, the outlines of an alternative ontology of causation are offered which place characteristic features of MUS, such as genuine complexity, context-sensitivity, holism and medical uniqueness at the centre of any causal set-up, and not only for MUS. This alternative ontology provides a framework in which to better understand complex medical conditions in relation to both their nature and their associated research activity. PMID:24006875

  4. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    PubMed

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-01

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge. PMID:23694921

  5. Metastases of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Thomas, L C

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that effective therapy does not currently exist for the majority of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary site, the last decade has witnessed significant advances in the approach to this heterogeneous disease. The use of modern pathologic techniques that frequently provide better diagnostic precision and the recognition of specific subgroups with a favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment has improved the outcome for some patients. Currently the diagnostic strategy should emphasize the rapid identification of patients likely to benefit from available therapy, whereas clinical research should focus on the development of more effective treatments for those patients with unresponsive tumors. In the future, continued improvements in the molecular characterization of these tumors will likely enhance understanding of the metastatic process, allow for more specific definitions of cell lineage, and provide insights for better therapy. PMID:8569295

  6. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  7. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

  8. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  9. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  10. Aetiology of biliary atresia: what is actually known?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease of unknown etiology and unpredictable outcome, even when there has been timely diagnosis and exemplary surgery. It has been the commonest indication for liver transplantation during childhood for the past 20 years. Hence much clinical and basic research has been directed at elucidating the origin and pathology of BA. This review summarizes the current clinical variations of BA in humans, its occasional appearance in animals and its various manifestations in the laboratory as an experimental model. PMID:23987231

  11. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult.

  12. On the question of infectious aetiologies for multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and the chronic fatigue syndrome and their treatment with antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, B O

    2009-06-01

    Close similarities in the courses of multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia laid the theoretical ground for attempting to find a common infectious aetiology for the two diseases. Chlamydia pneumoniae, which belongs to the rickettsial family of microorganisms has been linked to both diseases. It is postulated that since rickettsial microorganisms are ubiquitous in human populations they and the human species normally live in peaceful coexistence. In rare cases, for unknown reasons, varieties of them may become aggressive and pathogenic. The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia has attracted much attention. It also seems to have initiated a paradigmatic shift from the hitherto prevailing serological research approach to one which focuses on immunological factors. An open clinical pilot study in which, during 2006, eight female and five male patients with psychotic symptoms were treated with a combination of antibiotics is presented, to which, in the beginning of 2007 two female patients suffering from severe and long standing chronic fatigue syndrome were added. On one year follow-up, six out of the eight female patients showed stable excellent treatment results, whereas two were rated as showing significant treatment results. Four of the five men who entered the study were suffering from chronic schizophrenia, whereas the fifth, was a case of severe acute catatonic schizophrenia. Two of the male patients showed significant treatment results, whereas three of them were rated as having had a slight to moderate improvement. No less than three of the women had suffered their first episode of psychosis after giving birth to their first (and only) child. This finding, as these women all responded excellently to treatment with antibiotics, indicates that post partum psychosis could be regarded as an infectious complication of childbirth of, as to the causative agent, unknown aetiology. High priority ought therefore be given to initiate controlled clinical trials with

  13. Aetiologic diagnosis of hearing loss in children identified through newborn hearing screening testing.

    PubMed

    Forli, F; Giuntini, G; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes and early diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems, the need has clearly emerged to implement and carry out a systematic and coordinated protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", it has been decided to consider the problems relative to aetiological diagnosis of child PHI within UNHS programmes. The specific objective was to apply a shared diagnostic protocol that can identify the cause in at least 70% of cases of PHI. For this part of the project, four main recommendations were identified that can be useful for an efficient aetiological diagnosis in children affected by PHI and that can offer valid suggestions to optimise resources and produce positive changes for third-level audiologic centres. PMID:27054388

  14. Aetiologic diagnosis of hearing loss in children identified through newborn hearing screening testing.

    PubMed

    Forli, F; Giuntini, G; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S

    2016-02-01

    With the implementation of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programmes and early diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems, the need has clearly emerged to implement and carry out a systematic and coordinated protocol for the aetiological diagnosis of permanent hearing impairment (PHI). Within the framework of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", it has been decided to consider the problems relative to aetiological diagnosis of child PHI within UNHS programmes. The specific objective was to apply a shared diagnostic protocol that can identify the cause in at least 70% of cases of PHI. For this part of the project, four main recommendations were identified that can be useful for an efficient aetiological diagnosis in children affected by PHI and that can offer valid suggestions to optimise resources and produce positive changes for third-level audiologic centres.

  15. The impact of different aetiologies on the cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; Bolsover, Fay; Lecce, Francesca; White, Mark; Spanò, Barbara; Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological group study methodology is considered one of the primary methods to further understanding of the organisation of frontal ‘executive’ functions. Typically, patients with frontal lesions caused by stroke or tumours have been grouped together to obtain sufficient power. However, it has been debated whether it is methodologically appropriate to group together patients with neurological lesions of different aetiologies. Despite this debate, very few studies have directly compared the performance of patients with different neurological aetiologies on neuropsychological measures. The few that did included patients with both anterior and posterior lesions. We present the first comprehensive retrospective comparison of the impact of lesions of different aetiologies on neuropsychological performance in a large number of patients whose lesion solely affects the frontal cortex. We investigated patients who had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), high (HGT) or low grade (LGT) tumour, or meningioma, all at the post-operative stage. The same frontal ‘executive’ (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, Stroop Colour-Word Test, Letter Fluency-S; Trail Making Test Part B) and nominal (Graded Naming Test) tasks were compared. Patients' performance was compared across aetiologies controlling for age and NART IQ scores. Assessments of focal frontal lesion location, lesion volume, global brain atrophy and non-specific white matter (WM) changes were undertaken and compared across the four aetiology. We found no significant difference in performance between the four aetiology subgroups on the ‘frontal’ executive and nominal tasks. However, we found strong effects of premorbid IQ on all cognitive tasks and robust effects of age only on the frontal tasks. We also compared specific aetiology subgroups directly, as previously reported in the literature. Overall we found no significant differences in the performance of CVA and tumour patients, or LGT and HGT

  16. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  17. The role of ions, heavy metals, fluoride, and agrochemicals: critical evaluation of potential aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo/CKDu) and recommendations for its eradication.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-06-01

    The pollution of water and food through human waste and anthropogenic activities, including industrial waste and agricultural runoff, is a mounting problem worldwide. Water pollution from microbes causes identifiable diarrhoeal illnesses. The consumption of water contaminated with heavy metals, fluoride, and other toxins causes insidious illnesses that lead to protracted, non-communicable diseases and death. Chronic kidney disease of unusual/uncertain/unknown aetiology is one such example, began to manifest in the mid-1960s in several dry-zonal agricultural societies in developing economies that are located around the equator. In Sri Lanka, such a disease is affecting the North Central Province, the rice bowl of the country that first appeared in the mid-1990s. Several potential causes have been postulated, including heavy metals, fluoride, cyanobacterial and algae toxins, agrochemicals, and high salinity and ionicity in water, but no specific source or causative factor has been identified for CKD of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo). Three large studies conducted in the recent past failed to find any of the postulated components (heavy metals, cyanobacterial toxins, fluoride, salinity, or agrochemicals) at levels higher than those deemed safe by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. At the reported low levels in water and with the heterogeneous geographical distribution, it is unrealistic to expect any of these components individually could cause this disease. However, the additive or synergistic effects of a combination of factors and components, even at lower exposure levels, together with malnutrition and harmful behaviours, and/or a yet-unidentified (or not investigated) toxin, can cause this epidemic. Because the cause is unknown, scientists need to work on broader hypotheses, so that key causative elements are not missed. Taken together the plausibility of multiple factors in the genesis of this disease, the appropriate

  18. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  19. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  20. Some social and forensic aspects of exhumation and reinterment of industrial revolution remains.

    PubMed

    Duff, E J; Johnson, J S

    1974-03-23

    The aetiological aspects of exhumed remains from two burial sites were examined using 1839 and 1879 as years of comparison. We tried to discover whether the sample of recovered remains was representative of those buried. The state of the remains varied according to the type of soil and coffin material in which they were buried. At the earlier date most deaths were caused by infectious lesions rather than degenerative ones and 76% of those who died were below employable age-whereas in 1879 the commonest causes of death were tuberculosis ("phthisis") and bronchitis, and 42% died before they could be employed. The registration of deaths were recorded more accurately at the later date, and it was easier to build up a picture of the age, sex, and occupation of the people who died.

  1. Behavioural Phenotypes and Special Educational Needs: Is Aetiology Important in the Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of genetic conditions with associated intellectual disability and/or special educational needs have increasingly well-defined behavioural phenotypes. Thus, the concept of "behavioural phenotype" and aetiology of intellectual disability may be important with regard to school-based interventions. Method: The evidence for…

  2. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  3. Prevalence, Phenomenology, Aetiology and Predictors of Challenging Behaviour in Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloneem, J.; Oliver, C.; Udwin, O.; Woodcock, K. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence, phenomenology aetiology and correlates of four forms of challenging behaviour in 32 children and adults with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) were investigated. Methods: Cognitive assessments, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data on intellectual disability, verbal and physical aggression,…

  4. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  5. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  6. Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

  7. Epidemiology and aetiology of C4-6 disease.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Andrew W

    2010-10-01

    Although our understanding of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) has improved, many important questions remain unanswered. Ensuring that patients are appropriately referred for specialist assessment and then receive evidence-based, cost-effective treatment continues to be challenging. The lifetime of risk of chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is around 1% with approximately 10% ulcers being open at any one time. The incidence skin changes disease is about 10 times greater (10%). However, many of the studies upon which these estimates are based are old and/or methodologically flawed. There is reason to believe that the incidence, prevalence and characteristics of CVI/CVU may have changed considerably over the last 10-20 years and that future change is likely. Further cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies are required to establish the size and nature of the health-care need going forward in developed and increasingly developing countries. CVI culminating CVU is primarily the result of sustained ambulatory venous hypertension, which in turn arises from superficial and/or deep venous reflux with or without deep vein obstruction. However, there are many other elements to this complex condition, for example, microvascular dysfunction; calf muscle pump efficiency; dermal inflammation; disordered fibroblast function and matrix production; failure of epithelialization; congenital and acquired thrombophilia; malnutrition, obesity and diet; and bacterial colonization. None of the currently available treatment modalities is entirely satisfactory and novel therapies based upon a clearer understanding of the disease at the psychological, genetic, mechanical, microvascular and microscopic level are required.

  8. Bell's palsy: aetiology, clinical features and multidisciplinary care.

    PubMed

    Eviston, Timothy J; Croxson, Glen R; Kennedy, Peter G E; Hadlock, Tessa; Krishnan, Arun V

    2015-12-01

    Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy. For those with longstanding sequaelae from incomplete recovery, aesthetic, functional (nasal patency, eye closure, speech and swallowing) and psychological considerations need to be addressed by the treating team. Increasingly, multidisciplinary collaboration between interested clinicians from a wide variety of subspecialties has proven effective. A patient centred approach utilising physiotherapy, targeted botulinum toxin injection and selective surgical intervention has reduced the burden of long-term disability in facial palsy.

  9. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  10. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of iron deficiency anaemia of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Helena; Forné, Montserrat; Esteve, Maria; Rosinach, Mercé; Loras, Carme; Espinós, Jorge C; Viver, Josep M; Salas, Antonio; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the aetiological role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adult patients with iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) with H. pylori infection and a negative standard work-up were prospectively evaluated. All of them had either iron refractoriness or iron dependency. Response to H. pylori eradication was assessed at 6 and 12 mo from follow-up. H. pylori infection was considered to be the cause of the anaemia when a complete anaemia resolution without iron supplements was observed after eradication. RESULTS: H. pylori was eradicated in 88 of the 89 patients. In the non-eradicated patient the four eradicating regimens failed. There were violations of protocol in 4 patients, for whom it was not possible to ascertain the cause of the anaemia. Thus, 84 H. pylori eradicated patients (10 men; 74 women) were available to assess the effect of eradication on IDA. H. pylori infection was considered to be the aetiology of IDA in 32 patients (38.1%; 95%CI: 28.4%-48.8%). This was more frequent in men/postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (75% vs 23.3%; P < 0.0001) with an OR of 9.8 (95%CI: 3.3-29.6). In these patients, anaemia resolution occurred in the first follow-up visit at 6 mo, and no anaemia or iron deficiency relapse was observed after a mean follow-up of 21 ± 2 mo. CONCLUSION: Gastric H. pylori infection is a frequent cause of iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin in adult patients. PMID:23864779

  12. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  13. [The remarkable debate during the beginning of the nineteenth century concerning the aetiology of scabies].

    PubMed

    Thyresson, N

    1994-01-01

    The scabies mite (acarus or sarcoptes scabiei) was known already to Aristoteles, to the Arabic medicine during the early and to European physicians as well as laymen during the later Middle Ages, depicted in 1687 by Bonomo in Italy and by Schwiebe in Germany during the beginning of the eighteenth century. Later in the middle of the century three pupils to Linnaeus in their doctor's theses stated that the scabies mite (Acarus humanus subcutaneus) was the cause of scabies. The best pictures of the scabies-mite as well as of the flour- and cheese-mite was given by the Swedish entomologist Charles de Geer in 1778. In spite of all these facts the real aetiology of scabies seemed to be unknown in France and in most parts of Europe. This was probably due to the fact that no one had learned the rather simple method to extract the mite from the skin with a needle and thereby verify its existence. In the beginning of the twentieth century scabies was a real problem for the health authorities. In Paris l'Académie de Médecine even offered a reward to the person who could solve the enigma of the itch. Jean Chrysanthe Galés was the pharmacist at l'Hôpital St. Louis, the famous skin hospital in Paris, where at this time about 65 percent of the beds were occupied by patients suffering from scabies. Galés also studied medicine and wanted to write a doctor's thesis. As the theme of a dissertation he was given the cause of the itch. In 1812 he published his thesis ("Essai sur la Gale") including a plate with sketches of mites that he claimed to have extracted from vesicules on the skin of his scabies patients. His findings could not be verified by other investigators. Galés however refused to take part in any control experiments and left the hospital. The debate concerning the supposed cause of the itch continued for two decades both inside and outside the hospital. F.C. Raspail, a famous natural scientist, was interested. After having studied the literature and especially the

  14. Comparative aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in Kakamega and Kiambu Districts, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chunge, R N; Simwa, J M; Karumba, P N; Kenya, P R; Kinoti, S N; Muttunga, J; Nagelkerke, N

    1992-08-01

    Two hundred diarrhoea specimens collected during January to February 1988, from rural children aged 0 to 60 months in Kakamega District were examined for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus. The results were compared with a sample of 184 diarrhoea specimens matched for month of collection, taken from data collected in the same manner from children in Kiambu District. The mean ages of children in the 2 samples did not differ significantly. There were significant differences in the prevalence of specific potential pathogens isolated in the 2 areas. Notably, A. lumbricoides and rotavirus were more common in Kakamega, while G. lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas hominis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana and EPEC were more common in Kiambu. There was no difference with respect to prevalence of Campylobacter sp. or Blastocystis hominis. Factors which were probably important in determining aetiological differences included climate, water sources, animal contact and crowding. The differences highlight the fact that general predictions about aetiology cannot be made from isolated studies. PMID:1396210

  15. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  16. The aetiology of dental caries--an outline of current thought.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    1977-12-01

    Nearly 90 years after being put forward by W.D. Miller, the acidogenic theory of dental caries aetiology is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. However, while explaining the basic mechanism of caries, it does not indicate how the effect of the mechanism is modified to give the observable pattern of caries attack. This explanation is attempted on the basis of the interaction of two groups of variable factors. Firstly, those which affect the tooth's resistance to caries attack, which include the chemical, microstructural and morphological nature of the enamel surface. Secondly the factors which determine the cariogenicity of the tooth's environment. These include the nature of the diet, plaque and saliva. Finally the caries initiation is considered at an atomic level in terms of the dynamic ionic exchange between enamel and plaque. This brief review highlights the need for considerably more research to shed more light on the nature of the variable aetiological factors of caries.

  17. The definition, aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of previous caesarean scar defects.

    PubMed

    Allornuvor, G F N; Xue, M; Zhu, X; Xu, D

    2013-11-01

    Caesarean sections are the most commonly performed surgical procedures involving the uterus in fertile women. Typically, this surgery involves a transverse incision in the anterior lower uterine segment. The incidence of caesarean sections is on the increase worldwide, and consequently, the complications associated with them are becoming more common. One such complication that is gaining more attention is previous lower uterine segment caesarean scar defect (PCSD). In this review, we sought to explore the definition, aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of PCSD.

  18. Eosinophilia in an Acutely Limping Child: An Easy Guess of Rare Systemic Aetiology!

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Harshita; Ahmed, Maaz; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Painful limping child is often considered due to septic arthritis. Iliopsoas abscess (IPA) is rare in adults and children. The aetiology is often related to tuberculosis of spine. Hereby we report a case of staphylococcal IPA where incidental evaluations led to obvious diagnosis of a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome called Job syndrome or hyperimmunoglobulin E and Eosinophilia Syndrome (HIES). This was the first case of IPA in a case of immunodeficiency syndrome including HIES. PMID:27504370

  19. [Nature meets nurture: the importance of epigenetics for the aetiology of psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Buchholz, V; Kotsiari, A; Bleich, S; Frieling, H

    2013-07-01

    A successful therapy requires an understanding and investigation of the aetiology of a disease. Psychiatric diseases represent a special challenge, because environmental factors may play a crucial role in their development as well as possible physiological and genetic causes. Therefore, epigenetics has established itself to be a branch of research that studies the effect of environmental factors on the development of psychiatric diseases, leading to promising new approaches for diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Evidence that aetiological risk factors for psychiatric disorders cause distinct patterns of cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J; Marston, H M; McQuade, R; Gartside, S E

    2014-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with neurocognitive symptoms including deficits in attentional set shifting (changing attentional focus from one perceptual dimension to another) and reversal learning (learning a reversed stimulus/outcome contingency). Maternal infection during gestation and chronically flattened glucocorticoid rhythm are aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We hypothesised that these factors are causative in the neurocognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we used maternal immune activation (MIA) as a rat model of maternal infection, and sub-chronic low dose corticosterone treatment as a rat model of flattened glucocorticoid rhythm. For comparison we examined the effects of sub-chronic phencyclidine - a widely used rodent model of schizophrenia pathology. The effects of these three treatments on neurocognition were explored using the attentional set shifting task - a multistage test of executive functions. As expected, phencyclidine treatment selectively impaired set shifting ability. In contrast, MIA caused a marked and selective impairment of reversal learning. Corticosterone treatment impaired reversal learning but in addition also impaired rule abstraction and prevented the animals from forming an attentional set. The reversal learning deficits induced by MIA and corticosterone treatment were due to increases in non-perseverative rather than perseverative errors. Our data indicate that the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may be explained by aetiological factors including maternal infection and glucocorticoid abnormalities and moreover suggest that the particular spectrum of cognitive deficits in individual patients may depend on the specific underlying aetiology of the disorder. PMID:24377755

  1. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  2. Adverse Outcomes of IVF/ICSI Pregnancies Vary Depending on Aetiology of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kuivasaari-Pirinen, Paula; Raatikainen, Kaisa; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Heinonen, Seppo

    2012-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a risk factor for pregnancy, but there have been few studies on the effect of infertility's aetiology. Thus, we have assessed the role of aetiology on IVF pregnancy outcomes in a retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes of IVF singleton pregnancies with those of spontaneous pregnancies in the general Finnish population. The study group consisted of 255 women with births resulting from singleton IVF pregnancies. Six subgroups were formed according to the following causes of infertility: anovulation (27%), endometriosis (19%), male factor (17%), tubal factor (15%), polycystic ovary syndrome (11%), and unexplained infertility (12%). The reference group consisted of 26,870 naturally conceived women. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs), for confounding factors such as age and parity, were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Women with endometriosis and anovulation had increased risks of preterm birth (AOR 3.25, 95% CI 1.5–7.1 and AOR 2.1, and 95% CI 1.0–4.2, resp.), while women in couples with male factor infertility had a twofold risk of admission to neonatal intensive care (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.3). The findings show that the aetiology of infertility influenced the obstetrics outcome, and that pooling results may obscure some increased risks among subgroups. PMID:22570795

  3. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW LOOKING UP POWELL STREET FROM MARKET STREET - Powell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  5. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia.

  6. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24467355

  7. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2015-07-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out.

  8. Bottlenecks in domestic animal populations can facilitate the emergence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Tustin, Aaron; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Mabud, Tarub S.; Levy, Katelyn; Barbu, Corentin M.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Faeces-mediated transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (the aetiological agent of Chagas disease) by triatomine insects is extremely inefficient. Still, the parasite emerges frequently, and has infected millions of people and domestic animals. We synthesize here the results of field and laboratory studies of T. cruzi transmission conducted in and around Arequipa, Peru. We document the repeated occurrence of large colonies of triatomine bugs (more than 1000) with very high infection prevalence (more than 85%). By inoculating guinea pigs, an important reservoir of T. cruzi in Peru, and feeding triatomine bugs on them weekly, we demonstrate that, while most animals quickly control parasitaemia, a subset of animals remains highly infectious to vectors for many months. However, we argue that the presence of these persistently infectious hosts is insufficient to explain the observed prevalence of T. cruzi in vector colonies. We posit that seasonal rains, leading to a fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food (alfalfa), leading to annual guinea pig roasts, leading to a concentration of vectors on a small subpopulation of animals maintained for reproduction, can propel T. cruzi through vector colonies and create a considerable force of infection for a pathogen whose transmission might otherwise fizzle out. PMID:26085582

  9. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions.

  10. First Proliferative Kidney Disease outbreak in Austria, linking to the aetiology of Black Trout Syndrome threatening autochthonous trout populations.

    PubMed

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; Unfer, Günter; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-05-01

    Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that this strain is closely related to European isolates, although its source is unknown. Infection and high pathogenicity were reproduced upon a pre-restocking test with specific pathogen free (SPF) juvenile trout, resulting in 100% mortality between 28 and 46 d post exposure (dpe), with high ectoparasitosis. Fish showed grade 2 of the Kidney Swelling Index and grade 3 of the PKD histological assessment. T. bryosalmonae enzootic waters were demonstrated in further locations along the River Kamp, with infected bryozoans retrieved up to 6 km upstream of the farm with the PKD outbreak. Fredericella sultana colonies collected from these locations were cultivated in laboratory conditions. Released malacospores successfully induced PKD, and contextually Black Trout Syndrome (BTS), in SPF brown trout. In the absence of co-infections mortality occurred between 59 and 98 dpe, with kidneys enlarged up to 6.74% of total body weight (normal 1.23%). This study confirms the first isolation of a pathogenic myxozoan from an Austrian river tributary of the Danube, where its 2-host life cycle is fully occurring. Its immunosuppressant action could link PKD as a key factor in the multifactorial aetiology of BTS. This T. bryosalmonae isolation provides an impetus to undertake further multi-disciplinary research, aiming to assess the impact of PKD and BTS spreading to central European regions. PMID:27137070

  11. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  12. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  13. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  14. Implementing quantum control for unknown subroutines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis, Nicolai; Dunjko, Vedran; Dür, Wolfgang; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    We present setups for the practical realization of adding control to unknown subroutines, supplementing the existing quantum optical scheme for black-box control with a counterpart for the quantum control of the ordering of sequences of operations. We also provide schemes to realize either task using trapped ions. These practical circumventions of recent no-go theorems are based on existing technologies. We argue that the possibility to add control to unknown operations in practice is a common feature of many physical systems. Based on the proposed implementations we discuss the apparent contradictions between theory and practice.

  15. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  16. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  17. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov.

  18. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  19. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  20. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  1. The aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis in adolescents and adults - Fusobacterium necrophorum is commonly found.

    PubMed

    Hedin, K; Bieber, L; Lindh, M; Sundqvist, M

    2015-03-01

    Sore throat is common in primary healthcare. Aetiological studies have focused on the presence of a limited number of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a wide range of bacteria and viruses, including Fusobacterium necrophorum, in patients with pharyngotonsillitis and in asymptomatic controls. A prospective case control study was performed in primary healthcare in Kronoberg County, Sweden. Patients (n=220) aged 15 to 45 years with a suspected acute pharyngotonsillitis, and controls (n=128), were included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed for β-hemolytic streptococci, F. necrophorum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and 13 respiratory viruses. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. The patient history and symptoms, including Centor score, were analysed in relation to pathogens. In 155/220 (70.5%) of the patients, as compared to 26/128 (20.3%) of the controls (p <0.001), at least one microorganism was found. Group A streptococci, F. necrophorum, and influenza B virus were the three most common findings, and all significantly more common in patients than in controls (p <0.001, p 0.001, and p 0.002, respectively). Patients with F. necrophorum only (n=14) displayed a lower Centor score than patients with Group A streptococcus only (n=46), but a higher score than patients with influenza B, other viruses, or no potential pathogen (Kruskal-Wallis p <0.001). A pathogen was detected in 70% of the patients, displaying a wide range of pathogens contributing to the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis. This study supports F. necrophorum as one of the pathogens to be considered in the aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis.

  2. Lack of Evidence for a Role of Islet Autoimmunity in the Aetiology of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Landegren, Nils; Grimelius, Lars; von Euler, Henrik; Sundberg, Katarina; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Lobell, Anna; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lernmark, Åke; Kämpe, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in dogs and is commonly proposed to be of autoimmune origin. Although the clinical presentation of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and canine diabetes are similar, the aetiologies may differ. The aim of this study was to investigate if autoimmune aetiology resembling human T1D is as prevalent in dogs as previously reported. Methods Sera from 121 diabetic dogs representing 40 different breeds were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) and GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and compared with sera from 133 healthy dogs. ICA was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using both canine and human frozen sections. GADA was detected by in vitro transcription and translation (ITT) of human and canine GAD65, followed by immune precipitation. Sections of pancreata from five diabetic dogs and two control dogs were examined histopathologically including immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreas polypeptide. Results None of the canine sera analysed tested positive for ICA on sections of frozen canine or human ICA pancreas. However, serum from one diabetic dog was weakly positive in the canine GADA assay and serum from one healthy dog was weakly positive in the human GADA assay. Histopathology showed marked degenerative changes in endocrine islets, including vacuolisation and variable loss of immune-staining for insulin. No sign of inflammation was noted. Conclusions/Interpretations Contrary to previous observations, based on results from tests for humoral autoreactivity towards islet proteins using four different assays, and histopathological examinations, we do not find any support for an islet autoimmune aetiology in canine diabetes mellitus. PMID:25153886

  3. Recurrent spontaneous abortion--aetiological factors and subsequent reproductive performance in 76 couples.

    PubMed

    van Iddekinge, B; Hofmeyr, G J

    1991-09-01

    A diagnostic screening programme identified a possible aetiological factor in 32 of 76 couples (42%) evaluated for recurrent spontaneous abortion (three or more consecutive abortions). The abnormalities most commonly observed were endocervical infections (18%), cervical incompetence (11%) and uterine abnormality (9%). Hypothyroidism was present in 3 women and chromosomal abnormality in 2. None were positive for lupus anticoagulant. Treatment of uterine abnormality and cervical incompetence was associated with 75% and 86% success rates, respectively, whereas treatment of infective causes resulted in a 44% successful pregnancy rate, much the same as the 42% rate that occurred in women who had not been thus treated.

  4. Definitions and aetiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis: how the Canadian consensus clinical definition of myalgic encephalomyelitis works

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M

    2007-01-01

    A perspective on the various definitions of myalgic encephalomyelitis and the process of discovering its aetiology is presented. The importance of clinical guidelines is emphasised to encourage clinicians to provide clear descriptions of their individual patients required for proper clinical activity; diagnosis, estimation of severity of effect, prognosis, treatment and rehabilitation. This individual knowledge is informed by general and (hopefully) publicly confirmed knowledge resulting from scientific research during the second‐person interaction which lies at the core of the clinical encounter. Both types of knowledge are essential. PMID:16935963

  5. Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. II: The search for an exogenous aetiology.

    PubMed Central

    Poskanzer, D C; Sheridan, J L; Prenney, L B; Walker, A M

    1980-01-01

    In Orkney and Shetland, a survey of lifetime events was undertaken in multiple sclerosis patients and two control groups to define shared exposure to an exogenous agent or environmental insult. Analyses of demographic factors, diet, social class and occupation, housing and environment, animal exposure, schooling, travel, infectious disease, and medical history disclosed a remarkable similarity in responses between patients and controls for a majority of questions. However, differences were noted for sanitation, place of residence at onset, and animal exposure. The data give additional support for an exogenous aetiology of multiple sclerosis. PMID:7241023

  6. Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

  7. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  8. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  9. A Study on the Epidemiology and Aetiology of Acute Gastroenteritis in Adult Patients Presenting at the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Tirana, Albania

    PubMed Central

    Stroni, Gentian P.; Dhimolea, Majlinda M.; Pipero, Pëllumb S.; Kraja, Dhimiter V.; Sallavaci, Suela Y.; Bino, Silva F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common cause of hospital emergency room visits in Albania. However, the aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalization in adults frequently remains unclear. Aims: Our objective was to study the epidemiology and causes of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult patients presenting to hospital. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2010 to January 2012, among patients ≥15 years old with community-acquired gastroenteritis presenting to the emergency room of the University Hospital “Mother Theresa” in Tirana, Albania. Stool samples and rectal swabs were collected from the patients for microbiological testing. Results: The median age of the study patients was 33 (15–88) years and 577 (58%) were females. The median age of males was 35 (15–87) years. The vast majority of cases occurred in urban area (849, 85%), p<0.01. Patients were admitted throughout the year with peak admissions for patients infected by bacterial pathogens in summer and those affected by viral pathogens in autumn. A total of 917 (91.7%) patients underwent a laboratory examination. The overall isolation rate was 51%. Bacterial pathogens were found in 29%, viral pathogens in 19% and protozoal pathogens in 2.5% of patients. No aetiological agent or other cause of acute diarrhoea was found in 449 (49%) patients. Twenty-nine (3.2%) patients were hospitalized. Conclusion: Despite extensive laboratory investigations, enteropathogens were detected in only 51% of adult patients who presented to the hospital ER with acute gastroenteritis. Viral infections ranked as the second most common cause of gastroenteritis in adults. PMID:25625016

  10. Statins and diabetes: the good, the bad, and the unknown.

    PubMed

    Axsom, Kelly; Berger, Jeffrey S; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z

    2013-02-01

    The ability for statins to reduce major cardiovascular events and mortality has lead to this drug class being the most commonly prescribed in the world. In particular, the benefit of these drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established. In February 2012, the Food and Drug Administration released changes to statin safety label to include that statins have been associated with increases in hemoglobin A1C and fasting serum glucose levels. This has stirred much debate in the medical community. Estimate for new onset diabetes from statin treatment is approximately one in 255 patients over four years. The number needed to treat for statin benefit is estimated at one in 40 depending on the population. The mechanism of this link remains unknown. Statins may accelerate progression to diabetes via molecular mechanisms that impact insulin resistance and cellular metabolism of carbohydrates. It remains clear that the benefit of statin therapy outweighs the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:23299640

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  13. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  14. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  15. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections.

  16. Dental Erosion and Medical Conditions An Overview of Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Paryag, A; Rafeek, R

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tooth wear or tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process and occurs throughout life but is considered pathological when the degree of destruction is excessive or the rate of loss is rapid, causing functional, aesthetic or sensitivity problems. The importance of tooth wear as a dental problem has been increasingly recognized. The findings of a study in Trinidad indicate that the prevalence of tooth wear in a Trinidadian population is comparable to the United Kingdom (UK) and, indeed, that the level of moderate and severe wear is nearly twice as high. The aetiology of tooth wear is attributed to four causes: erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is generally considered to be the most prevalent cause of tooth wear in the UK and Europe. Acids that cause dental erosion originate mainly from the diet or the stomach and, to a lesser extent, the environment. Underlying medical problems can contribute to influence the progress of tooth wear due to erosion and the patient may not be aware of these conditions. Moderate to severe tooth wear poses a significant clinical challenge to dental practitioners and may result in treatment that is more complex and costly to the patient, both in terms of finances and time spent in the dental chair. This paper provides an overview of aetiology and diagnosis of tooth wear, in particular tooth wear due to erosion, so that medical and dental practitioners may recognize tooth wear early, institute preventive measures and manage patients appropriately. PMID:25781289

  17. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice.

  18. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  19. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice. PMID:24387630

  20. Discuss the role of microorganisms in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periapical disease.

    PubMed

    Aw, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    The literature indicates that microorganisms have a critical role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. The advancement in microbiological study methods has allowed for the identification of newer species associated with the disease process. At our current understanding, however, the exact roles of specific microorganisms in apical periodontitis are not fully understood but the poly-microbial aetiology of the disease appears to be supported by the literature. The endodontic microbiota is comprised of a subset of microbiota present in the oral cavity, consisting of predominantly anaerobic bacterial species, some fungal and viral species. The pathogenesis of apical periodontitis is essentially the result of a complex interplay between bacterial and host factors, giving rise to a range of presentations depending on the balance of the interaction. The role of endodontic microbiota in the initiation and persistence of apical periodontitis means that the mainstay of endodontic treatment is the elimination of such bacteria. A challenge to the resolution of apical periodontitis after treatment lies in the inadequacy of treatment protocol in completely eradicating the pathogenic species and the inherent ability of certain species to survive the treatment. This issue should be the focus of future research as we continually search for more predictable treatment methods of achieving the resolution of apical periodontitis. PMID:27506189

  1. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Skerritt, Louise; Moore, Zena

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  2. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  3. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Aetiology of Obesity: Proposed Mechanisms and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Edwards, Christine Ann; Shaikh, M. Guftar

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone. However, evidence from animal and human studies clearly indicates controversies in determining the cause or effect relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity. Metagenomics based studies indicate that functionality rather than the composition of gut microbiota may be important. Further mechanistic studies controlling for environmental and epigenetic factors are therefore required to help unravel obesity pathogenesis. PMID:27703805

  4. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12-15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve model was applied to cortisol samples obtained across three points during a cognitive-electroencephalography assessment, to examine the aetiological overlap of ADHD affection status (high versus low ADHD symptom scores) with latent intercept and slope factors. A significant phenotypic correlation emerged between ADHD and the slope factor, with cortisol levels dropping faster for the group with high ADHD symptom scores. The analyses further suggested this overlap was mostly driven by correlated genetic effects. We identified change in cortisol activity over time as significantly associated with ADHD affection status, primarily explained by shared genetic effects, suggesting that blunted cortisol productivity can be a marker of genetic risk in ADHD. PMID:27106905

  5. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices.

  6. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  7. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  8. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  9. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  11. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  12. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  13. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  14. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  15. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  16. A retrospective study on the aetiology, management, and outcome of brain abscess in an 11-year, single-centre study from China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain abscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brain abscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brain abscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brain abscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brain abscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brain abscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brain abscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brain abscess. PMID:24903315

  17. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 and three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Conclusions This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel and a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low. PMID:26821179

  18. Aetiological factors in cutaneous malignant melanomas seen at a UK skin clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, C M; Jenkinson, C M; Murrells, T J; Skeet, R G; Everall, J D

    1987-01-01

    A clinic-based case-control study was set up in 1961 to examine a variety of aetiological factors in malignant melanoma cases compared with controls with other non-malignant skin conditions. The 268 cases and 1577 controls showed odds ratios of 1.9 for red hair, 2.0 for skin that burns in the sun, and no difference between indoor and outdoor workers or between Celts and other Europeans, consistent with the results of more recent studies. Exposure to 16 specific chemicals was recorded in the study and, among these, men exposed to cutting oils were found to have a significantly raised odds ratio of 1.91. Other statistically significant findings were an elevated risk among women diabetics, particularly in the postmenopausal age group, and a reduced risk of 0.7 among cigarette smokers. PMID:3455424

  19. Serotonin mediated immunoregulation and neural functions: Complicity in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preeti; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Rajamma, Usha

    2015-08-01

    Serotonergic system has long been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), since platelet hyperserotonemia is consistently observed in a subset of autistic patients, who respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Apart from being a neurotransmitter, serotonin functions as a neurotrophic factor directing brain development and as an immunoregulator modulating immune responses. Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates serotonin level in lymphoid tissues to ensure its proper functioning in innate and adaptive responses. Immunological molecules such as cytokines in turn regulate the transcription and activity of SERT. Dysregulation of serotonergic system could trigger signalling cascades that affect normal neural-immune interactions culminating in neurodevelopmental and neural connectivity defects precipitating behavioural abnormalities, or the disease phenotypes. Therefore, we suggest that a better understanding of the cross talk between serotonergic genes, immune systems and serotonergic neurotransmission will open wider avenues to develop pharmacological leads for addressing the core ASD behavioural deficits.

  20. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment. PMID:27713275

  1. Intestinal Schistosomiasis as Unusual Aetiology for Acute Appendicitis, Nowadays a Rising Disease in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    López de Cenarruzabeitia, I.; Landolfi, S.; Armengol Carrasco, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis as unusual aetiology for acute appendicitis, nowadays a rising disease in western countries. Recent changes in global migration has led to an immigration growth in our scenario, upsurging people coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Schistosomal appendicitis, seldom reported in developed countries, is now an expected incrising entity in our hospitals during the near future. Due to this circumstances, we believe that schistosomiasis should be consider as a rising source for acute appendicitis in western countries. In order to illustrate this point, we present a case of a 45-years-old black man, from Africa, was admitted via A&E because of acute abdominal pain, located in right lower quadrant. Acute appendicitis was suspected, and he underwent laparotomy and appendectomy. Pathological study by microscope revealed a gangrenous appendix with abscesses and parasitic ova into the submucosal layer of the appendix, suggesting Schistosomiasis. PMID:22792502

  2. Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer – Review of aetiology and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanina, S.; Vivekananthan, C.; Randhawa, R.; Bhattacharya, M.; Thomas, P.; Kavidasan, A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside the case report, we provide a review of aetiology, mechanism and diagnosis with a brief summary of treatment options. PMID:26236602

  3. Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer - Review of aetiology and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hanina, S; Vivekananthan, C; Randhawa, R; Bhattacharya, M; Thomas, P; Kavidasan, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside the case report, we provide a review of aetiology, mechanism and diagnosis with a brief summary of treatment options.

  4. Oxytocin and Major Depressive Disorder: Experimental and Clinical Evidence for Links to Aetiology and Possible Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, David A.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2010-01-01

    Affective disorders represent the most common psychiatric diseases, with substantial co-morbidity existing between major depressive disorders (MDD) and anxiety disorders. The lack of truly novel acting compounds has led to non-monoaminergic based research and hypotheses in recent years. The large number of brain neuropeptides, characterized by discrete synthesis sites and multiple receptors, represent likely research candidates for novel therapeutic targets. The present review summarises the available preclinical and human evidence regarding the neuropeptide, oxytocin, and its implications in the aetiology and treatment of MDD. While the evidence is not conclusive at present additional studies are warranted to determine whether OXT may be of therapeutic benefit in subsets of MDD patients such as those with comorbid anxiety symptoms and low levels of social attachment.

  5. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  6. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  7. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.

  8. Geochemical variables as plausible aetiological cofactors in the incidence of some common environmental diseases in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid growth in research in the field of medical geology around the world, and we continue to encounter “new” and important correlations between certain environmental health conditions and factors related to our interactions with geological materials and processes. A review of the possible role of geochemical factors such as the circulation of Mg, Se and F and the physico-chemical composition of volcanic soil particles, on the aetiology of some common diseases in Africa, is presented. Such studies till now, have tended to emphasise only the deleterious health impacts due to geoenvironmental factors. This is justifiable, since a proper understanding of the negative health impacts has contributed significantly towards improvement in diagnosis and therapy. But there are also beneficial effects accrued from judiciously exploiting geological materials and processes, exemplified in this review, by the several important medical applications of African clays, the therapeutic gains associated with hot springs, and balneology of peat deposits. The criticality of the “optimal range” of intake for the nutrient elements Mg, Se and F in metabolic processes is also emphasised, and illustrations given of illnesses such as cardiovascular disorders and various cancers (all major causes of mortality in Africa) that can possibly occur on either side of this range. It is hoped that this review would help generate ideas for the formulation of experimental studies that take into account the role of the geochemical environment, in an attempt to establish precisely the obscure aetiology of some of the diseases treated, and uncover new pathways in their pathogenesis.

  9. Cross-space-time clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain: evidence for a common aetiology.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Stiller, Charles; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we identified space-time clustering in certain childhood cancers. This study aimed to determine whether there was cross-space-time clustering between different diagnostic groups. A total of 32,295 cases were diagnosed during 1969-1993. Cross-space-time clustering was analyzed by a second-order procedure based on Diggle's method. Locations were birth and diagnosis addresses. The following space-time combinations were examined: address and date of birth; address at birth and date of diagnosis; address and date of diagnosis. Cross-space-time clustering analyses considered clustering pairs of cases from two different diagnostic groups. Formal statistical significance was taken as p < 0.00067 and marginal significance 0.01 > p ≥ 0.00067. Based on address at birth and date of diagnosis, there was statistically significant cross-clustering between cases of HL and intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumors (IIET), both aged 0-14 years (p < 0.0001). Based on address and date of birth, there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of lymphoid leukemia (LL) aged 5-14 years and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0019). Based on address and date of diagnosis there was marginally significant cross-clustering between cases of LL aged 1-4 years and soft tissue sarcoma (STS) aged 0-14 years (p = 0.0041). Findings from this study are consistent with possible common aetiological factors between different diagnostic groups. They suggest a common aetiology for the following pairs of diagnostic groups: HL and IIET; older cases of LL and HL; younger cases of LL and STS. The possibility of common infectious mechanisms should be explored.

  10. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care. PMID:26878223

  11. Computed tomography evidence of dental restoration as aetiological factor for maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Connor, S E; Chavda, S V; Pahor, A L

    2000-07-01

    Maxillary sinusitis due to dental causes is usually secondary to periodontal disease or periapical infection and is commonly associated with mucosal thickening of the floor of the maxillary antrum. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the modality of choice for evaluating the extent of disease and any predisposing factors in patients with symptoms of chronic maxillary sinusitis, but it is unable to diagnose dental disease reliably. The presence of restorative dentistry is, however, easily seen at CT and is associated with both periapical and periodontal disease. We aimed to determine whether its presence at CT may predispose to maxillary sinusitis, and in particular to focal mucosal thickening of the sinus floor characteristic of dental origin. Three hundred and thirty maxillary sinus CT images in 165 patients were reviewed for the presence of restorative dentistry in the adjacent teeth, focal maxillary sinus floor mucosal thickening, any maxillary sinus disease (including complete opacification, air fluid levels, diffuse mucosal thickening, focal mucosal thickening) and evidence of a rhinogenic aetiology (osteomeatal complex pathology, mucosal thickening in other sinuses). One hundred and ninety two sinuses adjacent to restorative dentistry and 178 sinuses not adjacent to restorative dentistry were analysed. Focal floor thickening both with, and without, evidence of a rhinogenic aetiology, was significantly more common adjacent to restorative dentistry. Maxillary sinus disease overall was no more common adjacent to restorative dentistry. This work demonstrated that the presence of restorative dentistry predisposes to focal mucosal thickening in the floor of the maxillary sinus and its presence should prompt clinical and radiographical assessment to exclude dental disease as a source of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

  12. Hut lung: a domestically acquired pneumoconiosis of mixed aetiology in rural women.

    PubMed Central

    Grobbelaar, J P; Bateman, E D

    1991-01-01

    A form of pneumoconiosis in rural African women termed "Transkei silicosis" has been thought to be due to silica particles inhaled while they are hand grinding maize between rocks. Twenty five women were studied who were considered to have this condition according to the following criteria: rural domicile, radiographic and lung biopsy evidence of pneumoconiosis, no exposure to mining or industry and no evidence of active tuberculosis. They were assessed for radiological, pathological, physiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid features. Potential aetiological factors were assessed by determining levels of exposure to respirable quartz and non-quartz containing dusts and smoke in rural dwellings during maize grinding and cooking. Most of the women were symptomless. Radiological findings ranged from a miliary pattern to extensive fibrosis resembling progressive massive fibrosis. Histological features included simple "anthracosis" in 12, anthracosis with macules in six, and mixed dust fibrosis in seven. Cell numbers and their proportions in lavage fluid were normal. More than 60% of macrophages were heavily laden with inorganic inclusions. Respirable quartz concentrations and calculated cumulative time weighted exposures were below those recommended for industry during grinding with sandstone (100% quartz) and they were even lower during grinding with dolerite containing no quartz despite the presence of an appreciable amount of quartz in the ground maize. Total respirable dust and smoke concentrations were greater than the recommended safe levels. Three women had no exposure to maize grinding. It is concluded that the inhalation of non-quartz containing dust and smoke from biomass fuelled fires is more important in the aetiology of this condition than exposure to quartz dust. The term "hut lung" may be more appropriate. Images PMID:2068688

  13. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    PubMed

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD. PMID:25999052

  14. Time trends in the aetiology of prosthetic joint infections: a multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benito, N; Franco, M; Ribera, A; Soriano, A; Rodriguez-Pardo, D; Sorlí, L; Fresco, G; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Dolores Del Toro, M; Guío, L; Sánchez-Rivas, E; Bahamonde, A; Riera, M; Esteban, J; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Martínez-Alvarez, J; Jover-Sáenz, A; Dueñas, C; Ramos, A; Sobrino, B; Euba, G; Morata, L; Pigrau, C; Coll, P; Mur, I; Ariza, J

    2016-08-01

    It is important to know the spectrum of the microbial aetiology of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) to guide empiric treatment and establish antimicrobial prophylaxis in joint replacements. There are no available data based on large contemporary patient cohorts. We sought to characterize the causative pathogens of PJIs and to evaluate trends in the microbial aetiology. We hypothesized that the frequency of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in PJIs has increased in the recent years. We performed a cohort study in 19 hospitals in Spain, from 2003 to 2012. For each 2-year period (2003-2004 to 2011-2012), the incidence of microorganisms causing PJIs and multidrug-resistant bacteria was assessed. Temporal trends over the study period were evaluated. We included 2524 consecutive adult patients with a diagnosis of PJI. A microbiological diagnosis was obtained for 2288 cases (90.6%). Staphylococci were the most common cause of infection (1492, 65.2%). However, a statistically significant rising linear trend was observed for the proportion of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli, mainly due to the increase in the last 2-year period (25% in 2003-2004, 33.3% in 2011-2012; p 0.024 for trend). No particular species contributed disproportionally to this overall increase. The percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria PJIs increased from 9.3% in 2003-2004 to 15.8% in 2011-2012 (p 0.008), mainly because of the significant rise in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (from 5.3% in 2003-2004 to 8.2% in 2011-2012; p 0.032). The observed trends have important implications for the management of PJIs and prophylaxis in joint replacements. PMID:27181408

  15. Cochlear implantation in children with single-sided deafness: does aetiology and duration of deafness matter?

    PubMed

    Arndt, Susan; Prosse, Susanne; Laszig, Roland; Wesarg, Thomas; Aschendorff, Antje; Hassepass, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    For adult patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), treatment with a cochlear implant (CI) is well established as an acceptable and beneficial hearing rehabilitation method administered routinely in clinical practice. In contrast, for children with SSD, CI has been applied less often to date, with the rationale to decide either on a case-by-case basis or under the realm of clinical research. The aim of our clinical study was to evaluate the longitudinal benefits of CI for a group of children diagnosed with SSD and to compare their outcomes with respect to patient characteristics. Evaluating a pool of paediatric SSD patients presenting for possible CI surgery revealed that the primary aetiology of deafness was congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. A subgroup of children meeting the CI candidacy criteria for the affected ear (the majority with acquired hearing loss) were enrolled in the study. Preliminary group results suggest substantial improvements in speech comprehension in noise and in the ability to localise sound, which was demonstrated through objective and subjective assessments after CI treatment for the group, with results varying from patient to patient. Our study shows a trend towards superior outcomes for children with acquired hearing loss and a shorter duration of hearing loss compared to congenitally deafened children who had a longer duration of SSD. This indicates an interactive influence of the age at onset, aetiology and duration of deafness upon the restoration of binaural integration and the overall benefits of sound stimulation to two ears after CI treatment. Continued longitudinal investigation of these children and further studies in larger groups may provide more guidance on the optimal timing of treatment for paediatric patients with acquired and congenital SSD.

  16. Optimising case definitions of upper limb disorder for aetiological research and prevention – a review

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Experts disagree about the optimal classification of upper limb disorders (ULDs). To explore whether differences in associations with occupational risk factors offer a basis for choosing between case definitions in aetiological research and surveillance, we analysed previously published research. Methods Eligible reports (those with estimates of relative risk (RR) for >1 case definition relative to identical exposures were identified from systematic reviews of ULD and occupation and by hand-searching five peer-review journals published between January 1990 and June 2010. We abstracted details by anatomical site of the case and exposure definitions employed and paired estimates of RR, for alternative case definitions with identical occupational exposures. Pairs of case definitions were typically nested, a stricter definition being a subset of a simpler version. Differences in RR between paired definitions were expressed as the ratio of RRs, using that for the simpler definition as the denominator. Results We found 21 reports, yielding 320 pairs of RRs (82, 75 and 163 respectively at the shoulder, elbow, and distal arm). Ratios of RRs were frequently ≤1 (46%), the median ratio overall and by anatomical site being close to unity. In only 2% of comparisons did ratios reach ≥4. Conclusion Complex ULD case definitions (e.g. involving physical signs, more specific symptom patterns, and investigations) yield similar associations with occupational risk factors to those using simpler definitions. Thus, in population-based aetiological research and surveillance, simple case definitions should normally suffice. Data on risk factors can justifiably be pooled in meta-analyses, despite differences in case definition. PMID:22006938

  17. Intracerebral haemorrhage in a population-based stroke registry (LuSSt): incidence, aetiology, functional outcome and mortality.

    PubMed

    Palm, F; Henschke, N; Wolf, J; Zimmer, K; Safer, A; Schröder, R J; Inselmann, G; Brenke, C; Becher, H; Grau, A J

    2013-10-01

    Data on incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) vary widely. Population-based data on predictors of ICH survival and functional outcome are rare. The Ludwigshafen Stroke Study is a prospective, population-based stroke registry which started in January 2006. All residents of the city of Ludwigshafen, Germany, who suffer from acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack are registered. Patients with first-ever primary intracerebral haemorrhage (FE-pICH) between 2006 and 2010 were included in the present analysis. Between January 1st, 2006 and December 31st, 2010, 152 patients suffered a FE-pICH. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for FE-pICH were 18.7 (95 % CI 15.9-21.9) and 11.9 (95 % CI 10.2-14.0), respectively, and remained stable over time. Case-fatality rates for FE-pICH were 27.0, 34.9 and 44.1 % at days 28, 90 and 365, respectively. In 21 patients, an (21.3 %) early do-not resuscitate-order was documented. Excluding these patients from multivariate analyses, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.08-1.36), hypercholesterolemia (OR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.05-0.55) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prior to stroke (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.06-2.3) were independently associated with risk of 1-year mortality, whereas NIHSS (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.20-1.66) and leukocyte count on admission (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.16-1.89) were independently associated with good or moderate functional outcome (mRS ≤ 3) after 1 year. Incidence of FE-ICH is in the lower range of those reported from other registries and remained stable over the observation period. Higher treatment rates for hypertension might partly account for this. Stroke severity as indicated by NIHSS was independently associated with mortality and functional outcome after 1 year. We found no association between aetiology and outcome in ICH patients. PMID:23812642

  18. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  19. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  20. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown. PMID:27043343

  1. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  2. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  3. Drug leads for interactive protein targets with unknown structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-04-01

    The disruption of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) remains a challenge in drug discovery. The problem becomes daunting when the structure of the target protein is unknown and is even further complicated when the interface is susceptible to disruptive phosphorylation. Based solely on protein sequence and information about phosphorylation-susceptible sites within the PPI, a new technology has been developed to identify drug leads to inhibit protein associations. Here we reveal this technology and contrast it with current structure-based technologies for the generation of drug leads. The novel technology is illustrated by a patented invention to treat heart failure. The success of this technology shows that it is possible to generate drug leads in the absence of target structure. PMID:26484433

  4. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  5. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  6. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  7. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  8. Different degrees of malnutrition and immunological alterations according to the aetiology of cirrhosis: a prospective and sequential study

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Wanda Regina; Strauss, Edna; Carrilho, Flair José; Laudanna, Antonio Atílio

    2003-01-01

    Objectives In this work we investigated how immunological dysfunction and malnutrition interact in alcoholic and viral aetiologies of cirrhosis. Methods To investigate the matter, 77 cirrhotic patients divided in three aetiologies [Alcohol, HCV and Alcohol + HCV) and 32 controls were prospectivelly and sequentially studied. Parameters of humoral immunity (Components 3 and 4 of seric complement and immunoglobulins A M, G and E) and of cellular immunity (total leukocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood, T lymphocytes subpopulations, CD4+ and CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity), as well as nutrititional parameters: anthropometric measures, serum albumin and transferrin were evaluated. Results Multiple statistical comparisons showed that IgM was higher in HCV group; IgG was significantly elevated in both HCV and Alcohol + HCV, whereas for the Alcohol group, IgE was found at higher titles. The analysis of T- lymphocytes subpopulations showed no aetiologic differences, but intradermic tests of delayed hypersensitivity did show greater frequency of anergy in the Alcohol group. For anthropometric parameters, the Alcohol +HCV group displayed the lowest triceps skinfold whereas creatinine – height index evaluation was more preserved in the HCV group. Body mass index, arm muscle area and arm fat area showed that differently from alcohol group, the HCV group was similar to control. Conclusion Significant differences were found among the main aetiologies of cirrhosis concerning immunological alterations and nutritional status: better nutrition and worse immunology for HCV and vice-versa for alcohol. PMID:14613508

  9. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  10. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  11. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    PubMed Central

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  12. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  13. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  14. Beliefs and knowledge about aetiology of mental illness among Nigerian psychiatric patients and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, T O; Ogunlesi, A O

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 70 insightful clinically stable out-patients with functional psychotic disorders and 70 accompanying relatives was carried out. They were interviewed about their beliefs concerning the cause of the illness, and their awareness of other possible aetiological factors. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were also elicited. Twelve (17.1%) patients and relatives, respectively, gave "medical" causal explanations; 16 (22.9%) patients and 13 (18.6%) relatives gave "psychosocial" causal explanations; 27 (38.6%) patients and 38 (54.3%) relatives were "uncertain" about the cause of their/relatives' illness (X2 = 5.08; df = 3: P = 0.16). Relatives reported a greater relevance of "heredity" (X2 = 11.58; P = 0.0006) and "supernatural" factors (X2 = 4.72: P = 0.029) as other possible causal factors, than patients. Patients with previous psychiatric hospitalisation reported higher prevalence of "psychosocial" and "supernatural" causal beliefs than those without (X2 = 9.15; P = 0.027). Also, patients with "medical" causal belief reported better treatment compliance than those with other beliefs (P = 0.031). Among relatives, "psychosocial" causal belief in comparison with other beliefs was associated with a longer duration of treatment in the hospital (h = 8.29; P = 0.04). For patients, knowledge about possible causal role of "heredity was significantly more prevalent among male than female patients (X2 = 6.55; P = 0.01) and admission of possible "supernatural" causation was associated with education below the secondary level (X2 = 6.68; P = 0.008). For relatives, knowledge about possible causal role of brain dysfunction was associated with longer duration of treatment (u = 3.93; P = 0.047), and knowledge of possible causal role of "psychosocial" stress was associated with urban place of residence rather than rural (X2 = 10.52; P = 0.0012). For both patients and relatives, the most acceptable aetiological proposition was the "supernatural" while the least

  15. The Unknown Detective Career of Isaac Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Thomas

    2010-03-17

    Isaac Newton's fame is such that it would seem that almost nothing remains to be discovered about his deeds or his methods. But very little attention has been paid to the three decades Newton spent in charge of the Royal Mint, and especially to the first of those years, in which he supervised the remaking of England's entire silver money supply, all the while investigating, prosecuting, and executing the nation's currency criminals. That story provides unique perspectives on both his own habits of mind and on how what has come to be called the scientific revolution played out, not just in the minds of the great, but on the mean streets of London.

  16. Knowns and unknowns of influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Koutsakos, Marios; Nguyen, Thi H O; Barclay, Wendy S; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B viruses (IBVs) circulate annually along with influenza A (IAV) strains during seasonal epidemics. IBV can dominate influenza seasons and cause severe disease, particularly in children and adolescents. Research has revealed interesting aspects of IBV and highlighted the importance of these viruses in clinical settings. Yet, many important questions remain unanswered. In this review, the clinical relevance of IBV is emphasized, unique features in epidemiology, host range and virology are highlighted and gaps in knowledge pinpointed. Multiple aspects of IBV epidemiology, evolution, virology and immunology are discussed. Future research into IBV is needed to understand how we can prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, especially children and elderly.

  17. Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242

  18. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  19. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain.

  20. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain. PMID:26851411

  1. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs Mecia, Tombstone, Arizona. Date Unknown GENERAL VIEW MAIN CHURCH (SOUTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  13. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....1009 Place of performance unknown....

  14. 16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of north approach to bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  15. 17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  16. 12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view from roadway - Siuslaw River Bridge, Spanning Siuslaw River at Oregon Coast Highway, Florence, Lane County, OR

  17. Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Travis, Lois B; Demark Wahnefried, Wendy; Allan, James M; Wood, Marie E; Ng, Andrea K

    2013-05-01

    Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions. PMID:23529000

  18. The head and neck discomfort of autonomic failure: an unrecognized aetiology of headache

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Kincaid, D. W.; Haile, V.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Information concerning the frequency, severity, character, location, duration, diurnal pattern of headache and ancillary symptoms were obtained in 25 patients with autonomic failure and 44 control subjects. Precipitating and ameliorating factors were identified. Autonomic failure patients had more head and neck discomfort than controls. Their discomfort was much more likely to localize in the occiput, nape of the neck and shoulder, compared with controls. There was a greater tendency for the discomfort to occur in the morning and after meals. It was sometimes less than 5 min in duration and was often associated with dimming, blurring, or tunnelling of vision. It was provoked by upright posture and relieved by lying down. Patients with severe autonomic failure and orthostatic hypotension often present with a posture-dependent headache or neck pain. Because the relationship of these symptoms to posture is often not recognized, the fact that these findings may signal an underlying autonomic disorder is underappreciated, and the opportunity to consider this aetiology for the headache may be missed.

  19. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer. PMID:27386716

  20. Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs.

    PubMed

    Arrol, L; Penderis, J; Garosi, L; Cripps, P; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Gonçalves, R

    2012-03-01

    The aetiology and outcome of dogs with juvenile-onset seizures were investigated. One hundred and thirty-six dogs whose first seizure occurred before the age of one year were investigated. One hundred and two dogs were diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), 23 with symptomatic epilepsy (SE), nine with reactive seizures (RS) and two with probable symptomatic epilepsy (pSE). The outcome was known in 114 dogs; 37 per cent died or were euthanased as a consequence of seizures. The mean survival time of this population of dogs was 7.1 years. Factors that were significantly associated with survival outcome included the diagnosis of SE and the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used before investigation. The use of one AED before investigation and a diagnosis of SE were associated with a negative outcome, whereas receiving no AED medications before referral was associated with a longer survival. For dogs with IE, survival time was shortened if the dog was a border collie or with a history of status epilepticus;receiving no AEDs before referral in the IE group was associated with a positive outcome. Seizure-free status was achieved in 22 per cent of dogs diagnosed with IE. While the survival times were longer than previously reported in canine epilepsy, similar remission rates to those reported in childhood epilepsy, where a 70 per cent remission rate is documented, were not seen in the canine juvenile population.

  1. Analysis of the aetiology of diarrhoea in outpatients in 2007, Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Cui, S; Lin, L; Xu, B; Zhao, J; Xia, S; Deng, W; Xie, Z; Zhang, J; Wang, Z; Feng, Z; Yang, W; Ran, L

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aetiology of acute diarrhoea and improve knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in China. Faecal specimens from 1526 outpatients with diarrhoea were collected from 20 hospitals in Henan province and the prevalence of seven bacterial and five viral diarrhoeagenic pathogens were determined. Bacterial pathogens were recovered from 279/1526 (18·3%) stool specimens and viral pathogens were detected in 178/1526 (11·7%) stool specimens. The top five pathogenic species were diarrhoeagenic E. coli (n = 140, 9·2%), rotavirus (n = 79, 5·2%), Shigella spp. (n = 69, 4·5%), Salmonella spp. (n = 66, 4·3%) and norovirus (n = 56, 3·7%). The prevalence of pathogens showed correlation with age, season and clinical symptoms. Several dominant serotypes were identified in Shigella and Salmonella isolates, and high prevalence of multiple drug-resistant isolates was observed in both species. This important information will have a significant effect on public health policy development and resource prioritization practices. PMID:22677444

  2. Angiosarcoma of the liver: annual occurrence and aetiology in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Anthony, P P; Macsween, R N; Scheuer, P J

    1980-01-01

    The annual occurrence of angiosarcoma of the liver (ASL) in Britain from 1963 to 1977 was studied, including clinical and occupational details for those cases agreed as ASL by a panel of histopathologists. Thirty-five cases (28 men, six women, and one infant girl) were agreed as ASL. The increase in the incidence of ASL observed in recent years was attributable to Thorotrast (thorium dioxide) usage (eight cases) and exposure to vinyl chloride (two cases) in the past. In its clinical presentation and prognosis ASL resembled primary liver carcinoma, except that extrahepatic metastases were found in only eight (23%) cases, and haemoperitoneum ws more common in those cases due to Thorotrast. The results suggested a possible increased risk of ASL in the electrical and plastics fabrication industries, but information on exposure was inadequate to implicate specific chemicals. The clinical features of one case were indicative of arsenical intoxication, but medications in the other patients did not appear to be of aetiological importance. PMID:7191719

  3. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, A J M W; Uittenbogaard, L B; Hehenkamp, W J K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F

    2015-12-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon 'niche'. A 'niche' describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6-12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation.

  4. Consonant and syllable complexity of toddlers with Down syndrome and mixed-aetiology developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    SOKOL, SHARI B.; FEY, MARC E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether speech sound production of toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) is on par with or more severely impaired than that of mental age (MA) peers with developmental delay due to aetiologies other than Down syndrome at two points within an 18-month period near the onset of spoken word production. The utterances of 26 children with DS, aged 24–33 months, with a mean MA of 14.3 months, originally studied by Fey et al. (2006) and Warren et al. (2008) were compared to those of a group of 22 children with similar intellectual and communication delay but no DS (NDS). Phonological measures included the size of the consonant inventory, syllable shape complexity, and number of communication acts with canonical vocalizations. At Time 1, the DS group performed as well as or better than the NDS group on these measures of speech production. At Time 2, 18 months later, the DS group was behind the NDS group on the same measures. Results extended the pattern of more severe impairment in children with DS than NDS peers commonly noted in expressive language to measures of phonological development. PMID:24050845

  5. [Consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Martín, F; Baquero Artigao, F; de la Calle Cabrera, T; López Robles, M V; Ruiz Canela, J; Alfayate Miguelez, S; Moraga Llop, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Calvo Rey, C

    2012-11-01

    This is the consensus document on acute otitis media (AOM) of the Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediatrica (SEIP), Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria (SEPEAP), Sociedad Española de Urgencias Pediátricas (SEUP) and Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AEPAP). It discusses the aetiology of the disease and its potential changes after the introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent, 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines. A proposal is made based on diagnostic classification of otitis media as either confirmed or likely. AOM is considered confirmed if 3 criteria are fulfilled: acute onset, signs of occupation of the middle ear (or otorrhea) and inflammatory signs or symptoms, such as otalgia or severe tympanic hyperaemia. Oral amoxicillin is the antibiotic treatment of choice (80mg/kg/day divided every 8hours). Amoxicillin-clavulanate (80mg/kg/day) is indicated in the following cases: when the child is under 6 months, in infants with severe clinical manifestations (fever>39°C or severe pain), there is family history of AOM sequels, and after amoxiciline treatment failure.

  6. A Comparitive Study to Evaluate the Role of Serum Lipid Levels in Aetiology of Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipan; Sidhu, D S; Panag, K M D S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common occurring cancer in women worldwide. Various factors that have lead to change in lifestyle are thought to be associated with increase in breast cancer incidence in Asian countries. Several clinical studies suggest the prognostic significance of serum lipid levels in breast cancer. Present study was planned to confirm the association of lipids levels with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Lipid analyses was carried out on serum samples from 100 breast cancer patients and 100 control women, with a age group of 25 y and above. The case & control group included 50 premenopausal women and 50 postmenopausal women. Results: Patients of study group had high Low density lipoproteins (LDL) (p-value - 0.00), Triglycerides (TG) (p-value -0.001) and Total cholesterol (TC) (p-value -0.00) as compared to control group. There was no association of VLDL (p-value -0.436) and HDL (p-value -0.797) among study group and control group. There was no association of lipid levels in different grades of carcinoma. Conclusion: High levels of LDL, TG and TC were associated with breast cancer. However, no association was there in different grades of carcinoma. So it may be concluded that, LDL, TG and TC may be having some role in aetiology of breast cancer. Therefore, early detection and control of these factors may help in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and ultimately social and economic burden on society. PMID:25859487

  7. Chronic cortical visual impairment in children: aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Huo, R.; Burden, S.; Hoyt, C.; Good, W.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—To evaluate prevalence, aetiology, prognosis, and associated neurological and ophthalmological problems in children with cortical visual impairment (CVI).
METHODS—The records of 7200 outpatients seen in the paediatric ophthalmology practice over the past 15 years were reviewed in order to compile data concerning CVI. In addition, the authors devised and applied a system for grading visual recovery in order to assess prognosis.
RESULTS—CVI occurred in 2.4% of all patients examined. The four most common causes of CVI were perinatal hypoxia (22%), cerebral vascular accident (14%), meningitis (12%), and acquired hypoxia (10%). Most children with CVI had associated neurological abnormalities. The most common were seizures (53%), cerebral palsy (26%) hemiparesis (12%), and hypotonia (5%). Associated ophthalmological problems were esotropia (19%), exotropia (18%), optic nerve atrophy (16%), ocular motor apraxia (15%), nystagmus (11%), and retinal disease (3%). On average, CVI patients improved by two levels as measured by the authors' scale.
CONCLUSION—The majority of children with CVI showed at least some recovery. In this group of children, CVI is often accompanied by additional ophthalmological problems and is nearly always associated with other, serious neurological abnormalities.

 PMID:10340973

  8. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection.

  9. Cases of acute gastroenteritis due to calicivirus in outbreaks: clinical differences by age and aetiological agent.

    PubMed

    Sala, M R; Broner, S; Moreno, A; Arias, C; Godoy, P; Minguell, S; Martínez, A; Torner, N; Bartolomé, R; de Simón, M; Guix, S; Domínguez, A

    2014-08-01

    The Caliciviridae family includes norovirus and sapovirus, which both cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Currently, norovirus is the most common cause of AGE in all age groups in many countries. We analysed clinical differences in reported cases of acute gastroenteritis caused by caliciviruses (AGC) by age group and agent involved. We conducted a descriptive study of AGE outbreaks reported to the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (Spain) in 2010 and 2011. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between clinical symptoms and age. Clinical differences between the <15 years and ≥15 years age groups were statistically significant: children more frequently presented with vomiting (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.56-4.13), abdominal pain (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.60-4.12), fever (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.17-1.96) and nausea (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85). Comparing clinical manifestations of sapovirus and norovirus infection in children aged <15 years, cases caused by norovirus more frequently presented with vomiting and fever (p <0.001), and cases caused by sapovirus more frequently presented with diarrhoea (p 0.013). Determination of the clinical differences associated with cases in outbreaks according to the age of the majority of cases and the symptoms most frequently detected may aid decision making and guide aetiological investigations and the adoption of prevention and control measures.

  10. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer.

  11. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs. PMID:23766578

  12. Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Travis, Lois B; Demark Wahnefried, Wendy; Allan, James M; Wood, Marie E; Ng, Andrea K

    2013-05-01

    Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions.

  13. Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

    1996-10-01

    The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

  14. Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits.

    PubMed

    Rabe, E; Pannier, F

    2012-03-01

    The first CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) consensus document was published after a consensus conference of the American Venous Forum, held at the sixth annual meeting of the AVF in February 1994 in Maui, Hawaii. In the following years the CEAP classification was published in many international journals and books which has led to widespread international use of the CEAP classification since 1995. The aim of this paper is to review the benefits and limits of CEAP from the available literature. In an actual Medline analysis with the keywords 'CEAP' and 'venous insufficiency', 266 publications using the CEAP classification in venous diseases are available. The CEAP classification was accepted in the venous community and used in scientific publications, but in most of the cases only the clinical classification was used. Limitations of the first version including a lack of clear definition of clinical signs led to a revised version. The CEAP classification is the gold standard of classification of chronic venous disorders today. Nevertheless for proper use some facts have to be taken into account: the CEAP classification is not a severity classification, C2 summarizes all kinds of varicose veins, in C3 it may be difficult to separate venous and other reasons for oedema, and corona phlebectatica is not included in the classification. Further revisions of the CEAP classification may help to overcome the still-existing deficits.

  15. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  16. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A.; Finucane, Hilary K.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10−70) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10−12). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10−8), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  17. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (P<5 × 10(-8)), in addition to nine signals in men that were previously reported in women. Newly implicated genes include two retinoic acid-related receptors, RORB and RXRA, and two genes reportedly disrupted in rare disorders of puberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26548314

  18. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  1. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  3. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  4. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  6. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  7. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  8. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  9. Urinary biomarkers suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts may play a role in the aetiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Yang, Li; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Vose, Julie; Beseler, Cheryl; Rogan, Eleanor G.; Cavalieri, Ercole L.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that estrogens may induce non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The reaction of catechol estrogen quinones with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts is hypothesized to initiate this process. These adducts are released from DNA, shed from cells into the bloodstream and excreted in urine. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts might be involved in the aetiology of human NHL. Estrogen metabolites, conjugates and depurinating DNA adducts were identified and quantified in spot urine samples from 15 men with NHL and 30 healthy control men by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of estrogen-DNA adducts were significantly higher in the men with NHL than in the healthy control men. Thus, formation of estrogen-DNA adducts may play a critical role in the aetiology of NHL, and these adducts could be potential biomarkers of NHL risk. PMID:19863189

  10. The curious case of the disappearing IVC: A case report and review of the aetiology of Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Michael; Robson, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a previously well 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower limb pain. An ultrasound demonstrated extensive left sided deep vein thrombosis and computed tomography demonstrated inferior vena cava agenesis, leading to the diagnosis of inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis. The aetiology of inferior vena cava agenesis is explored in depth. PMID:24967034

  11. Aetiology and Outcome of Acute Liver Failure in Children: Experience at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M W; Karim, A B; Rukunuzzaman, M; Rahman, M A

    2016-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was a retrospective review of medical records from November 2011 through October 2014. During this period a total of 35 patients were diagnosed to have ALF. Aetiology was established in 25(71.4%) cases, whereas in 10(28.6%) cases, no identifiable cause was found. Viral hepatitis was the underlying cause in 12(34.3%) cases. After treatment 15(43%) ALF patients survived, 8(23%) left hospital with risk bond (DORB), and 12(34%) patients died. The study showed that among the 12 death patients, 5(41.7%) had viral hepatitis, 3(25%) Wilson's disease, and in 4(33.3%) no cause could be identified. Viral hepatitis and Wilson disease were found to be two common causes of ALF in this study. Future studies with larger sample size are required to know the actual causes of acute liver failure in Bangladeshi children. PMID:27612896

  12. The role of the blood-brain barrier in the aetiology of permanent brain dysfunction in hyperphenylalaninaemia.

    PubMed

    Hommes, F A

    1989-01-01

    Calculations on the rate of entry of the neutral amino acids into the brain via the blood-brain barrier show that a considerable decrease in this rate, particularly for tryptophan and tyrosine, takes place in histidinaemia and tyrosinaemia, type II. These conditions are, however, not associated with mental retardation. It is therefore concluded that effects at the blood-brain barrier alone do not provide an adequate explanation for the aetiology of permanent brain dysfunction in hyperphenylalaninaemia.

  13. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent) neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training). Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6). As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football. PMID:20594296

  14. The Information Available to a Moving Observer on Shape with Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Chandraker, Manmohan

    2016-07-01

    Psychophysical studies show motion cues inform about shape even with unknown reflectance. Recent works in computer vision have considered shape recovery for an object of unknown BRDF using light source or object motions. This paper proposes a theory that addresses the remaining problem of determining shape from the (small or differential) motion of the camera, for unknown isotropic BRDFs. Our theory derives a differential stereo relation that relates camera motion to surface depth, which generalizes traditional Lambertian assumptions. Under orthographic projection, we show differential stereo may not determine shape for general BRDFs, but suffices to yield an invariant for several restricted (still unknown) BRDFs exhibited by common materials. For the perspective case, we show that differential stereo yields the surface depth for unknown isotropic BRDF and unknown directional lighting, while additional constraints are obtained with restrictions on the BRDF or lighting. The limits imposed by our theory are intrinsic to the shape recovery problem and independent of choice of reconstruction method. We also illustrate trends shared by theories on shape from differential motion of light source, object or camera, to relate the hardness of surface reconstruction to the complexity of imaging setup.

  15. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas. Food, water, soil and agrochemicals from both areas were analysed for heavy metals. Results The age-standardised prevalence of CKDu was 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5% to 14.4%) in males and 16.9% (95% CI = 15.5% to 18.3%) in females. Severe stages of CKDu were more frequent in males (stage 3: males versus females = 23.2% versus 7.4%; stage 4: males versus females = 22.0% versus 7.3%; P < 0.001). The risk was increased in individuals aged >39 years and those who farmed (chena cultivation) (OR [odds ratio] = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376 and OR = 1.195, 95% CI = 1.007 to 1.418 respectively, P < 0.05). The risk was reduced in individuals who were male or who engaged in paddy cultivation (OR = 0.745, 95% CI = 0.562 to 0.988 and OR = 0.732, 95% CI = 0.542 to 0.988 respectively, P < 0.05). The mean concentration of cadmium in urine was significantly higher in those with CKDu (1.039 μg/g) compared with controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas (0.646 μg/g, P < 0.001 and 0.345 μg/g, P < 0.05) respectively. Urine cadmium sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 68.3% respectively (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.682, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.75, cut-off value ≥0.397 μg/g). A significant dose–effect relationship was seen between urine cadmium concentration and CKDu stage (P < 0.05). Urine cadmium and arsenic

  16. Infectious Aetiology of Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Role of Anti-Infective Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Salvatore; D’Elia, Gianna Maria; Annechini, Giorgia; Pulsoni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood. However, the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy for gastric MALT. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because it recapitulates cancer cured only by the antibacterial approach and it satisfies the Koch postulates of causation, establishing a causative relationship between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients with chronic HCV infection have 5 times higher risk to develop MZL, in particular, an association with splenic and nodal MZL has been shown in several studies. Moreover, there is evidence of lymphoma regression after antiviral therapy with interferon+ribavirin, thus raising hope that newly available drugs, extremely efficient against HCV replication, could improve outcome also in HCV-driven lymphomas. Another case-study are represented by those rare cases of MZL localized to orbital fat and eye conjunctivas that have been associated with Chlamydophila psittaci infection carried by birds. Efficacy of antibacterial therapy against C. psittaci are conflicting and generally poorer than gastric MALT. Finally, some case reports will cover the relationship between primary cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas and Borrelia Burgdorferi. PMID:26740867

  17. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48 %) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22 %) for rotavirus A, 36 (8 %) for Shigella spp., 17 (4 %) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2 %) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11 %) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5 %) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100 %), and 30 (83 %) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100 %) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94 %) isolates of E. coli and (78 %) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47 %) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44 %) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  18. The epidemiology and aetiology of Perthes' disease in Norway. A nationwide study of 425 patients.

    PubMed

    Wiig, O; Terjesen, T; Svenningsen, S; Lie, S A

    2006-09-01

    A nationwide study of Perthes' disease in Norway was undertaken over a five-year period from January 1996. There were 425 patients registered, which represents a mean annual incidence of 9.2 per 100 000 in subjects under 15 years of age, and an occurrence rate of 1:714 for the country as a whole. There were marked regional variations. The lowest incidence was found in the northern region (5.4 per 100 000 per year) and the highest in the central and western regions (10.8 and 11.3 per 100 000 per year, respectively). There was a trend towards a higher incidence in urban (9.5 per 100 000 per year) compared with rural areas (8.9 per 100 000 per year). The mean age at onset was 5.8 years (1.3 to 15.2) and the male:female ratio was 3.3:1. We compared 402 patients with a matched control group of non-affected children (n = 1 025 952) from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and analysed maternal data (age at delivery, parity, duration of pregnancy), birth length and weight, birth presentation, head circumference, ponderal index and the presence of congenital anomalies. Children with Perthes' disease were significantly shorter at birth and had an increased frequency of congenital anomalies. Applying Sartwell's log-normal model of incubation periods to the distribution of age at onset of Perthes' disease showed a good fit to the log-normal curve. Our findings point toward a single cause, either genetic or environmental, acting prenatally in the aetiology of Perthes' disease. PMID:16943476

  19. Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli as aetiologic agents of sporadic and outbreak-associated diarrhoea in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Melissa A; Dos Santos, Luís F; Dias, Regiane C B; Camargo, Carlos H; Pinheiro, Sandra R S; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are important agents of diarrhoea in industrialized as well as developing countries, such as Brazil. The hallmark of EPEC pathogenesis is the establishment of attaching and effacing lesions in enterocytes, in which pedestal-like structures are formed underneath adherent bacteria. EPEC are divided into two subgroups, typical (tEPEC) and atypical (aEPEC), based on the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid in tEPEC and its absence in aEPEC. This study was designed to characterize 82 aEPEC isolates obtained from stool samples of diarrhoeic patients during 2012 and 2013 in Brazil. The majority of the aEPEC were assigned to the phylo-group B1 (48.8 %), and intimin subtypes θ (20.7 %), β1 (9.7 %) and λ (9.7 %) were the most prevalent among the isolates. The nleB and nleE genes were concomitantly detected in 32.9 % of the isolates, demonstrating the occurrence of the pathogenicity island O122 among them. The O157-plasmid genes (ehxA and/or espP) were detected in 7.3 % of the isolates, suggesting that some aEPEC could be derived from Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli that lost the stx genes while trafficking in the host. PFGE of 14 aEPEC of serotypes O2 : H16, O33 : H34, O39 : H9, O108 : H- and ONT : H19 isolated from five distinct outbreaks showed serotype-specific PFGE clusters, indicating a high degree of similarity among the isolates from the same event, thus highlighting these serotypes as potential aetiologic agents of diarrhoeal outbreaks in Brazil.

  20. Risk factors for metachronous contralateral breast cancer suggest two aetiological pathways.

    PubMed

    Vichapat, Voralak; Gillett, Cheryl; Fentiman, Ian S; Tutt, Andrew; Holmberg, Lars; Lüchtenborg, Margreet

    2011-09-01

    Although many studies show an increased risk of metachronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) in women with a positive family history and young age at diagnosis of the initial breast cancer, the aetiological pathways are still enigmatic. In a cohort of 8478 primary breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2006, 558 cases of metachronous CBC were identified. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we analysed risk factors assessed at the time of the first primary tumour, including patient demographics, tumour characteristics and treatment among 4681 breast cancer patients for whom data on key variables were available. The analysis was performed separately in patients who developed CBC without and with prior recurrence(s). Risk of CBC without prior recurrent disease was increased by a positive family history [adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.5)]; and decreased by endocrine treatment [RR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0)]. We found an increased risk of CBC with prior recurrent disease with younger age [RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.4-3.0)]; positive family history [RR 2.1 (95%CI 0.8-5.0)]; and extensive lymph node involvement [RR 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.6)]. Our results suggest that nodal status of the primary tumour may be as important a risk factor as family history or age, which indicates a high susceptibility to breast cancer or an impaired host defence mechanism. It may also imply that some CBCs are metastases from the first primary tumour, particularly in patients who present with recurrent disease before CBC. PMID:21658939

  1. Microbial aetiology, outcomes, and costs of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia; an observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome and especially costs of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in relation to microbial aetiology. This knowledge is indispensable to estimate cost-effectiveness of new strategies aiming to prevent and/or improve clinical outcome of CAP. Methods We performed our observational analysis in a cohort of 505 patients hospitalised with confirmed CAP between 2004 and 2010. Hospital administrative databases were extracted for all resource utilisation on a patient level. Resource items were grouped in seven categories: general ward nursing, nursing on ICU, clinical chemistry laboratory tests, microbiology exams, radiology exams, medication drugs, and other.linear regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predicting costs of hospitalisation for CAP. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most identified causative pathogen (25%), followed by Coxiella burnetii (6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (5%). Overall median length of hospital stay was 8.5 days, in-hospital mortality rate was 4.8%. Total median hospital costs per patient were €3,899 (IQR 2,911-5,684). General ward nursing costs represented the largest share (57%), followed by nursing on the intensive care unit (16%) and diagnostic microbiological tests (9%). In multivariate regression analysis, class IV-V Pneumonia Severity Index (indicative for severe disease), Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumonia as causative pathogen, were independent cost driving factors. Coxiella burnetii was a cost-limiting factor. Conclusions Median costs of hospitalisation for CAP are almost €4,000 per patient. Nursing costs are the main cause of these costs.. Apart from prevention, low-cost interventions aimed at reducing length of hospital stay therefore will most likely be cost-effective. PMID:24938861

  2. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  3. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  4. Anaerobic oxidation of methane: progress with an unknown process.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Katrin; Boetius, Antje

    2009-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, and it is an important greenhouse gas, which has so far contributed an estimated 20% of postindustrial global warming. A great deal of biogeochemical research has focused on the causes and effects of the variation in global fluxes of methane throughout earth's history, but the underlying microbial processes and their key agents remain poorly understood. This is a disturbing knowledge gap because 85% of the annual global methane production and about 60% of its consumption are based on microbial processes. Only three key functional groups of microorganisms of limited diversity regulate the fluxes of methane on earth, namely the aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, the methanogenic archaea, and their close relatives, the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME). The ANME represent special lines of descent within the Euryarchaeota and appear to gain energy exclusively from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), with sulfate as the final electron acceptor according to the net reaction: CH(4) + SO(42-) ---> HCO(3-) + HS(-) + H(2)O. This review summarizes what is known and unknown about AOM on earth and its key catalysts, the ANME clades and their bacterial partners.

  5. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T; Misra, Raju V; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  6. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J.; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T.; Misra, Raju V.; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  7. 34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE DECK. BAFFLES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Chansamouth, Vilada; Thammasack, Syvilay; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Keoluangkot, Valy; Moore, Catrin E.; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Castonguay-Vanier, Josee; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey; Tangkhabuanbutra, Jarasporn; Tongyoo, Narongchai; Souphaphonh, Phooksavanh; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengdethka, Davanh; Seurbsanith, Amphayvanh; Craig, Scott B.; Hermann, Laura; Strobel, Michel; Newton, Paul N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). Materials and Methods This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10–14 and were monitored until delivery. Principle findings 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4–43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5–40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese

  11. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  12. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  13. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  14. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  15. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  16. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  17. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  18. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  19. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  20. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  1. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  2. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  3. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  4. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  5. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  6. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  9. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  10. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  11. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  12. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  13. 15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  14. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  17. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  18. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  19. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  20. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  1. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  2. Considering Unknown Unknowns: Reconstruction of Nonconfoundable Causal Relations in Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  3. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice.

  4. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed tomore » characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.« less

  5. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  6. Osteitis pubis after standard bipolar TURP surgery: insight into aetiology, diagnosis, management and prevention of this rarity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Torregiani, William; Thornhill, John

    2016-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery is standard treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia when medical therapy has failed. We describe a rare case of osteitis pubis secondary to a prostato-symphocoele sinus after standard bipolar TURP surgery. We also discuss diagnostic techniques and management strategies, and provide an insight into the aetiology of this rare phenomenon. Conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and an indwelling catheter was successful in our case. Treatment in more severe cases may include laparotomy with peritoneal or omental interposition or open retropubic radical prostatectomy to remove the entire sinus tract. PMID:26729825

  7. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance. In some brain tumour-associated cases, epilepsy may be masquerading as TGA. PMID:25802501

  8. Growth hormone abuse and bodybuilding as aetiological factors in the development of bilateral internal laryngocoeles. A case report.

    PubMed

    Moor, James W; Khan, M Iqbal J

    2005-07-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with hoarseness and stridor. He was an elite professional bodybuilder and admitted to having abusing anabolic steroids and growth hormone in the recent past. A CT scan showed bilateral laryngocoeles. The patient was initially managed with intravenous corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and the stridor resolved sufficiently to permit discharge from the hospital. He proceeded to undergo endoscopic marsupialisation of his laryngocoeles and to date has made a full recovery. This is the first reported case where anabolic steroid and growth hormone abuse combined with an elite bodybuilder's exercise regime has been implicated in the aetiology of bilateral laryngocoeles.

  9. The biomechanical variables involved in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome in distance runners - A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Louw, Maryke; Deary, Clare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this literature review was to identify the biomechanical variables involved in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) in distance runners. An electronic search was conducted using the terms "iliotibial band" and "iliotibial tract". The results showed that runners with a history of ITBS appear to display decreased rear foot eversion, tibial internal rotation and hip adduction angles at heel strike while having greater maximum internal rotation angles at the knee and decreased total abduction and adduction range of motion at the hip during stance phase. They further appear to experience greater invertor moments at their feet, decreased abduction and flexion velocities at their hips and to reach maximum hip flexion angles earlier than healthy controls. Maximum normalised braking forces seem to be decreased in these athletes. The literature is inconclusive with regards to muscle strength deficits in runners with a history of ITBS. Prospective research suggested that greater internal rotation at the knee joint and increased adduction angles of the hip may play a role in the aetiology of ITBS and that the strain rate in the iliotibial bands of these runners may be increased compared to healthy controls. A clear biomechanical cause for ITBS could not be devised due to the lack of prospective research.

  10. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  11. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  12. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  13. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  14. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  15. A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

    2009-12-01

    This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

  16. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. 21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES OF CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR UNITS AND STORAGE UNIT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. 43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR THE POWDER MILL ROAD INTERCHANGE. (NPS/NCR (cn) 9995-C) - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  3. 13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF SACRISTY LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURRING AND METAL LATH PUT IN DURING 1974 RESTORATION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  4. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW OF KEY WEST WITH FORT TAYLOR IN THE BACKGROUND LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST - Fort Taylor, Whitehead Spit Vicinity, Key West, Monroe County, FL

  6. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  8. 73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  10. 43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). COMPLETED BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  11. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  12. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  13. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

  16. 4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  17. 26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO DETERMINE RIVER-BOTTOM CONTOURS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES, INCLUDING 'J.P. McPHERSON POST NO. 27 CAFE GENEVA'. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  20. 410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; "A" - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK AND GATE SILL COMPLETED. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT AND LATERALS IN LOCK FLOOR. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A MEETING IN MARCH OF 1928, WHEN A $5 MILLION GIFT FOR THE LAURA SPELLMAN ROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL WAS ANNOUNCED. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR SALES COUNTER AND STAIRWAY, Private Collection, Photocopy by Jack Boucher, October 1972. - Powers Building, 16 Main Street West, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  5. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  6. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  8. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1886 'EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CORNER OF 1ST AND J ST. BENICIA' WEST AND SOUTH SIDES - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. 20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original at Rochester Landmark Society, Rochester, New York) VIEW SOUTH, MILITIA ASSEMBLED IN FRONT OF ARSENAL - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  10. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  11. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  12. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  13. 48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  15. 47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  17. Using the Wheatstone Bridge to Compute Unknown Resistances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to the Wheatstone Bridge, its use in determining the value of unknown resistors, and the effects of wiring resistors in series or in parallel. (SL)

  18. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  19. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  20. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING SHEEP IN SHED NEAR WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle pier, Wheeler Creek Bridge, Pinnacles Road, mile two. Taken from under bridge, looking up." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  11. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. 63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR SOUTH HALF OF MAIN DAM IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "DIVERSION WORKS AND POWER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  16. 33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT WITH LOCK AND ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE NEARLY COMPLETE AND SPILLWAY UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  18. 81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  1. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  2. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Martin, Alison; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of “anemia of unknown etiology” and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. Methods This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient’s anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities. Conclusions We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology. PMID:27310832

  3. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  4. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  5. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  6. Chronic oral arsenic intoxication as a possible aetiological factor in idiopathic portal hypertension (non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis) in India.

    PubMed

    Datta, D V; Mitra, S K; Chhuttani, P N; Chakravarti, R N

    1979-05-01

    Estimates were made of the arsenic concentration in liver specimens from nine patients having idiopathic portal hypertension (IP), and in four livers these were found to be significantly higher than those in patients with cirrhosis and in control subjects. The splenovenogram revealed extensive portosystemic collateral circulation. Corrected sinusoidal pressure and blood flow studies showed higher levels in four patients than in normal subjects. Microscopic examination of liver tissues revealed periportal fibrosis. The higher hepatic arsenic levels that were found were due to the inadvertent drinking of water contaminated with arsenic, adulterated opium, and indigenous medicines. A history of opium intake was not forthcoming but two patients had drunk water contaminated with arsenic and two others had taken bhasams (Ayurvedic medicines prepared by repeated oxidation of ores). Though the aetiology of idiopathic portal hypertension is not known, it is possible that arsenic intake may be one of the factors.

  7. Fatal breakthrough infection with Fusarium andiyazi: new multi-resistant aetiological agent cross-reacting with Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kebabcı, Nesrin; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Ener, Beyza; Ersal, Tuba; Meijer, Martin; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Ozkocaman, Vildan; Ursavaş, Ahmet; Cetinoğlu, Ezgi D; Akalın, Halis

    2014-04-01

    Disseminated infections caused by members of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) occur regularly in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present the first human case caused by FFSC-member Fusarium andiyazi. Fever, respiratory symptoms and abnormal computerised tomography findings developed in a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukaemia who was under posaconazole prophylaxis during his remission-induction chemotherapy. During the course of infection, two consecutive blood galactomannan values were found to be positive, and two blood cultures yielded strains resembling Fusarium species, according to morphological appearance. The aetiological agent proved to be F. andiyazi based on multilocus sequence typing. The sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region did not resolve the closely related members of the FFSC, but additional data on partial sequence of transcription elongation factor 1 alpha subunit did. A detailed morphological study confirmed the identification of F. andiyazi, which had previously only been reported as a plant pathogen affecting various food crops.

  8. Epigenetic influences in the aetiology of cancers arising from breast and prostate: a hypothesised transgenerational evolution in chromatin accessibility.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently supported the notion that environmental and/or dietary factors play a central role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast and prostate. However, for more than five decades investigators have failed to identify a single cause-and-effect factor, which could be implicated; identification of a causative entity would allow the implementation of an intervention strategy in at-risk populations. This suggests a more complex pathoaetiology for these cancer sites, compared to others. When one examines the increases or decreases in incidence of specific cancers amongst migrant populations, it is notable that disease arising in colon or stomach requires one or at most two generations to exhibit a change in incidence to match that of high-incidence regions, whereas for breast or prostate cancer, at least three generations are required. This generational threshold could suggest a requirement for nonmutation-driven epigenetic alterations in the F0/F1 generations (parental/offspring adopting a more westernized lifestyle), which then predisposes the inherited genome of subsequent generations to mutagenic/genotoxic alterations leading to the development of sporadic cancer in these target sites. As such, individual susceptibility to carcinogen insult would not be based per se on polymorphisms in activating/detoxifying/repair enzymes, but on elevated accessibility of crucial target genes (e.g., oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes) or hotspots therein to mutation events. This could be termed a genomic susceptibility organizational structure (SOS). Several exposures including alcohol and heavy metals are epigens (i.e., modifiers of the epigenome), whereas others are mutagenic/genotoxic, for example, heterocyclic aromatic amines; humans are continuously and variously exposed to mixtures of these agents. Within such a transgenerational multistage model of cancer development, determining the interaction between epigenetic modification to generate

  9. Epigenetic Influences in the Aetiology of Cancers Arising from Breast and Prostate: A Hypothesised Transgenerational Evolution in Chromatin Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Francis L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently supported the notion that environmental and/or dietary factors play a central role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast and prostate. However, for more than five decades investigators have failed to identify a single cause-and-effect factor, which could be implicated; identification of a causative entity would allow the implementation of an intervention strategy in at-risk populations. This suggests a more complex pathoaetiology for these cancer sites, compared to others. When one examines the increases or decreases in incidence of specific cancers amongst migrant populations, it is notable that disease arising in colon or stomach requires one or at most two generations to exhibit a change in incidence to match that of high-incidence regions, whereas for breast or prostate cancer, at least three generations are required. This generational threshold could suggest a requirement for nonmutation-driven epigenetic alterations in the F0/F1 generations (parental/offspring adopting a more westernized lifestyle), which then predisposes the inherited genome of subsequent generations to mutagenic/genotoxic alterations leading to the development of sporadic cancer in these target sites. As such, individual susceptibility to carcinogen insult would not be based per se on polymorphisms in activating/detoxifying/repair enzymes, but on elevated accessibility of crucial target genes (e.g., oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes) or hotspots therein to mutation events. This could be termed a genomic susceptibility organizational structure (SOS). Several exposures including alcohol and heavy metals are epigens (i.e., modifiers of the epigenome), whereas others are mutagenic/genotoxic, for example, heterocyclic aromatic amines; humans are continuously and variously exposed to mixtures of these agents. Within such a transgenerational multistage model of cancer development, determining the interaction between epigenetic modification to generate

  10. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  11. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  12. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  13. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  14. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties

    PubMed Central

    Verde, Michael F.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Knowing an item's category helps us predict its unknown properties. Previous studies suggest that when asked to evaluate the probability of an unknown property, people tend to consider only an item's most likely category, ignoring alternative categories. In the present study, property prediction took the form of either a probability rating or a speeded, binary-choice judgment. Consistent with past findings, subjects ignored alternative categories in their probability ratings. However, their binary-choice judgments were influenced by alternative categories. This novel finding suggests that the way category knowledge is used in prediction depends critically on the form of the prediction. PMID:16156183

  16. Breast Pain: Clinical Pattern and Aetiology in a Breast Clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Egwuonwu, Ochonma A; Anyanwu, Stanley NC; Chianakwana, Gabriel U; Ihekwoaba, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with breast pain are likely to be very worried because some consider pain in the breast as an indication of malignancy. Objective: To highlight the causes of pain in the patients are presenting to our breast clinic. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of all consenting patients with breast disease presenting to the breast clinic was conducted from January 2004 to December 2008. Results: A total of 664 patients presented to the breast clinic during the study period. Of this number, 127 presented with breast pain either as the sole symptom or in association with other symptoms. The presenting complaints were a pain, pain with lump, and pain with nipple discharge in 63 (49.6%), 59 (46.4%), and 5 (4.0%) patients, respectively. The pain was noncyclical in 96 (75.6%) patients. The site of the pain was whole breast in 87 (68.5%) patients and a lump in 40 (31.5%). The clinical diagnosis in 31 (24.4%) cases was fibrocystic disease, 28 (22.0%) cancer, 23 (18.1%) unknown, 10 (7.9%) fibroadenoma, 8 (6.3%) duct ectasia, 6 (4.7%) normal breast, and others 21 (16.5%) cases benign diseases were diagnosed. The histological diagnosis was fibrocystic changes, carcinoma, and fibroadenoma in 15 (42.9%), 10 (28.6%), and 5 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Others were benign phyllodes, abscess, duct ectasia, chronic mastitis, and lipoma, each constituting 1 (2.9%) case. Conclusion: Breast pain constitutes a small proportion of complaints to our breast clinic. Fibrocystic changes were the most common cause of breast pain both clinically and histologically. PMID:27013851

  17. Melanoma of unknown primary origin presenting as a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Shamim; Shawa, Hassan; Henderson, Samuel Alva; Habra, Mouhammed Amir

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the adrenal can be seen in the context of metastatic melanoma, but primary adrenal melanoma is very uncommon. We present a case of a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass that mimicked non-functioning primary adrenal malignancies but later proved to be part of a widely metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin. Careful physical examination of the patient led to the discovery of a subcutaneous metastatic focus that was not seen on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT imaging. The presence of subcutaneous metastases raised the suspicion for metastatic melanoma; however, pathological confirmation remained the ultimate tool to reach the final diagnosis. PMID:23784764

  18. 43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-1 #12, NEW HIGHWAY DISPLACING OLD COUNTY ROAD, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  20. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, James C.

    1982-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is one of the supreme diagnostic challenges in medicine. Most cases are caused by common problems presenting in unusual ways. Infections account for 40%, neoplasms 20% and collagen vascular diseases 15% of cases. Repeated clinical evaluation and individualization in planning investigative procedures are the keys to early diagnosis. Several possible causes of pyrexia are discussed. PMID:20469388

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  3. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-03-16

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  4. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  5. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF MINERS CHANGING ROOM, SHOWING CLOTHING SUSPENDED FROM CEILING - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of The Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. AERIAL VIEW OF ENTIRE COMPLEX, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  8. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  9. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  12. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.

    1985-08-15

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  15. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  20. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  1. 7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  2. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. 7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  4. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE WITH NEW COMMEMORATIVE PLATE INSTALLED IN 1934. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  6. 45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). AIRPLANE STUNT DURING DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  8. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  10. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  11. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  13. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN CONNECTION...

  14. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING...

  15. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  16. Unknown input observer design and analysis for networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad F.; Elmahdi, Ahmed; Panchal, Jitesh H.; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of communication networks in the feedback loops of control systems is a defining feature of modern control systems. These systems are often subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyse an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs. The network effect can be viewed as either a perturbation or time-delay to the exchanged signals. In this paper, we (1) review an unknown input observer (UIO) design for a non-networked system, (2) derive the networked unknown input observer (NetUIO) dynamics, (3) design a NetUIO such that the effect of higher delay order terms are nullified and (4) establish stability-guaranteeing bounds on the networked-induced time-delay and perturbation. The formulation and results derived in this paper can be generalised to scenarios and applications where the signals are perturbed due to a different source of perturbation or delay.

  17. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA