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Sample records for af brint som

  1. Automatic cluster detection in Kohonen's SOM.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Dominik; Bogdan, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) is a popular neural network architecture for solving problems in the field of explorative data analysis, clustering, and data visualization. One of the major drawbacks of the SOM algorithm is the difficulty for nonexpert users to interpret the information contained in a trained SOM. In this paper, this problem is addressed by introducing an enhanced version of the Clusot algorithm. This algorithm consists of two main steps: 1) the computation of the Clusot surface utilizing the information contained in a trained SOM and 2) the automatic detection of clusters in this surface. In the Clusot surface, clusters present in the underlying SOM are indicated by the local maxima of the surface. For SOMs with 2-D topology, the Clusot surface can, therefore, be considered as a convenient visualization technique. Yet, the presented approach is not restricted to a certain type of 2-D SOM topology and it is also applicable for SOMs having an n-dimensional grid topology.

  2. mSOM:. a Som Based Architecture to Track Dynamic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distante, Cosimo; Anglani, Alfredo; Siciliano, Pietro; Vasanelli, Lorenzo

    2000-12-01

    This paper proposes a neural network to compensate the parameter drift problem. The neural network (mSom) is based on self-organizing map, and consists of several independent maps. Each map represents an odour, and in the long run is able to track the data in an autonomous fashion by retraining its codebooks with its local memory. The mSom shows good adaptation to the changing responses and high accuracy to recognize the odours.

  3. Response of SOM Decomposition to Anthropogenic N Deposition: Simulations From the PnET-SOM Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Jenkins, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Anthropogenic forcing of the C and N cycles has caused rapid change in atmospheric CO2 and N deposition, with complex and uncertain effects on forest C and N balance. With some exceptions, models of forest ecosystem response to anthropogenic perturbation have historically focused more on aboveground than belowground processes; the complexity of soil organic matter (SOM) is often represented with abstract or incomplete SOM pools, and remains difficult to quantify. We developed a model of SOM dynamics in northern hardwood forests with explicit feedbacks between C and N cycles. The soil model is linked to the aboveground dynamics of the PnET model to form PnET-SOM. The SOM model includes: 1) physically measurable SOM pools, including humic and mineral-associated SOM in O, A, and B soil horizons, 2) empirical soil turnover times based on 14C data, 3) alternative SOM decomposition algorithms with and without explicit microbial processing, and 4) soluble element transport explicitly linked to the hydrologic cycle. We tested model sensitivity to changes in litter decomposition rate (k) and completeness of decomposition (limit value) by altering these parameters based on experimental observations from long-term litter decomposition experiments with N fertilization treatments. After a 100 year simulation, the Oe+Oa horizon SOC pool was reduced by 15 % and the A-horizon humified SOC was reduced by 7 % for N deposition scenarios relative to forests without N fertilization. In contrast, predictions for slower time-scale pools showed negligible variation in response to variation in the limit values tested, with A-horizon mineral SOC pools reduced by < 3 % and B-horizon mineral SOC reduced by 0.1 % for N deposition scenarios relative to forests without N fertilization. The model was also used to test the effect of varying initial litter decomposition rate to simulate response to N deposition. In contrast to the effect of varying limit values, simulations in which only k

  4. Interannual rainfall variability and SOM-based circulation classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolski, Piotr; Jack, Christopher; Tadross, Mark; van Aardenne, Lisa; Lennard, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) based classifications of synoptic circulation patterns are increasingly being used to interpret large-scale drivers of local climate variability, and as part of statistical downscaling methodologies. These applications rely on a basic premise of synoptic climatology, i.e. that local weather is conditioned by the large-scale circulation. While it is clear that this relationship holds in principle, the implications of its implementation through SOM-based classification, particularly at interannual and longer time scales, are not well recognized. Here we use a SOM to understand the interannual synoptic drivers of climate variability at two locations in the winter and summer rainfall regimes of South Africa. We quantify the portion of variance in seasonal rainfall totals that is explained by year to year differences in the synoptic circulation, as schematized by a SOM. We furthermore test how different spatial domain sizes and synoptic variables affect the ability of the SOM to capture the dominant synoptic drivers of interannual rainfall variability. Additionally, we identify systematic synoptic forcing that is not captured by the SOM classification. The results indicate that the frequency of synoptic states, as schematized by a relatively disaggregated SOM (7 × 9) of prognostic atmospheric variables, including specific humidity, air temperature and geostrophic winds, captures only 20-45% of interannual local rainfall variability, and that the residual variance contains a strong systematic component. Utilising a multivariate linear regression framework demonstrates that this residual variance can largely be explained using synoptic variables over a particular location; even though they are used in the development of the SOM their influence, however, diminishes with the size of the SOM spatial domain. The influence of the SOM domain size, the choice of SOM atmospheric variables and grid-point explanatory variables on the levels of explained

  5. Health Information in Somali (Af-Soomaali )

    MedlinePlus

    ... Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Lumbar Puncture - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Neuromuscular Disorders EMG and Nerve Conduction Tests - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  6. What is the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    SOM is a space-based map projection in which the reference meridian nominally follows the spacecraft ... Document (ATBD-MISR-03), and also Snyder, J.P., Map Projection - A Working Manual , United States Geological Survey Professional ...     SOM vs Lat/Lon Projection Orbital Paths/Blocks Paths/Blocks ...

  7. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  8. A new AF gravitational instanton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2011-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that the Euclidean Schwarzschild and Euclidean Kerr instantons are the only non-trivial asymptotically flat (AF) gravitational instantons. In this Letter, we show that this conjecture is false by explicitly constructing a new two-parameter AF gravitational instanton with a U (1) × U (1) isometry group, using the inverse-scattering method. It has Euler number χ = 3 and Hirzebruch signature τ = 1, and its global topology is CP2 with a circle S1 removed appropriately. Various other properties of this gravitational instanton are also discussed.

  9. The AFS Impact Study: Final Report. AFS Research Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansel, Bettina

    The AFS Impact Study, initiated in 1977, is an attempt to document changes in learning and personal development associated with an intercultural "homestay" program. Completed in 1985, the study identifies several areas in which students show greater learning and educational growth than that shown by a group of students who had expressed interest…

  10. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    1976. Murphy Dome AFS Industrial wastes from Murphy Dome shops are similar to other LRR istallations including primarily lubricating oils and some...mn ...am........................ .. . .. FIGURE 6.6 02 mu .. . (DoI0 * 4. .J~ . .... 00- oCL c0Z 6 o2 z xo% . COW 2 N w Z -wo O<W0 V AO~L Ul w L L

  11. Application of Improved SOM Neural Network in Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xueying; Liu, Kean; Yan, Jiegou; Chen, Wenhui

    For the false alarm rate, false negative rate, training time and other issues of SOM neural network algorithm, the author Gives an improved anomaly detection SOM algorithm---FPSOM through the introduction of the learning rate, which can adaptively learn the original sample space, better reflects the status of the original data. At the same time, combined with the artificial neural network, The author also gives the intelligent detection model and the model of the training module, designed the main realization of FPSOM neural network algorithm, and finally simulation experiments were carried out in KDDCUP data sets. The experiments show that the new algorithm is better than SOM which can greatly shorten the training time, and effectively improve the detection rate and reduce the false positive rate.

  12. Spatial distribution of SOM parameters during paddy soil evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölbl, Angelika; Müller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Schwark, Lorenz; Cao, Zhihong; Fu, Jianrong; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    During the past 2000 years new farmland was created through consecutive land reclamation by protective dikes in the Zhejiang province (Yangtze River Delta, PR China). The consecutive construction of dikes provides a unique chronosequence of soil formation under agricultural use. Parts of the land are used for paddy rice, other parts for a variety of non-irrigated crops (control sites). These soils document the effect of soil redox conditions on the evolution of soil organic matter (SOM) parameters and their spatial distribution during pedogenesis. We hypothesised that the spatial pattern of SOM parameters will change with increasing duration of paddy soil use, leading to a spatial homogenisation due to frequent puddling of topsoils. The subsoils are assumed to be characterised by a higher spatial heterogeneity due to an increased number of redox cycles and ongoing transport processes in the undisturbed subsoil layers. We sampled three plots within the chronosequence (50, 300 and 1000 years of paddy cultivation) to investigate the development of the spatial dependence of SOM parameters. A regular, orthogonal grid with a size of 25 x 25 m and consisting of 70 sampling positions was used at each plot. Three soil depths were sampled, including the puddled topsoil, the plough layer, and a mixed subsoil layer. The measurements included total C and N as well as organic C (OC) concentrations, soil colour and magnetic susceptibility. In each soil layer of the 50 and 300 y old paddy plots, no spatial dependencies of the SOM parameters were found, but a significant spatial dependence was found in each soil layer of the 1000y old paddy site. The spatial distribution of OC and N in the topsoil showed a higher range, a higher (semi-)variance and a stronger spatial dependence compared to the subsoil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of OC and N is considerably different between top- and subsoil, indicating that OC distributions below the plough layer are controlled by different

  13. TransitSOM: Self-Organizing Map for Kepler and K2 transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Pollacco, D.; Santerne, A.

    2017-03-01

    A self-organizing map (SOM) can be used to identify planetary candidates from Kepler and K2 datasets with accuracies near 90% in distinguishing known Kepler planets from false positives. TransitSOM classifies a Kepler or K2 lightcurve using a self-organizing map (SOM) created and pre-trained using PyMVPA (ascl:1703.009). It includes functions for users to create their own SOMs.

  14. Adversary phase change detection using SOMs and text data.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  15. Modelling the impact of soil tillage on SOM turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Uwe; Spiegel, Heide

    2013-04-01

    The CCB model of the soil organic matter (SOM) turnover has been proved to be valid over a wide range of site conditions and cropping systems. It is based on the aggregation of different fresh organic matter to the flux of SOM reproducing carbon (Crep) and on the aggregation of the complexity of site conditions as Biologic Active Time (BAT). Next to carbon input and site conditions the soil tillage is known to have an impact on SOM. The CCB model calculates the BAT value from a statistically based meta model using soil texture and climate data. The CANDY model as ancestor of CCB is also based on the BAT calculation - but under consideration of soil temperature, soil moisture and the depth of the reaction layer in the top soil. Especially the latter effect takes into account that gas exchange between the reaction space in the soil pores and the atmosphere may be hindered in deeper soil layers as well as the filling of pore space with water. Depending on soil type and soil moisture dynamics the BAT at the base of the plough layer may be considerably lower than in the layers above. If the soil is ploughed regularly, there are no long-term effects on SOM dynamics in the different depth steps (10 cm) of the top soil. In contrast, on ploughless systems with reduced cultivation depth we expect depth depending effects of SOM storage. The integration of this mechanism had to be based on a simplified approach because the CCB model is working in annual time steps and is based on very few soil parameters. An analysis of the general mechanisms of BAT calculation led to a simplified solution to calculate a site specific correction factor of the BAT estimation from the meta model. Therefore, we assume a texture dependent reduction of the turnover activity with depth, indicated by the coefficient alpha. A first examination of this approach has been performed using the dataset of the Fuchsenbigl experiment in Austria with three tillage variants (conventional ploughing, reduced and

  16. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  17. Mechanisms Underlying AF: Triggers, Rotors, Other?

    PubMed

    Krummen, David E; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Salcedo, Jon; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Lalani, Gautam G; Schricker, Amir A

    2015-04-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the precise mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF). An improved understanding of these mechanisms is urgently needed to improve interventional strategies to suppress and eliminate AF, since the success of current strategies is suboptimal. At present, guidelines for AF ablation focus on pulmonary vein (PV) isolation for the prevention of arrhythmia. Additional targets are presently unclear, and include additional linear ablation and electrogram-guided substrate modification, without clear mechanistic relevance. PV and non-PV triggers are likely central in the first few seconds of AF initiation. Rapid activation from such triggers interacts with transitional mechanisms including conduction velocity slowing, action potential duration (APD) alternans, and steep APD restitution to cause conduction block and initiate functional reentry. However, complete suppression of potential triggers has proven elusive, and the intra-procedural mapping and targeting of transitional mechanisms has not been reported. A growing body of research implicates electrical rotors and focal sources as central mechanisms for the maintenance of AF. In several recent series, they were observed in nearly all patients with sustained arrhythmia. Ablation of rotor and focal source sites, prior to pulmonary vein isolation, substantially modulated atrial fibrillation in a high proportion of patients, and improved ablation outcomes versus pulmonary vein isolation alone. These results have subsequently been confirmed in multicenter series, and the improved outcomes have been found to persist to a mean follow-up of 3 years. Recently, rotors have been observed by multiple groups using diverse technologies. These findings represent a paradigm shift in AF, focusing on sustaining mechanisms, as is currently done with other arrhythmias such as atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia. Studies are currently underway to assess the optimal strategy for the application

  18. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  19. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  20. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  1. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  2. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  3. Periodic Shorting of SOM Cell to Remove Soluble Magnesium in Molten Flux and Improve Faradaic Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Su, Shizhao; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2014-12-01

    Solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis has been used for magnesium production directly from magnesium oxide. Magnesium dissolution in molten flux electrolyte is of particular concern in SOM electrolysis, because it imparts electronic conductivity to the flux and thereby decreases the faradaic current efficiency. In this work, a new approach for removing soluble magnesium in the flux is explored. Periodic shorting is performed between the anode and the cathode of SOM electrolysis cell. During shorting, soluble magnesium in the flux is oxidized to magnesium oxide. This significantly reduces the electronic current in the flux and therefore keeps the faradaic current efficiency high during SOM electrolysis. Electronic transference numbers in the flux are measured to assess the soluble magnesium concentration. Potentiodynamic scan results also confirm the feasibility of shorting the electrodes to remove soluble magnesium.

  4. Stabilization of microbial biomass in soils: Implications for SOM formation and xenobiotics degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, A.; Kindler, R.; Achtenhagen, J.; Nowak, K.; Girardi, C.; Kästner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays an important role in soils. It is the carbon source and the habitat of many soil microorganisms, its quality and quantity thus affect soil microbial activity. Therefore, the amount and composition of SOM determines soil quality, but SOM formation and stabilization are not yet sufficiently understood. Recently, microbial biomass residues could be identified as a significant source of SOM. We incubated 13C-labelled bacterial cells for 224 days in an agricultural soil and traced the fate of the 13C label of bacterial biomass in soil by isotopic analysis. The data were combined to a mass balance, and the biomass residues were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high percentage of the biomass-derived carbon (in particular from proteins) remained in soil, mainly in the non-living part of SOM, after extended incubation. The SEM micrographs only rarely showed intact cells. Instead, organic patchy fragments of 200-500 nm size were abundant. These fragments were associated with all stages of cell envelope decay and fragmentation, indicating specific disintegration processes of cell walls. Similar fragments developed on initially clean and sterile in situ microcosms during exposure in groundwater, thus providing clear evidence for their microbial origin. Microbial cell envelope fragments thus contribute significantly to SOM formation. A significant contribution of cell envelope fragments to SOM formation provides a simple explanation for the development of the small, nano-scale patchy organic materials observed in soil electron micrographs. It also suggests that microstructures of microbial cells and of small plant debris provide the molecular architecture of SOM attached to particle surfaces. This origin and macromolecular architecture of SOM is consistent with most observations on SOM, e.g. the abundance of microbial-derived biomarkers, the low C/N ratio, the water repellency and the stabilization of microbial biomass. The

  5. Interactive effects of C, organic N, and inorganic N on SOM mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-Jones, Kyle; Schmücker, Niklas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    The processes governing soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization are not yet fully understood, despite considerable interest in the topic. Mechanistic theories of microbial activity often point to interactions between carbon (C) pools and other nutrients, notably nitrogen (N). The N-mining hypothesis is a well-known example, which claims that N-limited microorganisms mineralize SOM to access the N contained within. This could elegantly explain why an increase in available carbon often accelerates mineralization of SOM, i.e. the priming effect. The hypothesis predicts a robust positive relationship between priming and C:N ratio of the added organic substances, and we therefore tested this expectation. Soil samples from an agricultural Luvisol were incubated in a three-week, full factorial experiment, amended with organic carbon sources (glucose, alanine and no addition), at three levels of C addition (none, 25% and 50% of extractable MBC), and three levels of inorganic N to match the organic N provided by alanine. Isotopic labelling (14C and 15N) was used to trace added C and N in the evolved CO2, soil solution and microbial biomass. Both glucose and alanine induced accelerated SOM mineralization. Alanine's low C:N ratio did not prevent it from causing priming, and inorganic N forms had little effect on SOM mineralization. Our results were therefore inconsistent with the predictions of the N-mining hypothesis. Instead, the dynamics of the observed priming indicated that other mechanisms were more important, closely related to the mineralization of the added substances. Co-metabolism of SOM and apparent priming by pool substitution were more consistent the observed priming effects. These new experimental results are supported by an analysis of literature. We demonstrate that the simple C:N stoichiometric theory of N mining is insufficient to explain the role of N in SOM mineralization. Other mechanisms must be included in explanations of SOM priming.

  6. SOMs-Based Analysis of WRF Extreme Daily Precipitation in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze daily extremes of precipitation produced with a polar-optimized version of the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model that simulated 19 years on the domain developed for the Regional Arctic System (RASM) model. Analysis focuses on Alaska, because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans, both of which provide a large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has an important impact on orographically-forced precipitation. In order to understand the circulation characteristics conducive for extreme precipitation events, we use Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) to find general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process. In our analysis, we use mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies to train the SOM. We examine daily widespread extreme precipitation events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation. Using the SOM procedure, we map days with widespread extremes onto the SOM's array of circulation patterns. This mapping aids in determining which nodes are being accessed at higher frequencies, and hence, which circulations are more conducive to extreme events. We show that there are multiple circulation patterns responsible for extreme precipitation differentiated by where they produce extreme events in our analysis region. Additionally, we plot composites of several meteorological fields for SOM nodes being accessed by both extreme and non-extreme events to determine what specific conditions are necessary for a widespread extreme event. Composites of individual nodes (or of adjacent nodes in SOM space) produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all extreme events, which can include multiple synoptic circulation regimes. We also trace the temporal evolution of extreme events through SOM space. Thus, our analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric

  7. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  8. Auto-SOM: recursive parameter estimation for guidance of self-organizing feature maps.

    PubMed

    Haese, K; Goodhill, G J

    2001-03-01

    An important technique for exploratory data analysis is to form a mapping from the high-dimensional data space to a low-dimensional representation space such that neighborhoods are preserved. A popular method for achieving this is Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. However, in its original form, this requires the user to choose the values of several parameters heuristically to achieve good performance. Here we present the Auto-SOM, an algorithm that estimates the learning parameters during the training of SOMs automatically. The application of Auto-SOM provides the facility to avoid neighborhood violations up to a user-defined degree in either mapping direction. Auto-SOM consists of a Kalman filter implementation of the SOM coupled with a recursive parameter estimation method. The Kalman filter trains the neurons' weights with estimated learning coefficients so as to minimize the variance of the estimation error. The recursive parameter estimation method estimates the width of the neighborhood function by minimizing the prediction error variance of the Kalman filter. In addition, the "topographic function" is incorporated to measure neighborhood violations and prevent the map's converging to configurations with neighborhood violations. It is demonstrated that neighborhoods can be preserved in both mapping directions as desired for dimension-reducing applications. The development of neighborhood-preserving maps and their convergence behavior is demonstrated by three examples accounting for the basic applications of self-organizing feature maps.

  9. Using Self-Organising Maps (SOMs) to assess synchronies: an application to historical eucalypt flowering records.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Irene L; Keatley, Marie R; Lee, Shalem Y

    2011-11-01

    Self-Organising Map (SOM) clustering methods applied to the monthly and seasonal averaged flowering intensity records of eight Eucalypt species are shown to successfully quantify, visualise and model synchronisation of multivariate time series. The SOM algorithm converts complex, nonlinear relationships between high-dimensional data into simple networks and a map based on the most likely patterns in the multiplicity of time series that it trains. Monthly- and seasonal-based SOMs identified three synchronous species groups (clusters): E. camaldulensis, E. melliodora, E. polyanthemos; E. goniocalyx, E. microcarpa, E. macrorhyncha; and E. leucoxylon, E. tricarpa. The main factor in synchronisation (clustering) appears to be the season in which flowering commences. SOMs also identified the asynchronous relationship among the eight species. Hence, the likelihood of the production, or not, of hybrids between sympatric species is also identified. The SOM pattern-based correlation values mirror earlier synchrony statistics gleaned from Moran correlations obtained from the raw flowering records. Synchronisation of flowering is shown to be a complex mechanism that incorporates all the flowering characteristics: flowering duration, timing of peak flowering, of start and finishing of flowering, as well as possibly specific climate drivers for flowering. SOMs can accommodate for all this complexity and we advocate their use by phenologists and ecologists as a powerful, accessible and interpretable tool for visualisation and clustering of multivariate time series and for synchrony studies.

  10. AF-GEOSPACE Version 2.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Madden, D.; Tautz, M.; Roth, C.

    2004-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed and distributed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. A review of current (Version 2.0) and planned (Version 2.1) AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be given. A wide range of physical domains is represented enabling the software to address such things as solar disturbance propagation, radiation belt configuration, and ionospheric auroral particle precipitation and scintillation. The software is currently being used to aid with the design, operation, and simulation of a wide variety of communications, navigation, and surveillance systems. Building on the success of previous releases, AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for the rapid prototyping of automated operational and simulation space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks, including: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event anomaly analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; frequency and antenna management for radar and HF communications; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; scientific model validation and comparison, physics research, and education. Version 2.0 provided a simplified graphical user interface, improved science and application modules, and significantly enhanced graphical performance. Common input data archive sets, application modules, and 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D visualization tools are provided to all models. Dynamic capabilities permit multiple environments to be generated at user-specified time intervals while animation tools enable displays such as satellite orbits and environment data together as a function of time. Building on the existing Version 2.0 software architecture, AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 is currently under development and will include a host of new modules to provide, for example, geosynchronous charged particle fluxes, neutral atmosphere densities

  11. Radiocarbon measurements of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil CO2 efflux provide unique insights into the SOM dynamics of managed loblolly pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Bracho, R.; Jokela, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) cycling between soils and the atmosphere affects a wide range of important ecosystem functions. However the key processes controlling this cycle, fine root inputs and heterotrophic respiration, are poorly understood primarily because they are difficult to directly measure in the field. Radiocarbon measurements and simple models can be used to evaluate the relative influence of these processes on SOM cycling. Here we used radiocarbon measurements of density separated SOM, and root respiration, microbial respiration, and soil CO2 efflux to examine the relative effect of two forestry practices, fertilization and the genetic control of planted seedlings, on SOM cycling in two loblolly pine plantation forests in north central Florida. Our primary hypothesis was that greater aboveground growth would correspond to increased inputs of C to the soil as root biomass, and a greater efflux of CO2 from roots and soil microbes. For the density separated fractions, the light fraction (LF) (<1.6 g cm-3) was nearly 98% of the SOM in these sandy soils, and the LF decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of fertilization for the A horizon (~0-30 cm). Light fraction radiocarbon values ranged from 66-127% and tended to be more enriched in bomb carbon, or older, with increasing levels of fertilization. Based on a significant reduction in fine root biomass with fertilization, we estimate that the smaller mass of the LF and its older age were the result of less fine root contributions of C to the LF pool. The alternative hypothesis, that fertilization increased SOM turnover, was not supported. To determine if changes in root biomass reflected changes in root respiration in soil CO2 efflux, we estimated radiocarbon values for root and microbial respiration, and soil CO2 efflux in order to partition the components in soil CO2 efflux. Radiocarbon estimates of microbial respiration (0-15 cm depth) and root respiration fractions ranged from 55-67% and

  12. [A New Method to Decline the SWC Effect on the Accuracy for Monitoring SOM with Hyperspectral Technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Feng, Mei-chen; Yang, Wu-de; Xiao, Lu-jie; Li, Guang-xin; Zhao, Jia-jia; Ren, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is one of the most important indexes to reflect the soil fertility, and soil moisture is a main factor to limit the application of hyperspectral technology in monitoring soil attributes. To study the effect of soil moisture on the accuracy for monitoring SOM with hyperspectral remote sensing and monitor the SOM quickly and accurately, SOM, soil water content (SWC) and soil spectrum for 151 natural soil samples in winter wheat field were measured and the soil samples were classified with the method of traditional classification of SWC and Normalized Difference Soil Moisture Index (NSMI) based on the hyperspectral technology. Moreover, the relationship among SWC, SOM and NSMI were analyzed. The results showed that the accuracy of spectral monitor for SOM among the classifications were significantly different, its accuracy was higher than the soils (5%-25%) which was not classified. It indicated that the soil moisture affected the accuracy for monitoring the SOM with hyperspectral technology and the study proved that the most beneficent soil water content for monitoring the SOM was less 10% and higher 20%. On the other hand, the four models for monitoring the SOM by the hyperspectral were constructed by the classification of NSMI, and its accuracy was higher than the classification of SWC. The models for monitoring the SOM by the classification of NSMI were calibrated with the validation parameters of R², RMSE and RPD, and it showed that the four models were available and reliable to quickly and conveniently monitor the SOM by heperspectral. However, the different classifiable ways for soil samples mentioned in the study were naturally similar as all soil samples were classified again with another way. Namely, there may be another optimal classifiable way or method to overcome and eliminate the SWC effect on the accuracy for monitoring SOM. The study will provide some theoretical technology to monitor the SWC and SOM by remote sensing.

  13. Emergent SOM Dynamics Considering Interactions Between Microbial Physiology, Microbial Competition, Mineral Interactions, Vertical Transport, and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Dwivedi, D.; Torn, M. S.; Maggi, F.; Kleber, M.

    2014-12-01

    The range of processes hypothesized to affect Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics is large. Although mechanistic understanding of some of these processes is good (e.g., mineral interactions), it is less well developed for others (e.g., aggregation, microbial community dynamics). Further, interactions between these processes in the complex soil environment are poorly represented in the new generation of mechanistic SOM models. An important component of the modeling problem lies in the under-appreciated numerical modeling issues associated with coupling processes that are tightly inter-connected and span many orders of magnitude in temporal scales (seconds to millennia). Here, I will synthesize results from recent modeling work that integrates (1) explicit representations of microbial physiology; (2) the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation (ECA) for competitive interactions; (3) process-specific thermodynamically-based temperature sensitivities; (4) enzyme kinetics; (5) and abiotic interactions with mineral surfaces. In several sites (Russian grassland, U.S. midwestern grasslands, Hawaii, and northern California), our modeling results suggest that observed depth profiles of SOM content and radiocarbon signatures are broadly consistent with SOM inputs near the surface, fungal and bacterial activity, advective transport, and mineral interactions and stabilization. Further, when explicitly representing microbial physiology, we demonstrate that the often-observed large temporal variability in temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition and carbon use efficiency can substantially impact predicted SOM profiles, compared to models that do not include these dependencies. Finally, I will describe integration of these concepts into the global land model CLM4.5 and implications for predicted SOM dynamics under a changing climate.

  14. Coaxially electrospun PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats with superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2010-08-03

    This work reports the coaxial electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats yielding superhydrophobic properties. The coaxial electrospinning configuration allows for the electrospinning of Teflon AF, a nonelectrospinnable polymer, with the help of an electrospinnable PVDF polymer. PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath fibers have been found to a have mean fiber diameter ranging from 400 nm to less than 100 nm. TEM micrographs exhibit a typical core-sheath fiber structure for these fibers, where the sheath fiber coats the core fiber almost thoroughly. Water contact angle measurements by sessile drop method on these core-sheath nanofiber mats exhibited superhydrophobic characteristics with contact angles close to or higher than 150 degrees. Surprisingly, PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF nanofiber mat surface properties were dominated by the fiber dimensions and less influenced by the type of sheath polymer. This suggests that highly fluorinated polymer Teflon AF does not advance the hydrophobicity beyond what surface physics and slightly fluorinated polymer PVDF can achieve. It is concluded that PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath electrospun nanofiber mats may be used in lithium (Li)-air batteries.

  15. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  16. SOM Neural Network Fault Diagnosis Method of Polymerization Kettle Equipment Optimized by Improved PSO Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For meeting the real-time fault diagnosis and the optimization monitoring requirements of the polymerization kettle in the polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC) production process, a fault diagnosis strategy based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, a mapping between the polymerization process data and the fault pattern is established by analyzing the production technology of polymerization kettle equipment. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a new dynamical adjustment method of inertial weights is adopted to optimize the structural parameters of SOM neural network. The fault pattern classification of the polymerization kettle equipment is to realize the nonlinear mapping from symptom set to fault set according to the given symptom set. Finally, the simulation experiments of fault diagnosis are conducted by combining with the industrial on-site historical data of the polymerization kettle and the simulation results show that the proposed PSO-SOM fault diagnosis strategy is effective. PMID:25152929

  17. SOM neural network fault diagnosis method of polymerization kettle equipment optimized by improved PSO algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For meeting the real-time fault diagnosis and the optimization monitoring requirements of the polymerization kettle in the polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC) production process, a fault diagnosis strategy based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, a mapping between the polymerization process data and the fault pattern is established by analyzing the production technology of polymerization kettle equipment. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a new dynamical adjustment method of inertial weights is adopted to optimize the structural parameters of SOM neural network. The fault pattern classification of the polymerization kettle equipment is to realize the nonlinear mapping from symptom set to fault set according to the given symptom set. Finally, the simulation experiments of fault diagnosis are conducted by combining with the industrial on-site historical data of the polymerization kettle and the simulation results show that the proposed PSO-SOM fault diagnosis strategy is effective.

  18. Phosphate Mineral Deposits Characterization Using Multivariate Data and SOM-based Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L. P.; da Cunha, L. S.; Friedel, M. J.; Campos, J. E.; de Mendonça, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate deposits provide an important primary nutrient for fertilizer and agricultural industries worldwide in addition to feedstock for phosphate chemical processing plants. Phosphate mineral formation as well as its concentration may vary in tropical areas, due to strong weathering processes. Phosphate mineralization at Bonfim Hill, Central North Brazil, is stratiform, lens-shaped with deposition controlled by paleochannels and erosion controlling structures. Identification and characterization of phosphate mineral deposit at Bonfim Hill were performed analyzing geochemistry, electrical resistivity, x-ray fluorescence, mineral types and lithotypes using Kohonen's unsupervised neural network, the so-called self organizing maps (SOM). SOM-based data analysis enables and facilitates thorough investigations of multivariate data systems and provide additional statistical information compared to traditional methods.The geochemical and geophysical data set was also used to train and validate a SOM-based classification system to detect phosphate mineral deposit, achieving 78% of correct classification.

  19. Modelling bare fallow SOM dynamics on a Chernozem soil in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Uwe; Merbach, Ines

    2017-04-01

    The level of our process understanding about carbon and nitrogen fluxes in soils becomes visible at extreme situations like bare fallow soils. The observed dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the top soil on a 28 years old fallow experiment on Haplic Chernozem in Bad Lauchstädt (Germany) was modelled using the Candy Carbon Balance (CCB) model that in its standard version was previously validated with LTFE data from Central Europe and a tillage experiment in Austria. For this study we selected two treatments of the fallow experiment in Bad Lauchstädt where the soil was kept bare with mechanical or chemical treatments. For this extreme land use (no input of fresh organic matter) the CCB model was improved to include the SOC related change of soil physical parameters and a dynamic handling of the physically stabilized soil organic matter (SOM) pool. The results from observation and modelling reflected the increased SOM turnover due to soil tillage for carbon as well as nitrogen and thus confirmed the modelling approach for non-tillage in CCB. The added sub model for the dynamics of physically stabilized SOM was also verified. The long term stabilized SOM is very important on this site. The modelled size of the physically stabilized SOC pool was about 55% of total SOC and reduced only slowly during the nearly three decades but the implementation of this effect resulted in improved simulation results. Thus we conclude that scenarios that lead to bigger changes of SOM stocks require a modelling approach that acknowledges the interaction between SOM and soil physical properties.

  20. Mining SOM expression portraits: feature selection and integrating concepts of molecular function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self organizing maps (SOM) enable the straightforward portraying of high-dimensional data of large sample collections in terms of sample-specific images. The analysis of their texture provides so-called spot-clusters of co-expressed genes which require subsequent significance filtering and functional interpretation. We address feature selection in terms of the gene ranking problem and the interpretation of the obtained spot-related lists using concepts of molecular function. Results Different expression scores based either on simple fold change-measures or on regularized Student’s t-statistics are applied to spot-related gene lists and compared with special emphasis on the error characteristics of microarray expression data. The spot-clusters are analyzed using different methods of gene set enrichment analysis with the focus on overexpression and/or overrepresentation of predefined sets of genes. Metagene-related overrepresentation of selected gene sets was mapped into the SOM images to assign gene function to different regions. Alternatively we estimated set-related overexpression profiles over all samples studied using a gene set enrichment score. It was also applied to the spot-clusters to generate lists of enriched gene sets. We used the tissue body index data set, a collection of expression data of human tissues as an illustrative example. We found that tissue related spots typically contain enriched populations of gene sets well corresponding to molecular processes in the respective tissues. In addition, we display special sets of housekeeping and of consistently weak and high expressed genes using SOM data filtering. Conclusions The presented methods allow the comprehensive downstream analysis of SOM-transformed expression data in terms of cluster-related gene lists and enriched gene sets for functional interpretation. SOM clustering implies the ability to define either new gene sets using selected SOM spots or to verify and/or to amend existing

  1. Effect of SOM230 (pasireotide) on corticotropic cells: action in dogs with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Victor; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Stalla, Johanna; Gallelli, Maria Florencia; Cabrera-Blatter, Maria Fernanda; Haedo, Mariana R; Labeur, Marta; Schmid, Herbert A; Stalla, Günter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    SOM230 (pasireotide) is a multiligand somatostatin (SRIF) analog able to bind to somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 5, and trigger antisecretory and antiproliferative signaling cascades. Canines have become in vivo models to test the pharmacological treatment of corticotropinomas because they frequently develop Cushing's disease in a spontaneous manner, due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas. Different levels of expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 have been shown in both mouse AtT20 cells and canine tumoral corticotropinoma cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether SOM230 controls both tumor cell growth and hormone synthesis, therefore controlling the disease. SOM230 was tested in dogs suffering from Cushing's disease (10 animals were treated continuously during 6 months, and another 10 were treated with 3 cycles consisting of 2 months of treatment followed by a 2-month rest period). A significant decrease in ACTH, urinary cortisol creatinine ratio, adenoma size (magnetic nuclear resonance) and improvement of clinical signs were obtained, without side effects. AtT20 cells treated with SOM230 suppressed pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter activity through SSTR2, via the G(i) α-subunit, and reduced Nur77/Nurr1 transcriptional activity. We conclude that SOM230, in addition to its well-described antisecretory effects, inhibits, as shown in AtT20 cells, ACTH synthesis at the POMC transcriptional level, an effect mediated mainly through SSTR2, and limits tumor growth. The controlled Cushing's disease in the dogs that received the treatment indicates that SOM230 has a potential therapeutic use in humans suffering from Cushing's disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. SOM Stability under Long-term Recovery from Acidic Deposition in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, R.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Likens, G.; Rosi-Marshall, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Forested ecosystems in the Northeast U.S.A. are currently recovering from decades of acidic deposition that decreased soil pH, leached base cations, and increased soluble aluminum (Al) in soils. Because most research examining SOM dynamics in these ecosystems has taken place against a background of acidic deposition, it remains poorly understood how SOM pools will change as a result of the long-term trajectory of recovery from acidic deposition throughout the region. These potential changes may alter soil fertility status as well as the chemistry of receiving freshwater bodies. Watershed-scale experiments that increase soil pH and base cation status may provide insight into how SOM pools in these recovering ecosystems will respond on timescales of decades to centuries, but results from these experiments have been equivocal. At Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, a watershed-scale acid remediation treatment of calcium silicate caused a 40% decline of SOM pools in the humic (Oa) soil horizon, in addition to increasing soil pH and base saturation. We sought to understand the mechanisms driving this substantial loss of SOM. We found that, in the Oa horizon of the treatment watershed, respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were significantly, positively correlated with exchangeable calcium (Ca) and uncorrelated with soil pH; in a linear regression, exchangeable Ca explained 76% of the variation in respiration and 74% of the variation in nitrogen mineralization in the treatment soils. These metrics were uncorrelated in soils from a nearby reference watershed, where Ca is uniformly low. This suggests that the rate and magnitude of soil Ca changes during recovery from acid deposition may provide an important long-term control on the stability of SOM in these ecosystems. Additionally, we found substantially enhanced in-stream biotic uptake of the inorganic N released from this enhanced SOM decomposition, with growing-season N flux from the treatment

  3. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  4. AF-Shell 1.0 User Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElroy, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    This document serves as a user guide for the AF-Shell 1.0 software, an efficient tool for progressive damage simulation in composite laminates. This guide contains minimal technical material and is meant solely as a guide for a new user to apply AF-Shell 1.0 to laminate damage simulation problems.

  5. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Acquisition of Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 [Reserved] ...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  10. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  11. Toward a petabyte-scale AFS service at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Moscicki, Jakub T.; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    AFS is a mature and reliable storage service at CERN, having worked for more than 20 years as the provider of Unix home directories and project areas. Recently, the AFS service has grown at unprecedented rates (200% in the past year); this growth was unlocked thanks to innovations in both the hardware and software components of our file servers. This work presents how AFS is used at CERN and how the service offering is evolving with the increasing storage needs of its local and remote user communities. In particular, we demonstrate the usage patterns for home directories, workspaces and project spaces, as well as show the daily work which is required to rebalance data and maintaining stability and performance. Finally, we highlight some recent changes and optimisations made to the AFS Service, thereby revealing how AFS can possibly operate at all while being subjected to frequent-almost DDOS-like-attacks from its users.

  12. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    TEMPERATURE DEPRESION F, ’O.AL 3 - 4 5- 6 8 9- 1 11 12 13 14 𔃿 t 11 1 9 :," 2. 4 :.! 2 2 5 . . I TAL .4’ 373 - .. .. 776 7 7 8 * ... .. H- j4 93 4 5 7...H ;AVETA: PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY; A:Z, %EAT ER SER VCLPI ’ 7 CARUP li i.L -AF -- AM---.- 7-. - _ PAGE 1 2 WET BLLB TEmPEPATURE DEPRESION F, " AL .’ 3

  13. Assessment of management systems according to their impact on SOM turnover on regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Uwe; Gründling, Ralf; Witing, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Models are widely used to predict SOM dynamics as reaction on management and climate. But the predicted SOM dynamics depend also on the initial conditions that on field scale are much better available from direct measurements than on regional scale. In the case of the models CANDY and CCB that are both build upon the same turnover equations it is possible to predict the steady state amount of SOM from the carbon reproduction flux (Crep) -the amount of carbon from fresh organic matter that is incorporated into SOM - and from the average turnover conditions that are expressed as Biologic Active Time (BAT). Both variables are combined to a new indicator, the reproduction index: REP_IX= Crep / BAT The required data base comprises climate data (air temperature and rainfall), topsoil texture (clay and fine silt) as well as crop yield and amount of organic amendments. An implicit information base comes from the model parameters that describe the relation between yield and amount of crop residues and root material as well as the quality of the different sources of fresh organic matter. According to the models the time course of SOM for a given management system is completely defined by the initial SOM content and the REP_IX. Any change in climate or management leading to a different REP_IX can be compensated by appropriate measures that will restore the previous value of REP_IX. This concept was applied for two regions in Austria (Mühlviertel and Marchfeld) and for the federal state Saxony in Germany in order to identify possible changes in carbon cycling and to identify adaptation messages. Depending on the individual situation it may be sufficient to have an increase in crop yields to stabilize SOM storage against climate change - as it has been shown in some long term experiments. In other cases it may be recommended to introduce additional intercrops to increase the Crep flux or to increase areas with conservation tillage to decrease BAT. Those measures may also be

  14. SOM storage and pool distribution in forest soils along climatic and altitudinal gradients across Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosheva, Sia; Müller, Mirjam; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Abiven, Samuel; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a key role for a number of soil and ecosystem functions. Yet our quantitative understanding of the main driving factors is uncertain. SOM consists of a continuum of compounds ranging from slightly altered plant residues, known as particulate OM (POM) to mineral-associated OM (mOM). POM is the most rapidly cycling and hence vulnerable fraction of SOM. Therefore, it might respond particularly sensitive to climate change. In grassland soils, SOM content as well as the contribution of POM was found to increase with increasing elevation, which suggests that climate exerts a major control on SOM stability and storage. Little is known, however, for forest soils where a substantial fraction of POM is stored in the organic layer. In our study based on 1000 soil profiles, we explore the controlling factors of SOM stocks and the distribution of POM in the organic layer as well as within mineral soils in forests across Switzerland. We hypothesize that (i) elevation and hence climate have rather negligible effects on carbon (C) stocks, but exert large effects on SOM quality (contribution of POM, SOM depth distribution, and C/N ratio); (ii) furthermore, we postulate to find an elevational effect on C stocks in the organic layer but not in the mineral soil. We examined SOM stocks in the organic layer and the mineral soil of 1000 soil profiles. Mineral soils (0-20cm) from a subset of 54 sites were separated into free light fraction and occluded light fraction, representing POM, while fine heavy fraction and coarse heavy fraction represented the mineral-associated OM. The sites, all located in Swiss forests, were distributed along a great elevational gradient ranging between 277 and 2207 m a.s.l., and spanning a gradient in mean annual temperatures (MAT) from 0.6 to 11.9 °C, and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 704 to 2340 mm. Our results indicate that POM and C/N ratio are more closely related to elevation and climate compared to mOM. For C

  15. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clément

    2017-04-01

    Recirculation of nutrients from wood chip combustion by ash fertilisation of forest systems can be used to re-introduce nutrients that are otherwise lost, counteracting nutrient depletion due to whole tree harvesting. However, the effects of ash application on soil organic matter (SOM) composition, turnover and stability are unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate how ash fertilisation of forest soils affects SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time. O-horizon and 0-5 cm mineral soil samples were collected from two coniferous forest sites, one in Finland and one in Denmark, where ash had been spread at different times. Changes in SOM biodegradability were estimated based on an incubation experiment, expressed as percentage of initial carbon. Changes in SOM composition were characterised using thermal analysis and Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) analysis of bulk soil samples. Ash fertilisation of forest soils affected SOM composition in the O-horizon, but not in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil. The pH and biodegradability of SOM were increased in the O-horizon. The changes in SOM composition consisted of enrichment of Fe- and Al-oxides/ hydroxides, depletion of carboxylic and aromatic groups and lower thermal stability in soils with older and greater ash application. Ash fertilisation increased soil pH, either right after ash application or through a buffering effect of the ash on acidification caused by decomposing needles over time. The increased pH due to ash fertilisation together with the nutrient inputs from the ash most likely stimulated SOM turnover. This in turn increased the labile fraction of SOM, whereby the thermal stability of SOM decreased as simpler compounds were formed.

  16. Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Shingo; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Ishigame, Noriko; Niioka, Kanako; Suda, Toshihiro; Daimon, Makoto

    2014-08-25

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Integration of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) for network intrusion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan; He, Haibo; Man, Hong; Shen, Xiaoping

    2009-09-01

    This paper proposes an approach to integrate the self-organizing map (SOM) and kernel density estimation (KDE) techniques for the anomaly-based network intrusion detection (ABNID) system to monitor the network traffic and capture potential abnormal behaviors. With the continuous development of network technology, information security has become a major concern for the cyber system research. In the modern net-centric and tactical warfare networks, the situation is more critical to provide real-time protection for the availability, confidentiality, and integrity of the networked information. To this end, in this work we propose to explore the learning capabilities of SOM, and integrate it with KDE for the network intrusion detection. KDE is used to estimate the distributions of the observed random variables that describe the network system and determine whether the network traffic is normal or abnormal. Meanwhile, the learning and clustering capabilities of SOM are employed to obtain well-defined data clusters to reduce the computational cost of the KDE. The principle of learning in SOM is to self-organize the network of neurons to seek similar properties for certain input patterns. Therefore, SOM can form an approximation of the distribution of input space in a compact fashion, reduce the number of terms in a kernel density estimator, and thus improve the efficiency for the intrusion detection. We test the proposed algorithm over the real-world data sets obtained from the Integrated Network Based Ohio University's Network Detective Service (INBOUNDS) system to show the effectiveness and efficiency of this method.

  18. Changes in the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition with grassland succession: implications for soil C sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Nianpeng, He; Ruomeng, Wang; Yang, Gao; Jingzhong, Dai; Xuefa, Wen; Guirui, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is important for predicting soil carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under warming scenarios. Whether Q10 varies predictably with ecosystem succession and the ways in which the stoichiometry of input SOM influences Q10 remain largely unknown. We investigate these issues using a grassland succession series from free-grazing to 31-year grazing-exclusion grasslands in Inner Mongolia, and an incubation experiment performed at six temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) and with four substrates: control (CK), glucose (GLU), mixed grass leaf (GRA), and Medicago falcata leaf (MED). The results showed that basal soil respiration (20°C) and microbial biomass C (MBC) logarithmically decreased with grassland succession. Q10 decreased logarithmically from 1.43 in free-grazing grasslands to 1.22 in 31-year grazing-exclusion grasslands. Q10 increased significantly with the addition of substrates, and the Q10 levels increased with increase in N:C ratios of substrate. Moreover, accumulated C mineralization was controlled by the N:C ratio of newly input SOM and by incubation temperature. Changes in Q10 with grassland ecosystem succession are controlled by the stoichiometry of newly input SOM, MBC, and SOM quality, and the combined effects of which could partially explain the mechanisms underlying soil C sequestration in the long-term grazing-exclusion grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China. The findings highlight the effect of substrate stoichiometry on Q10 which requires further study. PMID:24455135

  19. The New and Computationally Efficient MIL-SOM Algorithm: Potential Benefits for Visualization and Analysis of a Large-Scale High-Dimensional Clinically Acquired Geographic Data

    PubMed Central

    Oyana, Tonny J.; Achenie, Luke E. K.; Heo, Joon

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce an efficient algorithm, namely, the mathematically improved learning-self organizing map (MIL-SOM) algorithm, which speeds up the self-organizing map (SOM) training process. In the proposed MIL-SOM algorithm, the weights of Kohonen's SOM are based on the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Thus, in a typical SOM learning setting, this improvement translates to faster convergence. The basic idea is primarily motivated by the urgent need to develop algorithms with the competence to converge faster and more efficiently than conventional techniques. The MIL-SOM algorithm is tested on four training geographic datasets representing biomedical and disease informatics application domains. Experimental results show that the MIL-SOM algorithm provides a competitive, better updating procedure and performance, good robustness, and it runs faster than Kohonen's SOM. PMID:22481977

  20. Effect of variable soil texture, metal saturation of soil organic matter (SOM) and tree species composition on spatial distribution of SOM in forest soils in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gruba, Piotr; Socha, Jarosław; Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2015-07-15

    In this study we investigated the effect of fine (ϕ<0.05mm) fraction, i.e., silt+clay (FF) content in soils, site moisture, metal (Al and Fe) of soil organic matter (SOM) and forest species composition on the spatial distribution of carbon (C) pools in forest soils at the landscape scale. We established 275 plots in regular 200×200m grid in a forested area of 14.4km(2). Fieldwork included soil sampling of the organic horizon, mineral topsoil and subsoil down to 40cm deep. We analysed the vertical and horizontal distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, as well as the quantity of physically separated fractions including the free light (fLF), occluded light (oLF) and mineral associated fractions (MAF) in the mineral topsoil (A, AE) horizons. Distribution of C in soils was predominantly affected by the variation in the FF content. In soils richer in the FF more SOC was accumulated in mineral horizons and less in the organic horizons. Accumulation of SOC in mineral soil was also positively affected by the degree of saturation of SOM with Al and Fe. The increasing share of beech influenced the distribution of C stock in soil profiles by reducing the depth of O horizon and increasing C stored in mineral soil. The content of FF was positively correlated with the content of C in MAF and fLF fractions. The content of oLF and MAF fractions was also positively influenced by a higher degree of metal saturation, particularly Al. Our results confirmed that Al plays an important role in the stabilization of SOM inside aggregates (CoLF) and as in CMAF fractions. We also found a significant, positive effect of beech on the CfLF and fir on the CoLF content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  2. How the type of pyrogenic organic matter determines the SOM quality in amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Morangues, Lur; Arias-Gonzalez, Ander

    2016-04-01

    Charred biomass can be used as an organic amendment and to enhance the C sink capacity of soils. There are two types of by-products containing pyrogenic OM that could be used to improve in agricultural or forestry, biochar and wood ash. Due to their different heating conditions under which it is produced (pyrolysis, combustion and different temperatures, feedstocks,..), the properties of this pyrogenic OM might be highly variable, which could affect the SOM quality and the C sink capacity of the amended soil. The purpose of this study was to assess how SOM quality is influenced by pyrogenic organic matter with different degree of carbonization. Biochar and bottom wood ash were added to two Atlantic forest soils (Pinus radiata, 12 °C, 1200 mm) with different texture, clayey loam and sandy loam. The experiment consisted in a randomized block trials, in which different doses of biochar (0, 3, 9, 18 Mh ha-1) and wood ash (0, 1.5, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha-1) were added. The Biochar applied (pH: 9.8; C: 87 %) was produced by the pyrolysis of Myscanthus sp. at 450°C in a Pyreg® pyrolysis unit. The bottom wood ash (pH: 10.6; C: 30 %) was produced by combustion in a biomass power plant. The aromatization/carbonization was lightly higher in biochar than in wood ash. This latter by-product, in addition to the black carbon, it also contained mineral ash, as well as unburnt or lightly charred plant biomass. The evolution of soil chemical and SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and 13C CPMAS NMR. These techniques were applied in bulk samples and also in fractions of different densityes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration and soil microbial community. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving the highest doses of biochar and wood ash, specially in the clay loam soil. SOM in the treated soils displayed a

  3. Linking SOM Content, Chemistry, and Decomposition: Complex Responses to Input Manipulation and Long-term Incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgham, S. D.; Reynolds, L. L.; Tfaily, M.; Roscioli, K.; Lajtha, K.; Bowden, R.; Johnson, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanisms of soil organic matter (SOM) protection and their relationship with carbon inputs and decomposition are poorly understood. We used Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize SOM in soils exposed to litter-input exclusion or addition for 20 years, and subsequently incubated for more than a year. Our aim was to describe shifts in SOM content and chemical composition due to the input manipulation and degree of decomposition, particularly in the light (i.e., free particulate, younger) versus the heavy (mineral-adsorbed, older) fractions of SOM, and to link these shifts to carbon mineralization rates. The soils were collected from a deciduous hardwood forest in Meadville, PA, one of the Detritus and Input Removal Treatment (DIRT) sites. They were subjected to either litter and root exclusion (NI), double litter (DL), or ambient inputs (CO) for 20 years and subsequently incubated at 35oC for 525 days. Soils from the beginning and end of the incubation were divided into light and heavy fractions using 1.8 g cm-3 sodium polytungstate. Bulk CO soils and heavy fractions of NI, DL, and CO soil were analyzed with FTICR-MS, while light and heavy fractions were analyzed with FTIR. Twenty years of input exclusion decreased the mineralization rate, the total carbon respired, and total carbon content, though litter addition had no significant effect (NI < CO = DL). The FTICR-MS and FTIR data reveal substantial differences in SOM chemistry among DIRT treatments, fractions, and before and after incubation. CO contained several classes of compounds, including alcohols and phenols, not detected in either DL or NI soils, and all samples showed an enrichment in aromatics between the light and heavy fractions. The heavy fraction DL soils were proportionally enriched in lipids compared to NI and CO soils, and these lipids were preferentially mineralized during incubation. Heavy

  4. Implications of spectroscopic and thermo-spectroscopic approaches for pool parameterization of SOM models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyan, Scott; Marohn, Carsten; Rasche, Frank; Mirzaeitalarposhti, Reza; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Högy, Petra; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Müller, Torsten; Cadisch, Georg

    2014-05-01

    While soil organic matter (SOM) models such as Century or Daisy have been applied in a variety of environments and land uses to simulate measured SOM dynamics, the issue of how to parameterize the compartments or pools of these models is not straight forward. Default pool sizes are not suited for all soils, equilibrium model runs of thousands of years may not well approximate the system if previous land-uses are not known or not at equilibrium. Measured SOM fractions have been used to parameterize the pool sizes, but the intermediate and passive pool sizes have been difficult to relate to measureable fractions. This study examined the use of size/density fractionation (SOM fractions), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS), or thermally evolved gas analysis (EGA) derived pools as compared to a long-term model run (Equilibrium) to parameterize model pools of the Century and Daisy SOM models of two arable soils in Southwest Germany. Initial pool sizes were set via the various methods and measured soil organic carbon (SOC) and crop parameters used for the beginning of the model run. Results were compared with measured data of field soil carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, microbial biomass (SMB), and SOC after several growing seasons. It was found that the different initialization methods resulted in a wide range of pool sizes, with the Equilibrium method the smallest fast turn-over pool allocation and the MIRS method with the largest. The EGA, SOM fractions and MIRS approaches resulted in better modeled CO2 flux as compared to the Equilibrium method. The active pool size allocation had an effect on short-term dynamics within the first modeling year, but diminished thereafter. During a twenty-year simulation the size of slow turn-over resulted in very different final SOC amounts, showing the importance of proper initialization of the intermediate to passive pools for future predictions of SOC. This study demonstrated several approaches and possible implications of using these

  5. Comparison of lead isotopes with source apportionment models, including SOM, for air particulates.

    PubMed

    Gulson, Brian; Korsch, Michael; Dickson, Bruce; Cohen, David; Mizon, Karen; Davis, J Michael

    2007-08-01

    We have measured high precision lead isotopes in PM(2.5) particulates from a highly-trafficked site (Mascot) and rural site (Richmond) in the Sydney Basin, New South Wales, Australia to compare with isotopic data from total suspended particulates (TSP) from other sites in the Sydney Basin and evaluate relationships with source fingerprints obtained from multi-element PM(2.5) data. The isotopic data for the period 1998 to 2004 show seasonal peaks and troughs that are more pronounced in the rural site for the PM(2.5).samples but are consistent with the TSP. The Self Organising Map (SOM) method has been applied to the multi-element PM(2.5) data to evaluate its use in obtaining fingerprints for comparison with standard statistical procedures (ANSTO model). As seasonal effects are also significant for the multi-element data, the SOM modelling is reported as site and season dependent. At the Mascot site, the ANSTO model exhibits decreasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios with increasing contributions of fingerprints for "secondary smoke" (industry), "soil", "smoke" and "seaspray". Similar patterns were shown by SOM winter fingerprints for both sites. At the rural site, there are large isotopic variations but for the majority of samples these are not associated with increased contributions from the main sources with the ANSTO model. For two winter sampling times, there are increased contributions from "secondary industry", "smoke", "soil" and seaspray with one time having a source or sources of Pb similar to that of Mascot. The only positive relationship between increasing (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratio and source contributions is found at the rural site using the SOM summer fingerprints, both of which show a significant contribution from sulphur. Several of the fingerprints using either model have significant contributions from black carbon (BC) and/or sulphur (S) that probably derive from diesel fuels and industrial sources. Increased contributions from sources with the SOM summer

  6. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  7. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  8. Comparison of the NovaSom QSG, a new sleep apnea home-diagnostic system, and polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Reichert, James A; Bloch, Daniel A; Cundiff, Elizabeth; Votteri, Bernhard A

    2003-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious, common, and underdiagnosed disorder that challenges health care resources. While polysomnography (PSG) represents the standard diagnostic test for OSA, portable devices provide an alternative diagnostic tool when issues of cost, time, geographic availability, or other constraints pose impediments to in-lab testing. This study compares the NovaSom QSG, a new sleep apnea home diagnostic system, to PSG both in the laboratory and in the home. Fifty-one consecutive adults referred to the sleep lab for suspicion of OSA underwent one night of in-lab, simultaneous recording of PSG and NovaSom QSG in addition to using the NovaSom QSG at home for three nights. Two separate comparisons were made using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): in-lab PSG to in-lab NovaSom QSG and in-lab PSG to home NovaSom QSG. Using a clinical cut-off of AHI=15, the sensitivity and specificity of the in-lab NovaSom QSG vs. PSG were 95% and 91%, respectively. For home NovaSom QSG vs. in-lab PSG, the sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 83%. The intra-class correlation coefficient for the agreement between three separate nights of NovaSom QSG home data was 0.88. In a patient population suspected of having OSA, the NovaSom QSG demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity both in the lab and self-administered in the home, when compared to PSG.

  9. Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  10. Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data.

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  11. Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Process for Facile Electrosynthesis of Metal Carbides and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingli; Chen, Chaoyi; Lu, Xionggang; Li, Shangshu; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2017-02-01

    Metal carbides (MCs) and composites including TiC, SiC, TaC, ZrC, NbC, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Nb/Nb5Si3 have been directly electrosynthesized from their stoichiometric metal oxides/carbon (MOs/C) mixture precursors by an innovative solid oxide membrane (SOM)-assisted electrochemical process. MOs/C mixture powders including TiO2/C, SiO2/C, Ta2O5/C, ZrO2/C, Nb2O5/C, TiO2/SiO2/C, Nb2O5/SiO2 were pressed to form porous pellets and then served as cathode precursors. A SOM-based anode, made from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based membrane, was used to control the electroreduction process. The SOM electrochemical process was performed at 1273 K (1000 °C) and 3.5 to 4.0 V in molten CaCl2. The oxygen component contained in the MOs/C precursors was gradually removed during electroreduction process, and thus, MOs/C can be directly converted into MCs and composites at the cathode. The reaction mechanism of the electroreduction process and the characteristics of the obtained MCs and composites products were systematically investigated. The results show that the electrosynthesis process typically involves compounding, electroreduction, dissolution-electrodeposition, and in situ carbonization processes. The products can be predesigned and controlled to form micro/nanostructured MCs and composites. Multicomponent multilayer composites (MMCs) have also been tried to electrosynthesize in this work. It is suggested that the SOM-assisted electroreduction process has great potential to be used for the facile and green synthesis of various MCs and composites.

  12. Data splitting for artificial neural networks using SOM-based stratified sampling.

    PubMed

    May, R J; Maier, H R; Dandy, G C

    2010-03-01

    Data splitting is an important consideration during artificial neural network (ANN) development where hold-out cross-validation is commonly employed to ensure generalization. Even for a moderate sample size, the sampling methodology used for data splitting can have a significant effect on the quality of the subsets used for training, testing and validating an ANN. Poor data splitting can result in inaccurate and highly variable model performance; however, the choice of sampling methodology is rarely given due consideration by ANN modellers. Increased confidence in the sampling is of paramount importance, since the hold-out sampling is generally performed only once during ANN development. This paper considers the variability in the quality of subsets that are obtained using different data splitting approaches. A novel approach to stratified sampling, based on Neyman sampling of the self-organizing map (SOM), is developed, with several guidelines identified for setting the SOM size and sample allocation in order to minimize the bias and variance in the datasets. Using an example ANN function approximation task, the SOM-based approach is evaluated in comparison to random sampling, DUPLEX, systematic stratified sampling, and trial-and-error sampling to minimize the statistical differences between data sets. Of these approaches, DUPLEX is found to provide benchmark performance with good model performance, with no variability. The results show that the SOM-based approach also reliably generates high-quality samples and can therefore be used with greater confidence than other approaches, especially in the case of non-uniform datasets, with the benefit of scalability to perform data splitting on large datasets.

  13. A pore scale model of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) dynamics and microbial colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, R. E.; Battaia, G.; Otten, W.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is a complex environment and its biota is responsible for driving fundamental ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, the degradation of pollutants and crop production. Due to the opaque nature and complexity of soil, it has proven difficult to elucidate the physical, biological and chemical interactions comprising ecosystem processes. In part this is due to the lack of an experimental system that can capture the physical heterogeneity of soil in a fashion that can be replicated, and is amenable to spatially precise quantification of the biological and chemical components. We therefore turn to a theoretical analysis to produce hypotheses regarding the interactions amongst Soil Organic Matter (SOM), soil structure and fungal dynamics. X-ray CT is used to determine the microscale architecture of the pore network. This study formulates hypotheses relating to the interactions between fungal dynamics and SOM within a soil environment. Organic matter occurs initially in a particulate state (POM) represented as part of the soil structure. As it is exposed to enzymatic fungal activity, it decays and produces a diffusive substance i.e. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and is readily available as an external resource for fungal uptake. Fungal dynamics is based on an existing model that demonstrates colony structure can be modelled as an emergent phenomenon resulting from the interplay between simple local processes governing uptake and remobilisation of internal resources, and macroscopic transport processes. This study will present the assumptions of SOM-Fungal dynamics and quantify how different POM distributions effect colony dynamics and colony spatial architecture.

  14. Representing teleconnection patterns over Europe: A comparison of SOM and PCA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, Ε.; Anagnostopoulou, C.; Tolika, K.; Maheras, P.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is a comparison of two different methods of pattern recognition. The first, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), is a method frequently used in climatology. The second, Self Organizing Maps (SOM), is a relatively new and efficient method based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In order to compare the two methodologies, two teleconnection patterns were chosen, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which mostly affects the climate of Western Europe, and the North Sea-Caspian Pattern (NCP), mainly affecting eastern Mediterranean and the Balkan Peninsula. The teleconnection patterns are studied for winter 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the broader Europe area. The secondary objective of the study is to evaluate the ECHAM5/MPI General Circulation Model (GCM) in representing the two teleconnection patterns for a reference (1971-2000) and a future (2071-2100) period. The evaluation of the reference period is done comparing the simulated data to the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The future period is studied to examine whether the current dominant circulation patterns change or not during the last 30 years of the 21st century. According to the results, both PCA and SOM methodologies capture the main variability mode over the study area, represented by the NAO pattern, but SOM is capable of capturing even less pronounced patterns, such as the NCP. In the future simulations, the atmospheric circulation during winter seems to be more pronounced with stronger NAO and NCP teleconnection patterns.

  15. Feature combination analysis in smart grid based using SOM for Sudan national grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Nasir, M. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the investigation of power grid security, the cascading failure in multicontingency situations has been a test because of its topological unpredictability and computational expense. Both system investigations and burden positioning routines have their limits. In this project, in view of sorting toward Self Organizing Maps (SOM), incorporated methodology consolidating spatial feature (distance)-based grouping with electrical attributes (load) to evaluate the vulnerability and cascading impact of various part sets in the force lattice. Utilizing the grouping result from SOM, sets of overwhelming stacked beginning victimized people to perform assault conspires and asses the consequent falling impact of their failures, and this SOM-based approach viably distinguishes the more powerless sets of substations than those from the conventional burden positioning and other bunching strategies. The robustness of power grids is a central topic in the design of the so called "smart grid". In this paper, to analyze the measures of importance of the nodes in a power grid under cascading failure. With these efforts, we can distinguish the most vulnerable nodes and protect them, improving the safety of the power grid. Also we can measure if a structure is proper for power grids.

  16. Distinct Roles of SOM and VIP Interneurons during Cortical Up States

    PubMed Central

    Neske, Garrett T.; Connors, Barry W.

    2016-01-01

    During cortical network activity, recurrent synaptic excitation among pyramidal neurons is approximately balanced by synaptic inhibition, which is provided by a vast diversity of inhibitory interneurons. The relative contributions of different interneuron subtypes to inhibitory tone during cortical network activity is not well-understood. We previously showed that many of the major interneuron subtypes in mouse barrel cortex are highly active during Up states (Neske et al., 2015); while fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells were the most active interneuron subtype, many non-fast-spiking (NFS), PV-negative interneurons were as active or more active than neighboring pyramidal cells. This suggests that the NFS cells could play a role in maintaining or modulating Up states. Here, using optogenetic techniques, we further dissected the functional roles during Up states of two major NFS, PV-negative interneuron subtypes: somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-positive cells. We found that while pyramidal cell excitability during Up states significantly increased when SOM cells were optogenetically silenced, VIP cells did not influence pyramidal cell excitability either upon optogenetic silencing or activation. VIP cells failed to contribute to Up states despite their ability to inhibit SOM cells strongly. We suggest that the contribution of VIP cells to the excitability of pyramidal cells may vary with cortical state. PMID:27507936

  17. Control of Yttrium Diffusion out of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia during SOM Electrolysis for Magnesium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, E.; Pati, S.; Milshtein, J.; Powell, A.; Pal, U.

    The solid oxide membrane (SOM) process has been used to produce magnesium by direct electrolysis of its oxide. In this process MgO is dissolved in a molten CaF2-MgF2 flux and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) SOM membrane separates the cathode and the flux from the anode. YSZ membrane stability limits the operating life of the SOM electrolyzer. The YSZ membrane is known to degrade due to diffusion of yttrium into the flux. Yttrium diffusion can however be decreased by adding YF3 to the flux. This study investigates the long-term stability of the YSZ membrane. Yttrium composition profiles in the YSZ membrane were determined using WDS as a function of immersion time and YF3 content in the flux. An analytic solution to the diffusion equation was used to model the diffusion process. This study allows the determination of the optimum YF3 content needed in the flux to minimize yttrium diffusion and increase membrane stability.

  18. Growing hierarchical tree SOM: an unsupervised neural network with dynamic topology.

    PubMed

    Forti, Alberto; Foresti, Gian Luca

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a tree structured self-organizing network, called the Growing Hierarchical Tree SOM (GHTSOM), that combines unsupervised learning with a dynamic topology for hierarchical classification of unlabelled data sets. The main feature of the proposed model is a SOM-like self-organizing process that allows the network to adapt the topology of each layer of the hierarchy to the characteristics of the training set. In particular the self-organization is obtained in two steps: the first one concerns the learning phase and is finalized with the creation of a tree of SOMs, while the second one is in regard to the clustering phase and provides the formation of classes for each level of the tree (hence self-organization not only for training but also for the creation of topological connections). As a result the network works without the need for user-defined parameters. Experimental results are proposed on both synthetic and real data sets.

  19. An integrated SOM-fuzzy ARTMAP neural system for the evaluation of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Arenas, A; Giralt, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Self-organized maps (SOM) have been applied to analyze the similarities of chemical compounds and to select from a given pool of descriptors the smallest and more relevant subset needed to build robust QSAR models based on fuzzy ARTMAP. First, the category maps for each molecular descriptor and for the target activity variable were created with SOM and then classified on the basis of topology and nonlinear distribution. The best subset of descriptors was obtained by choosing from each cluster the index with the highest correlation with the target variable and then in order of decreasing correlation. This process was terminated when a dissimilarity measure increased, indicating that the inclusion of more molecular indices would not add supplementary information. The optimal subset of descriptors was used as input to a fuzzy ARTMAP architecture modified to effect predictive capabilities. The performance of the integrated SOM-fuzzy ARTMAP approach was evaluated with the prediction of the acute toxicity LC50 of a homogeneous set of 69 benzene derivatives in the fathead minnow and the oral rat toxicity LD50 of a heterogeneous set of 155 organic compounds. The proposed methodology minimized the problem of misclassification of similar compounds and significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of a properly trained fuzzy ARTMAP network.

  20. Soil moisture availability and variability controls on microbial communities and SOM dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, Lisa; Billings, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Many microbial communities are not resistant to changes in their environment, and the subsequently new and structurally distinct communities are not always functionally redundant with their predecessors. As a result, environmental change can lead to long-term changes in microbially-mediated ecosystem processes. More specifically, changes in soil moisture regimes can alter microbial physiology and resource demands, and therefore alter how microbes process soil organic matter (SOM). To better understand how antecedent moisture regime can influence current SOM transformations, and to better predict how future climate regimes may influence SOM dynamics in carbon (C)-rich soils, we assessed microbial communities and their C dynamics across four sites within a grassland precipitation gradient of 485 to 1003 mm y-1. The soil microbial communities residing at these sites are compositionally distinct from each other, yet all exhibit C mineralization rates and microbial biomass C highly correlated with contemporary site soil moisture. We used laboratory incubation and reciprocal transplant approaches to investigate how changing soil moisture regimes may influence these soils microbial communities and the SOM transformations they mediate. To mimic projected future moisture regimes across this gradient, we brought soils into the lab and subjected them to different degrees of soil moisture variability for 72 weeks, altering the frequency of water additions but not the total amount added. In soils subjected to a long interval (LI) treatment intended to induce moisture stress with water applied once at the beginning of each two-week cycle, 1.4 to 2.0 times more C was mineralized compared to soils undergoing a short interval (SI) treatment, for which four wetting events were evenly distributed over each two-week cycle. This result was most pronounced in soils from the mesic end of the gradient, where rainfall is more evenly temporally distributed. These results drove an increase

  1. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  2. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Madden, D.; Perry, K. L.; Tautz, M.; Roth, C.

    2006-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed recently by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. A review of new and planned AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be given. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains and addresses such topics as solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. Building on the success of previous releases, AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for the rapid prototyping of automated operational and simulation space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks, including: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event anomaly analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; satellite magnetic conjugate studies, scientific model validation and comparison, physics research, and education. Previously, Version 2.0 provided a simplified graphical user interface, improved science and application modules, significantly enhanced graphical performance, common input data archive sets, and 1-D, 2-D, and 3- D visualization tools for all models. Dynamic capabilities permit multiple environments to be generated at user- specified time intervals while animation tools enable the display of satellite orbits and environment data together as a function of time. Building on the Version 2.0 software architecture, AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 includes a host of new modules providing, for example, plasma sheet charged particle fluxes, neutral atmosphere densities, 3-D cosmic ray cutoff maps, low-altitude trapped proton belt flux specification, DMSP particle data displays, satellite magnetic field footprint mapping determination, and meteor sky maps and shower/storm fluxes with spacecraft impact probabilities. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.1 was

  3. Bearing performance degradation assessment based on time-frequency code features and SOM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Tang, Baoping; Han, Yan; Deng, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Bearing performance degradation assessment and prognostics are extremely important in supporting maintenance decision and guaranteeing the system’s reliability. To achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel feature extraction method for the degradation assessment and prognostics of bearings. Features of time-frequency codes (TFCs) are extracted from the time-frequency distribution using a hybrid procedure based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) theory. An alternative way to design the health indicator is investigated by quantifying the similarity between feature vectors using a self-organizing map (SOM) network. On the basis of this idea, a new health indicator called time-frequency code quantification error (TFCQE) is proposed to assess the performance degradation of the bearing. This indicator is constructed based on the bearing real-time behavior and the SOM model that is previously trained with only the TFC vectors under the normal condition. Vibration signals collected from the bearing run-to-failure tests are used to validate the developed method. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed TFCQE indicator over many other traditional features in terms of feature quality metrics, incipient degradation identification and achieving accurate prediction. Highlights • Time-frequency codes are extracted to reflect the signals’ characteristics. • SOM network served as a tool to quantify the similarity between feature vectors. • A new health indicator is proposed to demonstrate the whole stage of degradation development. • The method is useful for extracting the degradation features and detecting the incipient degradation. • The superiority of the proposed method is verified using experimental data.

  4. Differences in SOM Decomposition and Temperature Sensitivity among Soil Aggregate Size Classes in a Temperate Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250–2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53–250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, <53 μm) collected from an Inner Mongolian temperate grassland. The results showed that temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (P<0.0001). For 2 weeks, the decomposition rates of bulk soil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05). The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order) by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol−1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05) suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001), with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g−1), followed by MF (976 μg g−1) and MI (879 μg g−1). These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios. PMID:25692291

  5. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, <53 μm) collected from an Inner Mongolian temperate grassland. The results showed that temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (P<0.0001). For 2 weeks, the decomposition rates of bulk soil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05). The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order) by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05) suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001), with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1), followed by MF (976 μg g-1) and MI (879 μg g-1). These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  6. Preclinical evaluation of Som230 as a radiation mitigator in a mouse model: postexposure time window and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Berbée, Maaike; Wang, Wenze; Boerma, Marjan; Wang, Junru; Schmid, Herbert A; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The somatostatin analog SOM230 has potent radioprophylactic and radiation mitigating properties that are unrelated to cytoprotection but appear to be due to suppression of secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the intestinal lumen. To determine the maximal postirradiation time window for administration, male CD2F1 mice were exposed to 8.5-11 Gy total-body radiation; SOM230 (0.5, 2 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle was given by twice daily subcutaneous injections for 14 days, beginning 24-72 h after irradiation, and 30-day animal survival was recorded. The contribution of the gut to systemic cytokine levels was estimated by analyzing plasma samples obtained simultaneously from the portal vein and carotid artery. The effect of SOM230 on cell trypsin secretion was assessed in vitro and intestinal proteolytic activity was measured in vivo. SOM230 was associated with a 40-60% absolute improvement in overall postirradiation survival when treatment was started 48 h after irradiation and even exhibited a statistically significant survival benefit when started at 72 h. SOM230 ameliorated the radiation-induced decrease in chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9). SOM230 inhibited pancreatic acinar cell trypsin secretion in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion and reduced intraluminal and intestinal tissue proteolytic activity in vivo. SOM230 is an excellent radiation mitigator with a postirradiation time window in excess of 48 h. The mechanism likely involves preservation of intestinal barrier function due to decreased secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the bowel lumen.

  7. MiRNATIP: a SOM-based miRNA-target interactions predictor.

    PubMed

    Fiannaca, Antonino; Rosa, Massimo La; Paglia, Laura La; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2016-09-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA sequences with regulatory functions to post-transcriptional level for several biological processes, such as cell disease progression and metastasis. MiRNAs interact with target messenger RNA (mRNA) genes by base pairing. Experimental identification of miRNA target is one of the major challenges in cancer biology because miRNAs can act as tumour suppressors or oncogenes by targeting different type of targets. The use of machine learning methods for the prediction of the target genes is considered a valid support to investigate miRNA functions and to guide related wet-lab experiments. In this paper we propose the miRNA Target Interaction Predictor (miRNATIP) algorithm, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) based method for the miRNA target prediction. SOM is trained with the seed region of the miRNA sequences and then the mRNA sequences are projected into the SOM lattice in order to find putative interactions with miRNAs. These interactions will be filtered considering the remaining part of the miRNA sequences and estimating the free-energy necessary for duplex stability. We tested the proposed method by predicting the miRNA target interactions of both the Homo sapiens and the Caenorhbditis elegans species; then, taking into account validated target (positive) and non-target (negative) interactions, we compared our results with other target predictors, namely miRanda, PITA, PicTar, mirSOM, TargetScan and DIANA-microT, in terms of the most used statistical measures. We demonstrate that our method produces the greatest number of predictions with respect to the other ones, exhibiting good results for both species, reaching the for example the highest percentage of sensitivity of 31 and 30.5 %, respectively for Homo sapiens and for C. elegans. All the predicted interaction are freely available at the following url: http://tblab.pa.icar.cnr.it/public/miRNATIP/ . Results state miRNATIP outperforms or is comparable to the other six state

  8. Fatigue Level Estimation of Bill Based on Acoustic Signal Feature by Supervised SOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued bills have harmful influence on daily operation of Automated Teller Machine(ATM). To make the fatigued bills classification more efficient, development of an automatic fatigued bill classification method is desired. We propose a new method to estimate bending rigidity of bill from acoustic signal feature of banking machines. The estimated bending rigidities are used as continuous fatigue level for classification of fatigued bill. By using the supervised Self-Organizing Map(supervised SOM), we estimate the bending rigidity from only the acoustic energy pattern effectively. The experimental result with real bill samples shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  10. AF Ari - Ein heller Bedeckungsveraenderlicher mit einem G-Riesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Norbert

    2011-03-01

    By combining existing and including new photometric data a first solution can now be presented: AF Ari is a well detached binary having an eccentric orbit and a period of 153 days. The secondary component is identified as an A-type dwarf. The mass of the G-type giant is estimated at 2.65 solar masses. Apparently, AF Ari is a new z (zeta) Aurigae type system and suited for double-lined spectroscopy. The english version of the article will be found behind the german version.

  11. An AF9/ENL-targted peptide with therapeutic potential in mixed lineage leukemias.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Nisha N; Karahalios, Dean S; You, Dewen; Hemenway, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Misregulation of transcription elongation is proposed to underlie the pathobiology of MLL leukemia. AF4, AF9, and ENL, common MLL fusion partners, are found in complex with positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). AF9 and its homolog ENL directly interact with AF4 within these complexes. Previously, we designed a peptide that mimics the AF9 binding domain of AF4 and reported that MLL leukemia cell lines are inhibited by it. Extending these studies, we have modified the peptide design in order to avoid recognition by proteases. The peptide is as effective as its predecessor in vitro and enhances survival in mice bearing MLL leukemia cell lines.

  12. Prediction of successive steps of SOM formation in aggregates and density fractions based on the 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Aggregate formation is a key process of soil development, which promotes carbon (C) stabilization by hindering decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) and its interactions with mineral particles. C stabilization processes lead to 13C fractionation and consequently to various δ13C values of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions. Differences in δ13C within the aggregates and fractions may have two reasons: 1) preferential stabilization of organic compounds with light or heavy δ13C and/or 2) stabilization of organic materials after passing one or more microbial utilization cycles, leading to heavier δ13C in remaining C. We hypothesized that: 1) 13C enrichment between the SOM fractions corresponds to successive steps of SOM formation; 2) 13C fractionation (but not the δ13C signature) depends mainly on the transformation steps and not on the C precursors. Consequently, minimal differences between Δ13C of SOM fractions between various ecosystems correspond to maximal probability of the SOM formation pathways. We tested these hypotheses on three soils formed from cover loam during 45 years of growth of coniferous or deciduous forests or arable crops. Organic C pools in large macroaggregates, small macroaggregates, and microaggregates were fractionated sequentially for four density fractions to obtain free POM with ρ

  13. Application of growing hierarchical SOM for visualisation of network forensics traffic data.

    PubMed

    Palomo, E J; North, J; Elizondo, D; Luque, R M; Watson, T

    2012-08-01

    Digital investigation methods are becoming more and more important due to the proliferation of digital crimes and crimes involving digital evidence. Network forensics is a research area that gathers evidence by collecting and analysing network traffic data logs. This analysis can be a difficult process, especially because of the high variability of these attacks and large amount of data. Therefore, software tools that can help with these digital investigations are in great demand. In this paper, a novel approach to analysing and visualising network traffic data based on growing hierarchical self-organising maps (GHSOM) is presented. The self-organising map (SOM) has been shown to be successful for the analysis of highly-dimensional input data in data mining applications as well as for data visualisation in a more intuitive and understandable manner. However, the SOM has some problems related to its static topology and its inability to represent hierarchical relationships in the input data. The GHSOM tries to overcome these limitations by generating a hierarchical architecture that is automatically determined according to the input data and reflects the inherent hierarchical relationships among them. Moreover, the proposed GHSOM has been modified to correctly treat the qualitative features that are present in the traffic data in addition to the quantitative features. Experimental results show that this approach can be very useful for a better understanding of network traffic data, making it easier to search for evidence of attacks or anomalous behaviour in a network environment.

  14. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  15. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  16. Optofluidic Waveguides in Teflon AF-Coated PDMS Microfluidic Channels

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Godin, Jessica; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for fabricating an optofluidic waveguide that is compatible with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The light path follows the microfluidic channels, an architecture that can maximize detection efficiency and make the most economic use of chip area in many lab-on-chip applications. The PDMS-based microfluidic channels are coated with Teflon amorphous fluoropolymers (Teflon AF) which has a lower refractive index (n = 1.31) than water (n = 1.33) to form a water/Teflon AF optical waveguide. Driven by a vacuum pump, the Teflon AF solution was flowed through the channels, leaving a thin (5–15 µm) layer of coating on the channel wall as the cladding layer of optical waveguides. This coating process resolves the limitations of spin-coating processes by reducing the elasticity mismatch between the Teflon AF cladding layer and the PDMS device body. We demonstrate that the resulting optofluidic waveguide confines and guides the laser light through the liquid core channel. Furthermore, the light in such a waveguide can be split when the fluid flow is split. This new method enables highly integrated biosensors such as lab-on-chip flow cytometers and micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter with on-chip excitation. PMID:20729984

  17. Optofluidic Waveguides in Teflon AF-Coated PDMS Microfluidic Channels.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Godin, Jessica; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-08-01

    We report a new method for fabricating an optofluidic waveguide that is compatible with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The light path follows the microfluidic channels, an architecture that can maximize detection efficiency and make the most economic use of chip area in many lab-on-chip applications. The PDMS-based microfluidic channels are coated with Teflon amorphous fluoropolymers (Teflon AF) which has a lower refractive index (n = 1.31) than water (n = 1.33) to form a water/Teflon AF optical waveguide. Driven by a vacuum pump, the Teflon AF solution was flowed through the channels, leaving a thin (5-15 µm) layer of coating on the channel wall as the cladding layer of optical waveguides. This coating process resolves the limitations of spin-coating processes by reducing the elasticity mismatch between the Teflon AF cladding layer and the PDMS device body. We demonstrate that the resulting optofluidic waveguide confines and guides the laser light through the liquid core channel. Furthermore, the light in such a waveguide can be split when the fluid flow is split. This new method enables highly integrated biosensors such as lab-on-chip flow cytometers and micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter with on-chip excitation.

  18. Sabiperones A-F, new diterpenoids from Juniperus sabina.

    PubMed

    Janar, Jenis; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Wong, Chin Piow; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Six new diterpenoids, sabiperones A-F (1-6) have been isolated from the aerial part of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. Sabiperone F showed moderate cell growth inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines.

  19. Innovative use of self-organising maps (SOMs) in model validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Ben; McDonald, Adrian; Coggins, Jack

    2016-04-01

    We present an innovative combination of techniques for validation of numerical weather prediction (NWP) output against both observations and reanalyses using two classification schemes, demonstrated by a validation of the operational NWP 'AMPS' (the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System). Historically, model validation techniques have centred on case studies or statistics at various time scales (yearly/seasonal/monthly). Within the past decade the latter technique has been expanded by the addition of classification schemes in place of time scales, allowing more precise analysis. Classifications are typically generated for either the model or the observations, then used to create composites for both which are compared. Our method creates and trains a single self-organising map (SOM) on both the model output and observations, which is then used to classify both datasets using the same class definitions. In addition to the standard statistics on class composites, we compare the classifications themselves between the model and the observations. To add further context to the area studied, we use the same techniques to compare the SOM classifications with regimes developed for another study to great effect. The AMPS validation study compares model output against surface observations from SNOWWEB and existing University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) during two months over the austral summer of 2014-15. Twelve SOM classes were defined in a '4 x 3' pattern, trained on both model output and observations of 2 m wind components, then used to classify both training datasets. Simple statistics (correlation, bias and normalised root-mean-square-difference) computed for SOM class composites showed that AMPS performed well during extreme weather events, but less well during lighter winds and poorly during the more changeable conditions between either extreme. Comparison of the classification time-series showed that, while correlations were lower

  20. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  1. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF).

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-09-14

    Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  2. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  3. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  4. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  5. Using self-organizing map (SOM) and support vector machine (SVM) for classification of selectivity of ACAT inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Maolin; Yan, Aixia; Dai, Bin

    2013-02-01

    Using a self-organizing map (SOM) and support vector machine, two classification models were built to predict whether a compound is a selective inhibitor toward the two Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) isozymes, ACAT-1 and ACAT-2. A dataset of 97 ACAT inhibitors was collected. For each molecule, the global descriptors, 2D and 3D property autocorrelation descriptors and autocorrelation of surface properties were calculated from the program ADRIANA.Code. The prediction accuracies of the models (based on the training/ test set splitting by SOM method) for the test sets are 88.9 % for SOM1, 92.6 % for SVM1 model. In addition, the extended connectivity fingerprints (ECFP_4) for all the molecules were calculated and the structure-activity relationship of selective ACAT inhibitors was summarized, which may help find important structural features of inhibitors relating to the selectivity of ACAT isozymes.

  6. The Importance of CO2 Utilizing Chemolithoautotrophic Microorganisms for Carbon Sequestration and Isotope Signatures of SOM in Tropical Rainforest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Behrendt, T.; Quesada, B.; Yanez Serrano, A. M.; Trumbore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major compartment of the tropical carbon cycle with up to 26 % of global carbon stocks stored in tropical soils. Understanding factors and processes driving SOM dynamics under changing climate conditions is crucial for predicting the role of tropical forest ecosystems to act as a carbon sink or source. Soil microorganisms are major drivers of the belowground carbon cycle by releasing CO2 by soil respiration but also by stabilizing and storing SOM, as indicated by recent research. Our investigations focus on chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, a group that relies on CO2 as their carbon source. Chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms have been shown to be highly abundant in soils, whereas their role in SOM sequestration is still poorly understood. In tropical soils, the activity of chemolithoautotropic microbes might be important for generating and stabilizing carbon, especially in the deeper soil, which is rich in CO2 and reduced energy sources like Fe2+. They further might impact carbon isotope signatures (13C and 14C) of SOM, because of enzymatic fractionation during carboxylation and the use of carbon, which has a distinct isotopic composition than other carbon sources at the same depth. In order to study the activity of chemolithoautotropic microbes and their importance for SOM, we conducted isotope and isotope-labelling studies, gas measurements as well as molecular analyses at soils from the Atto site from 0 to 1 meter depth. These soils are classified as Ferralsols and Alisols and represent the most abundant soil types in the Amazon. With this we will be able to gain knowledge about the function and identity of an important group of microorganisms and their contribution to crucial biogeochemical cycles in the world`s most important ecosystem.

  7. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  8. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  9. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  10. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  11. Termination of persistent atrial fibrillation during pulmonary vein isolation: insight from the MAGIC-AF trial.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheldon M; d'Avila, Andre; Kim, Young-Hoon; Aryana, Arash; Mangrum, J Michael; Michaud, Gregory F; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Barrett, Conor D; Heist, E Kevin; Parides, Michael K; Thorpe, Kevin E; Reddy, Vivek Y

    2016-10-04

    Controversy on the optimal ablation strategy for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) exists with limited work evaluating a strategy of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone when AF terminates during PVI. Thirty-five patients had AF termination during PVI in the Modified Ablation Guided by Ibutilide Use in Chronic Atrial Fibrillation (MAGIC-AF; ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01014741) study. The objective of the current study is to report the 1-year outcome after PVI alone in this unique patient group. The 1-year single procedure freedom from atrial arrhythmia off anti-arrhythmic drugs was reported for the 35 patients in the MAGIC-AF study with persistent AF termination during or upon completion of PVI.Freedom from recurrent atrial arrhythmia was achieved in 60% of patients where AF terminated during PVI. Cavotricuspid isthmus flutter was common when AF terminated to a macro re-entrant flutter during PVI, and responsible for 92% of all flutter circuits with AF termination. Persistent AF termination during PVI may identify a subgroup of patients who experience a similar long-term clinical outcome with PVI ablation alone when compared with other more extensive persistent AF ablation strategies. Pulmonary vein isolation alone may be an appropriate tactic in this subgroup of persistent AF patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of Agriculture and Reforestation on TurnoverRates SOM in Ultisol Profiles, Calhoun CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkinsky, A.; Ehlinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the distribution of 14C in Ultisos located in the Sumter national forest. There were analyzed three sites:1) reference site was not presumably used for agriculture; 2) "Tower site"was used for the cotton growing from the beginning of 19thcentury till 1920s, in 1935 became National forest and was naturaly re-forested; 3) "Pine site" with the same original history as "Tower site", but in the beginning of 1960s was planted with pine which was harvested and then planted again. Figure 1: Distribution of radiocarbon in soils under different types of land use. The performed experimental test were aimed to find out the distribution of 14C in the same soil type under different kind of forest replanted after the deforestation and land use them for growing cotton for more than 100 years. According to Richter et al.[1] surface mineral soils have sequestered minimal carbon over 5 decades of forest development due to rapid decomposition rates of organic carbon input. However, our data show mean residence time (MRT) of carbon in the tower and pine sites is an least about 25 years in the top 10-15 cm, where accumulated more than 95% of the entire SOM. On the contrary the reference site, which presumably has original hardwood forest the decomposition rates of SOM is more than 3 times faster according to MRT , which about 8 years for the top 10 cm. These results allow to estimate the rates of accumulation and decomposition of SOM and their changes under changes of land use and climate changes. For the first time were dated such deep Ultisol soil profiles. The turnover rates in the top organic rich horizons depends on the quality of the liter, conifer liter is more resistant to decomposition and the hard wood liter decompose faster. The dating of top 50-60 cm shows the quite fast turnaround time, which does not exceed a few decades, more likely 60-50 years. The deep horizons are quite stable and turnover rates deeper 60 cm dramatically drop to thousands years. The

  13. Suberin-derived aliphatic monomers as biomarkers for SOM affected by root litter contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogel-Knabner, I.; Spielvogel, S.-; Prietzel, J.-

    2012-12-01

    The patchy distribution of trees and ground vegetation may have major impact on SOC variability and stability at the small scale. Knowledge about correlations between the pattern of tree and ground vegetation, SOC stocks in different soil depths and the contribution of root- vs. shoot-derived carbon to different SOC fractions is scarce. We have tested analysis of hydrolysable aliphatic monomers derived from the biopolyesters cutin- and suberin to investigate whether their composition can be traced back after decay and transformation into soil organic matter (SOM) to study SOM source, degradation, and stand history. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance of cutin and suberin in different particle size and density fractions of a Norway spruce and a European beech site with increasing distance to stems. Soil samples, root, bark and needle/leave samples were analyzed for their cutin and/or suberin signature. Previous to isolation of bound lipids, sequential solvent extraction was used to remove free lipids and other solvent extractable compounds. Cutin- and suberin-derived monomers were extracted from the samples using base hydrolysis. Before analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS), extracts were derivatized to convert compounds to trimethylsilyl derivatives. Statistical analysis identified four variables which as combined factors discriminated significantly between cutin and suberin based on their structural units. We found a relative enrichment of cutin and suberin contents in the occluded fraction at both sites that decreased with increasing distance to the trees. We conclude from our results that (i) patchy above- and belowground carbon input caused by heterogeneous distribution of trees and ground vegetation has major impact on SOC variability and stability at the small scale, (ii) tree species is an important factor influencing SOC heterogeneity at the stand scale due to pronounced differences in above- and

  14. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from infants with MLL-AF4+ acute leukemia harbor and express the MLL-AF4 fusion gene

    PubMed Central

    Catalina, Purificación; Rodríguez, René; Melen, Gustavo J.; Bueno, Clara; Arriero, Mar; García-Sánchez, Félix; Lassaletta, Alvaro; García-Sanz, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    MLL-AF4 fusion is a hallmark genetic abnormality in infant B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) known to arise in utero. The cellular origin of leukemic fusion genes during human development is difficult to ascertain. The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several hematological malignances. BM mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from 38 children diagnosed with cytogenetically different acute leukemias were screened for leukemic fusion genes. Fusion genes were absent in BM-MSCs of childhood leukemias carrying TEL-AML1, BCR-ABL, AML1-ETO, MLL-AF9, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL or hyperdiploidy. However, MLL-AF4 was detected and expressed in BM-MSCs from all cases of MLL-AF4+ B-ALL. Unlike leukemic blasts, MLL-AF4+ BM-MSCs did not display monoclonal Ig gene rearrangements. Endogenous or ectopic expression of MLL-AF4 exerted no effect on MSC culture homeostasis. These findings suggest that MSCs may be in part tumor-related, highlighting an unrecognized role of the BM milieu on the pathogenesis of MLL-AF4+ B-ALL. MLL-AF4 itself is not sufficient for MSC transformation and the expression of MLL-AF4 in MSCs is compatible with a mesenchymal phenotype, suggesting a differential impact in the hematopoietic system and mesenchyme. The absence of monoclonal rearrangements in MLL-AF4+ BM-MSCs precludes the possibility of cellular plasticity or de-differentiation of B-ALL blasts and suggests that MLL-AF4 might arise in a population of prehematopoietic precursors. PMID:19995953

  16. Interaction between Subunits of Heterodimeric Splicing Factor U2AF Is Essential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Kanaar, Roland; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor), plays a critical role in 3′ splice site selection. Although the U2AF subunits associate in a tight complex, biochemical experiments designed to address the requirement for both subunits in splicing have yielded conflicting results. We have taken a genetic approach to assess the requirement for the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer in vivo. We developed a novel Escherichia coli copurification assay to map the domain on the Drosophila U2AF large subunit (dU2AF50) that interacts with the Drosophila small subunit (dU2AF38). A 28-amino-acid fragment on dU2AF50 that is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with dU2AF38 was identified. Using the copurification assay, we scanned this 28-amino-acid interaction domain for mutations that abrogate heterodimer formation. A collection of these dU2AF50 point mutants was then tested in vivo for genetic complementation of a recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. A mutation that completely abolished interaction with dU2AF38 was incapable of complementation, whereas dU2AF50 mutations that did not effect heterodimer formation rescued the recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. Analysis of heterodimer formation in embryo extracts derived from these interaction mutant lines revealed a perfect correlation between the efficiency of subunit association and the ability to complement the dU2AF50 recessive lethal allele. These data indicate that Drosophila U2AF heterodimer formation is essential for viability in vivo, consistent with a requirement for both subunits in splicing in vitro. PMID:9528748

  17. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM And SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  18. SOM-based nonlinear least squares twin SVM via active contours for noisy image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaomin; Wang, Tingting

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear least square twin support vector machine (NLSTSVM) with the integration of active contour model (ACM) is proposed for noisy image segmentation. Efforts have been made to seek the kernel-generated surfaces instead of hyper-planes for the pixels belonging to the foreground and background, respectively, using the kernel trick to enhance the performance. The concurrent self organizing maps (SOMs) are applied to approximate the intensity distributions in a supervised way, so as to establish the original training sets for the NLSTSVM. Further, the two sets are updated by adding the global region average intensities at each iteration. Moreover, a local variable regional term rather than edge stop function is adopted in the energy function to ameliorate the noise robustness. Experiment results demonstrate that our model holds the higher segmentation accuracy and more noise robustness.

  19. SOM guided fuzzy logic prospectivity model for gold in the Häme Belt, southwestern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leväniemi, Hanna; Hulkki, Helena; Tiainen, Markku

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated gold prospectivity in the Paleoproterozoic Häme Belt, located in southwestern Finland. The Häme Belt comprises calc-alkaline and tholeitic volcanic rocks, migmatites, granitoids, and mafic to ultramafic intrusions. Mineral exploration in the region has resulted in the discovery of several gold occurrences during recent decades; however, no prospectivity modeling for gold has yet been conducted. This study integrated till geochemical and geophysical data to examine and extract data characteristics critical for gold occurrences. Modeling was guided by self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to define essential data associations and to aid in model input data selection and generation. The final fuzzy logic prospectivity model map yielded high predictability values for most known Au or Cu-Au occurrences, but also highlighted new targets for exploration.

  20. Copper Prototype Measurements of the HOM, LOM and SOM Couplers for the ILC Crab Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Bellantoni, L.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.A.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2008-06-23

    The ILC Crab Cavity is positioned close to the IP and delivered luminosity is very sensitive to the wakefields induced in it by the beam. A set of couplers were designed to couple to and damp the spurious modes of the crab cavity. As the crab cavity operates using a dipole mode, it has different damping requirements from an accelerating cavity. A separate coupler is required for the monopole modes below the operating frequency of 3.9 GHz (known as the LOMs), the opposite polarization of the operating mode (the SOM), and the modes above the operating frequency (the HOMs). Prototypes of each of these couplers have been manufactured out of copper and measured attached to an aluminum nine cell prototype of the cavity and their external Q factors were measured. The results were found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  1. Winter climate extremes and their role for priming SOM decomposition under the snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The central research question of this project is how soil respiration and soil microbial community composition and activity of subalpine grasslands are affected by extreme winter climate events, such as mid-winter snowmelt and subsequent advanced growing season date. In the scope of this talk, focus will be laid on the assumptions that (1) reduced snow cover leads to intensive freeze-thaw cycles in the soil with larger amplitudes of microbial biomass, DOC and soil CO2 production and efflux over the course of winter, and shifts peak microbial activity to deeper soil layers with limited and recalcitrant substrate; (2) causes a shift in microbial community composition towards decreased fungal/bacterial ratios; and (3) results in a stronger incorporation of labile C in microbial biomass and more pronounced priming effects of soil organic matter turnover. Our findings indicate that snow removal, induces a strong and immediate negative effect on the physiology of soil microbes, impairing them in their capacity for turnover of SOM in the presence of labile substances (priming). This effect however is transient and soil microbes recover within the same winter. The reason for that is that snow removal did not produce any measurable (PLFA) changes in soil microbial community composition. The advanced start of the growing season, as a result of snow removal in mid-winter, granted the bacterial part of the microbial community more active in the uptake of labile substrates and the turnover of SOM than the fungal one. This finding is in line with the concept for a seasonal shift towards bacterial-dominated summer microbial community composition and could bring about implications for the plant-microbe competition for resources at the onset of the growing season.

  2. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  3. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F, cytotoxic polyacetylenes from Gymnaster koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Hwan

    2002-06-01

    Six new polyacetylenes, gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6), were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis, together with 2,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (7) and 1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8), by bioassay-guided fractionation using the L1210 tumor cell line as a model for cytotoxicity. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established spectroscopically, which included 2D NMR experiments. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6) are linear diacetylenes and are structurally related to falcarinol, panaxynol, panaxydiol, and panaxytriol. Of the compounds isolated, gymnasterkoreaynes B (2), C (3), F (6), and 1,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against L1210 tumor cells with ED(50) values of 0.12-3.3 microg/mL.

  4. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    products of HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate) based propellants such as AF-M315E are nitric acid and NOx gases. The presence of excess acids causes... Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) program. As the propulsion system developed by Aerojet- Rocketdyne for this propellant advances in maturity, studies...have been undertaken to address the knowledge gaps in the adiabatic compression sensitivity of the propellant as it relates to the system parameters for

  5. A Companion to the Eclipsing Variable AF Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the eclipsing variable star AF Arietis is shown to have a wide 12th magnitude companion, currently not included in the WDS catalog. The identified component appears to be following the same space motion as the 6th magnitude AB eclipsing pair and is situated at a broadly similar spectral distance from Earth, which suggest it might be a physical member of the system.

  6. Improved AF Squadron Command Structure for Leadership, Accountability, and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    of Defense respectively focus on span of control. The concept of span of control was developed in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton based on the assumption...For the AF, this means squadrons must be organized across a wing to minimize inconsistency within units as well as across them. A study by Dewar ... Dewar , Robert D., and Simet, Donald P. “A Level Specific Prediction of Spans of Control Examining the Effects of Size, Technology, and

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  8. Knowledge-based approach for functional MRI analysis by SOM neural network using prior labels from Talairach stereotaxic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Willmes, Klaus; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter; Huang, H. K.

    2002-04-01

    Among the methods proposed for the analysis of functional MR we have previously introduced a model-independent analysis based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network technique. The SOM neural network can be trained to identify the temporal patterns in voxel time-series of individual functional MRI (fMRI) experiments. The separated classes consist of activation, deactivation and baseline patterns corresponding to the task-paradigm. While the classification capability of the SOM is not only based on the distinctness of the patterns themselves but also on their frequency of occurrence in the training set, a weighting or selection of voxels of interest should be considered prior to the training of the neural network to improve pattern learning. Weighting of interesting voxels by means of autocorrelation or F-test significance levels has been used successfully, but still a large number of baseline voxels is included in the training. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the inclusion of these voxels by using three different levels of segmentation and mapping from Talairach space: (1) voxel partitions at the lobe level, (2) voxel partitions at the gyrus level and (3) voxel partitions at the cell level (Brodmann areas). The results of the SOM classification based on these mapping levels in comparison to training with all brain voxels are presented in this paper.

  9. Multi-Physics Modeling of Molten Salt Transport in Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis and Recycling of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Adam; Pati, Soobhankar

    2012-03-11

    Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis is a new energy-efficient zero-emissions process for producing high-purity magnesium and high-purity oxygen directly from industrial-grade MgO. SOM Recycling combines SOM electrolysis with electrorefining, continuously and efficiently producing high-purity magnesium from low-purity partially oxidized scrap. In both processes, electrolysis and/or electrorefining take place in the crucible, where raw material is continuously fed into the molten salt electrolyte, producing magnesium vapor at the cathode and oxygen at the inert anode inside the SOM. This paper describes a three-dimensional multi-physics finite-element model of ionic current, fluid flow driven by argon bubbling and thermal buoyancy, and heat and mass transport in the crucible. The model predicts the effects of stirring on the anode boundary layer and its time scale of formation, and the effect of natural convection at the outer wall. MOxST has developed this model as a tool for scale-up design of these closely-related processes.

  10. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3' splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans.

  11. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  12. Using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Clusters of Ozonesonde Profiles to Evaluate Climatologies and Create Linkages between Meteorology and Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, R. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Young, G. S.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone (O3) climatologies are typically created by averaging ozonesonde profiles on a monthly or seasonal basis, either for specific regions or zonally. We demonstrate the advantages of using a statistical clustering technique, self-organizing maps (SOM), over this simple averaging, through analysis of more than 4500 sonde profiles taken from the long-term US sites at Boulder, CO; Huntsville, AL; Trinidad Head, CA; and Wallops Island, VA. First, we apply SOM to O3 mixing ratios from surface to 12 km amsl. At all four sites, profiles in SOM clusters exhibit similar tropopause height, 500 hPa height and temperature, and total and tropospheric column O3. Second, when profiles from each SOM cluster are compared to monthly O3 means, near-tropopause O3 in three of the clusters is double (over +100 ppbv) the climatological O3 mixing ratio. The three clusters include 13-16% of all profiles, mostly from winter and spring. Large mid-tropospheric deviations from monthly means are found in two highly-populated clusters that represent either distinctly polluted (summer) or clean O3 (fall-winter, high tropopause) profiles. Thus, SOM indeed appear to represent US O3 profile statistics better than conventional climatologies. In the case of Trinidad Head, SOM clusters of O3 profile data from the lower troposphere (surface-6 km amsl) can discriminate background vs polluted O3 and the meteorology associated with each. Two of nine O3 clusters exhibit thin layers ( 100s of m thick) of high O3, typically between 1 and 4 km. Comparisons between clusters and downwind, high-altitude surface O3 measurements display a marked impact of the elevated tropospheric O­­3. Days corresponding to the high O3 clusters exhibit hourly surface O3 anomalies at surface sites of +5 -10 ppbv compared to a climatology; the anomalies can last up to four days. We also explore applications of SOM to tropical ozonesonde profiles, where tropospheric O3 variability is generally smaller.

  13. Forest management, litter dynamics and the altered energetic properties of soil organic matter (SOM) - Quantifying anthropogenic change with thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liles, G. C.; Horwath, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Soils are an open thermodynamic system, far from equilibrium, sustained by primary productivity and the interaction between mineralogy and soil organic matter (SOM). Quantifying the effect of anthropogenic alteration of inputs (litter/roots and fertilizer) on SOM energetic properties is a valuable missing piece of C and energy cycles in all terrestrial ecosystems. Thermal analysis (TA) applied to the study of SOM has received limited attention but provides a thermodynamic framework to quantify mass and energy dynamics in soils and unify the assessment of resource flux, attenuation and use in natural and managed systems across temporal scales. Managed forests are a critical and extensive land-use across the globe and in many cases provide model conditions to develop quantitative linkage between direct anthropogenic 'disturbance' - i.e. treatment - and soil change. Our research investigated the effects of litter and fertilizer inputs on SOM energetic properties in two experimental forest plantations in Northern California. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to quantify soils across the upper profiles of these two forested Ultisols (0-30 cm) and assess energy density in three primary thermal 'fractions', corresponding to the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids (150-350 C - Exo-1), aromatic and condensed polymers (400-460 C - Exo-2) and refractory/mineral associated C (500-550 C - Exo-3). We developed model distributions of SOM thermal stability, with replicate soil samples (n=6), representing three depths (0-10, 10-20, & 20-30 cm) that received simple (pine - S) and diverse (pine+shrub - D) litter inputs with and without fertilization (F) to assess if contrasting inputs qualities and mineral properties alter SOM energetics. In surface soils (0-10 cm), SOM energetic properties are consistent across sites and treatments displaying relative thermal symmetry with proportional energy densities (percent of total energy) of Exo-1 ~ 26

  14. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  15. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  16. Chinae, ROK AFS K-10, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    34 . T2 A . : . . . . T .I’-.E (S ! . I . . A ._-" ., " ," . . . " ("L .- 2 i* * - * . ,. - . . S IF ......... MEA ..2 .’ TP ] ?RC C *C 2• . .. .:.. . , C...FVILLE. N. C. 2e,01 43?-78 Ch[NNhAE KCREA/ PCV AFS K-1 51-54956-61,64-C7 _ ’___ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE L-- 7. (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS

  17. Relation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and change of lipoproteins: male patients with AF exhibited severe pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties in lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Jong-Min; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to search putative biomarkers for detection of relatively young-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). We analyzed serum lipoproteins from male patients with paroxysmal AF (48±9years old, n=29) and controls with similar age (50±10years old, n=27), who visited our hospital for radiofrequency catheter ablation due to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Although the AF group showed normal serum cholesterol level, they exhibited 16% lower HDL-cholesterol and 13% higher serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity than those of the control group. The AF group showed elevated levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and C-reactive protein with hyperuricemia. However, there was no difference between serum levels of creatinine, troponin I, and serum amyloid A. All lipoproteins from the AF group contained higher level of TG, oxidized species, and advanced glycated end products. LDL from the AF group (AF-LDL) showed 2.7-fold more content of malondialdehyde than the control group (p<0.04) and exhibited higher sensitivity of oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase from the AF group showed impaired antioxidant ability and lowered expressional level of apoA-I (p<0.01) and paraoxonase (p<0.005) in HDL3. Lipoprotein properties were severely impaired in the AF group with increased extent of oxidation and inflammation. The modified lipoprotein properties with impaired antioxidant functions can be used as a putative biomarker for prognostic detection for the relatively young onset AF. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning and Characterization of Rainbow Trout Interleukin-17A/F2 (IL-17A/F2) and IL-17 Receptor A: Expression during Infection and Bioactivity of Recombinant IL-17A/F2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiehui; Holland, Jason W.; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower vertebrates have been found to possess genes that have similar homology to both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, which have been termed IL-17A/F. In fish species, several of these genes can be present, but, to date, very little is known about their functional activity. This article describes the discovery and sequence analysis of a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) IL-17A/F2 molecule and an IL-17RA receptor. In addition, the bioactivity of the trout IL-17A/F2 is investigated for the first time in any species. The predicted IL-17A/F2 and IL-17RA proteins consist of 146 and 966 amino acids (aa), respectively, with both molecules containing conserved family motifs. Expression analysis revealed high constitutive expression of trout IL-17A/F2 in mucosal tissues from healthy fish, suggesting a potential role in mucosal immunity. When the modulation of IL-17A/F2 and IL-17RA in vitro was analyzed, it was observed that the two molecules were similarly affected. The expression of IL-17A/F2 was also induced in head kidney during bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections, revealing a possible function in defense against such pathogens. However, downregulation of IL-17RA was seen in some tissues and infections. The recombinant IL-17A/F2 protein was produced in Escherichia coli and was found to affect the expression of an antimicrobial peptide and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in splenocytes. Consistent with mammalian IL-17 homologues, our expression and bioactivity results imply that trout IL-17A/F2 plays an important role in promoting inflammatory and host innate immune responses directed against different pathogen groups. PMID:23147036

  19. Absence of somatostatin SST(2) receptor internalization in vivo after intravenous SOM230 application in the AR42J animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Waser, Beatrice; Cescato, Renzo; Tamma, Maria-Luisa; Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2010-10-10

    Among clinically relevant somatostatin functions, agonist-induced somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst(2)) internalization is a potent mechanism for tumor targeting with sst(2) affine radioligands such as octreotide. Since, as opposed to octreotide, the second generation multi-somatostatin analog SOM230 (pasireotide) exhibits strong functional selectivity, it appeared of interest to evaluate its ability to affect sst(2) internalization in vivo. Rats bearing AR42J tumors endogenously expressing somatostatin sst(2) receptors were injected intravenously with SOM230 or with the [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide (TATE) analog; they were euthanized at various time points; tumors and pancreas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the cellular localization of somatostatin sst(2) receptors. SOM230-induced sst(2) internalization was also evaluated in vitro by immunofluorescence microscopy in AR42J cells. At difference to the efficient in vivo sst(2) internalization triggered by intravenous [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide, intravenous SOM230 did not elicit sst(2) internalization: immunohistochemically stained sst(2) in AR42J tumor cells and pancreatic cells were detectable at the cell surface at 2.5min, 10min, 1h, 6h, or 24h after SOM230 injection while sst(2) were found intracellularly after [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide injection. The inability of stimulating sst(2) internalization by SOM230 was confirmed in vitro in AR42J cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, SOM230 was unable to antagonize agonist-induced sst(2) internalization, neither in vivo, nor in vitro. Therefore, SOM230 does not induce sst(2) internalization in vivo or in vitro in AR42J cells and pancreas, at difference to octreotide derivatives with comparable sst(2) binding affinities. These characteristics may point towards different tumor targeting but also to different desensitization properties of clinically applied SOM230. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  1. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  2. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  3. Vulnus Cordis. Heart Suture. (Vulnus Cordis. Sutur af Hjertet),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-12

    AD—A0’s6 830 ARMY MEDICAL INTELLIGENCE AND INFORMATION AGENCY WAS— ETC F/S 6/5 VULNUS CORalS. HEART SUTURE. (VULNUS CORDIS. SUTUR AF HJERTET),(U) OCT...Translated . ~~~~~~~ 285-288 ? ~ X J t~TU1~ Publisher: Date/Place Publication: 1896 Distribution Statement: S . 2~~1I9~ — I Vulnus cordis. Heart suture...Article by A. Cappelen, resident physician Norsk Meg, f. Laegevidensk. 11: 285—288, 1896. That ‘wounds of the heart should become th. object of surgical

  4. Multilayer SOM with tree-structured data for efficient document retrieval and plagiarism detection.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tommy W S; Rahman, M K M

    2009-09-01

    This paper proposes a new document retrieval (DR) and plagiarism detection (PD) system using multilayer self-organizing map (MLSOM). A document is modeled by a rich tree-structured representation, and a SOM-based system is used as a computationally effective solution. Instead of relying on keywords/lines, the proposed scheme compares a full document as a query for performing retrieval and PD. The tree-structured representation hierarchically includes document features as document, pages, and paragraphs. Thus, it can reflect underlying context that is difficult to acquire from the currently used word-frequency information. We show that the tree-structured data is effective for DR and PD. To handle tree-structured representation in an efficient way, we use an MLSOM algorithm, which was previously developed by the authors for the application of image retrieval. In this study, it serves as an effective clustering algorithm. Using the MLSOM, local matching techniques are developed for comparing text documents. Two novel MLSOM-based PD methods are proposed. Detailed simulations are conducted and the experimental results corroborate that the proposed approach is computationally efficient and accurate for DR and PD.

  5. [Use of the self-organizing map (SOM) for the characterization of macrobenthic populations].

    PubMed

    Adandedjan, Delphine; Ahouansou Montcho, Simon; Chikou, Antoine; Laleye, Philippe; Gourene, Germain

    2013-01-01

    Macrobenthic organisms are much used nowadays as bio-indicators for their ability to reflect different disturbances of aquatic ecosystems. However, they have never been used to assess the ecological status of the lagoons of Benin. The current study aims at revealing the ecological state of the lagoon of Porto-Novo through the study of changes in the settlement of benthic organisms collected in this lagoon. The sampling was carried out from July 2007 to June 2009 on a frequency of four seasons of collection per year. The self-organizing map (SOM) of Kohonen has been used for various patterns of distribution of collected organisms. A discriminant analysis (AFD) has allowed the identification of the parameters that govern the patterns observed in this environment. Four groups of macrobenthic communities emerged that were well predicted (75%). The distribution of benthic macro invertebrates of this lagoon is therefore zonal, seasonal and discriminated by variables of mineralization and sediment grain size. The difference in taxonomic richness corresponds to environmental conditions of stations appearing more or less stable and highlighting a gradient of the stress on organisms. Places with unstable conditions are affected by human activities due to their proximity to homes that are enriched in organic matter. These places are full of polluted-tolerant species such as the Gastropods Potamididae, Cirratulidae Polychaetes, Diptera Chironomidae and Oligochaeta. The macrobenthic fauna, which is well differentiated in the groups, is then subjected to human disturbance.

  6. Discrimination between Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using SOM and PSO-SVM.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ting; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chang, Tzyh-Chyang; Huang, Chung-Hsien; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Li, Kuan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an MRI-based classification framework was proposed to distinguish the patients with AD and MCI from normal participants by using multiple features and different classifiers. First, we extracted features (volume and shape) from MRI data by using a series of image processing steps. Subsequently, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to convert a set of features of possibly correlated variables into a smaller set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables, decreasing the dimensions of feature space. Finally, we developed a novel data mining framework in combination with support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the AD/MCI classification. In order to compare the hybrid method with traditional classifier, two kinds of classifiers, that is, SVM and a self-organizing map (SOM), were trained for patient classification. With the proposed framework, the classification accuracy is improved up to 82.35% and 77.78% in patients with AD and MCI. The result achieved up to 94.12% and 88.89% in AD and MCI by combining the volumetric features and shape features and using PCA. The present results suggest that novel multivariate methods of pattern matching reach a clinically relevant accuracy for the a priori prediction of the progression from MCI to AD.

  7. Som-Based Class Discovery Exploring the ICA-Reduced Features of Microarray Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mavroudi, Seferina; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression datasets are large and complex, having many variables and unknown internal structure. We apply independent component analysis (ICA) to derive a less redundant representation of the expression data. The decomposition produces components with minimal statistical dependence and reveals biologically relevant information. Consequently, to the transformed data, we apply cluster analysis (an important and popular analysis tool for obtaining an initial understanding of the data, usually employed for class discovery). The proposed self-organizing map (SOM)-based clustering algorithm automatically determines the number of ‘natural’ subgroups of the data, being aided at this task by the available prior knowledge of the functional categories of genes. An entropy criterion allows each gene to be assigned to multiple classes, which is closer to the biological representation. These features, however, are not achieved at the cost of the simplicity of the algorithm, since the map grows on a simple grid structure and the learning algorithm remains equal to Kohonen’s one. PMID:18629176

  8. Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.

  9. Implementation of Self Organizing Map (SOM) as decision support: Indonesian telematics services MSMEs empowerment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosida, E. T.; Maryana, S.; Thaheer, H.; Hardiani

    2017-01-01

    Information technology and communication (telematics) is one of the most rapidly developing business sectors in Indonesia. It has strategic position in its contribution towards planning and implementation of developmental, economics, social, politics and defence strategies in business, communication and education. Aid absorption for the national telecommunication SMEs is relatively low; therefore, improvement is needed using analysis on business support cluster of which basis is types of business. In the study, the business support cluster analysis is specifically implemented for Indonesian telecommunication service. The data for the business are obtained from the National Census of Economic (Susenas 2006). The method used to develop cluster model is an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) system called Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) algorithm. Based on Index of Davies Bouldin (IDB), the accuracy level of the cluster model is 0.37 or can be categorized as good. The cluster model is developed to find out telecommunication business clusters that has influence towards the national economy so that it is easier for the government to supervise telecommunication business.

  10. Spatial optical modulator (SOM): high-density diffractive laser projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, SangKyeong; Song, JongHyeong; Yeo, InJae; Choi, YoonJoon; Yurlov, Victor; An, SeungDo; Park, HeungWoo; Yang, HaengSeok; Lee, YeongGyu; Han, KyuBum; Shyshkin, Ihar; Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Oh, KwanYoung; Ryu, SeungWon; Jang, JaeWook; Park, ChangSu; Kim, ChunGi; Kim, SunKi; Kim, EungJu; Woo, KiSuk; Yang, JeongSuong; Kim, EuiJoong; Kim, JooHong; Byun, SungHo; Lee, SeungWoo; Lim, OhkKun; Cheong, JongPil; Hwang, YoungNam; Byun, GiYoung; Kyoung, JeHong; Yoon, SangKee; Lee, JaeKwang; Lee, TaeWon; Hong, SeokKee; Hong, YoonShik; Park, DongHyun; Kang, JungChul; Shin, WooChul; Lee, SungIl; Oh, SungKyung; Song, ByungKi; Kim, HeeYeoun; Koh, ChongMann; Ryu, YungHo; Lee, HyunKee; Baek, YoungKi

    2007-02-01

    A new type of diffractive spatial optical modulators, named SOM, has been developed by Samsung Electro-Mechanics for laser projection display. It exhibit inherent advantages of fast response time and high-performance light modulation, suitable for high quality embedded laser projection displays. The calculated efficiency and contrast ratio are 75 % and 800:1 respectively in case of 0 th order, 67 % and 1000:1 respectively in case of +/-1st order. The response time is as fast as 0.7 μs. Also we get the displacement of 400 nm enough to display full color with single panel in VGA format, as being 10 V driven. Optical module with VGA was successfully demonstrated for its potential applications in mobile laser projection display such as cellular phone, digital still camera and note PC product. Electrical power consumption is less than 2 W, volume is less than 13 cc. Brightness is enough to watch TV and movie in the open air, being variable up to 6 lm. Even if it's optimal diagonal image size is 10 inch, image quality does not deteriorate in the range of 5 to 50 inch because of the merit of focus-free. Due to 100 % fill factor, the image is seamless so as to be unpleasant to see the every pixel's partition. High speed of response time can make full color display with 24-bit gray scale and cause no scan line artifact, better than any other devices.

  11. The influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on SOM dynamics across contrasting semi-natural ecosystems in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Gustavo; Bird, Michael; Veeenendaal, Elmar; Schrodt, Franziska; Domingues, Tomas; Feldpausch, Ted; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    A progressive 'thickening' of woody vegetation in tropical grasslands and savannas is a widespread phenomenon being promoted by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, climate change, variations in fire regimes and other human-related activities such as intensified grazing. The impact of these vegetation dynamics on ecosystem biogeochemistry and the global carbon cycle may be highly significant given the large extent of grass dominated ecosystems, which represent about 30% of primary production of all terrestrial vegetation and store 10-30% of all soil organic carbon (SOC). However, improved predictions of the impacts of future climate-driven changes on the tropical soil organic matter (SOM) pool requires a more detailed and predictive understanding of the interactions between vegetation, climate, edaphic and disturbance effects than is currently available. Field studies using the stable carbon isotopic composition of SOM can help assessing the influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on SOM dynamics, enabling a test to determine whether there are differential patterns in their mineralisation potential as previously reported in laboratory-based studies. To this end, variations in the carbon isotopic composition of SOM in bulk and fractionated samples were used to assess the influence of C3 and C4 vegetation on SOM dynamics in semi-natural tropical ecosystems sampled along a precipitation gradient in West Africa. Moreover, results were also interpreted in light of the relative change in C/N ratios observed between contrasting SOM fractions in order to assess potential differences in SOM dynamics between Grass- and Tree-dominated sampling locations. Differential patterns in SOM dynamics in C3/C4 mixed ecosystems occurred at various spatial scales. At the site scale, differing degrees of SOM decomposition were observed between locations dominated locally by either tree or grass vegetation as indicated by the relative change in C/N ratios between contrasting SOM fractions

  12. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  13. Structure and biological activities of eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), a new mast cell degranulating peptide in the venom of the solitary wasp (Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado).

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Hisada, M; Naoki, H; Itagaki, Y; Kawai, N; Miwa, A; Yasuhara, T; Morimoto, Y; Nakata, Y

    2000-11-01

    A new mast cell degranulating peptide, eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), was isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado, the most common eumenine wasp found in Japan. The structure was analyzed by FAB-MS/MS together with Edman degradation, which was corroborated by solid-phase synthesis. The sequence of EMP-AF, Ile-Asn-Leu-Leu-Lys-Ile-Ala-Lys-Gly-Ile-Ile-Lys-Ser-Leu-NH(2), was similar to that of mastoparan, a mast cell degranulating peptide from a hornet venom; tetradecapeptide with C-terminus amidated and rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids. In fact, EMP-AF exhibited similar activity to mastoparan in stimulating degranulation from rat peritoneal mast cells and RBL-2H3 cells. It also showed significant hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Therefore, this is the first example that a mast cell degranulating peptide is found in the solitary wasp venom. Besides the degranulation and hemolytic activity, EMP-AF also affects on neuromuscular transmission in the lobster walking leg preparation. Three analogs EMP-AF-1 approximately 3 were snythesized and biologically tested together with EMP-AF, resulting in the importance of the C-terminal amide structure for biological activities.

  14. Clustering self-organizing maps (SOM) method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA as the main cause of cervical cancer disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Aldila, D.; Fatimah, Arimbi, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    One of the most widely used clustering method, since it has advantage on its robustness, is Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method. This paper discusses the application of SOM method on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA which is the main cause of cervical cancer disease, the most dangerous cancer in developing countries. We use 18 types of HPV DNA-based on the newest complete genome. By using open-source-based program R, clustering process can separate 18 types of HPV into two different clusters. There are two types of HPV in the first cluster while 16 others in the second cluster. The analyzing result of 18 types HPV based on the malignancy of the virus (the difficultness to cure). Two of HPV types the first cluster can be classified as tame HPV, while 16 others in the second cluster are classified as vicious HPV.

  15. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5 wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  16. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  17. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  18. Modeling propagation delays in the development of SOMs--a parallel with abnormal brain growth in autism.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Brain overgrowth in early developmental stages of children with autism is well documented. This paper explores the possibility that increases in propagation delays of stimuli and the signals triggered by them, resulting from this overgrowth, may be conducive to the development of poorly structured cortical maps, which may in turn be associated with autistic characteristics. We use a framework based on Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). Unlike the conventional SOM model that assumes that all neurons in the neighborhood of the neuron closest to a stimulus instantaneously react to it and adjust their weights, we propose a more biologically realistic model that acknowledges delays inherent in the propagation of signals. We show that propagation delays can significantly affect the performance of SOMs. Coverage of stimuli is negatively affected by either an increase in the dilution factor (a parameter in the proposed model that controls the adjustment of responses to overlapping stimuli), or a decrease in propagation speed. For large dilution factors the topological structure of the maps is also compromised. We also demonstrate the model's robustness to different input stimuli layouts and distributions.

  19. [Visualization and analysis of adverse reactions of molecularly targeted anticancer agents using the self-organizing map (SOM)].

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Tomoyuki; Serizawa, Ayaka; Ohtsuki, Kaori; Kawakami, Junko; Sato, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted anticancer agents cause a variety of adverse reactions compared with conventional anticancer agents because of their unique mechanisms of action. Sources of drug information such as package inserts (PIs) provide primarily document-based and numerical information. Therefore it is not easy to obtain a complete picture of drugs with similar effects, or to understand differences among drugs. In this study we used the self-organizing map (SOM) technique to visualize the adverse reactions indicated on PIs of 23 molecularly targeted anticancer agents as of March 2013. In both the presence/absence version and the frequency version, SOM was divided into domains according to mechanism of action, antibody drug or low-molecular weight drug, and molecular target. The component planes of the 753 adverse reaction items in the frequency version enabled us to grasp all available information and differences among the drugs. In some component planes in the presence/absence version, an adverse reaction that had not been reported for a drug but had already been reported for its proximally positioned drug(s) as of March 2013, was found to be reported thereafter by the Drug Safety Update (DSU) or the Adverse Event Report Search System "CzeekV," which is based on FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Our results suggest that visualization of the adverse reactions of molecularly targeted anticancer agents by the SOM technique is useful not only to acquire all available information and differences among drugs, but also to predict the appearance of adverse reactions.

  20. Visualizing changes in lower body coordination with different types of foot orthoses using self-organizing maps (SOM).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Peter F; Mündermann, Annegret; Bartlett, Roger M; Robins, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Human movement involves the coordination of individual segments controlled by the central nervous system and powered by the muscles. However, visualization of this high-dimensional coordination between kinematic and kinetic parameters is challenging. The purposes of this study were (a) to identify differences in lower extremity coordination between different types of foot orthoses using Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) and (b) to demonstrate the SOM visualization of high-dimensional coordination in gait. This study used gait data for twenty subjects while running in four different orthotic conditions (control, posted, molded, and posted-molded) from a previous study. Data for one exemplar participant was used to demonstrate the visualization technique. In this visualization, areas on an output map represent certain characteristics of the gait cycle. By comparing trials of gait in different orthotic conditions a visual analysis of high-dimensional coordination is possible. Posting orthoses were shown to reduce and molded orthoses were shown to increase ankle mobility, respectively. However, when posting and molding were combined, the effects of the molded orthoses over-rode those of the posted orthoses. In fact, trials using posted-molded orthoses enhanced the effects of molded orthoses. SOMs may contribute to a better understanding of changes in the coordination of kinematic and kinetic variables at certain phases of the gait cycle under different conditions.

  1. Assessing medically unexplained symptoms: evaluation of a shortened version of the SOMS for use in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To investigate the validity and stability of a Portuguese version for the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms-2 (SOMS-2) in primary care (PC) settings. Methods An adapted version of the SOMS-2 was filled in by persons attending a PC unit. All medically unexplained symptoms were further ascertained in a clinical interview and by contacting the patient's physicians and examining medical records, attaining a final clinical symptom evaluation (FCSE). An interview yielded the diagnosis of Clinical Somatization (CS) and the diagnosis of current depressive and anxiety disorders. Results From the eligible subjects, 167 agreed to participate and 34.1% of them were diagnosed with somatization. The correlation between the number of self-reported and FCSE symptoms was 0.63. After excluding symptoms with low frequency, low discriminative power and not correlated with the overall scale, 29 were retained in the final version. A cut-off of 4 symptoms gave a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 95.5% on the FCSE and 56.1% and 93.6% at self-report. Stability in the number of symptoms after 6 months was good (k = 0.57). Conclusions The 29 symptoms version of the SOMS-2 with a cut-off of 4 showed a high specificity and sensitivity, being reliable as a referral tool for further specialized diagnosis. PMID:20478053

  2. Soft supervised self-organizing mapping (3SOM) for improving land cover classification with MODIS time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawawirojwong, Siam

    Classification of remote sensing data has long been a fundamental technique for studying vegetation and land cover. Furthermore, land use and land cover maps are a basic need for environmental science. These maps are important for crop system monitoring and are also valuable resources for decision makers. Therefore, an up-to-date and highly accurate land cover map with detailed and timely information is required for the global environmental change research community to support natural resource management, environmental protection, and policy making. However, there appears to be a number of limitations associated with data utilization such as weather conditions, data availability, cost, and the time needed for acquiring and processing large numbers of images. Additionally, improving the classification accuracy and reducing the classification time have long been the goals of remote sensing research and they still require the further study. To manage these challenges, the primary goal of this research is to improve classification algorithms that utilize MODIS-EVI time-series images. A supervised self-organizing map (SSOM) and a soft supervised self-organizing map (3SOM) are modified and improved to increase classification efficiency and accuracy. To accomplish the main goal, the performance of the proposed methods is investigated using synthetic and real landscape data derived from MODIS-EVI time-series images. Two study areas are selected based on a difference of land cover characteristics: one in Thailand and one in the Midwestern U.S. The results indicate that time-series imagery is a potentially useful input dataset for land cover classification. Moreover, the SSOM with time-series data significantly outperforms the conventional classification techniques of the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (GMLC) and backpropagation neural network (BPNN). In addition, the 3SOM employed as a soft classifier delivers a more accurate classification than the SSOM applied as

  3. In situ visualisation and characterisation of the capacity of highly reactive minerals to preserve soil organic matter (SOM) in colloids at submicron scale.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Hao, Jialong; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Mei, Xinlan; He, Xinhua; Yu, Guanghui

    2015-11-01

    Mineral-organo associations (MOAs) are a mixture of identifiable biopolymers associated with highly reactive minerals and microorganisms. However, the in situ characterization and correlation between soil organic matter (SOM) and highly reactive Al and Fe minerals are still unclear for the lack of technologies, particularly in the long-term agricultural soil colloids at submicron scale. We combined several novel techniques, including nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to characterise the capacity of highly reactive Al and Fe minerals to preserve SOM in Ferralic Cambisol in south China. Our results demonstrated that: (1) highly reactive minerals were strongly related to SOM preservation, while SOM had a more significant line correlation with the highly reactive Al minerals than the highly reactive Fe minerals, according to the regions of interest correlation analyses using NanoSIMS; (2) allophane and ferrihydrite were the potential mineral species to determine the SOM preservation capability, which was evaluated by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy techniques; and (3) soil organic biopolymers with dominant compounds, such as proteins, polysaccharides and lipids, were distributed at the rough and clustered surface of MOAs with high chemical and spatial heterogeneity according to the CLSM observation. Our results also promoted the understanding of the roles played by the highly reactive Al and Fe minerals in the spatial distribution of soil organic biopolymers and SOM sequestration.

  4. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  5. Seladoeflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella doederleinii.

    PubMed

    Zou, ZhenXing; Xu, KangPing; Xu, PingSheng; Li, XiaoMin; Cheng, Fei; Li, Jing; Yu, Xia; Cao, DongSheng; Li, Dan; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, GuoGang; Tan, GuiShan

    2017-01-01

    Six new flavonoids, seladoeflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the whole herbs of Selaginella doederleinii, together with one known flavonoid (7). Their structures including absolute configuration were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds consist of an aryl substituent at the C-3' position of naringenin or apigenin skeletons, and compounds 1 and 6 were identified as R configurations, which are uncommonly encountered in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. In addition, bioassay of the isolates revealed that 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines NCI-H460, A549, and K562 in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 8.17 to 18.66μM.

  6. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  7. Installation-restoration program. Records search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Since 1962, many hazardous and potentially hazardous wastes have been generated by industrial operations in Building 4 at Newark AFS. Dirty freon is recycled through a recovery still inside the building and reused. A beryllium dust collection system is located on the east side of Building 4. The collected dust is encapsulated in cement and sent off-station for disposal. Twelve hazardous materials storage or staging areas were identified. During interviews, it was determined that large quantities of dirty freon had been dumped along the entire perimeter fence line and in particular two specific locations. An additional spill site was located in the area at the north-east corner of Building 4 near the location of the virgin freon tanks. An unknown amount of spent battery acid and spent solvents were spilled in this area between 1962 and 1964.

  8. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    compared to U2AF1(WT) mice. U2AF1(S34F) stem cells are at a competitive disadvantage compared to control cells, suggesting that the increase in HSC cell...cell proliferation) in KLS cells compared to controls (pɘ.05, n=8-13). Competitive repopulation studies show a disadvantage for bone marrow cells

  9. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., refined oil; cotton, undelinted seed. (b) Aspergillus flavus AF36 is temporarily exempt from the... flavis AF 36 is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, pop, grain; corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet...

  10. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  11. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact...

  12. A Conditional Role of U2AF in Splicing of Introns with Unconventional Polypyrimidine Tracts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of polypyrimidine (Py) tracts typically present between the branch point and the 3′ splice site by the large subunit of the essential splicing factor U2AF is a key early step in pre-mRNA splicing. Diverse intronic sequence arrangements exist, however, including 3′ splice sites lacking recognizable Py tracts, which raises the question of how general the requirement for U2AF is for various intron architectures. Our analysis of fission yeast introns in vivo has unexpectedly revealed that whereas introns lacking Py tracts altogether remain dependent on both subunits of U2AF, introns with long Py tracts, unconventionally positioned upstream of branch points, are unaffected by U2AF inactivation. Nevertheless, mutation of these Py tracts causes strong dependence on the large subunit U2AF59. We also find that Py tract diversity influences the requirement for the conserved C-terminal domain of U2AF59 (RNA recognition motif 3), which has been implicated in protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Py tract binding by U2AF, supplementary mechanisms of U2AF recruitment and 3′ splice site identification exist to accommodate diverse intron architectures, which have gone unappreciated in biochemical studies of model pre-mRNAs. PMID:17709389

  13. The leukemogenic CALM/AF10 fusion protein alters the subcellular localization of the lymphoid regulator Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Greif, P A; Tizazu, B; Krause, A; Kremmer, E; Bohlander, S K

    2008-05-01

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation leads to the fusion of the CALM and AF10 genes. This translocation can be found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and in malignant lymphomas. The expression of CALM/AF10 in primary murine bone marrow cells results in the development of an aggressive leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the lymphoid regulator Ikaros as an AF10 interacting protein. Interestingly, Ikaros is required for normal development of lymphocytes, and aberrant expression of Ikaros has been found in leukemia. In a murine model, the expression of a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros causes leukemias and lymphomas. The Ikaros interaction domain of AF10 was mapped to the leucine zipper domain of AF10, which is required for malignant transformation both by the CALM/AF10 and the MLL/AF10 fusion proteins. The interaction between AF10 and Ikaros was confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Coexpression of CALM/AF10 but not of AF10 alters the subcellular localization of Ikaros in murine fibroblasts. The transcriptional repressor activity of Ikaros is reduced by AF10. These results suggest that CALM/AF10 might interfere with normal Ikaros function, and thereby block lymphoid differentiation in CALM/AF10 positive leukemias.

  14. Substrate and Trigger Ablation for Reduction of Atrial Fibrillation (STAR AF): a randomized, multicentre, international trial.

    PubMed

    Verma, Atul; Mantovan, Roberto; Macle, Laurent; De Martino, Guiseppe; Chen, Jian; Morillo, Carlos A; Novak, Paul; Calzolari, Vittorio; Guerra, Peter G; Nair, Girish; Torrecilla, Esteban G; Khaykin, Yaariv

    2010-06-01

    This multicentre, randomized trial compared three strategies of AF ablation: ablation of complex fractionated electrograms (CFE) alone, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone, and combined PVI + CFE ablation, using standardized automated mapping software. Patients with drug-refractory, high-burden paroxysmal (episodes >6 h, >4 in 6 months) or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) were enrolled at eight centres. Patients (n = 100) were randomized to one of three arms. For CFE alone (n = 34), spontaneous/induced AF was mapped using validated, automated CFE software and all sites <120 ms were ablated until AF termination/non-inducibility. For PVI (n = 32), all four PV antra were isolated and confirmed using a circular catheter. For PVI + CFE (n = 34), all four PV antra were isolated, followed by AF induction and ablation of all CFE sites until AF termination/non-inducibility. Patients were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months with a visit, ECG, 48 h Holter. Atrial fibrillation symptoms were confirmed by loop recording. Repeat procedures were allowed within the first 6 months. The primary endpoint was freedom from AF >30 s at 1 year. Patients (age 57 +/- 10 years, LA size 42 +/- 6 mm) were 35% persistent AF. In CFE, ablation terminated AF in 68%. Only 0.4 PVs per patient were isolated as a result of CFE. In PVI, 94% had all four PVs successfully isolated. In PVI + CFE, 94% had all four PVs isolated, 76% had inducible AF with additional CFE ablation, with 73% termination of AF. There were significantly more repeat procedures in the CFE arm (47%) vs. PVI (31%) or PVI + CFE (15%) (P = 0.01). After one procedure, PVI + CFE had a significantly higher freedom from AF (74%) compared with PVI (48%) and CFE (29%) (P = 0.004). After two procedures, PVI + CFE still had the highest success (88%) compared with PVI (68%) and CFE (38%) (P = 0.001). Ninety-six percent of these patients were off anti-arrhythmics. Complications were two tamponades, no PV stenosis, and no mortality. In high

  15. Substrate and Trigger Ablation for Reduction of Atrial Fibrillation (STAR AF): a randomized, multicentre, international trial†

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Atul; Mantovan, Roberto; Macle, Laurent; De Martino, Guiseppe; Chen, Jian; Morillo, Carlos A.; Novak, Paul; Calzolari, Vittorio; Guerra, Peter G.; Nair, Girish; Torrecilla, Esteban G.; Khaykin, Yaariv

    2010-01-01

    Aims This multicentre, randomized trial compared three strategies of AF ablation: ablation of complex fractionated electrograms (CFE) alone, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone, and combined PVI + CFE ablation, using standardized automated mapping software. Methods and results Patients with drug-refractory, high-burden paroxysmal (episodes >6 h, >4 in 6 months) or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) were enrolled at eight centres. Patients (n = 100) were randomized to one of three arms. For CFE alone (n = 34), spontaneous/induced AF was mapped using validated, automated CFE software and all sites <120 ms were ablated until AF termination/non-inducibility. For PVI (n = 32), all four PV antra were isolated and confirmed using a circular catheter. For PVI + CFE (n = 34), all four PV antra were isolated, followed by AF induction and ablation of all CFE sites until AF termination/non-inducibility. Patients were followed at 3, 6, and 12 months with a visit, ECG, 48 h Holter. Atrial fibrillation symptoms were confirmed by loop recording. Repeat procedures were allowed within the first 6 months. The primary endpoint was freedom from AF >30 s at 1 year. Patients (age 57 ± 10 years, LA size 42 ± 6 mm) were 35% persistent AF. In CFE, ablation terminated AF in 68%. Only 0.4 PVs per patient were isolated as a result of CFE. In PVI, 94% had all four PVs successfully isolated. In PVI + CFE, 94% had all four PVs isolated, 76% had inducible AF with additional CFE ablation, with 73% termination of AF. There were significantly more repeat procedures in the CFE arm (47%) vs. PVI (31%) or PVI + CFE (15%) (P = 0.01). After one procedure, PVI + CFE had a significantly higher freedom from AF (74%) compared with PVI (48%) and CFE (29%) (P = 0.004). After two procedures, PVI + CFE still had the highest success (88%) compared with PVI (68%) and CFE (38%) (P = 0.001). Ninety-six percent of these patients were off anti-arrhythmics. Complications were two tamponades, no PV stenosis, and no

  16. Expression of MLL-AF4 or AF4-MLL fusions does not impact the efficiency of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Julio; Herrero, Ana B; Bursen, Aldeheid; González, Federico; Marschalek, Rolf; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-05-24

    The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide. Conversely, the genome-wide mutational landscape in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL has been reported silent. Thus, whether MLL fusions compromise the recognition and/or repair of DNA damage remains unanswered. Here, the fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (MA4) and AF4-MLL (A4M) were CRISPR/Cas9-genome edited in the AAVS1 locus of HEK293 cells as a model to study MLL fusion-mediated DNA-DSB formation/repair. Repair kinetics of etoposide- and ionizing radiation-induced DSBs was identical in WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells, as revealed by flow cytometry, by immunoblot for γH2AX and by comet assay. Accordingly, no differences were observed between WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells in the presence of master proteins involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ; i.e.KU86, KU70), alternative-NHEJ (Alt-NHEJ; i.e.LigIIIa, WRN and PARP1), and homologous recombination (HR, i.e.RAD51). Moreover, functional assays revealed identical NHEJ and HR efficiency irrespective of the genotype. Treatment with etoposide consistently induced cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M independent of MA4/A4M expression, revealing a proper activation of the DNA damage checkpoints. Collectively, expression of MA4 or A4M does neither influence DNA signaling nor DNA-DSB repair.

  17. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  18. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in odontogenic myxoma (OM) and ameloblastic fibroma (AF).

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Carvalho, Y R; do Carmo, M A

    2001-09-01

    Ten cases of odontogenic myxoma (OM) and six cases of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) were subjected to comparative analysis by the AgNOR technique, in order to determine a possible difference in cell proliferation index between these lesions. The mean AgNOR number of the mesenchymal component of AF was compared with its epithelial component and the difference was not found to be statistically significant. The mean AgNOR index of the AF group was significantly higher than that of the OM group. Moreover, the mesenchymal component of AF demonstrated increased AgNOR numbers compared with that of OM (P<0.05). These results suggest that the epithelial and mesenchymal components of AF may have similar cell proliferative activity. However, the cell proliferative index of this lesion seems to be higher than that of OM.

  19. Atrial Fibrillation Management Strategies in Routine Clinical Practice: Insights from the International RealiseAF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chern-En; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Brette, Sandrine; Silva-Cardoso, José; Gamra, Habib; Murin, Jan; Zharinov, Oleg J.; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be managed with rhythm- or rate-control strategies. There are few data from routine clinical practice on the frequency with which each strategy is used and their correlates in terms of patients’ clinical characteristics, AF control, and symptom burden. Methods RealiseAF was an international, cross-sectional, observational survey of 11,198 patients with AF. The aim of this analysis was to describe patient profiles and symptoms according to the AF management strategy used. A multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with AF management strategy at the end of the visit. Results Among 10,497 eligible patients, 53.7% used a rate-control strategy, compared with 34.5% who used a rhythm-control strategy. In 11.8% of patients, no clear strategy was stated. The proportion of patients with AF-related symptoms (EHRA Class > = II) was 78.1% (n = 4396/5630) for those using a rate-control strategy vs. 67.8% for those using a rhythm-control strategy (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age <75 years or the paroxysmal or persistent form of AF favored the choice of a rhythm-control strategy. A change in strategy was infrequent, even in patients with European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Class > = II. Conclusions In the RealiseAF routine clinical practice survey, rate control was more commonly used than rhythm control, and a change in strategy was uncommon, even in symptomatic patients. In almost 12% of patients, no clear strategy was stated. Physician awareness regarding optimal management strategies for AF may be improved. PMID:26800084

  20. [Design of an atrial fibrillation and embolic risk registry in Mexico: CARMEN-AF].

    PubMed

    González-Hermosillo, Jesús A; Márquez, Manlio F; Ocampo-Peña, Salvador

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common arrhythmias, and its prevalence increase with age. It is associated with high risk of stroke. The prevention of such thromboembolism is done with oral anticoagulants, which in our country seem to be underused. CARMEN-AF registry aims primarily to determine the current status of thromboprophylaxis of non-valvular AF in Mexico. A secondary objective is to know the morbidity and mortality associated with non-valvular AF in at least one year of follow-up. CARMEN-AF registry is an observational, longitudinal, multicenter, and national survey about the use of oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular AF. Patients 18years old or older, diagnosed with AF during the last 6months, and with at least one risk factor of thromboembolism based in the CHA2DS2-Vasc score are being selected. Demographic and clinical data will be collected during the visits to their usual clinic with a follow-up of 2years. The recruitment began on September 19, 2014, and the inclusion of the last patient is expected on September 18, 2016. According to the reported incidence of AF globally and taking into account the total Mexican population, the inclusion of 1,200 patients is estimated. The Atrial Fibrillation and Embolic Risk Registry (CARMEN-AF) will reveal the current status of thromboprophylaxis in patients with non-valvular AF, and will allow to get an overview of the national and international clinical practice guidelines accomplishment in this area. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  2. Soil organic carbon dynamics across a nitrogen deposition gradient: application of the PnET-SOM model to northeastern forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Jenkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic forcing of the C and N cycles has caused rapid change in atmospheric CO2 and N deposition, with complex and uncertain effects on forest C and N balance. We developed the PnET-SOM model to enhance the model description of carbon and nitrogen coupling. Here we applied PnET-SOM to study changes to ecosystem carbon storage across a nitrogen deposition gradient. We designed the PnET-SOM model to: 1) represent SOM structured around measurable SOM pools, 2) expand simulated soil horizon complexity beyond the 1-box approach to hydrology and SOM structure used in PnET-CN, 3) model humified and mineral associated SOM using parameters derived from C14 field studies, and 4) couple C and N cycles to allow N-limitation of decomposition and plant growth. We explicitly modeled labile, biochemically recalcitrant (humified SOM), and physically-chemically protected (mineral associated SOM) C pools. These SOM pools are modeled in distinct soil horizons including: a forest floor, a mixed organic horizon, an A horizon, and a B horizon. Slow turnover pools of the A and B horizon constitute a significant proportion of SOC; explicitly modeling a deeper soil profile is important for estimating ecosystem SOC storage. In the latest version of PnET-SOM, we described N mineralization-immobilization in the forest floor based on equations derived in the LIDET synthesis study. Validation of the PnET-SOM model was conducted using 1) long-term water flux and nitrate leaching data from the Hubbard Brook LTER, 2) CO2 respiration observations from the Harvard Forest LTER, and 3) C and N stock and flux observations from the Harvard Forest LTER. In this work, we applied the PnET-SOM model to study the effects of an N deposition gradient on SOC dynamics over a 300 year simulation. We represented the effects of N deposition on litter decomposition by varying the exponential decay parameters of the litter layer based on observations from the Harvard Forest N addition experiment. We derived the

  3. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition. Results from a field trial in a short rotation coppice in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Panzacchi, Pietro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation, helping at the same time to maintain soil fertility. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. The present study aimed to assess the stability of biochar, its effect on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, and the effect of plant roots on biochar stability in field conditions in Northern Italy, for a three-year monitoring period within the EuroChar project. The experiment was conducted in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC). Biochar produced from maize (δ13C = -13.8‰) silage pellets in a gasification plant was applied in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) plantation in Northern Italy. Root exclusion subplots were established using the trenching method to measure heterotrophic respiration. Total (Rtot) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration were measured every 2 hours in control and biochar-treated soil, with a closed dynamic soil respiration system. δ13C of the soil-emited CO2 was periodically measured using the Keeling plot method. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB), was calculated using an isotopic mass balance. Results showed that fB varied between 7% and 37% according to the sampling date, and was generally higher in the presence of roots than in trenched plots where the root growth was excluded. Without roots, only the 14% of the carbon originally added with biochar was decomposed. In the presence of roots, this percentage increased to 21%, suggesting a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, biochar decreased the decomposition of original SOM by about 17%, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM.

  4. Model Validation Through SOM-based Pattern Analysis: Evaluating HadAM3 GCM Hindcasts Over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, B.; Collins, D.

    2001-05-01

    The decomposition of the time-space structure in atmospheric data has long been a core analysis technique for feature identification and interpretation. Most common of these methods has been EOF analysis and cluster analysis. However, the linear and orthogonal nature of these methods inherently imposes some restrictions on the results. Nonlinear Primary Component Analysis may be used to extend EOF techniques, while Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) may be used to extend clustering techniques. Such technique developments are of particular importance for improving seasonal forecasting by evaluating the shorter time frame of model performance (as opposed to the more common temporal means and anomalies). In this analysis SOMs are applied to time series of spatial fields from the NCEP reanalysis and the HadAM3 GCM forced with observed SSTs. Using 6-hourly data the SOM finds reference vectors that span the high-dimensional input data space, and forms a mapping of this high-dimensional space to a 2-dimensional lattice. In effect the procedure identifies arch-types in the data. The original data fields may then be associated with the reference vectors, in effect performing a clustering of the data against the reference vectors identified. The 2-dimensional mapping may then be used to effectively visualize the ordered relations of the input data. In this manner the relative frequency of occurrence of synoptic events may be determined, as well as the temporal evolution of synoptic events, and the velocity of the synoptic evolution. Using this approach the GCM data for the summer season over southern Africa (DJF) is evaluated against the NCEP reanalysis for the same period. This allows bias and error in the model to be identified in terms of circulation modes and evolution.

  5. Cancer-Associated Mutations Mapped on High-Resolution Structures of the U2AF2 RNA Recognition Motifs.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Eliezra; Agrawal, Anant A; Jenkins, Jermaine L; Kielkopf, Clara L

    2017-09-12

    Acquired point mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors recur among cancers, leukemias, and related neoplasms. Several studies have established that somatic mutations of a U2AF1 subunit, which normally recognizes 3' splice site junctions, recur among myelodysplastic syndromes. The U2AF2 splicing factor recognizes polypyrimidine signals that precede most 3' splice sites as a heterodimer with U2AF1. In contrast with those of the well-studied U2AF1 subunit, descriptions of cancer-relevant U2AF2 mutations and their structural relationships are lacking. Here, we survey databases of cancer-associated mutations and identify recurring missense mutations in the U2AF2 gene. We determine ultra-high-resolution structures of the U2AF2 RNA recognition motifs (RRM1 and RRM2) at 1.1 Å resolution and map the structural locations of the mutated U2AF2 residues. Comparison with prior, lower-resolution structures of the tandem U2AF2 RRMs in the RNA-bound and apo states reveals clusters of cancer-associated mutations at the U2AF2 RRM-RNA or apo-RRM1-RRM2 interfaces. Although the role of U2AF2 mutations in malignant transformation remains uncertain, our results show that cancer-associated mutations correlate with functionally important surfaces of the U2AF2 splicing factor.

  6. RNA Induces Conformational Changes in the SF1/U2AF65 Splicing Factor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2010-01-01

    Spliceosomes assemble on pre-mRNA splice sites through a series of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet the nature of the conformational changes remains unclear. Splicing Factor 1 (SF1) and U2 Auxiliary Factor (U2AF65) cooperatively recognize the 3’ splice site during the initial stages of pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we used small-angle X-ray scattering to compare the molecular dimensions and ab initio shape restorations of SF1 and U2AF65 splicing factors, as well as the SF1/U2AF65 complex in the absence and presence of AdML splice site RNAs. The molecular dimensions of the SF1/U2AF65/RNA complex substantially contracted by 15 Å in the maximum dimension, relative to the SF1/U2AF65 complex in the absence of RNA ligand. In contrast, no detectable changes were observed for the isolated SF1 and U2AF65 splicing factors or their individual complexes with RNA, although slight differences in the shapes of their molecular envelopes were apparent. We propose that the conformational changes that are induced by assembly of the SF1/U2AF65/RNA complex serve to position the pre-mRNA splice site optimally for subsequent stages of splicing. PMID:21146534

  7. RNA induces conformational changes in the SF1/U2AF65 splicing factor complex.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankit; Jenkins, Jermaine L; Kielkopf, Clara L

    2011-02-04

    Spliceosomes assemble on pre-mRNA splice sites through a series of dynamic ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet the nature of the conformational changes remains unclear. Splicing factor 1 (SF1) and U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF(65)) cooperatively recognize the 3' splice site during the initial stages of pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we used small-angle X-ray scattering to compare the molecular dimensions and ab initio shape restorations of SF1 and U2AF(65) splicing factors, as well as the SF1/U2AF(65) complex in the absence and presence of AdML (adenovirus major late) splice site RNAs. The molecular dimensions of the SF1/U2AF(65)/RNA complex substantially contracted by 15 Å in the maximum dimension, relative to the SF1/U2AF(65) complex in the absence of RNA ligand. In contrast, no detectable changes were observed for the isolated SF1 and U2AF(65) splicing factors or their individual complexes with RNA, although slight differences in the shapes of their molecular envelopes were apparent. We propose that the conformational changes that are induced by assembly of the SF1/U2AF(65)/RNA complex serve to position the pre-mRNA splice site optimally for subsequent stages of splicing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  9. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Adam D; Hellkamp, Anne S; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Nessel, Christopher C; Singer, Daniel E; Fox, Keith A A; Patel, Manesh R; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11-1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13-1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04-1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  10. Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels using an autochthonous Lactobacillus futsaii CS3 as starter culture in Thai fermented shrimp (Kung-Som).

    PubMed

    Sanchart, Chatthaphisuth; Rattanaporn, Onnicha; Haltrich, Dietmar; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2017-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which has a variety of well-characterized beneficial physiological functions. In order to improve GABA levels and the fermentation process of Thai fermented shrimp (Kung-Som), autochthonous Lactobacillus futsaii CS3 was inoculated as a starter culture into Kung-Som, and its effects on the quality of Kung-Som were studied. The optimal conditions for GABA production in Kung-Som as obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) were an inoculum size of roughly 10(7) CFU/g (X1) of L. futsaii cells together with the addition of 0.5% (w/w) monosodium glutamate (MSG) (X2), resulting in maximum GABA levels of 10,500 mg per kg fresh product. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental GABA content of Kung-Som with an added starter culture was up to four times higher than that of the control (without starter culture) or commercial Kung-Som products (10,120 mg/kg product). Kung-Som produced by inoculation with L. futsaii CS3 but without addition of MSG showed a considerably increased GABA content of 7790 mg/kg compared to the control. Fermentation time was reduced to less than 1 week for these samples compared to the control batches, which took up to 19 days. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that L. futsaii CS3 remained prominently throughout the Kung-Som fermentation, and that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) rapidly dominated the total microflora because of this inoculation with L. futsaii CS3. Kung-Som samples with starter culture were accepted as well as commercial ones by 30 panelists (p > 0.05). In conclusion, L. futsaii CS3 is a good starter culture for GABA production, resulting in, improved microbiological safety as well as reduced fermentation time.

  11. A monastrol-derived compound, LaSOM 63, inhibits ecto-5'nucleotidase/CD73 activity and induces apoptotic cell death of glioma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Fabrício; Mendes, Franciane Brackmann; Corbelini, Patricia Frasson; Janarelli, Fernanda; Jandrey, Elisa Helena Farias; Russowsky, Dennis; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant type of glioma. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'NT), a glioma-overexpressed enzyme can induce a protective effect on tumor cells. Monastrol, a kinesin spindle protein-specific inhibitor, is reported to be an interesting prototype for cancer therapy. We describe the effect of LaSOM 63, a monastrol derivative, on ecto-5'NT activity and on glioma cell survival. Glioma cells were treated with LaSOM 63 and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), trypan blue assay (viability), flow cytometry (cell cycle/cell death) and malachite green method for ecto-5'NT activity were carried out. Treatment with LaSOM 63 reduces glioma cell viability and cell growth. In contrast to monastrol, LaSOM 63 did not cause glioma cell-cycle arrest, but inhibited ecto-5'NT enzyme activity. Furthermore, this compound induces apoptotic death of C6 and U138 glioma cells. LaSOM 63 may be useful for in vivo experiments on the treatment of GBM.

  12. Incidence and economic burden of suspected adverse events and adverse event monitoring during AF therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Lin, J; Hussein, M; Battleman, D

    2009-12-01

    Rhythm- and rate-control therapies are an essential part of atrial fibrillation (AF) management; however, the use of existing agents is often limited by the occurrence of adverse events. The aim of this study was to evaluate suspected adverse events and adverse event monitoring, and associated medical costs, in patients receiving AF rhythm-control and/or rate-control therapy. This retrospective cohort study used claims data from the Integrated Healthcare Information Systems National Managed Care Benchmark Database from 2002-2006. Patients hospitalized for AF (primary diagnosis), and who had at least 365 days' enrollment before and after the initial (index) AF hospitalization, were included in the analysis. Suspected AF therapy-related adverse events and function tests for adverse event monitoring were identified according to pre-specified diagnosis codes/procedures, and examined over the 12 months following discharge from the index hospitalization. Events/function tests had to have occurred within 90 days of a claim for AF therapy to be considered a suspected adverse event/adverse event monitoring. Of 4174 AF patients meeting the study criteria, 3323 received AF drugs; 428 received rhythm-control only (12.9%), 2130 rate-control only (64.1%), and 765 combined rhythm/rate-control therapy (23.0%). Overall, 50.1% of treated patients had a suspected adverse event and/or function test for adverse event monitoring (45.5% with rate-control, 53.5% with rhythm-control, and 61.2% with combined rhythm/rate-control). Suspected cardiovascular adverse events were the most common events (occurring in 36.1% of patients), followed by pulmonary (6.1%), and endocrine events (5.9%). Overall, suspected adverse events/function tests were associated with mean annual per-patient costs of $3089 ($1750 with rhythm-control, $2041 with rate control, and $6755 with combined rhythm/rate-control). As a retrospective analysis, the study is subject to potential selection bias, while its reliance on

  13. Mutations in the small subunit of the Drosophila U2AF splicing factor cause lethality and developmental defects.

    PubMed

    Rudner, D Z; Kanaar, R; Breger, K S; Rio, D C

    1996-09-17

    The essential eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF (U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor) is required to specify the 3' splice at an early step in spliceosome assembly. U2AF binds site-specifically to the intron polypyrimidine tract and recruits U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein to the branch site. Human U2AF (hU2AF) is a heterodimer composed of a large (hU2AF65) and small (hU2AF35) subunit. Although these proteins associate in a tight complex, the biochemical requirement for U2AF activity can be satisfied solely by the large subunit. The requirement for the small subunit in splicing has remained enigmatic. No biochemical activity has been found for hU2AF35 and it has been implicated in splicing only indirectly by its interaction with known splicing factors. In the absence of a biochemical assay, we have taken a genetic approach to investigate the function of the small subunit in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of Drosophila U2AF (dU2AF38) has been isolated and sequenced. The dU2AF38 protein is highly homologous to hU2AF35 containing a conserved central arginine- and serine-rich (RS) domain. A recessive P-element insertion mutation affecting dU2AF38 causes a reduction in viability and fertility and morphological bristle defects. Consistent with a general role in splicing, a null allele of dU2AF38 is fully penetrant recessive lethal, like null alleles of the Drosophila U2AF large subunit.

  14. The Changing Landscape for Stroke Prevention in AF: Findings From the GLORIA-AF Registry Phase 2.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Menno V; Rothman, Kenneth J; Paquette, Miney; Teutsch, Christine; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dubner, Sergio J; Halperin, Jonathan L; Ma, Chang Sheng; Zint, Kristina; Elsaesser, Amelie; Bartels, Dorothee B; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-02-21

    GLORIA-AF (Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation) is a prospective, global registry program describing antithrombotic treatment patterns in patients with newly diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke. Phase 2 began when dabigatran, the first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), became available. This study sought to describe phase 2 baseline data and compare these with the pre-NOAC era collected during phase 1. During phase 2, 15,641 consenting patients were enrolled (November 2011 to December 2014); 15,092 were eligible. This pre-specified cross-sectional analysis describes eligible patients' baseline characteristics. Atrial fibrillation disease characteristics, medical outcomes, and concomitant diseases and medications were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the total patients, 45.5% were female; median age was 71 (interquartile range: 64, 78) years. Patients were from Europe (47.1%), North America (22.5%), Asia (20.3%), Latin America (6.0%), and the Middle East/Africa (4.0%). Most had high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65 to 74 years, Sex category] score ≥2; 86.1%); 13.9% had moderate risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1). Overall, 79.9% received oral anticoagulants, of whom 47.6% received NOAC and 32.3% vitamin K antagonists (VKA); 12.1% received antiplatelet agents; 7.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. For comparison, the proportion of phase 1 patients (of N = 1,063 all eligible) prescribed VKA was 32.8%, acetylsalicylic acid 41.7%, and no therapy 20.2%. In Europe in phase 2, treatment with NOAC was more common than VKA (52.3% and 37.8%, respectively); 6.0% of patients received antiplatelet treatment; and 3.8% received no antithrombotic treatment. In North America, 52.1%, 26.2%, and 14.0% of patients received NOAC, VKA, and

  15. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM).

  16. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  17. Development of a low-cost SOM laboratory prototype with line illumination: evaluation of deconvolution techniques on its axial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Milton P.; Barata, Antonio J.; Fernandes, Ana G.; Correia, Carlos M.

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a laboratory system, that embraces different areas such as optics, electronics, signal processing and software, to make possible the application of a linear sensor as detector in a scanning optical microscope (SOM) and to evaluate the application of different signal processing techniques on axial and lateral resolution. Thus a low-cost SOM laboratory prototype with reflection epi-illuminated configuration was assembled and a stage scanning type was selected to minimize the aberrations because low-cost optical components were employed. The line illumination was achieved using a low-cost anamorphic optical lens. In this paper a discription of the optical arrangement is presented. Also the acquisition system is reported regarding the circuitry developed with a microcontroller from PIC family to readout data from a linear sensor. A brief discription of the acquisition and visualization software running in microcontroller and personal computer (PC), respectively, is also included. The preliminary results presented in this paper were attained using plane mirror object mounted in a translation stage. A Matlab program was developed to implement different routines to estimate the axial resolution and evaluate its validity for the achievement of better depth discrimination.

  18. Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature southern taiga ecosystems mutual for them the

  19. Comparative Effects of R- and S-equol and Implication of Transactivation Functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in Estrogen Receptor-Induced Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Carreau, Charlotte; Flouriot, Gilles; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Potier, Mylène

    2010-01-01

    Equol, one of the main metabolites of daidzein, is a chiral compound with pleiotropic effects on cellular signaling. This property may induce activation/inhibition of the estrogen receptors (ER) a or b, and therefore, explain the beneficial/deleterious effects of equol on estrogen-dependent diseases. With its asymmetric centre at position C-3, equol can exist in two enantiomeric forms (R- and S-equol). To elucidate the yet unclear mechanisms of ER activation/inhibition by equol, we performed a comprehensive analysis of ERa and ERb transactivation by racemic equol, as well as by enantiomerically pure forms. Racemic equol was prepared by catalytic hydrogenation from daidzein and separated into enantiomers by chiral HPLC. The configuration assignment was performed by optical rotatory power measurements. The ER-induced transactivation by R- and S-equol (0.1–10 µM) and 17b-estradiol (E2, 10 nM) was studied using transient transfections of ERα and ERβ in CHO, HepG2 and HeLa cell lines. R- and S-equol induce ER transactivation in an opposite fashion according to the cellular context. R-equol and S-equol are more potent in inducing ERα in an AF-2 and AF-1 permissive cell line, respectively. Involvement of ERα transactivation functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in these effects has been examined. Both AF-1 and AF-2 are involved in racemic equol, R-equol and S-equol induced ERα transcriptional activity. These results could be of interest to find a specific ligand modulating ER transactivation and could contribute to explaining the diversity of equol actions in vivo. PMID:22254026

  20. The Armed Forces Casualty Assistance Readiness Enhancement System (AF-CARES), Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-08

    15 Next of Kin ( NOK ) ................................................................................................... 15 Casualty...22 Recommendations for Future Work...1.0 Casualty Tab ........................................................................... 19 Figure 10: AF-CARES 1.0 NOK Data Tab

  1. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    dynamic response • Waterhammer effect Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate ...Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HEHN) (HAN) [ ]-NO3 + [ ]HOCH2CH2N2H4 [ ]-+[ ]NH3OH NO3 AF-M315E

  2. Aerial view of Hanger AF at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerial view of Hanger AF at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station showing the solid rocket booster (SRB) disassembly facility, SRB casings from the Columbia's first launch and the retrieval vessels, UTC Freedom and Liberty.

  3. High-resolution micropatterned Teflon AF substrates for biocompatible nanofluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hakonen, Bodil; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2012-02-14

    We describe a general photolithography-based process for the microfabrication of surface-supported Teflon AF structures. Teflon AF patterns primarily benefit from superior optical properties such as very low autofluorescence and a low refractive index. The process ensures that the Teflon AF patterns remain strongly hydrophobic in order to allow rapid lipid monolayer spreading and generates a characteristic edge morphology which assists directed cell growth along the structured surfaces. We provide application examples, demonstrating the well-controlled mixing of lipid films on Teflon AF structures and showing how the patterned surfaces can be used as biocompatible growth-directing substrates for cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells develop in a guided fashion along the sides of the microstructures, selectively avoiding to grow over the patterned areas.

  4. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    PubMed

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection.

  5. Management of atrial fibrillation in Greece: the MANAGE-AF study.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, George; Pastromas, Sokratis; Mantas, Ioannis; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Kyrpizidis, Christos; Makridis, Pantelis; Goumas, Georgios; Stakos, Dimitris; Gotsis, Alexandros; Kartalis, Athanasios; Kazianis, Georgios; Babalis, Dimitrios; Toli, Konstantina; Tzeis, Stylianos; Papavasileiou, Maria; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Vardas, Panos

    2014-01-01

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent health problem with high morbidity and mortality, data regarding the clinical characteristics and management of AF in the Greek population are scarce. The "Current Clinical Practice in the MANAGEment of Atrial Fibrillation in Greece" study (MANAGEAF) aimed to assess the epidemiological features as well as the daily clinical practice in the management of Greek patients with AF. Taking into consideration the distribution of the Greek population, 603 consecutive patients over 18 years of age, with any type of AF, presenting at the emergency departments or outpatient clinics of 27 different centers, were included in our study. The mean age of the patients was 68.5 ± 12.1 years, with male patients representing 52.5% of the study population. The most common AF type in our cohort was non-paroxysmal AF (60%), including the patients with permanent (24.1%), persistent (17.4%), long-standing (4.8%) and first diagnosed AF (13.8%). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (70.3%). A history of stroke or transient ischemic attack was detected in 9.2% of the patients, while 6.2% had a history of gastrointestinal bleeding. About half of the patients (49.3%) were treated with anticoagulant drugs, mainly vitamin K antagonists (46.9%), while 34.2% were on antiplatelet drugs, aspirin and/or clopidogrel. The mean INR level (1.7 ± 0.8) was sub-therapeutic, although the mean values for CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 1.6 ± 1.2 and 3.0 ± 1.7, respectively. The MANAGE-AF baseline results indicate unsatisfactory levels of compliance with the current guidelines for the management of AF in Greece. Considering the undisputed effectiveness of anticoagulant treatment for preventing AF-related strokes, MANAGE-AF demonstrates the need for optimization of our therapeutic strategies for the management of cardioembolic stroke risk.

  6. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Model , Hematopoiesis, RNA-seq, U2AF1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...Spliceosome Mouse model Hematopoiesis RNA-seq U2AF1 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Task 1. Seek IACUC and DoD ACURO approval for the use of animals. Objectives...pre-clinical models using flow cytometry, progenitor assays, and bone marrow transplantation. In addition, trainees created plots, performed

  7. Services Officer Utilization Field (AFS 62XX and Equivalent-Grade Civilians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    CHART le~ -- Sq ,.. O. pt’*. q UNITED STATES AIR FORCE cv, Lfl o D SERVICES OFFICER UTILIZATION FIELD (AFS 62XX AND EQUIVALENT-GRADE CIVILLANS) AFPT 90...Administration From January through Ma’ch 1985, job inventories were administered to all elicible AFSC 62XX nfficer: in the continental United States ... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t, , . . . .. .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . _". ... , I! . . $ IJSTRIBIJTION FOR AFS( u-)XX OSR AND SUPPORTING

  8. Rationale and design of the Atrial Fibrillation health Literacy Information Technology Trial: (AF-LITT).

    PubMed

    Guhl, Emily N; Schlusser, Courtney L; Henault, Lori E; Bickmore, Timothy W; Kimani, Everlyne; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Magnani, Jared W

    2017-09-18

    Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is challenging for patients and adversely impacts health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Long-term management of AF requires that patients adhere to complex therapies, understand difficult terminology, navigate subspecialty care, and have continued symptom monitoring with the goal of preventing adverse outcomes. Continued interventions to ameliorate the patient experience of AF are essential. The Atrial Fibrillation health Literacy Information Technology Trial (AF-LITT; NCT03093558) is an investigator-initiated, 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT). This RCT is a pilot in order to implement a novel, smartphone-based intervention to address the patient experience of AF. This pilot RCT will compare a combination of the Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) and the Alive Cor Kardia Mobile heart rhythm monitor to the current standard of care. The study will enroll 180 adults with non-valvular AF who are receiving anticoagulation for stroke prevention and randomize them to receive a 30-day intervention (smartphone-based ECA/Kardia) or standard of care, which will include a symptom and adherence journal. The primary end-points are improvement in HRQoL and self-reported adherence to anticoagulation. The secondary end-points are the acceptability of the intervention to participants, its use by participants, and acceptability to referring physicians. The AF-LITT pilot aims to evaluate the efficacy of the ECA/Kardia to improve HRQoL and anticoagulant adherence, and to guide its implementation in a larger, multicenter clinical trial. The intervention has potential to improve HRQoL, adherence, and health care utilization in individuals with chronic AF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. AF-M315E Propulsion System Advances and Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert K.; Allen, May; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Spores, Ronald A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.; Vasek, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Even as for the GR-1 awaits its first on-orbit demonstration on the planned 2017 launch of NASA's Green Propulsion Infusion Mission (GPIM) program, ongoing efforts continue to advance the technical state-of-the-art through improvements in the performance, life capability, and affordability of both Aerojet Rocketdyne's 1-N-class GR-1 and 20-N-class GR-22 green monopropellant thrusters. Hot-fire testing of a design upgrade of the GR-22 thruster successfully demonstrated resolution of a life-limiting thermo-structural issue encountered during prototype testing on the GPIM program, yielding both an approximately 2x increase in demonstrating life capability, as well as fundamental insights relating to how ionic liquid thrusters operate, thruster scaling, and operational factors affecting catalyst bed life. Further, a number of producibility improvements, related to both materials and processes and promising up to 50% unit cost reduction, have been identified through a comprehensive Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) assessment activity recently completed at Aerojet Rocketdyne. Focused specifically on the GR-1 but applicable to the common-core architecture of both thrusters, ongoing laboratory (heavyweight) thruster testing being conducted under a Space Act Agreement at NASA Glenn Research Center has already validated a number of these proposed manufacturability upgrades, additionally achieving a greater than 40% increase in thruster life. In parallel with technical advancements relevant to conventional large spacecraft, a joint effort between NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne is underway to prepare 1-U CubeSat AF-M315E propulsion module for first flight demonstration in 2018.

  10. Tutorials in space physics using visualization with AF GEOSpace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Knipp, D.

    A set of tutorials has been developed to assist students of space physics with the visualization of three dimensional, time varying systems. AF GEOSpace is a suite of space environment specification models with a window driven interface that allows users to visualize data from well-established semi-empirical models in one, two, or three dimensions. An Open-GL windows environment provides for real-time navigation in a virtual environment representing near-Earth space, facilitating understanding of complex spatial structures of individual features and spatial relationships between constrained features. Modeled GEOSpace phenomena include realistic external magnetic fields (e.g., Hilmer-Voigt `95,) conductivity patterns in the auroral oval, VHF signal fading given a fixed ground station and a satellite altitude, and relativistic charged particle measurements made by a satellite given its orbital elements. The models included in GEOSpace are sensitive to solar and geomagnetic activity, so impacts unique to each of these types of activity are readily apparent to students using the tutorials. Thus, the students may actively discover, for example, that intensification of the pre-reversal enhancement in the equatorial post- sunset ionospheric vertical velocity is controlled primarily by solar and not geomagnetic activity, or that the compression of the magnetosphere may be so extreme during geomagnetic activity that satellites in geosynchronous orbit may experience direct exposure to the solar wind. Adding an element of student proactivity results in the students' accepting more responsibility for the learning process. This set of tutorials capitalizes on the students' positive response to learning through the discovery method, resulting in greater overall motivation to explore the near-Earth space environment.

  11. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation: from ROCKET AF to everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Marín, Francisco; Sanmartín Fernandez, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    Registries and non-interventional studies offer relevant and complementary information to clinical trials, since they have a high external validity. Areas covered: The information regarding the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin, or rivaroxaban alone in clinical practice was reviewed in this manuscript. For this purpose, a search on MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed. The MEDLINE and EMBASE search included both medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords including: atrial fibrillation (AF) OR warfarin OR clinical practice OR ROCKET AF AND rivaroxaban. Case reports were not considered. Expert commentary: In ROCKET AF, rivaroxaban was at least as effective as warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF at high risk of stroke, but, importantly, with a lesser risk of intracranial, critical and fatal bleedings. A number of observational comparative and non-comparative studies, with more than 60,000 patients included treated with rivaroxaban, have analyzed the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in real-life patients with AF in different clinical settings. These studies have shown that in clinical practice, rates of stroke and major bleeding were consistently lower than those reported in ROCKET AF, likely due to the lower thromboembolic and bleeding risk observed in these patients.

  13. Cooperative gene activation by AF4 and DOT1L drives MLL-rearranged leukemia.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Stanojevic, Boban; Kanai, Akinori; Kawamura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsui, Hirotaka; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2017-05-01

    The eleven-nineteen leukemia (ENL) protein family, composed of ENL and AF9, is a common component of 3 transcriptional modulators: AF4-ENL-P-TEFb complex (AEP), DOT1L-AF10-ENL complex (referred to as the DOT1L complex) and polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Each complex associates with chromatin via distinct mechanisms, conferring different transcriptional properties including activation, maintenance, and repression. The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene often fuses with ENL and AF10 family genes in leukemia. However, the functional interrelationship among those 3 complexes in leukemic transformation remains largely elusive. Here, we have shown that MLL-ENL and MLL-AF10 constitutively activate transcription by aberrantly inducing both AEP-dependent transcriptional activation and DOT1L-dependent transcriptional maintenance, mostly in the absence of PRC1, to fully transform hematopoietic progenitors. These results reveal a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism of AEP and DOT1L and suggest a molecular rationale for the simultaneous inhibition of the MLL fusion-AF4 complex and DOT1L for more effective treatment of MLL-rearranged leukemia.

  14. Cooperative gene activation by AF4 and DOT1L drives MLL-rearranged leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Kawamura, Takeshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsui, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    The eleven-nineteen leukemia (ENL) protein family, composed of ENL and AF9, is a common component of 3 transcriptional modulators: AF4–ENL–P-TEFb complex (AEP), DOT1L-AF10-ENL complex (referred to as the DOT1L complex) and polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1). Each complex associates with chromatin via distinct mechanisms, conferring different transcriptional properties including activation, maintenance, and repression. The mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene often fuses with ENL and AF10 family genes in leukemia. However, the functional interrelationship among those 3 complexes in leukemic transformation remains largely elusive. Here, we have shown that MLL-ENL and MLL-AF10 constitutively activate transcription by aberrantly inducing both AEP-dependent transcriptional activation and DOT1L-dependent transcriptional maintenance, mostly in the absence of PRC1, to fully transform hematopoietic progenitors. These results reveal a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism of AEP and DOT1L and suggest a molecular rationale for the simultaneous inhibition of the MLL fusion–AF4 complex and DOT1L for more effective treatment of MLL-rearranged leukemia. PMID:28394257

  15. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  16. Influence of the facial pattern on ANB, AF-BF, and Wits appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; Ono, Evelise; Filho Medici, Edmundo; Cesar de Moraes, Luiz; Cezar de Melo Castilho, Julio; Leonelli de Moraes, Mari Eli

    2006-01-01

    To assess the correlation between Wits and AF-BF appraisals with the ANB angle, and verify the influence of the facial type on these appraisals. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 118 untreated individuals were separated into 3 groups according to the facial pattern (brachyfacial, mesofacial, and dolichofacial). The radiographs were digitized and submitted to ANB angle and Wits and AF-BF appraisals on computer software. All radiographs were retraced for intraobserver and interobserver error tests. The Student's t test demonstrated no statistically significant differences on the intraobserver's test (P > .05). There were statistically significant differences in the readings of Wits values of the 3 groups and for AF-BF values in the brachyfacial and mesofacial groups (P <.05). The multiple linear regression tests demonstrated high correlation between ANB and AF-BF for the 3 groups (r2, 0.768). The same result was found for ANB and Wits (r2, 0.624). Facial pattern does not have an influence on the correlation between ANB and AF-BF nor between ANB and Wits, but it does influence the measurements of ANB, AF-BF, and Wits.

  17. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  18. Preliminary results on the influence of mineralogy on the turnover rates of SOM from different Hungarian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán; Jakab, Gergely; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Filep, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    Fine textured soils generally considered containing more microbial biomass, and having a lower rate of biomass turnover and organic matter decomposition than coarse textured soils. In spite of this, several recent studies have shown contradicting trends. For example, the relative importance of different clay minerals for stabilizing SOM remains an open question. The aim of this study is to evaluate soil mineralological effect on the turnover of SOM by identifying and quantifying soil phyllosilicates. Our samples are derived from C3 forests and C3 croplands from different sites of Hungary. C4 maize residues are added to the soils in order to get natural 13C enrichment as tracer for the young carbon. Bulk samples of the soils from 0 to 20 cm depth were collected. The samples were dried at room temperature and preincubated in the dark for 4 months at 20 °C. The basic soil properties (pH, cation exchange capacity) were analysed after 2 mm sieving and homogenization. The amount of total C and N in the soils and maize residues were analysed using NDIR-chemiluminescent analyzer (Tekmar Dohrman Apollo 9000N). Particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction (Fritsch Analysette MicroTec 22 plus) and particle imaging method (Malvern Morphologi G3-ID). The mineralological composition of the samples was determined by X-ray diffraction (Philips PW 1730 X-ray diffractometer). Moist soil equivalent to 400 g dry soil mixed with 2 g maize leaves is kept in air tight glass chambers for 183 days at 20°C. The leaves had previously been dried at 60 °C, were cut into pieces and sieved through a 2 mm mesh. The evolved CO2 is trapped by 10 mL 2 M NaOH, which is exchanged on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and subsequently every 31 days. The fractional abundance of 13C of the soils, the plant material and the evolved CO2 is measured with isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific Delta V IRMS). Our work show the preliminary results on the link between phyllosilicate

  19. Stoichiometries of U2AF35, U2AF65 and U2 snRNP reveal new early spliceosome assembly pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Weinmeister, Robert; Kralovicova, Jana; Eperon, Lucy P.; Vorechovsky, Igor; Hudson, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The selection of 3΄ splice sites (3΄ss) is an essential early step in mammalian RNA splicing reactions, but the processes involved are unknown. We have used single molecule methods to test whether the major components implicated in selection, the proteins U2AF35 and U2AF65 and the U2 snRNP, are able to recognize alternative candidate sites or are restricted to one pre-specified site. In the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), all three components bind in a 1:1 stoichiometry with a 3΄ss. Pre-mRNA molecules with two alternative 3΄ss can be bound concurrently by two molecules of U2AF or two U2 snRNPs, so none of the components are restricted. However, concurrent occupancy inhibits splicing. Stoichiometric binding requires conditions consistent with coalescence of the 5΄ and 3΄ sites in a complex (I, initial), but if this cannot form the components show unrestricted and stochastic association. In the absence of ATP, when complex E forms, U2 snRNP association is unrestricted. However, if protein dephosphorylation is prevented, an I-like complex forms with stoichiometric association of U2 snRNPs and the U2 snRNA is base-paired to the pre-mRNA. Complex I differs from complex A in that the formation of complex A is associated with the loss of U2AF65 and 35. PMID:27683217

  20. Recognition of the 3' splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift.

    PubMed

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C

    2016-11-15

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3' splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3' splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein-RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3' splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants.

  1. Recognition of the 3′ splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift

    PubMed Central

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R.; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2016-01-01

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3′ splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3′ splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein–RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3′ splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants. PMID:27799531

  2. Rod-like particles matching algorithm based on SOM neural network in dispersed two-phase flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Hoseini, Afshin; Zavareh, Zahra; Lundell, Fredrik; Anderson, Helge I.

    2014-04-01

    A matching algorithm based on self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed for tracking rod-like particles in 2D optical measurements of dispersed two-phase flows. It is verified by both synthetic images of elongated particles mimicking 2D suspension flows and direct numerical simulations-based results of prolate particles dispersed in a turbulent channel flow. Furthermore, the potential benefit of this algorithm is evaluated by applying it to the experimental data of rod-like fibers tracking in wall turbulence. The study of the behavior of elongated particles suspended in turbulent flows has a practical importance and covers a wide range of applications in engineering and science. In experimental approach, particle tracking velocimetry of the dispersed phase has a key role together with particle image velocimetry of the carrier phase to obtain the velocities of both phases. The essential parts of particle tracking are to identify and match corresponding particles correctly in consecutive images. The present study is focused on the development of an algorithm for pairing non-spherical particles that have one major symmetry axis. The novel idea in the algorithm is to take the orientation of the particles into account for matching in addition to their positions. The method used is based on the SOM neural network that finds the most likely matching link in images on the basis of feature extraction and clustering. The fundamental concept is finding corresponding particles in the images with the nearest characteristics: position and orientation. The most effective aspect of this two-frame matching algorithm is that it does not require any preliminary knowledge of neither the flow field nor the particle behavior. Furthermore, using one additional characteristic of the non-spherical particles, namely their orientation, in addition to its coordinate vector, the pairing is improved both for more reliable matching at higher concentrations of dispersed particles and

  3. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, Mette; Sophanodora, Pairat; Gram, Lone; Møller, Peter Lange

    2002-02-25

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation. LAB counts increased to 10(8)-10(9) cfu g(-1) and yeast counts to 10(7)-5 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis, Weisella confusa, L. plantarum and Lactococcus garviae. The latter species was only isolated from high-salt batches. Phenotypic characteristics, ITS-PCR and carbohydrate assimilation identified 95% of the yeasts as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. It is concluded that the fermentation of plaa-som is delayed by a salt-level of 9% due to an inhibition of LAB growth. The growth of Z. rouxii has no influence on the fermentation rate, but may contribute positively to the flavour development of the product.

  4. Statin Therapy for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Trial (SToP AF trial)

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Smita; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veledar, Emir; Bloom, Heather L.; Jones, Dean P.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Statins have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We tested if atorvastatin reduced AF recurrence after DC cardioversion (CV) by modifying systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. (NCT00252967) Methods and Results In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) were randomized to receive either atorvastatin 80 mg (n=33) or placebo (n=31) before CV. Treatment was continued for 12 months or until AF recurred. Serum oxidative stress markers (ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione and cysteine, derivatives of reactive oxygen species, isoprostanes) and inflammatory markers [ high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] were measured at baseline and on follow-up. AF recurred in 22 (66.7%) of atorvastatin and 26 (83.9%) of placebo group (p=0.2). The adjusted hazard ratio of having recurrence on atorvastatin versus on placebo was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.01, p=0.3). There was no significant difference in the time to recurrence using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates (median (IR): 29 (2-145) days vs. 22 (7-70) days, p=0.9). While no significant effect was seen on oxidative stress, 2 of 4 inflammatory markers, IL-6 (adjusted OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35-0.97, p= 0.04) and hs-CRP (adjusted OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.95, p=0.03) were significantly lowered with atorvastatin. Cholesterol levels significantly decreased with atorvastatin (p=0.03). Conclusions High dose atorvastatin did not reduce the recurrence of AF after CV. It reduced selective markers of inflammation without affecting systemic oxidative stress. Failure of atorvastatin to prevent AF recurrence may be due to its failure to affect oxidative stress. PMID:20946227

  5. Functional characterization of the copper transcription factor AfMac1 from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2017-07-03

    Although copper functions as a cofactor in many physiological processes, copper overload leads to harmful effects in living cells. Thus, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated. However, detailed copper metabolic pathways have not yet been identified in filamentous fungi. In this report, we investigated the copper transcription factor AfMac1 ( Aspergillus fumigatusMac1 homolog) and identified its regulatory mechanism in A. fumigatus AfMac1 has domains homologous to the DNA-binding and copper-binding domains of Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and AfMac1 efficiently complemented Mac1 in S. cerevisiae Expression of Afmac1 resulted in CTR1 up-regulation, and mutation of the DNA-binding domain of Afmac1 failed to activate CTR1 expression in S. cerevisiae The Afmac1 deletion strain of A. fumigatus failed to grow in copper-limited media, and its growth was restored by introducing ctrC We found that AfMac1 specifically bound to the promoter region of ctrC based on EMSA. The AfMac1-binding motif 5'-TGTGCTCA-3' was identified from the promoter region of ctrC, and the addition of mutant ctrC lacking the AfMac1-binding motif failed to up-regulate ctrC in A. fumigatus Furthermore, deletion of Afmac1 significantly reduced strain virulence and activated conidial killing activity by neutrophils and macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AfMac1 is a copper transcription factor that regulates cellular copper homeostasis in A. fumigatus. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  7. Pre-clinical laboratory evaluation of the new 'AF' arterial line filter range.

    PubMed

    Yarham, Gemma; Mulholland, John

    2010-07-01

    The presence of emboli was recognised relatively early in the history of open heart surgery. The emboli produced during cardiopulmonary bypass have the predisposition to distribute into, and ultimately obstruct, microvessels of all tissues. The Sorin Group has recently developed a new range of arterial line filters. Before the Sorin AF range of filters was released for pre-launch clinical trials, our group performed in vitro laboratory testing of the AF range against a selection of commercially available filters on the global market. The Sorin AF620 and AF640 demonstrate both the smallest prime volume and smallest surface contact area (92ml and 290 cm(2), respectively).The results of the GME Handling Efficiency experiments ranged by 39.6%, from 95.9% to 56.3%. In terms of an air bolus handling, the results of the Limit Bolus experiment ranged by 97 ml, from 147.5 ml down to 50 ml. The pressure drop across all the filters was measured under steady state experimental conditions. All of the above investigations were considered against surface area and prime volume. It is clear from the results that some commercially available arterial line filters perform better than others, not only in overall performance, but also with regard to individual characteristics. Evaluating arterial line filters for hospital-specific use has to balance pressure drop, surface area, micro air handling, prime volume and gross air handling; all points need to be considered. In the AF620 and AF640, Sorin boast that they are the two smallest prime and smallest surface area filters commercially available on the global market. The Sorin AF filter range performs well in all of the areas we investigated and will be a competitive option for centres, irrespective of which characteristics they use to evaluate and select their arterial line filter.

  8. Self-detection of atrial fibrillation in an aged population: the LietoAF Study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Raine; Kryssi, Verneri; Vasankari, Tuija; Salminen, Marika; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2014-11-01

    Early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in older people is important because AF is often asymptomatic and its first manifestation may be a disabling stroke. The objective of the LietoAF Study is to assess the motivation and capability of older people to learn pulse palpation and continue regular pulse measurements, and whether this self-assessment is helpful in the detection of new AF. The LietoAF Study is an intervention study. A total of 205 people aged ≥75 years were randomly selected to participate in the programme where a trained nurse gave individual education on pulse palpation. At 1 month, the eligible participants came to the first follow-up visit to assess the success of pulse self-monitoring. A total of 139 participants (68%) learned pulse palpation and performed regular measurements during the early follow-up period. The significant independent predictors for learning and motivation were high Mini-Mental State Examination score (>24) (OR 7.5, 95% CI 1.5-37.3, p = 0.014), computer use at home (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.9-11.5, p = 0.001), independence at daily activities (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.4-13.6, p = 0.013) and low heart rate (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.0-1.08, p = 0.037). Education did not cause extra visits to local healthcare centres and did not affect quality of life. Four participants observed a new asymptomatic AF during the 1-month follow-up. Active older people are motivated and seem to learn pulse palpation. Our early experience suggests that simple nurse-based education is effective and useful in the early detection of asymptomatic AF. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  10. Waterlogging risk assessment based on self-organizing map (SOM) artificial neural networks: A case study of an urban storm in Beijing

    DOE PAGES

    Lai, Wen-li; Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Cheng; ...

    2017-05-05

    Due to rapid urbanization, waterlogging induced by torrential rainfall has become a global concern and a potential risk affecting urban habitant's safety. Widespread waterlogging disasters have occurred almost annually in the urban area of Beijing, the capital of China. Based on a self-organizing map (SOM) artificial neural network (ANN), a graded waterlogging risk assessment was conducted on 56 low-lying points in Beijing, China. Social risk factors, such as Gross domestic product (GDP), population density, and traffic congestion, were utilized as input datasets in this study. The results indicate that SOM-ANN is suitable for automatically and quantitatively assessing risks associated withmore » waterlogging. The greatest advantage of SOM-ANN in the assessment of waterlogging risk is that a priori knowledge about classification categories and assessment indicator weights is not needed. As a result, SOM-ANN can effectively overcome interference from subjective factors, producing classification results that are more objective and accurate. In this paper, the risk level of waterlogging in Beijing was divided into five grades. As a result, the points that were assigned risk grades of IV or V were located mainly in the districts of Chaoyang, Haidian, Xicheng, and Dongcheng.« less

  11. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong

    2017-02-01

    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8- x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia ( xCe(8- x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8- x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  12. MLL-AF9 and MLL-AF4 oncofusion proteins bind a distinct enhancer repertoire and target the RUNX1 program in 11q23 acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Prange, K H M; Mandoli, A; Kuznetsova, T; Wang, S-Y; Sotoca, A M; Marneth, A E; van der Reijden, B A; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

    2017-06-08

    In 11q23 leukemias, the N-terminal part of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene is fused to >60 different partner genes. In order to define a core set of MLL rearranged targets, we investigated the genome-wide binding of the MLL-AF9 and MLL-AF4 fusion proteins and associated epigenetic signatures in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines THP-1 and MV4-11. We uncovered both common as well as specific MLL-AF9 and MLL-AF4 target genes, which were all marked by H3K79me2, H3K27ac and H3K4me3. Apart from promoter binding, we also identified MLL-AF9 and MLL-AF4 binding at specific subsets of non-overlapping active distal regulatory elements. Despite this differential enhancer binding, MLL-AF9 and MLL-AF4 still direct a common gene program, which represents part of the RUNX1 gene program and constitutes of CD34(+) and monocyte-specific genes. Comparing these data sets identified several zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) as potential MLL-AF9 co-regulators. Together, these results suggest that MLL fusions collaborate with specific subsets of TFs to deregulate the RUNX1 gene program in 11q23 AMLs.

  13. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zhongyu Li, MD, PhD RECIPIENT: Wake Forest University Health Sciences...Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). 5b. GRANT...include successful seeding of AFS into ANA. This accomplishment also documented that these cells remained viable up to 72 hours after seeding. The

  14. AF Ablation Guided by Spatiotemporal Electrogram Dispersion Without Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Wholly Patient-Tailored Approach.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Julien; Bars, Clément; Théodore, Guillaume; Beurtheret, Sylvain; Lellouche, Nicolas; Bremondy, Michel; Ferracci, Ange; Faure, Jacques; Penaranda, Guillaume; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Avula, Uma Mahesh R; Curel, Laurence; Siame, Sabrina; Berenfeld, Omer; Pisapia, André; Kalifa, Jérôme

    2017-01-24

    The use of intracardiac electrograms to guide atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation has yielded conflicting results. The authors evaluated the usefulness of spatiotemporal dispersion, a visually recognizable electric footprint of AF drivers, for the ablation of all forms of AF. The authors prospectively enrolled 105 patients admitted for AF ablation. AF was sequentially mapped in both atria with a 20-pole PentaRay catheter. The authors tagged and ablated only regions displaying electrogram dispersion during AF. Results were compared to a validation set in which a conventional ablation approach was used (pulmonary vein isolation/stepwise approach). To establish the mechanism underlying spatiotemporal dispersion of AF electrograms, the authors conducted realistic numerical simulations of AF drivers in a 2-dimensional model and optical mapping of ovine atrial scar-related AF. Ablation at dispersion areas terminated AF in 95% of the 105 patients. After ablation of 17 ± 10% of the left atrial surface and 18 months of follow-up, the atrial arrhythmia recurrence rate was 15% after 1.4 ± 0.5 procedures per patient versus 41% in the validation set after 1.5 ± 0.5 procedures per patient (arrhythmia free-survival: 85% vs. 59%; log-rank p < 0.001). Compared with the validation set, radiofrequency times (49 ± 21 min vs. 85 ± 34.5 min; p = 0.001) and procedure times (168 ± 42 min vs. 230 ± 67 min; p < 0.0001) were shorter. In simulations and optical mapping experiments, virtual PentaRay recordings demonstrated that electrogram dispersion is mostly recorded in the vicinity of a driver. The clustering of intracardiac electrograms exhibiting spatiotemporal dispersion is indicative of AF drivers. Their ablation allows for a nonextensive and patient-tailored approach to AF ablation. (Substrate Ablation Guided by High Density Mapping in Atrial Fibrillation [SUBSTRATE HD]; NCT02093949). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. All rights reserved.

  15. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  16. Downregulated protein expression of transcriptional activator ELK-1 in atrial myocardium of chronic AF patients.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangjun; Xiao, Xuejun; Wu, Yueheng; Huang, Huanlei

    2015-01-01

    The structural alterations in atrial myocytes appear to be an adaptive response of dedifferentiation during chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). Transcriptional activator ELK-1, one of the members of ETS family, has been shown to play an important role in regulating cell differentiation, It is reasonable to presume that ELK-1 participate in the molecular and structural remodeling by which AF is sustained. To prove this hypothesis, the expression of ELK-1 protein in chronically fibrillating atria compared to that in normal rhythmic atria was detected. Right atrial myocardium were obtained from twenty-four patients undergoing valve replacement surgery, twelve patients were in chronic AF (>6 months), whereas the others were in sinus rhythm (SR). The protein expression level of ELK-1 was quantified by Western blot analysis, and the cellular localization and expression pattern of ELK-1 was examined by immunohistochemical staining and indirect immunofluorescence. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of ELK-1 was significantly reduced in the atrial tissue of chronic AF patients compared to that in the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that ELK-1 immunostaining occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear compartments of atrial myocardium. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that the nuclei of normal rhythmic atrial cells were densely labeled, whereas the nuclei in chronically fibrillating atrial cells were very faintly labeled. Our results suggest that the downregulated expression of transcriptional activator ELK-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AF.

  17. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  18. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  19. First CCD Photometry of the Interacting Binary AF Geminorum: Evidence for a Gravitationally Bound Third Object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhas, Bernard J.; Reed, Phillip A.; Chambliss, Carlson R.

    2013-07-01

    AF Geminorum (AF Gem) is an unusual Algol-type eclipsing binary star system in that the primary eclipse is a transit of the cooler, more evolved secondary star in front of the main sequence primary star. Our observations of AF Gem were made using the 0.61-meter Ritchey-Chrétien telescope at the Kutztown University Observatory (Kutztown, Pennsylvania) over 9 nights from 28 Nov 2012 to 6 Feb 2013. A total of 5350 data images were obtained of AF Gem during this time, and the results of our photometry suggest evidence for a third light source which may be gravitationally bound to the system. We present the first CCD photometric study in BVRI for this system, resolve the third light source from our photometry, provide a consistent orbital solution using the Wilson-Devinney code, and present a detailed ephemeris analysis. With an orbital period of 1.24 days, an overall decreasing ephemeris, and a possible third body in the system, AF Gem certainly warrants future photometric and spectroscopic observations.

  20. GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  1. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  2. Prenylation inhibitors stimulate both estrogen receptor α transcriptional activity through AF-1 and AF-2 and estrogen receptor β transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Cestac, Philippe; Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Médale-Giamarchi, Claire; Rochaix, Philippe; Balaguer, Patrick; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles; Doisneau-Sixou, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We showed in a previous study that prenylated proteins play a role in estradiol stimulation of proliferation. However, these proteins antagonize the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) α to stimulate estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent transcriptional activity, potentially through the formation of a co-regulator complex. The present study investigates, in further detail, how prenylated proteins modulate the transcriptional activities mediated by ERα and by ERβ. Methods The ERE-β-globin-Luc-SV-Neo plasmid was either stably transfected into MCF-7 cells or HeLa cells (MELN cells and HELN cells, respectively) or transiently transfected into MCF-7 cells using polyethylenimine. Cells deprived of estradiol were analyzed for ERE-dependent luciferase activity 16 hours after estradiol stimulation and treatment with FTI-277 (a farnesyltransferase inhibitor) or with GGTI-298 (a geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor). In HELN cells, the effect of prenyltransferase inhibitors on luciferase activity was compared after transient transfection of plasmids coding either the full-length ERα, the full-length ERβ, the AF-1-deleted ERα or the AF-2-deleted ERα. The presence of ERα was then detected by immunocytochemistry in either the nuclei or the cytoplasms of MCF-7 cells. Finally, Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme treatment was used to determine the involvement of Rho proteins in ERE-dependent luciferase activity. Results FTI-277 and GGTI-298 only stimulate ERE-dependent luciferase activity in stably transfected MCF-7 cells. They stimulate both ERα-mediated and ERβ-mediated ERE-dependent luciferase activity in HELN cells, in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. The roles of both AF-1 and AF-2 are significant in this effect. Nuclear ERα is decreased in the presence of prenyltransferase inhibitors in MCF-7 cells, again in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. By contrast, cytoplasmic ERα is mainly decreased after treatment with FTI

  3. Risk of atrial fibrillation after atrial flutter ablation: impact of AF history, gender, and antiarrhythmic drug medication.

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Girerd, Nicolas; Sellal, Jean Marc; Olivier, Arnaud; Manenti, Vladimir; Villemin, Thibaut; Beurrier, Daniel; de Chillou, Christian; Louis, Pierre; Selton, Olivier; de la Chaise, Arnaud Terrier

    2014-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter (AFL) are frequently associated. We assessed the frequency and identified the predictors of AF occurrence after AFL ablation. A total of 1,121 patients referred for AFL ablation were followed for a mean duration of 2.1 ± 2.7 years. Antiarrhythmic drugs were stopped after ablation in patients with no AF prior to ablation, or continued otherwise. A total of 356 patients (31.7%) had a history of AF prior to AFL ablation. Patients with AF prior to ablation were more likely to be females (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.00-1.83, P = 0.05). After ablation, 260 (23.2%) patients experienced AF. In the multivariable model, AF prior to ablation (OR = 1.90, CI = 1.42-2.54, P < 0.001) and female gender (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.42, P < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of AF after ablation. In patients without prior AF, class I antiarrhythmics and amiodarone prior to AFL ablation were independently associated with higher risk of AF after ablation (OR = 2.11, CI = 1.15-3.88, P = 0.02 and OR = 1.60, CI = 1.08-2.36, P = 0.02, respectively). In patients who experienced AF after ablation, 201/260 (77.3%) had a CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1. Two patients with AF prior to ablation had a stroke during the follow-up whereas none of the patients without AF prior to ablation had a stroke. AF occurrence after AFL ablation is frequent (>20%), especially in patients with a history of AF, in female patients, and in patients treated with class I antiarrythmics/amiodarone prior to AFL. Since most patients who experience AF after AFL ablation have a CHA2DS2-VASc ≥1, the decision to stop anticoagulants after ablation should be considered on an individual basis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Evaluation of the Impacts of AF-M315E Propulsion Systems for Varied Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fittje, James; Colozza, Anthony; Packard, Tom; Gyekenyesi, John; McLean, Christopher H.; Spores, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the AF-M315E COMPASS study is to identify near-term (3-5 years) and long term (5 years +) opportunities for infusion, specifically the thruster and associated component technologies being developed as part of the GPIM project. Develop design reference missions which show the advantages of the AF-M315E green propulsion system. Utilize a combination of past COMPASS designs and selected new designs to demonstrate AF-M315E advantages. Use the COMPASS process to show the puts and takes of using AF-M315E at the integrated system level.

  5. Substrate and Trigger Ablation for Reduction of Atrial Fibrillation Trial-Part II (STAR AF II): design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Verma, Atul; Sanders, Prashanthan; Macle, Laurent; Deisenhofer, Isabel; Morillo, Carlos A; Chen, Jian; Jiang, Chen-yang; Ernst, Sabine; Mantovan, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    The optimal ablation approach for patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. In particular, it is unclear if pulmonary vein (PV) antral isolation (PVI) is sufficient as a lone strategy for persistent AF. Furthermore, if additional substrate ablation is to be added, the ideal approach to substrate ablation is yet to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal strategy of catheter ablation of persistent AF by comparing the efficacy of 3 strategies: PVI vs PVI plus complex fractionated electrogram (CFE) ablation (PVI + CFE) vs PVI plus linear ablation (PVI + Lines). The STAR AF II study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01203748) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial with a blinded assessment of outcomes. A total of 549 patients will be randomized in a 1:4:4 fashion to one of the investigation arms: PVI, PVI + CFE, and PVI + Lines, respectively. Patients undergoing a first-time ablation procedure for symptomatic, persistent AF that is refractory to at least 1 antiarrhythmic medication will be included. Persistent AF will be defined as a sustained episode lasting >7 days and <3 years. Patients with a left atrial parasternal size ≥60 mm will be excluded. The primary end point is freedom from documented AF >30 seconds at 18 months after 1 or 2 ablation procedures with or without antiarrhythmic medications. The STAR AF II study is a randomized trial designed to evaluate the optimal approach for catheter ablation of persistent AF. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AF1q is a novel TCF7 co-factor which activates CD44 and promotes breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jino; Schlederer, Michaela; Schreiber, Martin; Ice, Ryan; Merkel, Olaf; Bilban, Martin; Hofbauer, Sebastian; Kim, Soojin; Addison, Joseph; Zou, Jie; Ji, Chunyan; Bunting, Silvia T; Wang, Zhengqi; Shoham, Menachem; Huang, Gang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Gibson, Laura F; Rojanasakul, Yon; Remick, Scot; Ivanov, Alexey; Pugacheva, Elena; Bunting, Kevin D; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Tse, William

    2015-08-21

    AF1q is an MLL fusion partner that was identified from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t (1; 11) (q21; q23) chromosomal abnormality. The function of AF1q is not yet fully known, however, elevated AF1q expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Here, we show that AF1q specifically binds to T-cell-factor-7 (TCF7) in the Wnt signaling pathway and results in transcriptional activation of CD44 as well as multiple downstream targets of the TCF7/LEF1. In addition, enhanced AF1q expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, mammosphere formation, and chemo-resistance. In xenograft models, enforced AF1q expression in breast cancer cells also promotes liver metastasis and lung colonization. In a cohort of 63 breast cancer patients, higher percentages of AF1q-positive cancer cells in primary sites were associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and brain metastasis-free survival (b-MFS). Using paired primary/metastatic samples from the same patients, we demonstrate that AF1q-positive breast cancer cells become dynamically dominant in the metastatic sites compared to the primary sites. Our findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent "metastatic founder cells" which have invasive properties.

  7. Structure-guided U2AF65 variant improves recognition and splicing of a defective pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant A.; McLaughlin, Krystle J.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2014-01-01

    Purine interruptions of polypyrimidine (Py) tract splice site signals contribute to human genetic diseases. The essential splicing factor U2AF65 normally recognizes a Py tract consensus sequence preceding the major class of 3′ splice sites. We found that neurofibromatosis- or retinitis pigmentosa-causing mutations in the 5′ regions of Py tracts severely reduce U2AF65 affinity. Conversely, we identified a preferred binding site of U2AF65 for purine substitutions in the 3′ regions of Py tracts. Based on a comparison of new U2AF65 structures bound to either A- or G-containing Py tracts with previously identified pyrimidine-containing structures, we expected to find that a D231V amino acid change in U2AF65 would specify U over other nucleotides. We found that the crystal structure of the U2AF65-D231V variant confirms favorable packing between the engineered valine and a target uracil base. The D231V amino acid change restores U2AF65 affinity for two mutated splice sites that cause human genetic diseases and successfully promotes splicing of a defective retinitis pigmentosa-causing transcript. We conclude that reduced U2AF65 binding is a molecular consequence of disease-relevant mutations, and that a structure-guided U2AF65 variant is capable of manipulating gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25422459

  8. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  9. Small-molecule inhibitors of AF6 PDZ-mediated protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carolyn; Radziwill, Gerald; Krause, Gerd; Diehl, Anne; Keller, Sandro; Kamdem, Nestor; Czekelius, Constantin; Kreuchwig, Annika; Schmieder, Peter; Doyle, Declan; Moelling, Karin; Hagen, Volker; Schade, Markus; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2014-07-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, Dlg, ZO-1) domains are ubiquitous interaction modules that are involved in many cellular signal transduction pathways. Interference with PDZ-mediated protein-protein interactions has important implications in disease-related signaling processes. For this reason, PDZ domains have gained attention as potential targets for inhibitor design and, in the long run, drug development. Herein we report the development of small molecules to probe the function of the PDZ domain from human AF6 (ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 6), which is an essential component of cell-cell junctions. These compounds bind to AF6 PDZ with substantially higher affinity than the peptide (Ile-Gln-Ser-Val-Glu-Val) derived from its natural ligand, EphB2. In intact cells, the compounds inhibit the AF6-Bcr interaction and interfere with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent signaling. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Establishment of the retrovirus-mediated murine model with MLL-AF9 leukemia].

    PubMed

    Xu, Si-Miao; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Mi; Zhao, Xue-Jiao; Qin, Yu; Zhang, Pei-Ling; Yuan, Rui-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Feng; Fang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This study was purposed to establish a retrovirus-mediated murine model with MLL-AF9 leukemia, so as to provide a basis for further investigation of the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategy of MLL associated leukemia. Murine (CD45.2) primary hematopoietic precursor positively selected for expression of the progenitor marker c-Kit by means of MACS were transduced with a retrovirus carrying MLL-AF9 fusion gene. After cultured in vitro, the transduced cells were injected intravenously through the tail vein into the lethally irradiated mice (CD45.1). PCR, flow cytometry and morphological observation were employed to evaluate the murine leukemia model system. The results showed that MLL-AF9 fusion gene was expressed in the infected cells, and the cells had a dramatically enhanced potential to generate myeloid colonies with primitive and immature morphology. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the immortalized cells highly expressed myeloid lineage surface markers Gr-1 and Mac-1. Moreover, the expression levels of Hoxa9 and Meis1 mRNA were significantly higher in the MLL-AF9 cells than that in control. The mice transplanted with MLL-AF9 cells displayed typical signs of leukemia within 6-12 weeks. Extensive infiltration leukemic cells was observed in the Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear and bone marrow, and also in the histology of liver and spleen. Flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow and spleen cells demonstrated that the CD45.2 populations expressed highly myeloid markers Gr-1 and Mac-1. The leukemic mice died within 12 weeks. It is concluded that the retrovirus-mediated murine model with MLL-AF9 leukemia is successfully established, which can be applied in the subsequent researches.

  11. Midterm observations and recommendations from the evaluation of the AF4Q initiative.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Scanlon, Dennis P; McHugh, Megan C; Christianson, Jon B; Mittler, Jessica N; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Beich, Jeff

    2012-09-01

    To offer midterm observations and recommendations based on how Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) alliances are faring in their journey toward improving healthcare quality at the community level. This study used a mixed method design. Longitudinal evaluation data to date were analyzed, including results from multiple surveys, qualitative analysis of key informant interviews, review of secondary documents and analysis of secondary data, and ongoing tracking of the activities of the 16 participating alliances. The observations and recommendations are based on consensus achieved by the AF4Q evaluation team investigators after in-depth iterative discussions. Six formative observations are identified and discussed: (1) stakeholder support and participation has been maintained despite changes in economic and political environments; (2) progress on program goals has been slow; (3) the "alignment" in the AF4Q initiative has been slow to materialize; (4) the AF4Q initiative has established a productive network of peer communities; (5) the impact of the AF4Q initiative, and the time to observe impact, vary by community, based on history and context; and (6) sustainability is the major future challenge for the AF4Q initiative. Multi-stakeholder alliances' efforts to improve quality should be viewed as "pieces of the health reform puzzle" rather than stand-alone solutions. As healthcare reform is challenged politically, alliances can practice the bipartisanship that focuses conversation on what is good for the community and how best to achieve community goals amid a potential sea of change in both federal and state policy and funding.

  12. Stoichiometries of U2AF35, U2AF65 and U2 snRNP reveal new early spliceosome assembly pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Weinmeister, Robert; Kralovicova, Jana; Eperon, Lucy P; Vorechovsky, Igor; Hudson, Andrew J; Eperon, Ian C

    2017-02-28

    The selection of 3΄ splice sites (3΄ss) is an essential early step in mammalian RNA splicing reactions, but the processes involved are unknown. We have used single molecule methods to test whether the major components implicated in selection, the proteins U2AF35 and U2AF65 and the U2 snRNP, are able to recognize alternative candidate sites or are restricted to one pre-specified site. In the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), all three components bind in a 1:1 stoichiometry with a 3΄ss. Pre-mRNA molecules with two alternative 3΄ss can be bound concurrently by two molecules of U2AF or two U2 snRNPs, so none of the components are restricted. However, concurrent occupancy inhibits splicing. Stoichiometric binding requires conditions consistent with coalescence of the 5΄ and 3΄ sites in a complex (I, initial), but if this cannot form the components show unrestricted and stochastic association. In the absence of ATP, when complex E forms, U2 snRNP association is unrestricted. However, if protein dephosphorylation is prevented, an I-like complex forms with stoichiometric association of U2 snRNPs and the U2 snRNA is base-paired to the pre-mRNA. Complex I differs from complex A in that the formation of complex A is associated with the loss of U2AF65 and 35. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. SOM quality and phosphorus fractionation to evaluate degradation organic matter: implications for the restoration of soils after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Fonturbel, Maria T.; Omil, Beatriz; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Fernandez, Cristina; Garcia-Oliva, Felipe; Vega, Jose A.

    2016-04-01

    The design of emergency treatment for the rehabilitation of fire-affected soils requires a quick diagnosis to assess the degree of degradation. For its implication in the erosion and subsequent evolution, the quality of soil organic matter (OM) plays a particularly important role. This paper presents a methodology that combines the visual recognition of the severity of soil burning with the use of simple analytical techniques to assess the degree of degradation of OM. The content and quality of the OM was evaluated in litter and mineral soils using thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (DSC-TG) spectroscopy, and the results were contrasted with 13C CP-MAS NMR. The types of methodologies were texted to assess the thermal analysis: a) the direct calculation of the Q areas related to three degrees of thermal stabilities: Q1 (200-375 °C; labil OM); Q2 (375-475 °C, recalcitrant OM); and Q3 (475-550 °C). b) deconvolution of DSC curves and calculation of each peak was expressed as a fraction of the total DSC curve area. Additionally, a P fractionation was done following the Hedley sequential extraction method. The severity levels visually showed different degrees of SOM degradation. Although the fire caused important SOM losses in moderate severities, changes in the quality of OM only occurred at higher severities. Besides, the labile organic P fraction decreased and the occluded inorganic P fraction increased in the high severity soils. These changes affect the OM processes such as hydrophobicity and erosion largely responsible for soil degradation post-fire. The strong correlations between the thermal parameters and NMR regions and derived measurements such as hydrophobicity and aromaticity show the usefulness of this technique as rapid diagnosis to assess the soil degradation.The marked loss of polysaccharide and transition to highly thermic-resistant compounds, visible in deconvoluted thermograms, which would explain the changes in microbial activity

  14. Imaging Vis-NIR spectroscopy - mapping SOM quality and quantity in undisturbed soil profiles of semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, Lilli; Buddenbaum, Henning; Steffens, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Though soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a small fraction of most topsoils, it plays a decisive role to many soil functions such as nutrient sorption, aggregate stability and water holding capacity. Unfortunately this important factor for soil quality is difficult to investigate due to both the elaborate techniques required and organic matters high variability over small scales. In this study VIS-NIR laboratory imaging spectroscopy is used to measure quality and quantity of SOM with a high spatial resolution in undisturbed soil profiles. Special attention is paid to changes in the amount of particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition. It is known that grazing has an undisputable negative effect on soil organic carbon stocks. Therefore management of a spacious ecosystem such as semiarid steppes is supposed to be an important factor for carbon sequestration. We sampled two different sites from the semiarid steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. One continuously grazed and the other ungrazed since 1979, both were classified as Calcic Chernozems. We expect longterm grazing to decrease carbon contents and most pronounced POM fractions as sensitive indicators. A stainless steel box (100×100×300 mm3) was used to sample undisturbed soil profiles. Until further investigations the soil boxes were dried at 30C. A hyperspectral camera recorded their visible and near infrared reflectance (400 to 1000 nm in 160 bands) with a spatial resolution of 63×63 µm2 per pixel. This procedure was repeated over three vertical cuts at a lateral distance of 25 mm through the soil boxes. After each image recording the profile was divided into ten equal squares (each 50×50 mm2). Mixed samples were extracted from each square to a depth of 5 mm. Density fractionation was used to separate fractions of POM with different degrees of decomposition. POM quality and quantity was correlated to the most relevant spectral regions. Instead of elaborated laboratory techniques

  15. 27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing No. AF600915, sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-60-09-15, sheet 1 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/20, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/17/59. Site plan of 20,000-foot track, including construction phasing notes. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. The splicing factor U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghee; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Identification of U2AF65 as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. •U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. •U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4. •U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres. -- Abstract: The human telomeric protein TRF1 is a component of the six-subunit protein complex shelterin, which provides telomere protection by organizing the telomere into a high-order structure. TRF1 functions as a negative regulator of telomere length by controlling the access of telomerase to telomeres. Thus, the cellular abundance of TRF1 at telomeres should be maintained and tightly regulated to ensure proper telomere function. Here, we identify U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65), an essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. U2AF65 interacts with TRF1 in vitro and in vivo and is capable of stabilizing TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We also found that U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TRF1. Depletion of endogenous U2AF65 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the stability of endogenous TRF1 whereas overexpression of U2AF65 significantly extended the half-life of TRF1. These findings demonstrate that U2AF65 plays a critical role in regulating the level of TRF1 through physical interaction and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Hence, U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres.

  17. Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS): structural and property effects of charge-balancing the M(IV)-substituted (M = Ti, Zr) Niobate framework.

    PubMed

    Nyman, May; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Parise, John B; Maxwell, Robert S; Nenoff, Tina M

    2002-02-27

    Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS) is an isostructural, variable composition class of ion exchangers with the general formula Na(2)Nb(2-x)M(IV)(x)O (6-x)(OH)(x).H(2)O (M(IV) = Ti, Zr; x = 0.04-0.40) where up to 20% of the framework Nb(V) can be substituted with Ti(IV) or Zr(IV). This class of molecular sieves is easily converted to perovskite through low-temperature heat treatment (500-600 degrees C). This report provides a detailed account of how the charge imbalance of this Nb(V)-M(IV) substitution is compensated. X-ray powder diffraction with Rietveld refinement, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, (23)Na MAS NMR, and (1)H MAS NMR were used to determine how the framework anionic charge is cation-balanced over a range of framework compositions. All spectroscopic evidence indicated a proton addition for each M(IV) substitution. Evidences for variable proton content included (1) increasing OH observed by (1)H MAS NMR with increasing M(IV) substitution, (2) increased infrared band broadening indicating increased H-bonding with increasing M(IV) substitution, (3) increased TGA weight loss (due to increased OH content) with increasing M(IV) substitution, (4) no variance in population on the sodium sites (indicated by Rietveld refinement) with variable composition, and (5) no change in the (23)Na MAS NMR spectra with variable composition. Also observed by infrared spectroscopy and (23)Na MAS NMR was increased disorder on the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework sites with increasing M(IV) substitution, evidenced by broadening of these spectral features. These spectroscopic studies, along with ion exchange experiments, also revealed the effect of the Nb(V)/M(IV) framework substitution on materials properties. Namely, the temperature of conversion to NaNb(1-x)M(IV)(x)O(3) (M = Ti, Zr) perovskite increased with increasing Ti in the framework and decreased with increasing Zr in the framework. This suggested that Ti stabilizes the SOMS framework and Zr destabilizes

  18. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Melen, Gustavo J; Ramos-Mejia, Verónica; Real, Pedro J; Ayllón, Verónica; Sanchez, Laura; Ligero, Gertrudis; Gutierrez-Aranda, Iván; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; del Carmen Plaza-Calonge, María; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan C; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants. Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development, its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored. We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Functional studies, clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic, functional and gene expression impact. MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs. Functionally, MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate. MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation, as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells. This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes, known to arise prenatally, regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification. PMID:22212479

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  1. Innate immune cells express IL-17A/F in acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kakeda, M; Schlapbach, Christoph; Danelon, G; Tang, M M; Cecchinato, V; Yawalkar, N; Uguccioni, M

    2014-12-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) are rare pustular skin disorders with systemic involvement. IL-17A/F is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various neutrophilic inflammatory disorders. Here we show that IL-17A/F is highly expressed by innate immune cells such as neutrophils and mast cells in both AGEP and GPP.

  2. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Melen, Gustavo J; Ramos-Mejia, Verónica; Real, Pedro J; Ayllón, Verónica; Sanchez, Laura; Ligero, Gertrudis; Gutierrez-Aranda, Iván; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; Plaza-Calonge, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan C; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-06-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants. Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development, its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored. We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Functional studies, clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic, functional and gene expression impact. MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs. Functionally, MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate. MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation, as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells. This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes, known to arise prenatally, regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification.

  3. Factors affecting the development of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (AF/AFL) following autologous hematopoietic SCT (auto-HSCT).

    PubMed

    Steuter, J A; Villanueva, M L H; Loberiza, F R; Armitage, J O; Bociek, R G; Ganti, A K; Tarantolo, S R; Vose, J M; Easley, A; Bierman, P J

    2013-07-01

    The use of autologous hematopoietic SCT (auto-HSCT) has expanded to include older patients. Increasing age is a well-appreciated risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter (AF/AFL) in the general population. As more elderly patients undergo auto-HSCT, the risk of developing AF/AFL post transplant may also increase. However, few data evaluating other risk factors for the development of AF/AFL following auto-HSCT exist. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to determine the incidence of AF/AFL following auto-HSCT and to determine the risk factors associated with the development of AF/AFL. Patients who developed AF/AFL were compared with a group of patients who received auto-HSCT within the same time period (April 1999 to May 2005) and were within 5 years of age. Of the 516 patients who underwent auto-HSCT at the University of Nebraska Medical Center 44 (8.5%) developed AF/AFL at a median time of 4 days (range, days 1-9) following auto-HSCT. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for developing AF/AFL were older age, odds ratio and 95% CI of 1.14 (1.07-1.21), elevated serum creatinine level, 2.69 (1.00-7.22), history of previous arrhythmia, 9.33 (3.01-28.99), and history of previous mediastinal irradiation, 11.12 (1.33-92.96).

  4. (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.X.; Roeske, W.R.; Gulya, K.; Wang, W.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-10-05

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25/sup 0/C but 20-40 times slower at 0-4/sup 0/C. Kinetic dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25/sup 0/C; 23.1 nM and 22.9 nM at 0-4/sup 0/C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labeled 29% of the total (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87% in the cardiac membranes, with K/sub d/ values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine > dexetimide > AF-DX 116 > PZ > levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. 19 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Activation function 2 (AF2) of estrogen receptor-α is required for the atheroprotective action of estradiol but not to accelerate endothelial healing

    PubMed Central

    Billon-Galés, Audrey; Krust, Andrée; Fontaine, Coralie; Abot, Anne; Flouriot, Gilles; Toutain, Céline; Berges, Hortense; Gadeau, Alain-Pierre; Lenfant, Françoise; Gourdy, Pierre; Chambon, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) regulates estrogen receptor-α (ERα) target gene transcription through the two independent activation functions (AFs), AF1 and AF2, located in the N-terminal and ligand binding domain of ERα, respectively. We previously reported that ERα is required for the E2 atheroprotective action as well as for its accelerative action on endothelial healing, but its AF1 function is dispensable. Here, we investigated the role of ERαAF2 in these two major beneficial actions of E2 by electively targeting ERαAF2 (named ERαAF20). Our results prove four points. (i) Compared with WT ERα, the ability of ERαAF20 to stimulate the C3 complement or the estrogen response element-thymidine kinase promoter in two cell lines was dramatically decreased, confirming the importance of AF2 in the E2-induced transcriptional activity of ERα. (ii) The uterotrophic action of E2 was totally absent in ERαAF20 mice, showing the crucial role of ERαAF2 in E2-induced uterus hyperplasia. (iii) ERαAF2 was dispensable for the accelerative action of E2 on endothelial healing, underlining the functionality of ERαAF20 in vivo. (iv) Finally, the atheroprotective effect of E2 was abrogated in ERαAF20 LDL-r−/− mice. Thus, whereas ERαAF1 and ERαAF2 are both required for the uterotrophic action of E2, we show that only ERαAF2 is necessary for its atheroprotective effect. PMID:21788522

  6. Purification of a new antifungal compound produced by Lactobacillus plantarum AF1 isolated from kimchi.

    PubMed

    Yang, E J; Chang, H C

    2010-04-30

    The aim of this study was to purify and to identify an antifungal compound of Lactobacillus plantarum AF1, which was isolated from kimchi, and to determine if Lb. plantarum AF1 can prevent fungal growth in a particular food model system. The antifungal compound was purified using SPE and recycling prep-HPLC and its structure was elucidated using NMR and ESI-MS. The active compound from Lb. plantarum AF1 is C(12)H(22)N(2)O(2), 3,6-bis(2-methylpropyl)-2,5-piperazinedion has a molecular mass of 226. This is a new antifungal compound produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). To investigate the potential application of the antifungal compound to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, soybean was used as a model. White mycelia and dark green spores of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 22546 were observed in the control soybeans after 1 to 2days incubation. However, fungal growth was not observed in the soybeans treated with a 4-fold concentrated supernatant of Lb. plantarum AF1 culture, even after 2days. The end products produced from kimchi LAB, like 3,6-bis(2-methylpropyl)-2,5-piperazinedion identified in this study, may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative which prevent fungal spoilage and mycotoxin formation in food and feed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., refined oil; cotton, undelinted seed. (b) An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with...

  8. First Report of an Infant Botulism Case Due to Clostridium botulinum Type Af

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Laura I. T.; Fernández, Rafael A.; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R.; Dykes, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide. PMID:25502535

  9. Genome Sequence of the Native Apiculate Wine Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF

    PubMed Central

    Giorello, Facundo M.; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Camesasca, Laura; Salzman, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Robello, Carlos; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of novel yeast strains for winemaking improves quality and provides variety including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. Here we report the first genome of a yeast strain native to Uruguay, Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF, which has been shown to positively contribute to aroma and wine quality. PMID:24874663

  10. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide.

  11. K-theory of the chair tiling via AF-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Antoine; Savinien, Jean

    2016-08-01

    We compute the K-theory groups of the groupoid C∗-algebra of the chair tiling, using a new method. We use exact sequences of Putnam to compute these groups from the K-theory groups of the AF-algebras of the substitution and the induced lower dimensional substitutions on edges and vertices.

  12. Flow ozonolysis using a semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 membrane to effect gas-liquid contact.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew; Baxendale, Ian R; Ley, Steven V

    2010-04-02

    A flow-through chemistry apparatus has been developed which allows gases and liquids to contact via a semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 membrane. In this preliminary investigation, the concept was proven by application to the ozonolysis of a series of alkenes.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Native Apiculate Wine Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF.

    PubMed

    Giorello, Facundo M; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Camesasca, Laura; Salzman, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Robello, Carlos; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S; Carrau, Francisco

    2014-05-29

    The use of novel yeast strains for winemaking improves quality and provides variety including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. Here we report the first genome of a yeast strain native to Uruguay, Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF, which has been shown to positively contribute to aroma and wine quality. Copyright © 2014 Giorello et al.

  14. Utilizing an Experiential Approach to Teacher Learning about AfL: A Consciousness Raising Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Helen; Hawe, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    In this article we focus on how an experiential based approach to teacher learning about assessment for learning (AfL) provided opportunities for teachers to examine: their deep-seated beliefs about effective learning (and teaching); how these beliefs permeated their day-to-day actions and interactions with students, and the consequence of these…

  15. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover, when...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover, when...

  17. Unusual hydrogen bonding patterns in AF (aminofluorene) and AAF (acetylaminofluorene) modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Shapiro, R.; Norman, D.

    1989-01-01

    New structures are presented for AF and AAF modified DNAs that place the carcinogen in the minor groove of a B-DNA helix. These structures employ non-Watson-Crick base pairing schemes with syn guanine at the modification site. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  18. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  19. Fracture Mechanics Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. W.; Martinez, J.; McLean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant on orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent processing flaws will not cause failure during the design life of the tank. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking (KEAC) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched, or SE(B), specimens representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to AF-M315E at 50 C for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material was found to be at least 22 ksivin and at least 31 ksivin for the weld material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant.

  20. Structure-based modeling of dye-fiber affinity with SOM-4D-QSAR paradigm: application to set of anthraquinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bak, Andrzej; Wyszomirski, Miroslaw; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Smolinski, Adam; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    A comparative structure-affinity study of anthraquinone dyes adsorption on cellulose fibre is presented in this paper. We used receptor-dependent 4D-QSAR methods based on grid and neural (SOM) methodology coupled with IVEPLS procedure. The applied RD 4D-QSAR approach focuses mainly on the ability of mapping dye properties to verify the concept of tinctophore in dye chemistry. Moreover, the stochastic SMV procedure to investigate the predictive ability of the method for a large population of 4D-QSAR models was employed. The obtained findings were compared with the previously published RI 3D/4D-QSAR models for the corresponding anthraquinone trainings sets. The neutral (protonated) and anionic (deprotonated) forms of anthraquinone scaffold were examined in order to deal with the uncertainty of the dye ionization state. The results are comparable to both the neutral and anionic dye sets regardless of the occupancy and charge descriptors applied, respectively. It is worth noting that the SOM-4D-QSAR behaves comparably to the cubic counterpart which is observed in each training/test subset specification (4D-QSAR-Jo vs SOM- 4D-QSARo and 4D-QSAR-Jq vs SOM-4D-QSARq). Additionally, an attempt was made to specify a common set of variables contributing significantly to dye-fiber binding affinity; it was simultaneously performed for some arbitrary chosen SMV models. The presented RD 4D-QSAR methodology together with IVE-PLS procedure provides a robust and predictive modeling technique, which facilitates detailed specification of the molecular motifs significantly contributing to the fiber-dye affinity.

  1. *omeSOM: a software for clustering and visualization of transcriptional and metabolite data mined from interspecific crosses of crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Modern biology uses experimental systems that involve the exploration of phenotypic variation as a result of the recombination of several genomes. Such systems are useful to investigate the functional evolution of metabolic networks. One such approach is the analysis of transcript and metabolite profiles. These kinds of studies generate a large amount of data, which require dedicated computational tools for their analysis. Results This paper presents a novel software named *omeSOM (transcript/metabol-ome Self Organizing Map) that implements a neural model for biological data clustering and visualization. It allows the discovery of relationships between changes in transcripts and metabolites of crop plants harboring introgressed exotic alleles and furthermore, its use can be extended to other type of omics data. The software is focused on the easy identification of groups including different molecular entities, independently of the number of clusters formed. The *omeSOM software provides easy-to-visualize interfaces for the identification of coordinated variations in the co-expressed genes and co-accumulated metabolites. Additionally, this information is linked to the most widely used gene annotation and metabolic pathway databases. Conclusions *omeSOM is a software designed to give support to the data mining task of metabolic and transcriptional datasets derived from different databases. It provides a user-friendly interface and offers several visualization features, easy to understand by non-expert users. Therefore, *omeSOM provides support for data mining tasks and it is applicable to basic research as well as applied breeding programs. The software and a sample dataset are available free of charge at http://sourcesinc.sourceforge.net/omesom/. PMID:20796314

  2. Mylar and Teflon-AF as cell culture substrates for studying endothelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Anamelechi, Charles C; Truskey, George A; Reichert, W Monty

    2005-12-01

    The textured and opaque nature of Dacron and ePTFE has prevented the use of these fabrics in conventional cell culture techniques normally employed to optimize cell attachment and retention. This lack of optimization has led, in part, to the poor performance of endothelialization strategies for improving vascular graft patency. Here we show that thin, transparent films of Mylar and Teflon-AF are viable in vitro cell culture mimics of Dacron and ePTFE vascular graft materials, particularly for the study of protein mediated endothelial cell (EC) attachment, spreading and adhesion. Glass substrates were used as controls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis showed that Mylar and Teflon-AF have surface chemistries that closely match Dacron and ePTFE. (125)I radiolabeling was used to quantify fibronectin (FN) adsorption, and FN and biotinylated-BSA "dual ligand" co-adsorption onto glass, Mylar and Teflon-AF substrates. Native human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and streptavidin-incubated biotinylated-HUVEC (SA-b-HUVEC) spreading was measured using phase contrast microscopy. Cell retention and adhesion was determined using phase contrast microscopy under laminar flow. All surfaces lacking protein pre-treatment, regardless of surface type, showed the lowest degree of cell spreading and retention. Dual ligand treated Mylar films showed significantly greater SA-b-HUVEC spreading up to 2 h, but were similar to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar at longer times; whereas SA-b-HUVEC spreading on dual ligand treated Teflon-AF was never significantly different from HUVEC on FN treated Teflon-AF at any time point. SA-b-HUVEC retention was significantly greater on dual ligand treated Mylar compared to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar over the entire range of shear stresses tested (3.54-28.3 dynes/cm(2)); whereas SA-b-HUVEC retention to dual ligand and HUVEC retention to FN treated Teflon-AF gave similar results at each shear stress, with only the mid

  3. POU2AF1 Functions in the Human Airway Epithelium To Regulate Expression of Host Defense Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Brekman, Angelika; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Ou, Xuemei; Shaykhiev, Renat; Agosto-Perez, Francisco J; Wang, Rui; Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    In the process of seeking novel lung host defense regulators by analyzing genome-wide RNA sequence data from normal human airway epithelium, we detected expression of POU domain class 2-associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), a known transcription cofactor previously thought to be expressed only in lymphocytes. Lymphocyte contamination of human airway epithelial samples obtained by bronchoscopy and brushing was excluded by immunohistochemistry staining, the observation of upregulation of POU2AF1 in purified airway basal stem/progenitor cells undergoing differentiation, and analysis of differentiating single basal cell clones. Lentivirus-mediated upregulation of POU2AF1 in airway basal cells induced upregulation of host defense genes, including MX1, IFIT3, IFITM, and known POU2AF1 downstream genes HLA-DRA, ID2, ID3, IL6, and BCL6. Interestingly, expression of these genes paralleled changes of POU2AF1 expression during airway epithelium differentiation in vitro, suggesting POU2AF1 helps to maintain a host defense tone even in pathogen-free condition. Cigarette smoke, a known risk factor for airway infection, suppressed POU2AF1 expression both in vivo in humans and in vitro in human airway epithelial cultures, accompanied by deregulation of POU2AF1 downstream genes. Finally, enhancing POU2AF1 expression in human airway epithelium attenuated the suppression of host defense genes by smoking. Together, these findings suggest a novel function of POU2AF1 as a potential regulator of host defense genes in the human airway epithelium.

  4. Low incidence of left atrial delayed enhancement with MRI in patients with AF: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bois, John P; Glockner, James; Young, Phillip M; Foley, Thomas A; Sheldon, Seth; Newman, Darrell B; Lin, Grace; Packer, Douglas L; Brady, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained atrial arrhythmia. One potential target for ablation is left atrial (LA) scar (LAS) regions that may be the substrate for re-entry within the atria, thereby sustaining AF. Identification of LAS through LA delayed gadolinium enhancement (LADE) with MRI has been proposed. Objectives We sought to evaluate LADE in patients referred for catheter ablation of AF. Methods Prospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) ablation for AF at a single institution. Patients underwent LADE with MRI to determine LAS regions before ablation. MRI data were analysed independently in accordance with prespecified institutional protocol by two staff cardiac radiologists to whom patient outcomes were masked, and reports of LADE were documented. Where no initial consensus occurred regarding delayed enhancement (DE), a third staff cardiac radiologist independently reviewed the case and had the deciding vote. Results Of the 149 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age, 59 (9) years), AF was persistent in 64 (43%) and paroxysmal in 85 (57%); 45 (30%) had prior ablation. Only five patients (3%) had identifiable DE in LA walls (persistent AF, n=1; paroxysmal AF, n=4). LADE was present in two (4%) of the 45 patients with previous left PVAI. The presence of LADE was not associated with a higher recurrence rate of AF. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies, the finding of DE within LA walls was uncommon and, when present, did not correlate with AF type or risk of AF recurrence. It therefore is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:28123766

  5. Cardiovascular risk profile and management of atrial fibrillation in India: Real world data from RealiseAF survey.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, C; Verma, Jagmohan Singh; Ravi Kishore, A G; Singh, Balbir; Dani, Sameer; Chawala, Kamaldeep; Haque, Azizul; Khan, Aftab; Nair, Mohan; Vora, Amit; Rajasekhar, V; Thomas, Joy M; Gupta, Anoop; Naik, Ajay; Prakash, V S; Naditch, Lisa; Gabriel Steg, P

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia with high risk for many cardiovascular (CV) complications. Adherence to recommended management guidelines is important to avoid complications. In India, there is little knowledge on how AF is managed in real world. This is a cross-sectional study of patients in India enrolled in RealiseAF survey between February 2010 and March 2010 with a diagnosis of AF within the last 12 months. From 15 centers, 301 patients {mean age 59.9 years (14.4); 52.5% males} were recruited. AF was controlled in 50% of patients with 77 (26.7%) in sinus rhythm and 67 (23.3%) with heart rate <80beats/min. Hypertension (50.8%), valvular heart disease (40.7%), heart failure (25.9%), and diabetes (20.4%) were the most common underlying CV diseases. Increased risk for stroke (CHADS2 score≥2) was present in 36.6%. Most of the patients (85%) were symptomatic. AF was paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent in 28.7%, 22.7%, and 34.3% respectively. In 14%, AF was diagnosed as first episode. Forty-six percent of patients had rate control, 35.2% rhythm control, 0.3% both strategies, and 18.4% received no therapy for AF before the visit. At the end of the visit, adoption to rate control strategy increased to 52.3% and patients with no therapy decreased to 7%. AF in India is not adequately controlled. Concomitant CV risk factors and risk of stroke are high. The study underscores the need for improved adoption of guideline-directed management for optimal control of AF and reducing the risk of stroke. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Equalization characteristics of an upflow sludge blanket-aerated biofilter (USB-AF) system.

    PubMed

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Lee, S H

    2005-01-01

    Equalization characteristics of the upflow sludge blanket-aerated bio-filter (USB-AF) were investigated with the fluctuated raw domestic sewage. Recycle of nitrified effluent from AF to USB triggered the equalization characteristics of the sludge blanket on both soluble and particulate organic matter. Increment of EPS in sludge blanket by nitrate recycle was detected and removal of turbidity and particulates increased at higher recycle ratios by bio-flocculation. Increased TCOD removal in the USB was due to both denitrification of recycled nitrate and entrapment of the particulate organic matter in sludge blanket. Capture of both soluble and particulate organic matter increased sludge blanket layer in the USB, which improved the reactor performances and reduced the organic load on the subsequent AF. Overall TCOD and SS removal efficiencies were about 98% and 96%, respectively in the USB-AF system. Turbidity in the USB effluent was about 44, 20 and 5.5 NTU, at recycle ratios of 0, 100 and 200%, respectively. Particle counts in the range 2-4 microm in the USB effluent were higher than those in influent without nitrate recycle, while particle counts in the range of 0.5-15 microm in the USB effluent decreased 70% at recycle ratio of 200%. The major constituent of EPS extracted from anaerobic sludge was protein and total EPS increased from 109.1 to 165.7 mg/g-VSS with nitrate recycle of 100%. Removal efficiency and concentration of T-N in the UBS-AF effluent was over 70% and below 16 mg/L, respectively.

  7. TYPE AF CERTIFICATE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW ENRICHED URANIUM OXIDE (LEUO) FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Kenneth Yates, K

    2007-10-19

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SRS had the need to ship 227 drums of low enriched uranium oxide (LEUO) to a disposal site. The LEUO had been packaged nearly 25 years ago in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 17C 55-gallon drums and stored in a warehouse. Since the 235U enrichment was just above 1 percent by weight (wt%) the material did not qualify for the fissile material exceptions in 49 CFR 173.453, and therefore was categorized as 'fissile material' for shipping purposes. WSRC evaluated all existing Type AF packages and did not identify any feasible packaging. Applying for a new Type AF certificate of compliance was considered too costly for a one-time/one-way shipment for disposal. Down-blending the material with depleted uranium (to reduce enrichment below 1 wt% and enable shipment as low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material) was considered, but appropriate blending facilities do not exist at SRS. After reviewing all options, WSRC concluded that seeking a DOT Special Permit was the best option to enable shipment of the material for permanent disposal. WSRC submitted the Special Permit application to the DOT, and after one request-for-additional-information (RAI) the permit was considered acceptable. However, in an interesting development that resulted from the DOT Special Permit application process, it was determined that it was more appropriate for the DOE to issue a Type AF certificate [Ref. 1] for this shipping campaign. This paper will outline the DOT Special Permit application and Type AF considerations, and will discuss the issuance of the new DOE Type AF certificate of compliance.

  8. Properties and transport behavior of perfluorotripentylamine (FC-70)-doped amorphous teflon AF 2400 films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Hussam, Abul; Weber, Stephen G

    2010-12-22

    Teflon AF 2400 films are known to imbibe solvents, making films in the presence of solvents less fluorous than they might otherwise be. Herein, we demonstrate that doping films with perfluorotripentylamine (Fluorinert FC-70) maintains the fluorous nature of Teflon AF 2400 and improves transport selectivity for fluorine-containing organic compounds. Density measurements on the FC-70-doped films reveal that free volume decreases dramatically as the dopant concentration increases (0-12 wt %) and then increases to approach that of pure FC-70. Remarkably, films from 0 to 12 wt % FC-70 have the same w/v concentration of Teflon AF 2400, indicating that FC-70 fills the free volume of Teflon AF 2400. This is consistent with the observed increased storage modulus and significant decrease (compared to undoped films) of solute diffusion coefficients in the same range of FC-70 concentrations. In contrast, FC-70 at concentrations greater than 12 wt % dilutes Teflon AF 2400, leading to a decrease of storage modulus and dramatic increase in solute diffusion coefficients. Sorption of chloroform decreases from 11.8 g of chloroform/100 g of film (pure Teflon film) to 3.8 g of chloroform/100 g of film (27 wt % FC-70-doped Teflon film), less than the solubility of chloroform in pure FC-70 (4.06 g of chloroform/100 g of FC-70). Solute partition coefficients from chloroform to FC-70-doped films generally decrease with increased dopant concentration. However, within a series of toluenes and nitrobenzenes, selectivity for F-containing solutes over analogous H-containing solutes increases as dopant concentration increases if the substitution is on the aromatic ring but not if it is on the methyl group (toluene). Transport (partitioning × diffusion) rates, as they involve both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, are not simply related to composition.

  9. A Specific Antibody to Neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide) Recognizes a Small Subset of Neurons in Ascaris suum: Differences from Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Jarecki, Jessica L.; Stretton, Antony O.W.

    2016-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF1-003, highly specific to the Ascaris suum neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide), was generated. This antibody binds strongly to AF1 and extremely weakly to other peptides with C-terminal FIR-Famide: AF5 (SGKPTFIRFamide), AF6 (FIRFamide), and AF7 (AGPRFIRFamide). It does not recognize 35 other AF (A. suum FMRFamide-like) peptides at the highest concentration tested, nor does it recognize FMRFamide. When crude peptide extracts of A. suum are fractionated by two-step HPLC, the only fractions recognized by AF1-003 are those comigrating with synthetic AF1. By immunocytochemistry, antibody AF1-003 recognizes a small subset of the 298 neurons of A. suum: these include the paired URX and RIP neurons, two pairs of lateral ganglion neurons in the head, and the unpaired PQR and PDA or -B tail neurons that send processes to the head along the dorsal and ventral nerve cords, respectively. AF1 immunoreactivity is also seen in three pairs of pharyngeal neurons. Mass spectroscopy (MS) shows the presence of AF1 in the head, pharynx, and dorsal and ventral nerve cords. In A. suum, the neurons that contain AF1 show little overlap with neurons that express green fluorescent protein constructs targeting the flp-8 gene, which encodes AF1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Kim and Li [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 475:540– 550); the URX neurons express AF1 in both species, but, in C. elegans, flp-8 expression was not detected in RIP, PQR, and PDA or -B or in the pharynx. Other, less specific monoclonal antibodies recognize AF1, as well as other peptides to differing degrees; these antibodies are useful reagents for determination of neuronal morphology. PMID:21452223

  10. Survival and growth of Salmonella and Vibrio in som-fak, a Thai low-salt garlic containing fermented fish product.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Paludan-Müller, Christine; Gram, Lone

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation of raw fish is a common process in Asia for improvement of shelf life and safety, however, little is known about the survival of pathogenic bacteria in these products. Raw fish may be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio species. The purpose of this study was to determine survival and potential growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as influenced by the preservation parameters (sodium chloride, garlic and lactic acid) present in the Thai fermented fish product som-fak. The inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (0-4%), garlic (0-10%) and lactic acid (pH levels as in som-fak) were measured in modified brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 30 degrees C. All bacteria were inhibited by 8-10% sodium chloride. Salmonella grew in all concentrations of garlic whereas Vibrio spp. were inhibited by 1.0-1.5%. Lactic acid was inhibitory at levels above 1.5%. The combinations of sodium chloride, lactic acid and garlic showed a distinct hurdle effect in the broth system. Neither S. Enteritidis, V. cholerae nor V. parahaemolyticus grew in garlic (0.5-1%), regardless of the level of sodium chloride (0.5-4% (w/v)), when lactic acid (0.5-2%) was present. S. Weltevreden was the least inhibited of the four bacteria and grew in the combination of 0.5% garlic and 0.5% lactic acid regardless of the NaCl level (0.5-4% (w/v)). Som-fak with 0 to 10% garlic or 2% glucose was inoculated with either (i) 10(3) CFU/g Salmonella Weltevreden, (ii) 10(6) CFU/g garlic fermenting Lactobacillus plantarum strain 509 or (iii) a combination of the two strains and stored at 30 degrees C. The Salmonella count increased to >10(8) CFU/g (>10(6) CFU/g for 10% garlic) in all types of som-fak inoculated with S. Weltevreden within the first day. Only a combination of at least 6% garlic and L. plantarum 509 was enough to prevent growth of the inoculated Salmonella whereas adding the Lactobacillus strain alone or in

  11. An Observational, Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia Pacific: Rationale and Design of the RecordAF-AP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be lower in Asian countries than in Western countries. Nevertheless, AF remains a significant public health problem in the region. The burden of AF, the experiences of previous trials and the lack of data on AF and its management in Asia Pacific highlight the need for a comprehensive prospective study of AF management. Methods: The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation Asia Pacific (RecordAF-AP) is a prospective, observational survey of the management of recently diagnosed AF patients with 1-year follow-up in 8 countries across Asia Pacific. Eligible patients presenting with AF, treated or not, will be included in the registry and data will be recorded prospectively during follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months. Results: RecordAF-AP will recruit more than 3000 patients. Study recruitment commenced in April 2009 and the final results anticipated at the end of 2011. Conclusions: RecordAF-AP will assess the real-life management of AF patients in Asia Pacific, including a comparison of clinical outcomes in rhythm versus rate control strategies, providing much needed insight into the costs, treatment choices and clinical outcomes of AF patients in this region. PMID:21344019

  12. A prospective, multicenter evaluation of ablating complex fractionated electrograms (CFEs) during atrial fibrillation (AF) identified by an automated mapping algorithm: acute effects on AF and efficacy as an adjuvant strategy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Atul; Novak, Paul; Macle, Laurent; Whaley, Bonnie; Beardsall, Marianne; Wulffhart, Zaev; Khaykin, Yaariv

    2008-02-01

    Complex fractionated electrograms (CFEs) are continuous electrograms (EGMs) of very short cycle length (CL) representing substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) perpetuation. Ablation of CFEs may result in AF slowing, termination, and prevention, but identifying them can be subjective. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess (1) whether an automated algorithm can identify CFE regions, (2) the acute effects of ablating these regions on AF, and (3) the long-term efficacy as an adjuvant strategy to pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI). Thirty-five patients (three centers, 61 +/- 9 years, left atrium [LA] 43 +/- 9 mm, ejection fraction 53% +/- 7%) with symptomatic paroxysmal (n = 21) or persistent (n = 14) AF were studied. A decapolar lasso (2-mm spacing) was used for mapping. A three-dimensional shell of the LA and pulmonary veins (PVs) was created. If not already in AF, AF was induced by burst pacing (with or without isoproterenol). Atrial EGMs during AF were mapped/analyzed using an automated CFE algorithm. The algorithm measures the time between discrete deflections in a local EGM over 5 seconds (based on selectable width and peak-to-peak [>0.03 mV] criteria). The mean CL of the local EGM is projected onto the LA shell as a color-coded display. Regions of CL <120 ms (published criteria) were targeted for ablation/elimination. Atrial fibrillation cycle length (AFCL) and regularity were measured from the CS. After CFE ablation, further ablation was done to achieve complete PVAI. AF was spontaneous (n = 20) or induced (n = 15) in all patients. CFEs were most commonly found along the septum (97%), anterior LA (97%), PV antra (83%), base of appendage (83%), and annulus (71%). CFE ablation alone prolonged the AFCL (171 +/- 27 vs. 304 +/- 41 ms; P = .03) and regularized AF to left/right flutter (AFL) in 74% of patients. CFE ablation terminated AF/AFL in 19 patients (54%)-the other 16 were cardioverted-and AF became noninducible in 77%. CFE ablation alone

  13. The target cell of transformation is distinct from the leukemia stem cell in murine CALM/AF10 leukemia models.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Krause, A; Vosberg, S; Herold, T; Ksienzyk, B; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Tizazu, B; Chopra, M; Graf, A; Krebs, S; Blum, H; Greif, P A; Vetter, A; Metzeler, K; Rothenberg-Thurley, M; Schneider, M R; Dahlhoff, M; Spiekermann, K; Zimber-Strobl, U; Wolf, E; Bohlander, S K

    2016-05-01

    The CALM/AF10 fusion gene is found in various hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma. We have previously identified the leukemia stem cell (LSC) in a CALM/AF10-driven murine bone marrow transplant AML model as B220+ lymphoid cells with B-cell characteristics. To identify the target cell for leukemic transformation or 'cell of origin of leukemia' (COL) in non-disturbed steady-state hematopoiesis, we inserted the CALM/AF10 fusion gene preceded by a loxP-flanked transcriptional stop cassette into the Rosa26 locus. Vav-Cre-induced panhematopoietic expression of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene led to acute leukemia with a median latency of 12 months. Mice expressing CALM/AF10 in the B-lymphoid compartment using Mb1-Cre or CD19-Cre inducer lines did not develop leukemia. Leukemias had a predominantly myeloid phenotype but showed coexpression of the B-cell marker B220, and had clonal B-cell receptor rearrangements. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified an average of two to three additional mutations per leukemia, including activating mutations in known oncogenes such as FLT3 and PTPN11. Our results show that the COL for CALM/AF10 leukemia is a stem or early progenitor cell and not a cell of B-cell lineage with a phenotype similar to that of the LSC in CALM/AF10+ leukemia.

  14. Identification and functional characterization of an afsR homolog regulatory gene from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Oh, Tae-Jin; Lee, Hei Chan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2009-02-01

    Sequencing analysis of a 5-kb DNA fragment from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 revealed the presence of one 3.1-kb open reading frame (ORF), designated afsRsv. The deduced product of afsR-sv (1,056 aa) was found to have high homology with the global regulatory protein AfsR. Homology-based analysis showed that afsR-sv represents a transcriptional activator belonging to the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family that includes an Nterminal SARP domain containing a bacterial transcriptional activation domain (BTAD), an NB-ARC domain, and a Cterminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated the activation of transcription of genes belonging to pikromycin production, when afsR-sv was overexpressed in S. venezuelae. Heterologous expression of the afsR-sv in different Streptomyces strains resulted in increased production of the respective antibiotics, suggesting that afsR-sv is a positive regulator of antibiotics biosynthesis.

  15. Identification and characterization of a laminin-binding protein of Aspergillus fumigatus: extracellular thaumatin domain protein (AfCalAp).

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Mahajan, Lakshna; Ramjee, Sandhya; Singh, Yogendra; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Madan, Taruna

    2009-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, infects the human host via inhalation of airborne conidia. Adhesion of fungal conidia, to host cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components associated with host tissue surfaces, is thought to be the primary step in the pathogenesis and dissemination of infection. To identify novel adhesion proteins (adhesins) of A. fumigatus, we screened its proteome in silico using SPAAN (software program for prediction of adhesins and adhesin-like proteins using neural networks). One of the predicted adhesin-encoding genes with a P(ad) (probability of being adhesin) value >0.9, the gene encoding extracellular thaumatin domain protein (AfCalA), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AfCalAp showed significant binding with laminin and murine lung cells. Anti-AfCalAp antibodies inhibited the binding of AfCalAp to laminin in a dose-dependent manner. Significant binding of anti-AfCalAp antibodies to 2 h swollen conidia suggests the presence of AfCalAp on the conidial surface. AfCalA transcript was not detectable in resting conidia but was detected in conidia incubated with RPMI 1640 medium in the presence and absence of lung epithelial cell line (A539)-derived ECM. Elevated levels of IgE antibodies specific to AfCalAp were observed in the sera of two out of seven patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The study confirms the relevance of the bioinformatic approach for predicting fungal adhesins and establishes AfCalAp as a novel laminin-binding protein of A. fumigatus.

  16. Hot Isostatic Pressing/Heat Treatment of Cast Superalloy AF2-1DA, Radial Turbine Wheels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    showing typical 19 shrinkage porosity Mag: 400X Etch: Electrolytic oxalic acid 10 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA alloy 29 Mag: 400X Etch...Electrolytic oxalic acid 11 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA alloy note 30 void formations form incipient melting after 2250OF hip Mag: 400X Etch: Electrolytic... oxalic acid V a.w LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) Figure Title Page 12 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA showing effects 31 of solution heat

  17. King Salmon, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-10

    1 .2 - i 121 1b 15 o -- 9 2.4 z 2 22 2 2 2fi 2 13 1ee (X) I me. O.. N.. o Nof " . Tom .eet W .. I T 0 F s 32P IN 67 P 3 FNP -93 P T...I w e Or ulb t...CLIMATOLOGY BRANCHT 2 AkETAHRSRVC/A PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY2 I ETE EVC /A 7 3260_ KING SALMON AFS AK 73-82 JAN STAT.Oft STATION NWAI villOAN *PAGE ? 1890...T,,.) .. ." " " , . - . . 1 i. . , ’. . ; : ; .-. A f;: ’ ,- ;. * GLr rA E LMTL~ T AC? PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYT2 FAH- EVC /A 7 3267 XING SALM4ON AFS

  18. Nanopatterning of mobile lipid monolayers on electron-beam-sculpted Teflon AF surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shaali, Mehrnaz; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Dommersnes, Paul; Ainla, Alar; Kubatkin, Sergey; Jesorka, Aldo

    2015-02-24

    Direct electron-beam lithography is used to fabricate nanostructured Teflon AF surfaces, which are utilized to pattern surface-supported monolayer phospholipid films with 50 nm lateral feature size. In comparison with unexposed Teflon AF coatings, e-beam-irradiated areas show reduced surface tension and surface potential. For phospholipid monolayer spreading experiments, these areas can be designed to function as barriers that enclose unexposed areas of nanometer dimensions and confine the lipid film within. We show that the effectiveness of the barrier is defined by pattern geometry and radiation dose. This surface preparation technique represents an efficient, yet simple, nanopatterning strategy supporting studies of lipid monolayer behavior in ultraconfined spaces. The generated structures are useful for imaging studies of biomimetic membranes and other specialized surface applications requiring spatially controlled formation of self-assembled, molecularly thin films on optically transparent patterned polymer surfaces with very low autofluorescence.

  19. Use of concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: Findings from the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rohan; Hellkamp, Anne; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Günter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Fox, Keith A A; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Piccini, Jonathan P; Singer, Daniel E; Patel, Manesh R

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between aspirin use and clinical outcomes in patients enrolled in Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), in particular, those with known coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients in ROCKET AF, comparing rivaroxaban and warfarin, were analyzed. Aspirin use was assessed at baseline. Stroke and systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, death, and major or nonmajor clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding were compared between groups. Multivariable modeling was done adjusting for baseline risk factors. A total of 5,205 (36.5%) patients were receiving aspirin at baseline (mean dose 99.2mg); 30.6% of those had known CAD. Patients receiving aspirin were more likely to have prior myocardial infarction (22% vs 14%; P<.001) and heart failure (68% vs 59%; P<.001). Relative efficacy of rivaroxaban versus warfarin was similar with and without aspirin use for both stroke/systemic embolism (P=.95 for interaction), and major or NMCR bleeding (P=.76 for interaction). After adjustment, aspirin use was associated with similar rates of stroke/systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% CI 0.98-1.37; P=.094) but higher rates of all-cause death (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42; P<.0001) and major or NMCR bleeding (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.43; P<.0001). There was a significant interaction between no CAD at baseline and aspirin for all-cause death (P=.009). Aspirin use at baseline was associated with an increased risk for bleeding and all-cause death in ROCKET AF, a risk most pronounced in patients without known CAD. Although these findings may reflect unmeasured clinical factors, further investigation is warranted to determine optimal aspirin use in patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary and key secondary results from the ROCKET AF trial, and their implications on clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rohan; Patel, Manesh R

    2017-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of the oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban were studied in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF trial). A number of subanalyses of the ROCKET AF trial have subsequently analyzed the use of rivaroxaban in special patient populations. The outcomes of the ROCKET AF trial were reviewed. The use of rivaroxaban in higher risk populations, as determined by the presence of co-morbidities included in the CHADS2 criteria, was analyzed. Requirements for dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment and in East Asian patients were described. Finally, clinical management challenges, including interruptions in therapy, drug discontinuation, management of bleeding events, drug interactions, and management of patients requiring cardioversion/ablation were reviewed. Rivaroxaban is efficacious in high-risk populations, including elderly patients, patients with diabetes, heart failure, history of stroke, prior myocardial infarction, or peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD have a higher risk of bleeding with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. East Asian populations do not require a dose adjustment for rivaroxaban, while a reduced dose of 15 mg daily is required for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban remains effective with temporary interruptions in therapy and in patients requiring cardioversion/ablation. Rates of major bleeding and subsequent outcomes were similar in patients on warfarin and rivaroxaban, although rates of gastrointestinal bleeding were higher with rivaroxaban. Concurrent use of antiarrhythmic therapy was not associated with adverse outcomes. Rivaroxaban represents an efficacious alternative to warfarin in high-risk patients with AF. Dose adjustment is required for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban can be used safely in a number of challenging clinical

  1. Histone Acetyltransferase Activity of MOF Is Required for MLL-AF9 Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Daria G; Xu, Haiming; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hoshii, Takayuki; Eisold, Meghan E; Delaney, Christopher; Cusan, Monica; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Huang, Chun-Hao; Lujambio, Amaia; Zheng, YuJun George; Zuber, Johannes; Pandita, Tej K; Lowe, Scott W; Armstrong, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    Chromatin-based mechanisms offer therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are of great current interest. In this study, we conducted an RNAi-based screen to identify druggable chromatin regulator-based targets in leukemias marked by oncogenic rearrangements of the MLL gene. In this manner, we discovered the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) MOF to be important for leukemia cell growth. Conditional deletion of Mof in a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemogenesis reduced tumor burden and prolonged host survival. RNA sequencing showed an expected downregulation of genes within DNA damage repair pathways that are controlled by MOF, as correlated with a significant increase in yH2AX nuclear foci in Mof-deficient MLL-AF9 tumor cells. In parallel, Mof loss also impaired global H4K16 acetylation in the tumor cell genome. Rescue experiments with catalytically inactive mutants of MOF showed that its enzymatic activity was required to maintain cancer pathogenicity. In support of the role of MOF in sustaining H4K16 acetylation, a small-molecule inhibitor of the HAT component MYST blocked the growth of both murine and human MLL-AF9 leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, Mof inactivation suppressed leukemia development in an NUP98-HOXA9-driven AML model. Taken together, our results establish that the HAT activity of MOF is required to sustain MLL-AF9 leukemia and may be important for multiple AML subtypes. Blocking this activity is sufficient to stimulate DNA damage, offering a rationale to pursue MOF inhibitors as a targeted approach to treat MLL-rearranged leukemias. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1753-62. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Oxytrofalcatins A-F, N-benzoylindole analogues from the roots of Oxytropis falcata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Wu, Quan-Xiang; Wang, Rui; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-06-01

    Indole alkaloids, oxytrofalcatins A-F (1-6), together with five other known alkaloids (7-11), were isolated from the roots of Oxytropis falcata. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This is the first report of N-benzoylindoles from a natural source. Compounds 1-6 lacked significant cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and HL-60 tumor cell lines.

  3. Ficusnotins A-F: Rare diarylbutanoids from the leaves of Ficus nota.

    PubMed

    Latayada, Felmer S; Uy, Mylene M; Akihara, Yui; Ohta, Emi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Ômura, Hisashi; Ohta, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    Six diarylbutanoids, designated as ficusnotins A-F, with a rare carbon skeleton consisting of two aromatic rings separated by an unbranched C4-chain have been isolated from the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. (Moraceae). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of iron speciation during hydration of C{sub 4}AF

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; El Mrabet, S.; Masion, A.; Moulin, I.; Briois, V.; Olivi, L.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2006-07-01

    It is now well accepted and demonstrated that calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and calcium sulfo aluminate (ettringite, AFm) phases exhibit a good capability to fix metals and metalloids. Unfortunately the role of minor phases and especially calcium-ferric aluminate phase, shorthand C{sub 4}AF is not well defined. In other systems like in soils or sediments iron phases play a key role in the fixation of pollutant. In cement sorption isotherms, indicated that various metals can be retained by the C{sub 4}AF hydrated products. Therefore the capabilities of those phase to retain heavy metal should not be neglected. Previous investigations have shown that the minerals formed during the hydration of C{sub 4}AF are similar to those formed from C3A (pure tri-calcium aluminate) under comparable conditions. Nevertheless no investigation was conducted at the molecular level and there is still a controversy whether Fe substitutes for Al in the hydrated minerals in whole or in part, or if it forms FeOOH clusters scattered throughout the matrix. In this context we have conducted XAS experiments using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the hydration of C{sub 4}AF forms C{sub 3}AH{sub 6} (hydrogarnet) in which Fe randomly substitutes for Al as well as an amorphous FeOOH phase. Intermediate products like AFm (i.e., an ill organized lamellar phase) are also formed but rapidly evolve to C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}; iron does not seem to be incorporated in the AFm structure.

  5. Unciflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hui; Xu, Kang-Ping; Li, Fu-Shuang; Zou, Zhen-Xing; Liu, Rui; Liu, Rui-Huan; Li, Jing; Tan, Lei-Hong; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2014-12-01

    Six new flavonoids, unciflavones A-F (1-6), have been isolated from medicinal plant Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR analysis including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. All compounds possess exceptional structural features with an aryl substituent at the C-8 position, which are uncommonly encountered in natural resources and firstly reported in genus Selaginella.

  6. Updated Reference Genome Sequence and Annotation of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Damien; Stuber, Tod P.; Schubert, Olga T.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here an update to the reference genome sequence of the bovine tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97, generated using an integrative multiomics approach. The update includes 42 new coding sequences (CDSs), 14 modified annotations, 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) corrections, and disclosure that the RD900 locus, previously described as absent from the genome, is in fact present. PMID:28385856

  7. AF-TRUST, Air Force Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    Live Streaming Systems. PhD. June 2008 • Jeffrey Hartline. Incremental Optimization, PhD, January 2008 AF-TRUST Final Performance Report...Against Intrusion in a Live Streaming Multicast System. Maya Haridasan, Robbert van Renesse. In Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference...Walker White. In Proceedings of SIGMOD 2007 2008 Enforcing Fairness in a Live - Streaming System. Maya Haridasan, Ingrid Jansch-Porto, Kenneth Birman

  8. A comparison of ANB, WITS, AF-BF, and APDI measurements.

    PubMed

    Oktay, H

    1991-02-01

    In the present study, the relationships among ANB, Wits, AF-BF, and APDI measurements used in the assessment of the anteroposterior jaw disorders were examined on the cephalometric radiographs of 63 male and 82 female subjects, and high correlations were found among them. Furthermore, relationships were explored between these parameters and some measurements that were thought to have influenced them. The results of the geometric studies could not be proved on the basis of statistical evaluation.

  9. Air Traffic Control Radar Specialty AFS 303X1. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Surveillance Radars, and AN/ MPN -14H Mobile RAPCONs. Typical tasks performed by these incumbents when maintaining these radar systems include: perform PMIs on...document forms (AF Form 264) issue job control numbers maintain status boards, graphs, or charts maintain equipment status reports document equipment...related matters determine work priorities plan work assignments maintain training records, charts , or graphs These incumbents are the most senior of all

  10. Blytheville AFB, Arkansas, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    AMOUNTS IN INCfOES .t I I I I I I 9 7 I 13 I 2S I 37 I 19 I 61 I OVER I I DARSI TOTALI IONIHLY...ION 46141 . ItYTIIIVILLC AF P AR FP310 jr EEcopo: 77-Ab MOlNTH: SEF HOuD56Llj: 0600-06(10...VARIA 1I L TO 16 LS I , 35., jr .6 1 .3 .1 .1 Ion., 6.89

  11. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.1 The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).2 However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.3 The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. PMID:26779514

  12. Reprogramming of MLL-AF9 leukemia cells into pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Cheng, H; Gao, S; Lu, X; He, F; Hu, L; Hou, D; Zou, Z; Li, Y; Zhang, H; Xu, J; Kang, L; Wang, Q; Yuan, W; Gao, S; Cheng, T

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Yamanaka factors' (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) are able to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from different cell types. However, to what degree primary malignant cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state has not been vigorously assessed. We established an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model by overexpressing the human mixed-lineage leukemia-AF9 (MLL-AF9) fusion gene in mouse hematopoietic cells that carry Yamanaka factors under the control of doxycycline (Dox). On addition of Dox to the culture, the transplantable leukemia cells were efficiently converted into iPS cells that could form teratomas and produce chimeras. Interestingly, most chimeric mice spontaneously developed the same type of AML. Moreover, both iPS reprogramming and leukemia reinitiation paths could descend from the same leukemia-initiating cell. RNA-seq analysis showed reversible global gene expression patterns between these interchangeable leukemia and iPS cells on activation or reactivation of MLL-AF9, suggesting a sufficient epigenetic force in driving the leukemogenic process. This study represents an important step for further defining the potential interplay between oncogenic molecules and reprogramming factors during MLL leukemogenesis. More importantly, our reprogramming approach may be expanded to characterize a range of hematopoietic malignancies in order to develop new strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24150221

  13. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A-F by Penicillium crustosum.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Svetlana A; Jagels, Annika; Cramer, Benedikt; Geisen, Rolf; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a multitude of secondary metabolites, some of them known as mycotoxins, which are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. Among them, penitrems, which belong to the group of indole-diterpene mycotoxins, are synthesized by Penicillium and Aspergillus genera and exhibit potent tremorgenic effects. This is the first complex study of the penitrems A-F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. For this purpose, penitrems A-F were isolated from Penicillium crustosum cultures and used as analytical standards. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family. Obtained results give insides into the biosynthesis of toxicologically relevant penitrems A-F under different environmental factors and can be utilized to prevent food contamination.

  14. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  15. Fracture Growth Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Martinez, Jonathan; McLean, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant in orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent flaws will not cause failure during the design life. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environmentally-assisted cracking (K (sub EAC)) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched specimens SE(B) representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to the monopropellant at 50 degrees Centigrade for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant was found to be at least 22.0 kilopounds per square inch. The stress intensity factor of the weld material was at least 31.3 kilopounds per square inch.

  16. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  17. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus Strain AF1, a High Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa A; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2014-07-24

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagatabaeicter rhaeticus strain AF1, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing high levels of cellulose. Copyright © 2014 dos Santos et al.

  19. [Improvement of natamycin production in an industrial strain by heterologous expression of the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Yemin; Zheng, Hualiang; Tao, Meifeng

    2015-05-01

    The afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus activate the production of two antibiotics in Streptomyces lividans. In this study, we gained an increase of 38% in the production of natamycin (3.56 g/L) in an industrial strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus TZ1401 through the integration of pHL851 that bears the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes into its genome. We discovered by quantitive real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that the expression of 6 genes of the natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster were improved from 1.9 to 2.7 times. This suggests that afsRS(cla) improve the production of natamycin through increased transcription. This study provides a good example for applying afsRS(cla) in high yield breeding of industrial antibiotic producers.

  20. Comparison of radiofrequency catheter ablation of drivers and circumferential pulmonary vein isolation in atrial fibrillation: a noninferiority randomized multicenter RADAR-AF trial.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Felipe; Almendral, Jesús; Ormaetxe, José Miguel; Moya, Angel; Martínez-Alday, Jesús Daniel; Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Castellanos, Eduardo; Arribas, Fernando; Arias, Miguel Ángel; Tercedor, Luis; Peinado, Rafael; Arcocha, Maria Fe; Ortiz, Mercedes; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; Arenal, Angel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Jalife, José

    2014-12-16

    Empiric circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) has become the therapy of choice for drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). Although results are suboptimal, it is unknown whether mechanistically-based strategies targeting AF drivers are superior. This study sought to determine the efficacy and safety of localized high-frequency source ablation (HFSA) compared with CPVI in patients with drug-refractory AF. This prospective, multicenter, single-blinded study of 232 patients (age 53 ± 10 years, 186 males) randomized those with paroxysmal AF (n = 115) to CPVI or HFSA-only (noninferiority design) and those with persistent AF (n = 117) to CPVI or a combined ablation approach (CPVI + HFSA, superiority design). The primary endpoint was freedom from AF at 6 months post-first ablation procedure. Secondary endpoints included freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias (AT) at 6 and 12 months, periprocedural complications, overall adverse events, and quality of life. In paroxysmal AF, HFSA failed to achieve noninferiority at 6 months after a single procedure but, after redo procedures, was noninferior to CPVI at 12 months for freedom from AF and AF/AT. Serious adverse events were significantly reduced in the HFSA group versus CPVI patients (p = 0.02). In persistent AF, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for primary and secondary endpoints, but CPVI + HFSA trended toward more serious adverse events. In paroxysmal AF, HFSA failed to achieve noninferiority at 6 months but was noninferior to CPVI at 1 year in achieving freedom of AF/AT and a lower incidence of severe adverse events. In persistent AF, CPVI + HFSA offered no incremental value. (Radiofrequency Ablation of Drivers of Atrial Fibrillation [RADAR-AF]; NCT00674401). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-02-12

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region.

  2. Rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation – the J-ROCKET AF study –.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masatsugu; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Tanahashi, Norio; Momomura, Shin-ichi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Tajiri, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The global ROCKET AF study evaluated once-daily rivaroxaban vs. warfarin for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). A separate trial, J-ROCKET AF, compared the safety of a Japan-specific rivaroxaban dose with warfarin administered according to Japanese guidelines in Japanese patients with AF. J-ROCKET AF was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial. Patients (n=1,280) with non-valvular AF at increased risk for stroke were randomized to receive 15 mg once-daily rivaroxaban or warfarin dose-adjusted according to Japanese guidelines. The primary objective was to determine non-inferiority of rivaroxaban against warfarin for the principal safety outcome of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding, in the on-treatment safety population. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke and systemic embolism. Non-inferiority of rivaroxaban to warfarin was confirmed; the rate of the principal safety outcome was 18.04% per year in rivaroxaban-treated patients and 16.42% per year in warfarin-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.42; P<0.001 [non-inferiority]). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 0.8% with rivaroxaban and 1.6% with warfarin. There was a strong trend for a reduction in the rate of stroke/systemic embolism with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin (HR, 0.49; P=0.050). J-ROCKET AF demonstrated the safety of a Japan-specific rivaroxaban dose and supports bridging the global ROCKET AF results into Japanese clinical practice.

  3. UHM–ULM interactions in the RBM39–U2AF65 splicing-factor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyuk, Galina A.; Serrano, Pedro; Peralta, Eigen; Farr, Carol L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Geralt, Michael; Das, Debanu; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Deacon, Ashley M.; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Godzik, Adam; Wilson, Ian A.; Wüthrich, Kurt; Salomon, Daniel R.; Williamson, James R.

    2016-03-24

    RNA-binding protein 39 (RBM39) is a splicing factor and a transcriptional co-activator of estrogen receptors and Jun/AP-1, and its function has been associated with malignant progression in a number of cancers. The C-terminal RRM domain of RBM39 belongs to the U2AF homology motif family (UHM), which mediate protein–protein interactions through a short tryptophan-containing peptide known as the UHM-ligand motif (ULM). Here, crystal and solution NMR structures of the RBM39-UHM domain, and the crystal structure of its complex with U2AF65-ULM, are reported. The RBM39–U2AF65 interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from human cell extracts, by isothermal titration calorimetry and by NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments with the purified proteins. When compared with related complexes, such as U2AF35–U2AF65 and RBM39–SF3b155, the RBM39-UHM–U2AF65-ULM complex reveals both common and discriminating recognition elements in the UHM–ULM binding interface, providing a rationale for the known specificity of UHM–ULM interactions. This study therefore establishes a structural basis for specific UHM–ULM interactions by splicing factors such as U2AF35, U2AF65, RBM39 and SF3b155, and a platform for continued studies of intermolecular interactions governing disease-related alternative splicing in eukaryotic cells.

  4. Long-Term Patterns in the Population Dynamics of Daphnia longispina, Leptodora kindtii and Cyanobacteria in a Shallow Reservoir: A Self-Organising Map (SOM) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wojtal-Frankiewicz, Adrianna; Kruk, Andrzej; Frankiewicz, Piotr; Oleksińska, Zuzanna; Izydorczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of long-term patterns in the seasonal dynamics of Daphnia longispina, Leptodora kindtii and cyanobacteria is dependent upon their interactions, the water temperature and the hydrological conditions, which were all investigated between 1999 and 2008 in the lowland Sulejow Reservoir. The biomass of cyanobacteria, densities of D. longispina and L. kindtii, concentration of chlorophyll a and water temperature were assessed weekly from April to October at three sampling stations along the longitudinal reservoir axis. The retention time was calculated using data on the actual water inflow and reservoir volume. A self-organising map (SOM) was used due to high interannual variability in the studied parameters and their often non-linear relationships. Classification of the SOM output neurons into three clusters that grouped the sampling terms with similar biotic states allowed identification of the crucial abiotic factors responsible for the seasonal sequence of events: cluster CL-ExSp (extreme/spring) corresponded to hydrologically unstable cold periods (mostly spring) with extreme values and highly variable abiotic factors, which made abiotic control of the biota dominant; cluster CL-StSm (stable/summer) was associated with ordinary late spring and summer and was characterised by stable non-extreme abiotic conditions, which made biotic interactions more important; and the cluster CL-ExSm (extreme/summer), was associated with late spring/summer and characterised by thermal or hydrological extremes, which weakened the role of biotic factors. The significance of the differences between the SOM sub-clusters was verified by Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn tests. The importance of the temperature and hydrological regimes as the key plankton-regulating factors in the dam reservoir, as shown by the SOM, was confirmed by the results of canonical correlation analyses (CCA) of each cluster. The demonstrated significance of hydrology in seasonal plankton dynamics

  5. Long-Term Patterns in the Population Dynamics of Daphnia longispina, Leptodora kindtii and Cyanobacteria in a Shallow Reservoir: A Self-Organising Map (SOM) Approach.

    PubMed

    Wojtal-Frankiewicz, Adrianna; Kruk, Andrzej; Frankiewicz, Piotr; Oleksińska, Zuzanna; Izydorczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of long-term patterns in the seasonal dynamics of Daphnia longispina, Leptodora kindtii and cyanobacteria is dependent upon their interactions, the water temperature and the hydrological conditions, which were all investigated between 1999 and 2008 in the lowland Sulejow Reservoir. The biomass of cyanobacteria, densities of D. longispina and L. kindtii, concentration of chlorophyll a and water temperature were assessed weekly from April to October at three sampling stations along the longitudinal reservoir axis. The retention time was calculated using data on the actual water inflow and reservoir volume. A self-organising map (SOM) was used due to high interannual variability in the studied parameters and their often non-linear relationships. Classification of the SOM output neurons into three clusters that grouped the sampling terms with similar biotic states allowed identification of the crucial abiotic factors responsible for the seasonal sequence of events: cluster CL-ExSp (extreme/spring) corresponded to hydrologically unstable cold periods (mostly spring) with extreme values and highly variable abiotic factors, which made abiotic control of the biota dominant; cluster CL-StSm (stable/summer) was associated with ordinary late spring and summer and was characterised by stable non-extreme abiotic conditions, which made biotic interactions more important; and the cluster CL-ExSm (extreme/summer), was associated with late spring/summer and characterised by thermal or hydrological extremes, which weakened the role of biotic factors. The significance of the differences between the SOM sub-clusters was verified by Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn tests. The importance of the temperature and hydrological regimes as the key plankton-regulating factors in the dam reservoir, as shown by the SOM, was confirmed by the results of canonical correlation analyses (CCA) of each cluster. The demonstrated significance of hydrology in seasonal plankton dynamics

  6. Structural Basis for Polypyrimidine Tract Recognition by the Essential Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor U2AF65

    SciTech Connect

    Sickmier,E.; Frato, K.; Shen, H.; Paranawithana, S.; Green, M.; Kielkopf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF{sup 65}, guides the early stages of splice site choice by recognizing a polypyrimidine (Py)-tract consensus sequence near the 3'-splice site. Since Py-tracts are relatively poorly conserved in higher eukaryotes, U2AF{sup 65} is faced with the problem of specifying uridine-rich sequences, yet tolerating a variety of nucleotide substitutions found in natural Py-tracts. To better understand these apparently contradictory RNA binding characteristics, the X-ray structure of the U2AF{sup 65} RNA binding domain bound to a Py-tract composed of seven uridines has been determined at 2.5Angstroms resolution. Specific hydrogen bonds between U2AF{sup 65} and the uracil bases provide an explanation for polyuridine recognition. Flexible sidechains and bound water molecules form the majority of the base contacts, and potentially could rearrange when the U2AF{sup 65} structure adapts to different Py-tract sequences. The energetic importance of conserved residues for Py-tract binding is established by analysis of site-directed mutant U2AF{sup 65} proteins using surface plasmon resonance.

  7. Microstructural basis for the effect of chromium on the strength and toughness of AF1410-based high performance steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Machmeier, P. M.

    1996-09-01

    The variation in strength and Charpy impact toughness as a function of tempering temperature in the range of 200 ‡C to 650 ‡C was investigated in AF 1410 and AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steels produced in a laboratory-scale, and a commercially produced AerMet 100 steel. The tensile test results showed that AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr had lower strength compared to AF 1410, while AerMet 100 had the highest strength of the three steels examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated that the strength variations among the steels can be attributed to differences in the matrix/carbide coherency strain and the volume fraction of the strengthening M2C carbides. The toughness values of the three steels were comparable when tempered up to 424 ‡C. Tempering at and above 454 ‡C resulted in a relative enhancement of toughness in AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steel compared to AF 1410. This toughening was attributed to the destabilization of cementite at lath and prior austenite boundaries and the formation of reverted austenite.

  8. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-02-27

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  9. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  10. [Biomechanics of AF new 3-d pedical screw system and treatment of 31 patients with unstable thoracolumbar fracture].

    PubMed

    Zou, D; Hai, Y; Ma, H

    1995-04-01

    For anatomic reduction of the spinal frectures, the 3 dimensional multiple correction forces were needed. Several pedical screw systems were designed for reducion and fixation of the spinal fractures as the AO universal joint system and the RF angle screw system. Because of the contradiction of the universal joint and the fixed angle, a new generation of RF was designed and named AF (atlas fixator) system. This is a new concept of 3-D reduction, without complex structure as universal joint, but has truly 3-D adjustment that allowed to reduce the intra-canal compromise. It also provided rigid fixation to maintain the reduction. Comparison with CD, AO, Steffee, and RF, the AF was truly 3-D reduction in XTZ axis. It provided strong symmetric transmitter orthotic force to correct the deformity. 31 patients with unstable thoracolumbar fractures were treated with the new AF system. 17 had partial (15) or complete (2) neurologic deficits. The AF system provided accurate angle to restore the normal thoracic-lumbar lordosis and to maintain it. All patients had a anatomic reduction by AF system. The spinal canal area increased over 33% by CT scan (P < 0.01). All cases were followed up over 8 months. No one deteriorated neurologically after AF fixation.

  11. Loss of AF-6/afadin induces cell invasion, suppresses the formation of glandular structures and might be a predictive marker of resistance to chemotherapy in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuro; Mori, Taisuke; Sawada, Morio; Matsushima, Hiroshi; Ito, Fumitake; Akiyama, Makoto; Kitawaki, Jo

    2015-04-12

    AF-6/afadin plays an important role in the formation of adherence junctions. In breast and colon cancer, loss of AF-6/afadin induces cell migration and cell invasion. We aimed to elucidate the role of AF-6/afadin in human endometrial cancer. Morphology and AF-6/afadin expression in endometrial cancer cell lines was investigated by 3-dimensional culture. We used Matrigel invasion assay to demonstrate AF-6/afadin knockdown induced invasive capability. Cell proliferation assay was performed to estimate chemoresistance to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin induced by AF-6/afadin knockdown. The associations between AF-6/afadin expression and clinicopathological status were determined by immunohistochemical analysis in endometrial cancer tissues. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before the study. The majority of cell clumps in 3-dimensional cultures of Ishikawa cells that strongly expressed AF-6/afadin showed round gland-like structures. In contrast, the cell clumps in 3-dimensional cultures of HEC1A and AN3CA cells-both weakly expressing AF-6/afadin-showed irregular gland-like structures and disorganized colonies with no gland-like structures, respectively. AF-6/afadin knockdown resulted in reduced number of gland-like structures in 3-dimensional cultures and enhancement of cell invasion and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Src in the highly AF-6/afadin-expressing endometrial cancer cell line. Inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) (U0126) and Src (SU6656) suppressed the AF-6/afadin knockdown-induced invasive capability. AF-6/afadin knockdown induced chemoresistance to doxorubicin, paclitaxel and cisplatin in Ishikawa cells, not in HEC1A. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that AF-6/afadin expression was significantly associated with myometrial invasion and high histological grade. AF-6/afadin regulates cell morphology and invasiveness. Invasive capability is partly regulated through the ERK and Src pathway. The inhibitors to these pathways might be

  12. Responsiveness of AF6, a new, short, validated, atrial fibrillation-specific questionnaire—symptomatic benefit of direct current cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Bengtson, Ann; Medin, Jennie; Frison, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effects on symptoms of electrical cardioversion (DC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a new, short, validated, AF-specific questionnaire, the AF6. Methods One hundred eleven patients (67 ± 12 years, 89 men) were screened before and 12 ± 3 days after DC using AF6, covering ‘breathing difficulties at rest’, ‘breathing difficulties on exertion’, ‘limitations in day-to-day life due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘feeling of discomfort due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’, and ‘worry/anxiety due to atrial fibrillation’. A single global score was calculated. The Toronto AF Symptoms and Severity Check List (AFSS) and the generic SF-36 were also administered. Patients in sinus rhythm at 12 ± 3 days (n = 56) were defined as responders and patients in AF (n = 55) as non-responders. Results The mean single global score decreased in all patients (18 ± 12.4 to 13 ± 11.6, p < 0.0001) and in responders (22 ± 14 vs. 12 ± 12, p < 0.01) but not in non-responders (14 ± 9 vs. 14 ± 11, N.S). The AFSS frequency scores decreased from 14.5 ± 7.7 to 9.5 ± 7.8 in responders, p = 0.001, but not in non-responders. There was a strong correlation between changes in the AF6 and the SF-36 regarding four of the six items. Effect sizes of AF6 ranged from 0 to 0.52 in all patients, in responders from 0.10 to 0.85 and in non-responders from −0.23 to 0.34, the highest figures consistently referring to ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’. Conclusions The symptom scores measured by AF6 decreased significantly, especially in responders. AF6 demonstrated adequate responsiveness to change, and effect sizes were mostly moderate, in responders moderate to high. PMID:20461545

  13. Higher risk of death and stroke in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results from the ROCKET-AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Breithardt, Günter; Hankey, Graeme J.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Anticoagulation prophylaxis for stroke is recommended for at-risk patients with either persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared outcomes in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal AF receiving oral anticoagulation. Methods and results Patients randomized in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET-AF) trial (n = 14 264) were grouped by baseline AF category: paroxysmal or persistent. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare thrombo-embolic events, bleeding, and death between groups, in high-risk subgroups, and across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Of 14 062 patients, 11 548 (82%) had persistent AF and 2514 (18%) had paroxysmal AF. Patients with persistent AF were marginally older (73 vs. 72, P = 0.03), less likely female (39 vs. 45%, P < 0.0001), and more likely to have previously used vitamin K antagonists (64 vs. 56%, P < 0.0001) compared with patients with paroxysmal AF. In patients randomized to warfarin, time in therapeutic range was similar (58 vs. 57%, P = 0.94). Patients with persistent AF had higher adjusted rates of stroke or systemic embolism (2.18 vs. 1.73 events per 100-patient-years, P = 0.048) and all-cause mortality (4.78 vs. 3.52, P = 0.006). Rates of major bleeding were similar (3.55 vs. 3.31, P = 0.77). Rates of stroke or systemic embolism in both types of AF did not differ by treatment assignment (rivaroxaban vs. warfarin, Pinteraction = 0.6). Conclusion In patients with AF at moderate-to-high risk of stroke receiving anticoagulation, those with persistent AF have a higher risk of thrombo-embolic events and worse survival compared with paroxysmal AF. PMID:25209598

  14. Higher risk of death and stroke in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results from the ROCKET-AF Trial.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Hellkamp, Anne S; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Breithardt, Günter; Hankey, Graeme J; Becker, Richard C; Singer, Daniel E; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-02-01

    Anticoagulation prophylaxis for stroke is recommended for at-risk patients with either persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared outcomes in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal AF receiving oral anticoagulation. Patients randomized in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET-AF) trial (n = 14 264) were grouped by baseline AF category: paroxysmal or persistent. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare thrombo-embolic events, bleeding, and death between groups, in high-risk subgroups, and across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Of 14 062 patients, 11 548 (82%) had persistent AF and 2514 (18%) had paroxysmal AF. Patients with persistent AF were marginally older (73 vs. 72, P = 0.03), less likely female (39 vs. 45%, P < 0.0001), and more likely to have previously used vitamin K antagonists (64 vs. 56%, P < 0.0001) compared with patients with paroxysmal AF. In patients randomized to warfarin, time in therapeutic range was similar (58 vs. 57%, P = 0.94). Patients with persistent AF had higher adjusted rates of stroke or systemic embolism (2.18 vs. 1.73 events per 100-patient-years, P = 0.048) and all-cause mortality (4.78 vs. 3.52, P = 0.006). Rates of major bleeding were similar (3.55 vs. 3.31, P = 0.77). Rates of stroke or systemic embolism in both types of AF did not differ by treatment assignment (rivaroxaban vs. warfarin, Pinteraction = 0.6). In patients with AF at moderate-to-high risk of stroke receiving anticoagulation, those with persistent AF have a higher risk of thrombo-embolic events and worse survival compared with paroxysmal AF. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  15. AF710B, a Novel M1/σ1 Agonist with Therapeutic Efficacy in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Abraham; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Wu, Lili; Ryskamp, Daniel A; Bar-Ner, Nira; Natan, Niva; Brandeis, Rachel; Elkon, Hanoch; Nahum, Victoria; Gershonov, Eitan; LaFerla, Frank M; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed orthosteric M1 muscarinic agonists (e.g. AF102B, AF267B and AF292), which act as cognitive enhancers and potential disease modifiers. We now report on a novel compound, AF710B, a highly potent and selective allosteric M1 muscarinic and σ1 receptor agonist. AF710B exhibits an allosteric agonistic profile on the M1 muscarinic receptor; very low concentrations of AF710B significantly potentiated the binding and efficacy of carbachol on M1 receptors and their downstream effects (p-ERK1/2, p-CREB). AF710B (1-30 µg/kg, p.o.) was a potent and safe cognitive enhancer in rats treated with the M1 antagonist trihexyphenidyl (passive avoidance impairment). These effects of AF710B involve σ1 receptor activation. In agreement with its antiamnesic properties, AF710B (at 30 nM), via activation of M1 and a possible involvement of σ1 receptors, rescued mushroom synapse loss in PS1-KI and APP-KI neuronal cultures, while AF267B (1 µM) was less potent in PS1-KI and ineffective in APP-KI models, respectively. In female 3xTg-AD mice, AF710B (10 µg/kg, i.p./daily/2 months) (i) mitigated cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze; (ii) decreased BACE1, GSK3β activity, p25/CDK5, neuroinflammation, soluble and insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42, plaques and tau pathologies. AF710B differs from conventional σ1 and M1 muscarinic (orthosteric, allosteric or bitopic) agonists. These results highlight AF710B as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (e.g. improving cognitive deficits, synaptic loss, amyloid and tau pathologies, and neuroinflammation) with a superior profile over a plethora of other therapeutic strategies.

  16. AF710B, a Novel M1/σ1 Agonist with Therapeutic Efficacy in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Abraham; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Wu, Lili; Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Bar-Ner, Nira; Natan, Niva; Brandeis, Rachel; Elkon, Hanoch; Nahum, Victoria; Gershonov, Eitan; LaFerla, Frank M.; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed orthosteric M1 muscarinic agonists (e.g., AF102B, AF267B, and AF292), which act as cognitive enhancers and potential disease modifiers. We now report on a novel compound, AF710B, a highly potent and selective allosteric M1 muscarinic and σ1 receptor agonist. AF710B exhibits an allosteric agonistic profile on M1 muscarinic receptor; very low concentrations of AF710B significantly potentiated the binding and efficacy of carbachol on M1 receptors and their downstream effects (phopho-ERK1/2, phospho-CREB). AF710B (1–30 µg/kg, po) was a potent and safe cognitive enhancer in rats treated with the M1 antagonist trihexyphenidyl (passive avoidance impairment). These effects of AF710B involve σ1 receptor activation. In agreement with its anti-amnesic properties, AF710B (at 30 nM), via activation of M1 and a possible involvement of σ1 receptors, rescued mushroom synapse loss in PS1-KI and APP-KI neuronal cultures, while AF267B (1 µM) was less potent in PS1-KI and ineffective in APP-KI models, respectively. In female 3xTg-AD mice AF710B (10 µg/kg, ip/daily/2 months) – i) mitigated cognitive impairments in Morris water maze; ii) decreased BACE1, GSK3β activity, p25/CDK5, neuroinflammation, soluble and insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42, plaques and tau pathologies. AF710B differs from conventional σ1, M1 muscarinic (orthosteric, allosteric or bi-topic) or σ1/muscarinic agonists. These results highlight AF710B as a potential treatment for AD (e.g., improving cognitive deficits, synaptic loss, amyloid and tau pathologies, and neuroinflammation) with a superior profile over a plethora of other therapeutic strategies. PMID:26606130

  17. Conjunction of wavelet transform and SOM-mutual information data pre-processing approach for AI-based Multi-Station nitrate modeling of watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourani, Vahid; Andalib, Gholamreza; Dąbrowska, Dominika

    2017-05-01

    Accurate nitrate load predictions can elevate decision management of water quality of watersheds which affects to environment and drinking water. In this paper, two scenarios were considered for Multi-Station (MS) nitrate load modeling of the Little River watershed. In the first scenario, Markovian characteristics of streamflow-nitrate time series were proposed for the MS modeling. For this purpose, feature extraction criterion of Mutual Information (MI) was employed for input selection of artificial intelligence models (Feed Forward Neural Network, FFNN and least square support vector machine). In the second scenario for considering seasonality-based characteristics of the time series, wavelet transform was used to extract multi-scale features of streamflow-nitrate time series of the watershed's sub-basins to model MS nitrate loads. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) clustering technique which finds homogeneous sub-series clusters was also linked to MI for proper cluster agent choice to be imposed into the models for predicting the nitrate loads of the watershed's sub-basins. The proposed MS method not only considers the prediction of the outlet nitrate but also covers predictions of interior sub-basins nitrate load values. The results indicated that the proposed FFNN model coupled with the SOM-MI improved the performance of MS nitrate predictions compared to the Markovian-based models up to 39%. Overall, accurate selection of dominant inputs which consider seasonality-based characteristics of streamflow-nitrate process could enhance the efficiency of nitrate load predictions.

  18. Social-Ecological Patterns of Soil Heavy Metals Based on a Self-Organizing Map (SOM): A Case Study in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Binwu; Li, Hong; Sun, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The regional management of trace elements in soils requires understanding the interaction between the natural system and human socio-economic activities. In this study, a social-ecological patterns of heavy metals (SEPHM) approach was proposed to identify the heavy metal concentration patterns and processes in different ecoregions of Beijing (China) based on a self-organizing map (SOM). Potential ecological risk index (RI) values of Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cu, As, Cd and Pb were calculated for 1,018 surface soil samples. These data were averaged in accordance with 253 communities and/or towns, and compared with demographic, agriculture structure, geomorphology, climate, land use/cover, and soil-forming parent material to discover the SEPHM. Multivariate statistical techniques were further applied to interpret the control factors of each SEPHM. SOM application clustered the 253 towns into nine groups on the map size of 12 × 7 plane (quantization error 1.809; topographic error, 0.0079). The distribution characteristics and Spearman rank correlation coefficients of RIs were strongly associated with the population density, vegetation index, industrial and mining land percent and road density. The RIs were relatively high in which towns in a highly urbanized area with large human population density exist, while low RIs occurred in mountainous and high vegetation cover areas. The resulting dataset identifies the SEPHM of Beijing and links the apparent results of RIs to driving factors, thus serving as an excellent data source to inform policy makers for legislative and land management actions. PMID:24690947

  19. Multiple indices of soil nitrogen status and temperature regulate microbial C allocation to CO2, substrate choices, and contributions to SOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, S. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The response of microbial resource demand to many environmental variables, including temperature and natural organic and inorganic N variability, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, we do not understand how these variables can influence CO2 release vs. C retention in cell walls, which as microbial necromass can generate long-lived soil organic matter (SOM). We explore microbial resource demand and C retention vs. release in one temperate forest and two boreal forests along a climate gradient. We characterized SOM C:N and inorganic N, extracellular enzyme activity (E), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration and δ13C. Experimental warming permitted us to assess how interactions between soil N status and warming influence resource demand and C flows through microbes in the two boreal soils. For all soils, we used δ13C of respired CO2 and δ13CPLFA to generate indices of C allocation to biomass vs. to respiratory costs (Δ), useful for cross-site comparisons. Decreasing values of Δ indicate a greater proportion of 13C-enriched C allocated to respiration relative to PLFA-C; changes in Δ with warming or N status thus imply that these variables can influence the physiological mechanisms determining the fate of microbial C after it is imported into the cell. We thus were able to assess the influence of soil N status and warming on substrate decay via E, the fate of microbial C from diverse substrates via Δ, and one index of microbial composition relevant to SOM formation [PLFA]. In all soils, E often varied with N status in ways predicted by stoichiometric theory. For example, the ratio of exo-enzymes associated with labile C decay to those linked to organic N decay (EC:N) increased with inorganic N, and EC:N declined as substrate C:N increased. In contrast to measures of decay, all soils exhibited distinct responses of microbial composition and C allocation to N status and warming. In the temperate forest soils, Gram+ bacteria responded positively to

  20. Increased mortality associated with digoxin in contemporary patients with atrial fibrillation: findings from the TREAT-AF study.

    PubMed

    Turakhia, Mintu P; Santangeli, Pasquale; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Xu, Xiangyan; Ullal, Aditya J; Than, Claire T; Schmitt, Susan; Holmes, Tyson H; Frayne, Susan M; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Yang, Felix; Hoang, Donald D; Ho, P Michael; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2014-08-19

    Despite endorsement of digoxin in clinical practice guidelines, there exist limited data on its safety in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF). The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of digoxin with mortality in AF. Using complete data of the TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we identified patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF seen within 90 days in an outpatient setting between VA fiscal years 2004 and 2008. We used multivariate and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of digoxin use with death. Residual confounding was assessed by sensitivity analysis. Of 122,465 patients with 353,168 person-years of follow-up (age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% male), 28,679 (23.4%) patients received digoxin. Cumulative mortality rates were higher for digoxin-treated patients than for untreated patients (95 vs. 67 per 1,000 person-years; p < 0.001). Digoxin use was independently associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.29, p < 0.001) and propensity matching (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.25, p < 0.001), even after adjustment for drug adherence. The risk of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, or concomitant use of beta-blockers, amiodarone, or warfarin. Digoxin was associated with increased risk of death in patients with newly diagnosed AF, independent of drug adherence, kidney function, cardiovascular comorbidities, and concomitant therapies. These findings challenge current cardiovascular society recommendations on use of digoxin in AF. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in East Asian patients from the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence; Hu, Dai Yi; Oomman, Abraham; Tan, Ru-San; Patel, Manesh R; Singer, Daniel E; Breithardt, Günter; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Califf, Robert; Fox, Keith A A; Berkowitz, Scott D; Hacke, Werner; Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    In Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial, rivaroxaban was noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high stroke risk. Because of differences in patient demographics, epidemiology, and stroke risk management in East Asia, outcomes and relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were assessed to determine consistency among East Asians versus other ROCKET AF participants. Baseline demographics and interaction of treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients within East Asia and outside were assessed. A total of 932 (6.5%) ROCKET AF participants resided in East Asia. At baseline, East Asians had lower weight, creatinine clearance, and prior vitamin K antagonist use; higher prevalence of prior stroke; and less congestive heart failure and prior myocardial infarction than other participants. Despite higher absolute event rates for efficacy and safety outcomes in East Asians, the relative efficacy of rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily; 15 mg once daily for creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min) versus warfarin with respect to the primary efficacy end point (stroke/systemic embolism) was consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.666). Relative event rates for the major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin were consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.867). Observed relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were similar among patients within and outside East Asia. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily, is an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in East Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00123456. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Monitoring of individual human exposure to aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) by immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, C.P.; Umbenhauer, D.; Chapot, B.; Montesano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Highly sensitive immunoassays have been used to quantitate aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) in human body fluids and tissues, respectively. This approach was taken in order to quantitate environmental exposure to these agents at an individual level to facilitate the investigation of their role in the etiology of human cancer. In order to analyse AF in human urine, an immunopurification step has been developed by using AF-specific antibody bound to AH-Sepharose 4B gel in a small (4-ml gel volume) affinity column prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA can be used to quantitate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) over the range 0.01 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml and the assay system has been validated by using human urine samples spiked with AFB1 over this concentration range. In addition, 29 urine samples from the Philippines have been analyzed and found to contain a range of levels from zero to 4.25 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent with a mean of 0.875 ng/ml. This compared with a mean of 0.066 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent in samples from France. Radioimmunoassay of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) has been performed on human esophageal and cardiac stomach mucosal DNA from tissue samples obtained during surgery in Linxian County, People's Republic of China, an area of high risk for both esophageal and stomach cancer. Using the methodology described and having 1 mg of hydrolyzed DNA allows the detection of approximately 25 fmol O6medG per mg DNA.

  3. Decision making for oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation: the ATA-AF study.

    PubMed

    Gussoni, Gualberto; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Vescovo, Giorgio; Gulizia, Michele; Mathieu, Giovanni; Scherillo, Marino; Panuccio, Domenico; Lucci, Donata; Nozzoli, Carlo; Fabbri, Gianna; Colombo, Fabrizio; Riva, Letizia; Baldo, Concetta I; Maggioni, Aldo P; Mazzone, Antonino

    2013-06-01

    Oral anticoagulants offer the best long-term protection against ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are cumbersome to use and their prescription is far from guidelines recommendations. We report the results of a large survey on the attitudes of prescription of VKA in patients with AF. 7148 patients were enrolled by 196 Internal Medicine (MED) and 164 Cardiology (CARD) centers, and VKA specifically analyzed. Thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks were evaluated by means of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and a study-specific bleeding score (modified HAS-BLED). 63.9% of non-valvular patients had a CHADS2 score≥2 (MED: 75.3%-CARD: 53.1%), and 28.4% a bleeding score≥3 (41.9% MED-15.8% CARD). VKA were prescribed in 55.5% of non-valvular patients (46.3% MED and 64.2% CARD), in 81% of high-risk valvular patients and in 58.8% of the overall study population. Among patients at high risk of bleeding (score≥3), VKA were prescribed in 26.9% of subjects, while, in the subgroup at high risk of thrombosis (CHADS2 Score<2), these were prescribed in 54.4%. Age≥75, paroxysmal AF, cognitive impairment, need for assistance, CHADS2<2 and bleeding score≥3 were independent predictors of non-use of VKA. Oral anticoagulants are more frequently used in CARD than in MED, plausibly due to greater complexity of MED patients. Stratification of thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk significantly drives the choice for VKA. However the fraction of patients in whom prescription or non-prescription is based on other individual characteristics is not negligible. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Radialgeschwindigkeiten und eine verbesserte Loesung für Doppelsternsystem AF Ari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    An improved solution for eclipsing binary AF Ari has been found by simultaneous fitting new radial-velocity data of the primary giant component and old photometry data to computed curves. The orbital period of 153 days and eccentricity of 0.36 has been confirmed. The new calibration has resulted in somewhat increased radii and masses of the components: 11.7 Rsun and 2.9 Msun for the G-type giant as well as 2.3 Rsun and 2.0 Msun for the A star. The english version of the paper will be found after the german article. Norbert Hauck is member of the BAV.

  5. Involvenflavones A-F, six new flavonoids with 3'-aryl substituent from Selaginella involven.

    PubMed

    Long, Hong-Ping; Zou, Hui; Li, Fu-Shuang; Li, Jing; Luo, Ping; Zou, Zhen-Xing; Hu, Chang-Ping; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Six new flavonoids, involvenflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from Selaginella involven. Their structures were elucidated based on UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS techniques. All compounds belong to apigenin derivatives with 3'-aryl substituent. This is the first report of the apigenin derivatives with 3'-aryl substituent from nature resources. These compounds also exhibited a potent effect against the injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) induced by high concentrations of glucose in vitro.

  6. Spectral analysis of LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, A. F.; Sholukhova, O.; Fabrika, S.

    2015-01-01

    We study spectra of two bona fide LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15. The spectra were obtained with the 6-m telescope (Russia) from 2005 to 2012. The model spectra were calculated with the CMFGEN code. We have not found strong changes in the spectra of the LBV stars in that time interval, however a certain variability has been detected. We estimate the star and wind parameters, such as luminosity, temperature, raduis, mass loss rate, escape velocity, hydrogen content, and reddening. We study the stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and find their initial masses using evolutionary tracks by Meynet et al. (1994).

  7. Different image integration modalities to guide AF ablation: impact on procedural and fluoroscopy times.

    PubMed

    Pratola, Claudio; Baldo, Elisa; Artale, Paolo; Marcantoni, Lina; Toselli, Tiziano; Percoco, Gianfranco; Sassone, Biagio; Ferrari, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Different image integration modalities are available for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, but their impact on procedural and fluoroscopy times has not been evaluated yet. Sixty patients (mean age 52.2 ± 12.0 years, 48.3% men, 75% paroxysmal AF) undergoing pulmonary vein (PV) encircling with PV disconnection for symptomatic drug-refractory AF were randomized to ablation with CARTO electroanatomical mapping (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA) integrated with: (1) preprocedural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; Group 1); (2) intracardiac echocardiography (ICE; Group 2); (3) preprocedural MRI and ICE (Group 3). PV disconnection was achieved in all patients. Total procedural time (Group 1: 124.7 ± 47.0; Group 2: 112.5 ± 30.4; Group 3: 108.6 ± 34.7 minutes) and total ablation time were similar between groups (P = ns). MRI integration alone required a higher fluoroscopy time (23.8 ± 6.9 in Group 1 vs 11.0 ± 2.3 and 13.9 ± 4.2 minutes in Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P < 0.005) and a longer time spent in the left atrium (109.0 ± 43.5 in Group 1 vs 78.2 ± 29.7 and 74.8 ± 34.3 minutes in Groups 2 and 3, respectively; P = 0.03) in comparison to ICE integration. Addition of MRI to ICE integration showed a tendency for a higher fluoroscopy time in comparison to ICE integration alone (P = 0.06). At a mean follow-up of 9.1 ± 2.2 months, there were no significant differences in AF recurrences among the groups (P = ns). ICE image integration significantly reduces the fluoroscopy time and the time spent in the left atrium in comparison to MRI integration alone. Addition of MRI to ICE integration does not reduce total procedural time and seems to lead to higher fluoroscopy time in comparison to ICE integration alone. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Alconbury RAF United Kingdom Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD A746 q13 ALCONBURY RAF UNITED KINGDOM REVISFD UNIFORM SUMMARY OF 1/5SURFACE WEAIER 0..(t0) AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL I CNICAI APPI CATI(NS CENTER...PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC) 0SURFACL V, LI’. ILI, I.LRVATIONS F4 ALCOjIwURY RAF UK HSIA #0362 N 52 22 W 000 13 EIEV 16OFIT EGWZ...A RAIWOKUTNMBS Air Force Environmental Technical Appi. Center Scott AFS, IL 62225 1 1 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS OZ. REPORT DATS USAFETAC

  9. Candenatenins A-F, phenolic compounds from the heartwood of Dalbergia candenatensis.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Karalai, Chatchanok; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2009-08-01

    Chemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of the heartwood of Dalbergia candenatensis affored six new phenolic compounds, designated candenatenins A-F (1-6), as well as four known compounds, (2R,3R)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (7), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (8), nutiducol (9), and sophoraflavanone A (10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies as well as by MS analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds are also reported.

  10. A novel clinical multimodal multiphoton tomograph for AF, SHG, CARS imaging, and FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    We report on a flexible nonlinear medical tomograph with multiple miniaturized detectors for simultaneous acquisition of two-photon autofluorescence (AF), second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The simultaneous visualization of the distribution of endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, melanin and elastin, SHG-active collagen and as well as non-fluorescent lipids within human skin in vivo is possible. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) can be generated using time-correlated single photon counting.

  11. Dover AFB Delaware. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-07

    SNOW X OF SMOKE DUST X OF OSS TOTALMONTH T. STORMS AD/OR RAIN &/fOR AND/OR HAIL IObs WITH FOG AND/ORt BOWIG AND/ORt WITH ORST NO. OF( ST )DRIZZLE DRIZZLE...OBSERVATIONS) 13707 DUVEF AF8 DELAWARE 4 Ago4 f!,SL 55 AR STATION STATION RA50 01055 MONTH ALL WEATHER ALL CLASS NOVAS ( ST .) ( CONDITION SPE MEAN (NT...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1.3707 )0VEIc AFB 0ELAwAIRE 43-46251-72 JAN4 ALL WEATHEV, 0600-0800 Cuss x05o5 ILL ST .) SIPEED i MEAN (KNTS

  12. The strainrange partitioning behavior of an advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Nachtigall, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The low-cycle, creep-fatigue characteristics of the advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA have been determined at 1400 F and are presented in terms of the method of strainrange partitioning (SRP). The mean stresses which develop in the PC and CP type SRP cycles at the lowest inelastic strainrange were observed to influence the cyclic lives to a greater extent than the creep effects and hence interfered with a conventional interpretation of the results by SRP. A procedure is proposed for dealing with the mean stress effects on life which is compatible with SRP.

  13. miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Hsieh, James; Rao, Prakash K; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-11-05

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.

  14. A review of rate control in atrial fibrillation, and the rationale and protocol for the RATE-AF trial

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Jonathan J; Griffith, Michael; Lip, Gregory YH; Mehta, Samir; Slinn, Gemma; Stanbury, Mary; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and causes impaired quality of life, an increased risk of stroke and death as well as frequent hospital admissions. The majority of patients with AF require control of heart rate. In this article, we summarise the limited evidence from clinical trials that guides prescription, and present the rationale and protocol for a new randomised trial. As rate control has not yet been shown to reduce mortality, there is a clear need to compare the impact of therapy on quality of life, cardiac function and exercise capacity. Such a trial should concentrate on the long-term effects of treatment in the largest proportion of patients with AF, those with symptomatic permanent AF, with the aim of improving patient well-being. Design and intervention The RAte control Therapy Evaluation in permanent Atrial Fibrillation (RATE-AF) trial will enrol 160 participants with a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point design comparing initial rate control with digoxin or bisoprolol. This will be the first head-to-head randomised trial of digoxin and beta-blockers in AF. Participants Recruited patients will be aged ≥60 years with permanent AF and symptoms of breathlessness (equivalent to New York Heart Association class II or above), with few exclusion criteria to maximise generalisability to routine clinical practice. Outcome measures The primary outcome is patient-reported quality of life, with secondary outcomes including echocardiographic ventricular function, exercise capacity and biomarkers of cellular and clinical response. Follow-up will occur at 6 and 12 months, with feasibility components to inform the design of a future trial powered to detect a difference in hospital admission. The RATE-AF trial will underpin an integrated approach to management including biomarkers, functions and symptoms that will guide future research into optimal, personalised rate control in patients with AF. Ethics and dissemination

  15. Outcomes after cardioversion and atrial fibrillation ablation in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin in the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Stevens, Susanna R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Halperin, Jonathan L; Singer, Daniel E; Hankey, Graeme J; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M; Breithardt, Günter

    2013-05-14

    This study sought to investigate the outcomes following cardioversion or catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban. There are limited data on outcomes following cardioversion or catheter ablation in AF patients treated with factor Xa inhibitors. We compared the incidence of electrical cardioversion (ECV), pharmacologic cardioversion (PCV), or AF ablation and subsequent outcomes in patients in a post hoc analysis of the ROCKET AF (Efficacy and Safety Study of Rivaroxaban With Warfarin for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Over a median follow-up of 2.1 years, 143 patients underwent ECV, 142 underwent PCV, and 79 underwent catheter ablation. The overall incidence of ECV, PCV, or AF ablation was 1.45 per 100 patient-years (n = 321; 1.44 [n = 161] in the warfarin arm, 1.46 [n = 160] in the rivaroxaban arm). The crude rates of stroke and death increased in the first 30 days after cardioversion or ablation. After adjustment for baseline differences, the long-term incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 3.11), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.69 to 3.55), and death from all causes (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 0.90 to 3.42) were not different before and after cardioversion or AF ablation. Hospitalization increased after cardioversion or AF ablation (HR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.51 to 2.68), but there was no evidence of a differential effect by randomized treatment (p value for interaction = 0.58). The incidence of stroke or systemic embolism (1.88% vs. 1.86%) and death (1.88% vs. 3.73%) were similar in the rivaroxaban-treated and warfarin-treated groups. Despite an increase in hospitalization, there were no differences in long-term stroke rates or survival following cardioversion or AF ablation. Outcomes were similar in patients treated with rivaroxaban or warfarin

  16. Mobile Health Technology for Atrial Fibrillation Management Integrating Decision Support, Education, and Patient Involvement: mAF App Trial.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yutao; Chen, Yundai; Lane, Deirdre A; Liu, Lihong; Wang, Yutang; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-08-26

    Mobile Health technology for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation is unknown. The simple mobile AF (mAF) App was designed to incorporate clinical decision-support tools (CHA2DS2-VASc [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or TIA, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category], HAS-BLED [Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly], SAMe-TT2R2 [Sex, Age <60 years, Medical history, Treatment, Tobacco use, Race] scores), educational materials, and patient involvement strategies with self-care protocols and structured follow-up. Patients with atrial fibrillation were randomized into 2 groups (mAF App vs usual care) in a cluster randomized design pilot study. Patients' knowledge, quality of life, drug adherence, and anticoagulation satisfaction were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Usability, feasibility, and acceptability of the mAF App were assessed at 1 month. A total of 113 patients were randomized to mAF App intervention (mean age, 67.4 years; 57.5% were male; mean follow-up, 69 days), and 96 patients were randomized to usual care (mean age, 70.9 years; 55.2% were male; mean follow-up, 95 days). More than 90% of patients reported that the mAF App was easy, user-friendly, helpful, and associated with significant improvements in knowledge compared with the usual care arm (P values for trend <.05). Drug adherence and anticoagulant satisfaction were significantly better with the mAF App versus usual care (all P < .05). Quality of life scores were significantly increased in the mAF App arm versus usual care, with anxiety and depression reduced (all P < .05). The pilot mAFA Trial is the first prospective randomized trial of Mobile Health technology in patients with atrial fibrillation, demonstrating that the mAF App, integrating clinical decision support,education, and patient

  17. Early and comprehensive management of atrial fibrillation: executive summary of the proceedings from the 2nd AFNET-EHRA consensus conference 'research perspectives in AF'.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Bax, Jeroen; Blomstrom-Lundquist, Carina; Calkins, Hugh; Camm, A John; Cappato, Ricardo; Cosio, Francisco; Crijns, Harry; Diener, Hans-Christian; Goette, Andreas; Israel, Carsten W; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lip, Gregory Y H; Nattel, Stanley; Page, Richard L; Ravens, Ursula; Schotten, Ulrich; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Waldo, Albert; Wegscheider, Karl; Willems, Stephan; Breithardt, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes important mortality and morbidity on a population-level. So far, we do not have the means to prevent AF or AF-related complications adequately. Therefore, over 70 experts on atrial fibrillation convened for the 2nd AFNET/EHRA consensus conference to suggest directions for research to improve management of AF patients (Appendix 1). The group defined three main areas in need for research in AF: 1. better understanding of the mechanisms of AF; 2. Improving rhythm control monitoring and management; and 3. comprehensive cardiovascular risk management in AF patients. The group put forward the hypothesis that successful therapy of AF and its associated complications will require comprehensive therapy. This applies e.g. to the "old" debate of "rate versus rhythm control", since rhythm control is generally added to underlying (continued) rate control therapy, but also to the emerging debate of "antiarrhythmic drugs versus catheter ablation", of which both may be needed in most patients to maintain sinus rhythm, but also to therapy of conditions that predispose to AF and contribute to cardiovascular complications such as stroke, cognitive decline, heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. We call for research initiatives aiming at a better understanding of the different causes of AF and its complications, and at development and validation of mechanism-based therapies. The future of AF therapy may require a combination of management of underlying and concomitant conditions, early and comprehensive rhythm control therapy, adequate control of ventricular rate and cardiac function, and continuous therapy to prevent AF-associated complications (e.g. antithrombotic therapy). The reasons for these suggestions are detailed in this paper.

  18. Relationship between Af temperature and load changes in Ni-Ti orthodontic wire under different thermomechanical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, I; Ohno, H; Sachdeva, R

    1999-12-01

    Simple three point bending tests were performed on Ni-Ti wires with three different Af points (1 degree C, 13 degrees C and 34 degrees C) to clarify the relationship between Af temperature and load changes under constant deformation. Each wire was deformed at 37 degrees C and then thermal changes were imposed by temperatures of 2 degrees C or 60 degrees C. The load changes with thermal changes from 37 degrees C to 2 degrees C or 60 degrees C showed the same tendency on the wires with different Af points: In the loading stage, the load became lower than the initial level at 37 degrees C and in the unloading stage, the load became higher than the initial load. The largest load change in the unloading stage was measured with the 13 degrees C Af point wire. Care must be taken when handling Ni-Ti wire with an Af point of less than 1 degree C in order to prevent it from reaching the limit of critical stress of slip deformation when the temperature in the mouth rises to above 40 degrees C.

  19. The vegetative compatibility group to which the US biocontrol agent Aspergillus flavus AF36 belongs is also endemic to Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, A; Grubisha, L C; Callicott, K A; Cotty, P J

    2016-04-01

    To assess frequencies of the Aspergillus flavus atoxigenic vegetative compatibility group (VCG) YV36, to which the biocontrol agent AF36 belongs, in maize-growing regions of Mexico. Over 3500 A. flavus isolates recovered from maize agroecosystems in four states of Mexico during 2005 through 2008 were subjected to vegetative compatibility analyses based on nitrate nonutilizing mutants. Results revealed that 59 (1·6%) isolates belong to VCG YV36. All 59 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph at the mating-type locus and the single nucleotide polymorphism in the polyketide synthase gene that confers atoxigenicity. Additional degradation of the aflatoxin gene cluster was detected in three isolates. Microsatellite loci analyses revealed low levels of genetic diversity and no linkage disequilibrium within VCG YV36. The VCG to which the biocontrol agent AF36 belongs, YV36, is also native to Mexico. The North American Free Trade Agreement should facilitate adoption of AF36 for use by Mexico in aflatoxin prevention programs. An USEPA registered biocontrol agent effective at preventing aflatoxin contamination of crops in the US, is also native to Mexico. This should facilitate the path to registration of AF36 as the first biopesticide for aflatoxin mitigation of maize in Mexico. Economic and health benefits to the population of Mexico should result once aflatoxin mitigation programs based on AF36 applications are implemented. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. An extended U2AF65–RNA-binding domain recognizes the 3′ splice site signal

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant A.; Salsi, Enea; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Henderson, Steven; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Green, Michael R.; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2016-01-01

    How the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65 recognizes the polypyrimidine (Py) signals of the major class of 3′ splice sites in human gene transcripts remains incompletely understood. We determined four structures of an extended U2AF65–RNA-binding domain bound to Py-tract oligonucleotides at resolutions between 2.0 and 1.5 Å. These structures together with RNA binding and splicing assays reveal unforeseen roles for U2AF65 inter-domain residues in recognizing a contiguous, nine-nucleotide Py tract. The U2AF65 linker residues between the dual RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) recognize the central nucleotide, whereas the N- and C-terminal RRM extensions recognize the 3′ terminus and third nucleotide. Single-molecule FRET experiments suggest that conformational selection and induced fit of the U2AF65 RRMs are complementary mechanisms for Py-tract association. Altogether, these results advance the mechanistic understanding of molecular recognition for a major class of splice site signals. PMID:26952537

  1. Response of Nitrosospira sp. Strain AF-Like Ammonia Oxidizers to Changes in Temperature, Soil Moisture Content, and Fertilizer Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the ecology of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, a unique group of ammonia oxidizers within the Betaproteobacteria. We studied the response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changing environmental conditions by applying molecular methods and physiological measurements to Californian grassland soil manipulated in the laboratory. This soil is naturally high in Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria relative to the much-better-studied Nitrosospira multiformis-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Increases in temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer interacted to reduce the relative abundance of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, although they remained numerically dominant. The overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased with increasing soil moisture and decreased with increasing temperature. Potential nitrification activity was altered by interactions among temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer, with activity tending to be higher when soil moisture and temperature were increased. The increase in potential nitrification activity with increased temperature was surprising, given that the overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased significantly under these conditions. This observation suggests that (i) Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria may respond to increased temperature with an increase in activity, despite a decrease in abundance, or (ii) that potential nitrification activity in these soils may be due to organisms other than bacteria (e.g., archaeal ammonia oxidizers), at least under conditions of increased temperature. PMID:17158615

  2. The splicing factor U2AF65 is functionally conserved in the thermotolerant deep-sea worm Alvinella pompejana.

    PubMed

    Henscheid, Kristy L; Shin, David S; Cary, S Craig; Berglund, J Andrew

    2005-03-10

    Due to their inherent stability, thermophilic bacteria and archaea serve as important resources for biochemical and biophysical analyses of many biological processes. Unfortunately, scientists characterizing eukaryote-specific processes, such as nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, are unable to take advantage of these sources of thermostable proteins. To identify and provide a source of thermostable eukaryotic proteins, we are characterizing splicing factors in the thermotolerant deep-sea vent polychaete, Alvinella pompejana. This worm, also known as the Pompeii worm, is found in the extreme environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and is one of the most thermotolerant eukaryotic organisms known. We report on detailed analyses of U2AF65, the large subunit of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor, an essential splicing factor important for intron definition and alternative splicing. The cloning and characterization of Pompeii U2AF65 show it is highly similar to human U2AF65 in sequence and function and is more thermostable than the human protein when bound to RNA in vitro. Notably, Pompeii U2AF65 can restore splicing in a human extract depleted of human U2AF. We also determine that the general splicing mechanisms and signal sequences are conserved in the Pompeii worm, an annelid which has previously been uncharacterized in terms of splicing factors and signals.

  3. Appendix D: Use of wave scenarios to assess potential submerged oil mat (SOM) formation along the coast of Florida and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, oil in the surf zone mixed with sediment in the surf zone to form heavier-than-water sediment oil agglomerates of various size, ranging from small (cm-scale) pieces (surface residual balls, SRBs) to large mats (100-m scale, surface residue mats, SR mats). Once SR mats formed in the nearshore or in the intertidal zone, they may have become buried by sand moving onshore or alongshore. To assist in locating possible sites of buried oil, wave scenarios previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) were used to determine the depths at which surface oil had the potential to mix with suspended sediment. For sediment to mix with floating oil and form an agglomerate of sufficient density to sink to the seafloor, either the water must be very shallow (e.g., within the swash zone) or sediment must be suspended to the water surface in sufficient concentrations to create a denser-than-sea water agglomerate. The focus of this study is to analyze suspended sediment mixing with surface oil in depths beyond the swash zone, in order to define the seaward limit of mat formation. A theoretical investigation of sediment dynamics in the nearshore zone revealed that non-breaking waves do not suspend enough sediment to the surface to form sinking sand/oil agglomerates. For this study, it was assumed that the cross-shore distribution of potential agglomerate formation is associated with the primary breaker line, and the presence of plunging breakers, over the time frame of oiling. The potential locations of submerged oil mats (SOMs) are sites where (1) possible agglomerate formation occurred, where (2) sediment accreted post-oiling and buried the SOM, and where (3) the bathymetry has not subsequently eroded to re-expose any mat that may have formed at that site. To facilitate identification of these locations, the range of water level variation over the time frame of oiling was also prescribed, which combined with the wave-breaking depth

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of the heterodimeric splicing factor U2AF: the RS domain on either the large or small Drosophila subunit is dispensable in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor) has an essential role in 3′ splice site selection. U2AF binds the intron pyrimidine tract between the branchpoint and the 3′ splice site and recruits U2 snRNP to the branch site at an early step in spliceosome assembly. Human U2AF is a heterodimer composed of large (hU2AF65) and small (hU2AF35) subunits. Both subunits contain a domain enriched in arginine–serine dipeptide repeats termed an RS domain. The two U2AF RS domains have been assigned essential and independent roles in spliceosome assembly in vitro—the hU2AF65 RS domain is required to target U2 snRNP to the branch site and the hU2AF35 RS domain is necessary for protein–protein interactions with constitutive and alternative splicing factors. We have investigated the functional requirements for the RS domains on the Drosophila U2AF homolog in vivo. In sharp contrast to its essential role in U2 snRNP recruitment in vitro, the RS domain on the Drosophila large subunit homolog (dU2AF50) was completely dispensable in vivo. Prompted by this unexpected result, we analyzed the RS domain on the Drosophila small subunit homolog (dU2AF38). Despite its requirement for enhancer-dependent splicing activity in vitro, the dU2AF38 RS domain was also inessential in vivo. Finally, we have tested whether the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer requires any RS domain. Flies mutant for both the small and large subunits could not be rescued by dU2AF50ΔRS and dU2AF38ΔRS transgenes. Therefore, in contrast to the separate roles assigned to the U2AF RS domains in vitro, our genetic data suggest that they may have redundant functions in vivo. PMID:9531538

  5. Substrate specificity and gene expression of two Penicillium chrysogenum α-L-arabinofuranosidases (AFQ1 and AFS1) belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 51 and 54.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Misako; Yasui, Kana; Hosokawa, Sachiko; Ihara, Hideshi

    2013-02-01

    We previously isolated two α-L-arabinofuranosidases (ABFs), termed AFQ1 and AFS1, from the culture filtrate of Penicillium chrysogenum 31B. afq1 and afs1 complementary DNAs encoding AFQ1 and AFS1 were isolated by in vitro cloning. The deduced amino acid sequences of AFQ1 and AFS1 are highly similar to those of Penicillium purpurogenum ABF 2 and ABF 1, respectively, which belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 51 and 54, respectively. Pfam analysis revealed an "Alpha-L-AF_C" domain in AFQ1 and "ArabFuran-catal" and "AbfB" domains in AFS1. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the afq1 gene was constitutively expressed in P. chrysogenum 31B at a low level, although the expression was slightly induced with arabinose, arabinitol, arabinan, and arabinoxylan. In contrast, expression of the afs1 gene was strongly expressed by the above four carbohydrates and less strongly induced by galactan. Recombinant enzymes (rAFQ1 and rAFS1) expressed in Escherichia coli were active against both p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside and polysaccharides with different specificities. (1)H-NMR analysis revealed that rAFS1 degraded arabinofuranosyl side chains that were both singly and doubly linked to the backbones of arabinoxylan and L-arabinan. On the other hand, rAFQ1 preferentially released arabinose linked to C-3 of single-substituted xylose or arabinose residues in the two polysaccharides.

  6. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  7. Intracardiac impedance response during acute AF internal cardioversion using novel rectilinear and capacitor-discharge waveforms.

    PubMed

    Rababah, A S; Walsh, S J; Manoharan, G; Walsh, P R; Escalona, O J

    2016-07-01

    Intracardiac impedance (ICI) is a major determinant of success during internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there have been few studies that have examined the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during internal cardioversion in relation to clinical outcome. In this study, voltage and current waveforms captured during internal cardioversion of acute AF in ovine models using novel radiofrequency (RF) generated low-tilt rectilinear and conventional capacitor-discharge based shock waveforms were retrospectively analysed using a digital signal processing algorithm to investigate the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during cardioversion. The algorithm was specifically designed to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple impedance parameters, including: mean intracardiac impedance (Z M), intracardiac impedance variance (ICIV) and impedance amplitude spectrum area (IAMSA) for each cardioversion event. A significant reduction in ICI was observed when comparing two successive shocks of increasing energy where cardioversion outcome was successful. In addition, ICIV and IAMSA variables were found to inversely correlate to the magnitude of energy delivered; with a stronger correlation found to the former parameter. In conclusion, ICIV and IAMSA have been evidenced as two key dynamic intracardiac impedance variables that may prove useful in better understanding of the cardioversion process and that could potentially act as prognostic markers with respect to clinical outcome.

  8. Loss of Dnmt3b accelerates MLL-AF9 leukemia progression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Li, X; Lu, P; Dong, F; Pang, Y; Ma, S; Cheng, H; Hao, S; Tang, F; Yuan, W; Zhang, X; Cheng, T

    2016-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematopoietic disorder with a poor prognosis. Abnormal DNA methylation is involved in the initiation and progression of AML. The de novo methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for the generation of genomic methylation patterns. While DNMT3A is frequently mutated in hematological malignancies, DNMT3B is rarely mutated. Although it has been previously reported that Dnmt3b functions as a tumor suppressor in a mouse model of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis, its function in AML is yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that deletion of Dnmt3b accelerated the progression of MLL-AF9 leukemia by increasing stemness and enhancing cell cycle progression. Gene profiling analysis revealed upregulation of the oncogenic gene set and downregulation of the cell differentiation gene set. Furthermore, loss of Dnmt3b was able to synergize with Dnmt3a deficiency in leukemia development. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Dnmt3b plays a tumor suppressive role in MLL-AF9 AML progression, thereby providing new insights into the roles of DNA methylation in leukemia development.

  9. Smyd2 is a Myc-regulated gene critical for MLL-AF9 induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bagislar, Sevgi; Sabò, Arianna; Kress, Theresia R.; Doni, Mirko; Nicoli, Paola; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The Smyd2 protein (Set- and Mynd domain containing protein 2) is a methyl-transferase that can modify both histones and cytoplasmic proteins. Smyd2 is over-expressed in several cancer types and was shown to be limiting for tumor development in the pancreas. However, genetic evidence for a role of Smyd2 in other cancers or in mouse development was missing to date. Using germ line-deleted mouse strains, we now show that Smyd2 and the related protein Smyd3 are dispensable for normal development. Ablation of Smyd2 did not affect hematopoiesis, but retarded the development of leukemia promoted by MLL-AF9, a fusion oncogene associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in humans. Smyd2-deleted leukemic cells showed a competitive disadvantage relative to wild-type cells, either in vitro or in vivo. The Smyd2 gene was directly activated by the oncogenic transcription factor Myc in either MLL9-AF9-induced leukemias, Myc-induced lymphomas, or fibroblasts. However, unlike leukemias, the development of lymphomas was not dependent upon Smyd2. Our data indicate that Smyd2 has a critical role downstream of Myc in AML. PMID:27655694

  10. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-07-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes' status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors' detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability.

  11. Multiple-image-depth modeling for hotspot and AF printing detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. P.; Chou, C. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    Typical OPC models focus on predicting wafer contour or CD; therefore, the modeling approach emphasizes careful determination of feature and edge locations in the photo-resist (PR) as well as the exposure threshold, so that the 'cut' model image matches the wafer SEM contours or cut-line CDs most closely. This is an exquisite approach with regard to the contour-based OPC, for the model is calibrated directly from wafer CDs. However, for other applications such as hotspot detection or assist feature (AF) printing prediction that might occur at the top or the bottom of the PR, the typical OPC model approach may not be accurate enough. Usually, these kinds of phenomenon can only be properly described by rigorous simulation, which is very time-consuming and hence not suitable for OPC. In this paper, the approach of building the OPC model with multiple image depths will be discussed. This approach references the images at the bottom and/or the top of the PR. This way, the behavior of the images which are not shown at the normal image depth can be predicted more accurately without distorting the optical model. This compromised OPC modeling approach is beneficial for runtime reduction compared to the rigorous simulation, and for better accuracy compared to conventional model. The applications for AF printing and hotspot predictions using the multiple image depth approach will be demonstrated.

  12. EPA Region 2 AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM (AIRS-AFS) GIS Layer

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands) registered in the Aerometric Information Retrieval System - Air Facility Subsystem. (AIRS/AFS). The AFS subsystem contains emissions, compliance, and permit data for stationary sources regulated by the U.S. EPA and state and local air pollution agencies. This information is used by states in preparation of State Implementation Plans (SIPs), to track the compliance status of point sources with various regulatory programs, and report emissions estimates for pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act.All data for EPA Region 2 Regulated Facility GIS layers are extracted from the Facility Registry System (FRS) of Envirofacts on a monthly basis using R2GIS SQL procedures and Linked Server definitions. The attributes for each media specific R2GIS Regulated Facility layer provides the ID, name, address and environmental interest (permit designation or regulated activity) from the parent media program system and the best available coordinates from the FRS Geospatial Tables except for the Region 2 CERLIS layers were all locational data is from the CERCLIS database only. There are a small percentage of EPA Regulated Facilities for which no coordinate information has been registered in any of the related EPA or State Program System Databases. These facilities will have attribute table records in the Fa

  13. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes’ status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors’ detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability. PMID:26193280

  14. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  15. A novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1 isolated from soil and purification of PHB-depolymerase.

    PubMed

    Shah, A A; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, A; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-12-01

    A new bacterial strain, capable of degrading poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was isolated from soil. This organism, identified as Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1, secreted PHB depolymerases both on solid as well as in liquid mineral salt medium containing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) as sole carbon source. The optimum production of PHB depolymerase was observed at pH 8 and 7, at 45 degrees C, 1% substrate concentration and in the presence of lactose as an additional carbon source. The extracellular PHB depolymerase was purified by gel permeation chromatography using Sephadex G-75. The Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1 produced two types of PHB depolymerases having molecular weights of about 37 and 45 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The difference in dry cell mass and amount of CO2 evolved in the test and control calculated gravimetrically through Sturm test indicated the degradative capabilities of Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1.

  16. The planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Diversin translocates to the nucleus to interact with the transcription factor AF9

    SciTech Connect

    Haribaskar, Ramachandran; Puetz, Michael; Schupp, Birte; Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Walz, Gerd; Schaefer, Tobias

    2009-09-11

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a {beta}-catenin-independent branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, orients cells and their appendages with respect to the body axes. Diversin, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein Diego, acts as a molecular switch that blocks {beta}-catenin-dependent and promotes {beta}-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. We report now that Diversin, containing several nuclear localization signals, translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the transcription factor AF9. Both Diversin and AF9 block canonical Wnt signaling; however, this occurs independently of each other, and does not require nuclear Diversin. In contrast, AF9 strongly augments the Diversin-driven activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent gene expression in the nucleus, and this augmentation largely depends on the presence of nuclear Diversin. Thus, our findings reveal that components of the PCP cascade translocate to the nucleus to participate in transcriptional regulation and PCP signaling.

  17. Modeling robust QSAR 3: SOM-4D-QSAR with iterative variable elimination IVE-PLS: application to steroid, azo dye, and benzoic acid series.

    PubMed

    Bak, Andrzej; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2007-01-01

    In the current paper we present a receptor-independent 4D-QSAR method based on self-organizing mapping (SOM-4D-QSAR) and in particular focus on its pharmacophore mapping ability. We use a novel stochastic procedure to verify the predictive ability of the method for a large population of 4D-QSAR models generated. This systematic study was conducted on a series of benzoic acids, azo dyes, and steroids that bind aromatase. We show that the 4D-QSAR method coupled with IVE-PLS provides a very stable and predictive modeling technique. The method enables us to identify the molecular motifs contributing the most to the fiber-dye affinity and the aromatase enzyme binding activity of the steroid. However, the method appeared much less effective for the benzoic acid series, in which the efficacy was limited by electronic effects strictly correlated to a single conformer.

  18. Expression of somatostatin receptors in human melanoma cell lines: effect of two different somatostatin analogues, octreotide and SOM230, on cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Alonso, M; Llecha, N; Mayorga, M E; Sorolla, A; Dolcet, X; Sanmartin, V; Abal, L; Casanova, J M; Baradad, M; Yeramian, A; Egido, R; Puig, S; Vilella, R; Matias-Guiu, X; Marti, R M

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatin analogues (SAs) are potential anticancer agents. This study was designed to investigate the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in melanoma cells and the effect of two SAs on cell proliferation and viability. Eighteen primary and metastatic human cutaneous melanoma cell lines were treated with octreotide and SOM230. Expression of SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3 and SSTR5 was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation, viability and cell death were assessed using standard assays. Inhibition was modelled by mixed-effect regression. Melanoma cells expressed one or more SSTR. Both SAs inhibited proliferation of most melanoma cell lines, but inhibition was < 50%. Neither SA affected cell viability or induced cell death. The results suggest that melanoma cell lines express SSTRs. The SAs investigated, under the conditions used in this study, did not, however, significantly inhibit melanoma growth or induce cell death. Novel SAs, combination therapy with SAs and their anti-angiogenic properties should be further investigated.

  19. New developmental stages for common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using mass and age variables obtained by K-means algorithm and self-organizing maps (SOM).

    PubMed

    de Castro Leão, Adriano; Duarte Dória Neto, Adrião; de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro

    2009-10-01

    This study proposes new developmental stages for Callithrix jacchus, using K-Means algorithm and an artificial neural network-self-organising maps (SOM) as computational tools, based on weight and age. Eight developmental stages are proposed: Infant I, II and III, Juvenile I and II, Sub adult, Young adult and Older adult. This classification is consistent with the first appearance of several behavioural and physiological characteristics and thus may have generality in defining critical developmental periods. It also reveals differences in male and female development and establishes a stage for the onset of the final adult life cycle. This classification is also important to understanding the biology of the ontogenetic development of common marmosets, providing new insights for the management and care of captive animals and improving age estimate indicators when specimens are captured in long term monitoring of free ranging groups.

  20. MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL alter the dynamic association of transcriptional regulators with genes critical for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Sara C; Jo, Stephanie Y; Sanders, Daniel S; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S; Slany, Robert K; Hess, Jay L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins deregulate the expression of genes critical for leukemia. The transforming domain of one of the most common MLL fusion partners, AF9, was immunopurified after expression in myeloblastic M1 cells, and associating proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine how binding of associating proteins compare across Hoxa9 and Meis1 in cell lines with and without MLL fusion proteins and how binding is altered during gene down-regulation and differentiation. Consistent with earlier purifications of ENL and AF4 from 293 cells, the 90 amino acid C-terminal domain of AF9 associates with many other MLL translocation partners including Enl, Af4, Laf4, Af5q31, Ell, and Af10. This complex, termed elongation assisting proteins (EAPs), also contains the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain kinase Cdk9/Cyclin T1/T2 (pTEFb) and the histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase Dot1L. Myeloid cells transformed by MLL fusions show higher levels and a broader distribution of EAP components at genes critical for leukemia. Inhibition of EAP components pTEFb and Dot1l show that both contribute significantly to activation of Hoxa9 and Meis1 expression. EAP is dynamically associated with the Hoxa9 and Meis1 loci in hematopoietic cells and rapidly dissociates during induction of differentiation. In the presence of MLL fusion proteins, its dissociation is prevented. The findings suggest that MLL fusion proteins deregulate genes critical for leukemia by excessive recruitment and impaired dissociation of EAP from target loci. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL alter the dynamic association of transcriptional regulators with genes critical for leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Sara C.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Sanders, Daniel S.; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S.; Slany, Robert K.; Hess, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to better understand how MLL fusion proteins deregulate the expression of genes critical for leukemia. Materials and Methods The transforming domain of one of the most common MLL fusion partners, AF9, was immuno-purified after expression in myeloblastic M1 cells and associating proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative PCR was used to determine how binding of associating proteins compare across Hoxa9 and Meis1 in cell lines with and without MLL fusion proteins and how binding is altered during gene down-regulation and differentiation. Results Consistent with earlier purifications of ENL and AF4 from 293 cells, the 90 amino acid C- terminal domain of AF9 associates with many other MLL translocation partners including Enl, Af4, Laf4, Af5q31, Ell, and Af10. This complex termed EAP for Elongation Assisting Proteins, also contains the RNA polymerase II C terminal domain kinase Cdk9/Cyclin T1/T2 (pTEFb) and the histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase Dot1L. Myeloid cells transformed by MLL fusions show higher levels and a broader distribution of EAP components at genes critical for leukemia. Inhibition of EAP components pTEFb and Dot1l show that both contribute significantly to activation of Hoxa9 and Meis1 expression. EAP is dynamically associated with the Hoxa9 and Meis1 loci in hematopoietic cells and rapidly dissociates during induction of differentiation. In the presence of MLL fusion proteins, its dissociation is prevented. Conclusion The findings suggest that MLL fusion proteins deregulate genes critical for leukemia by excessive recruitment and impaired dissociation of EAP from target loci. PMID:20854876

  2. A Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring Strategies After Cryptogenic Stroke (from the Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying AF Trial).

    PubMed

    Choe, William C; Passman, Rod S; Brachmann, Johannes; Morillo, Carlos A; Sanna, Tommaso; Bernstein, Richard A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Rymer, Marilyn M; Beckers, Frank; Koehler, Jodi; Ziegler, Paul D

    2015-09-15

    Ischemic stroke cause remains undetermined in 30% of cases, leading to a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke but may go undetected with short periods of ECG monitoring. The Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying Atrial Fibrillation trial (CRYSTAL AF) demonstrated that long-term electrocardiographic monitoring with insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) is superior to conventional follow-up in detecting AF in the population with cryptogenic stroke. We evaluated the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of various external monitoring techniques within a cryptogenic stroke cohort. Simulated intermittent monitoring strategies were compared to continuous rhythm monitoring in 168 ICM patients of the CRYSTAL AF trial. Short-term monitoring included a single 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holter and 21-day and 30-day event recorders. Periodic monitoring consisted of quarterly monitoring through 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holters and monthly 24-hour Holters. For a single monitoring period, the sensitivity for AF diagnosis was lowest with a 24-hour Holter (1.3%) and highest with a 30-day event recorder (22.8%). The NPV ranged from 82.3% to 85.6% for all single external monitoring strategies. Quarterly monitoring with 24-hour Holters had a sensitivity of 3.1%, whereas quarterly 7-day monitors increased the sensitivity to 20.8%. The NPVs for repetitive periodic monitoring strategies were similar at 82.6% to 85.3%. Long-term continuous monitoring was superior in detecting AF compared to all intermittent monitoring strategies evaluated (p <0.001). Long-term continuous electrocardiographic monitoring with ICMs is significantly more effective than any of the simulated intermittent monitoring strategies for identifying AF in patients with previous cryptogenic stroke.

  3. Anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular AF in general practice: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Adam; Metaxa, Sofia; Kassianos, George; Missouris, Constantinos G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to assess whether the recommendations and guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been adopted in general practice (GP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the GP computer database (Hatfield, UK) on all 9400 patients to assess the quality of anticoagulation in patients with a recorded diagnosis of AF. Results: Of the 180 patients with a diagnosis of AF, 107 (59.4%) were treated with warfarin, 19 (10.6%) with a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC), 31 (17.2%) with aspirin or clopidogrel, and 23 (12.8%) received none. Thirty-seven patients (34.6%) who were taking warfarin had a time in the therapeutic range (TTR) of less than 65%. Forty-five (27.6%) of the 163 patients who had a CHA2DS2VASc score of two or more were not prescribed a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or a NOAC. None had a HAS-BLED greater than the CHA2DS2VASc score. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that one in four patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a stroke, is not being adequately treated with an oral anticoagulant in primary care. The majority were treated with warfarin, a third of which had a low TTR. A high proportion of patients are prescribed antiplatelet therapy instead. This is despite overwhelming evidence that VKAs and NOACs, and not aspirin or clopidogrel, improve outcome in patients with non-valvular AF. We suggest that a review of GP practice databases should be considered to identify patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a disabling or fatal event, and measures taken to initiate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:27403193

  4. Characterisation of landfill leachate by EEM-PARAFAC-SOM during physical-chemical treatment by coagulation-flocculation, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Oloibiri, Violet; De Coninck, Sam; Chys, Michael; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2017-11-01

    The combination of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and self-organizing maps (SOM) is shown to be a powerful tool in the follow up of dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal from landfill leachate by physical-chemical treatment consisting of coagulation, granular activated carbon (GAC) and ion exchange. Using PARAFAC, three DOM components were identified: C1 representing humic/fulvic-like compounds; C2 representing tryptophan-like compounds; and C3 representing humic-like compounds. Coagulation with ferric chloride (FeCl3) at a dose of 7 g/L reduced the maximum fluorescence of C1, C2 and C3 by 52%, 17% and 15% respectively, while polyaluminium chloride (PACl) reduced C1 only by 7% at the same dose. DOM removal during GAC and ion exchange treatment of raw and coagulated leachate exhibited different profiles. At less than 2 bed volumes (BV) of treatment, the humic components C1 and C3 were rapidly removed, whereas at BV ≥ 2 the tryptophan-like component C2 was preferentially removed. Overall, leachate treated with coagulation +10.6 BV GAC +10.6 BV ion exchange showed the highest removal of C1 (39% - FeCl3, 8% - PACl), C2 (74% - FeCl3, 68% - PACl) and no C3 removal; whereas only 52% C2 and no C1 and C3 removal was observed in raw leachate treated with 10.6 BV GAC + 10.6 BV ion exchange only. Analysis of PARAFAC-derived components with SOM revealed that coagulation, GAC and ion exchange can treat leachate at least 50% longer than only GAC and ion exchange before the fluorescence composition of leachate remains unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AF03, an alternative squalene emulsion-based vaccine adjuvant prepared by a phase inversion temperature method.

    PubMed

    Klucker, Marie-Françoise; Dalençon, François; Probeck, Patricia; Haensler, Jean

    2012-12-01

    AF03 is a squalene-based emulsion adjuvant that is present in the adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine, Humenza™. In this report, we describe the design and development of this novel adjuvant formulation from the selection of the oil and surfactant system used in the adjuvant composition to the phase inversion temperature emulsification process that afforded AF03 as a long-term stable and well calibrated oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsion was characterized by its particle sizes, surface and interfacial tensions, viscosity, and long-term stability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 166. AF/M32T-1 Tester, Pressurized Cabin Leakage, Aircraft,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    OPERATOR NOISE MEASUREMENTS AF/M32T-1 Tester, Pressurized Cabin Leakage, Aircraft Tyndall AFB, 19 June 1980 NSN 4920-00- 347 -9455, Field * J108...a- a a o a af .4a a0 1 P ,? o4 o1 01 ao aD Nh s 1AA a ~ ~ a naaa .4 a aif CL O va I am wEj r .M PO -ODM.a)a D aa CDo NW)N 4 % ma a a. . 9 w ao N~ a I

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Algol-type binaries. VIII. DI Peg & AF Gem (Yang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Yang, Y.; Li, S.-Z.

    2014-10-01

    In the 2012-2013 observing season, DI Peg and AF Gem were observed using the 60cm telescope and the 85cm telescope at Xinglong station (XLs) of National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese (NAOC). The standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRcIc photometric systems were mounted upon two small telescopes. On five consecutive nights from 2012 October 9 to 13, the multi-color photometry of DI Peg was made with the 60cm telescope. The other variable star, AF Gem, was observed using the 85cm telescope on 7 nights from 2013 January 1 to 7. (5 data files).

  8. The Atrial Fibrillation Therapies after ER visit: Outpatient Care for Patients with Acute AF - The AFTER3 Study.

    PubMed

    Angaran, Paul; Mariano, Zara; Dragan, Vlad; Zou, Lily; Atzema, Clare L; Mangat, Iqwal; Dorian, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Visits to the emergency room (ER) for atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) are common, but follow-up care is rarely systematically organized and is often delayed. We conducted a pilot program to develop a systematic, protocol-based system of care for patients presenting to the ER with a primary diagnosis of AF. Consecutive patients presenting to the ER with ECG-documented AF at an urban teaching hospital were treated according to a guideline-based care protocol, including a patient toolkit at ER discharge, and systematic referral to a rapid access AF clinic. Consenting patients received questionnaires on AF knowledge, patient satisfaction, and the AFEQT questionnaire at first visit and three-month follow-up. Of the 321 patients with AF, 244 (76%) were discharged from the ER and 166 (68%) were referred to the AF clinic for urgent follow-up. Among 166 referred, 144 (87%) were seen, within a median 10.5 days (IQR 6-16.5 days); 128 (89%) patients agreed to participate in the study and 81% received a toolkit in the ER. The mean age of patients seen in AF clinic was 63.6±13.2 years and 59% were male. Eighty-seven percent were aware of their diagnosis, stroke risk (82%), possible complications (90%), treatment options (86%) and benefits of adherence (86%). Severity of Atrial Fibrillation class was > 2 in 51% at baseline; AFEQT scores increased from baseline (56.4±25.5) to three months post-ER visit (76.4±20.0), a moderately large improvement in QOL (p<0.0001). Seventy eight percent of patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score > 1 were treated with an oral anticoagulant. A systematic program to improve patient transition of care from the ER to community clinic was associated with prompt, guideline-based care, and high levels of patient disease awareness. Quality of life scores improved substantially between the index ER visit and 3 months post-visit.

  9. Validation of the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF Risk Scores for Atrial Fibrillation in Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Eric; Kargoli, Faraj; Aagaard, Philip; Hoch, Ethan; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Krumerman, Andrew; Ferrick, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    A risk score for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE)-AF consortium. However, validation of these risk scores in an inner-city population is uncertain. Thus, a validation model was built using the Framingham Risk Score for AF and CHARGE-AF covariates. An in and outpatient electrocardiographic database was interrogated from 2000 to 2013 for the development of AF. Patients were included if their age was >45 and <95 years, had <10-year follow-up, if their initial electrocardiogram was without AF, had ≥ 2 electrocardiograms, and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, African-American, or Hispanic. For the Framingham Heart Study, 49,599 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,860 developed AF. Discrimination analysis using area under the curve (AUC) for original risk equations: non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.712 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.694 to 0.731), African-American AUC = 0.733 (95% CI 0.716 to 0.751), and Hispanic AUC = 0.740 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.757). For the CHARGE-AF, 45,571 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,512 developed AF. Non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.694), African-American AUC = 0.706 (95% CI 0.685 to 0.727), and Hispanic AUC = 0.711 (95% CI 0.691 to 0.732). Calibration analysis showed qualitative similarities between cohorts. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate both the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF risk scores in both a Hispanic and African-American cohort. All models predicted AF well across all race and ethnic cohorts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ligand-independent FLT3 activation does not cooperate with MLL-AF4 to immortalize/transform cord blood CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Montes, R; Ayllón, V; Prieto, C; Bursen, A; Prelle, C; Romero-Moya, D; Real, P J; Navarro-Montero, O; Chillón, C; Marschalek, R; Bueno, C; Menendez, P

    2014-03-01

    MLL-AF4 fusion is hallmark in high-risk infant pro-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pro-B-ALL). Our limited understanding of MLL-AF4-mediated transformation reflects the absence of human models reproducing this leukemia. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) constitute likely targets for transformation. We previously reported that MLL-AF4 enhanced hematopoietic engraftment and clonogenic potential in cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ HSPCs but was not sufficient for leukemogenesis, suggesting that additional oncogenic lesions are required for MLL-AF4-mediated transformation. MLL-AF4+ pro-B-ALL display enormous levels of FLT3, and occasionally FLT3-activating mutations, thus representing a candidate cooperating event in MLL-AF4+ pro-B-ALL. We have explored whether FLT3.TKD (tyrosine kinase domain) mutation or increased expression of FLT3.WT (wild type) cooperates with MLL-AF4 to immortalize/transform CB-CD34+ HSPCs. In vivo, FLT3.TKD/FLT3.WT alone, or in combination with MLL-AF4, enhances hematopoietic repopulating function of CB-CD34+ HSPCs without impairing migration or hematopoietic differentiation. None of the animals transplanted with MLL-AF4+FLT3.TKD/WT-CD34+ HSPCs showed any sign of disease after 16 weeks. In vitro, enforced expression of FLT3.TKD/FLT3.WT conveys a transient overexpansion of MLL-AF4-expressing CD34+ HSPCs associated to higher proportion of cycling cells coupled to lower apoptotic levels, but does not augment clonogenic potential nor confer stable replating. Together, FLT3 activation does not suffice to immortalize/transform MLL-AF4-expressing CB-CD34+ HSPCs, suggesting the need of alternative (epi)-genetic cooperating oncogenic lesions.

  11. Fluorous Polymeric Membranes for Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Potentiometry: How Inert is Teflon AF?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Ze; Koseoglu, Secil S.; Lugert, Elizabeth C.; Boswell, Paul G.; Rábai, József; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fluorous media are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. Their use as membrane materials considerably increases the selectivity and robustness of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). In this research, a fluorous amorphous perfluoropolymer was used for the first time as a matrix for an ISE membrane. Electrodes for pH measurements with membranes composed of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole]-co-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (87% dioxole monomer content; known as Teflon AF2400) as polymer matrix, a linear perfluorooligoether as plasticizer, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate providing for ionic sites, and bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine as H+-ionophore were investigated. All electrodes had excellent potentiometric selectivities, showed Nernstian responses to H+ over a wide pH range, exhibited enhanced mechanical stability and maintained their selectivity over at least four weeks. For membranes of low ionophore concentration, the polymer affected the sensor selectivity noticeably at polymer concentrations exceeding 15%. Also, the membrane resistance increased quite strongly at high polymer concentrations, which cannot be explained by the Mackie–Meares obstruction model. The selectivities and resistances depend on the polymer concentration because of a functional group associated with Teflon AF2400, with a concentration of one functional group per 854 monomer units of the polymer. In the fluorous environment of these membranes, this functional group binds to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and the unprotonated ionophore with binding constants of 103.5, 101.8, 106.8 and 104.4 M−1, respectively. Potentiometric and spectroscopic evidence indicates that these functional groups are COOH groups formed by the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid fluoride (COF) groups originally present in Teflon AF2400. The use of higher ionophore concentrations removes the undesirable effect of these COOH groups almost completely

  12. Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars. IX. The HARPS southern sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgniet, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Meunier, N.; Galland, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Massive, main-sequence (MS) AF-type stars have so far remained unexplored in past radial velocities (RV) surveys due to their small number of spectral lines and high rotational velocities that prevent the classic RV computation method. Aims: Our aim is to search for giant planets (GPs) around AF MS stars, to get primary statistical information on their occurrence rate and to compare the results with evolved stars and lower-mass MS stars. Methods: We used the HARPS spectrograph located on the 3.6 m telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory to observe 108 AF MS stars with B-V in the range -0.04 to 0.58 and masses in the range 1.1 to 3.6 M⊙. We used our SAFIR software developed to compute the RV and other spectroscopic observables of these early-type stars. We characterized the detected companions as well as the intrinsic stellar variability. We computed the detection limits and used them as well as the detected companions to derive the first estimates of the close-in brown dwarf (BD) and GP frequencies around AF stars. Results: We report the detection of a mpsini = 4.51MJup planetary companion with an 826-day period to the F6V dwarf HD 111998. We also present new data on the two-planet system around the F6IV-V dwarf HD 60532. We also report the detections of 14 binaries with long-term RV trends and/or high-amplitude RV variations combined to a flat RV-bisector span diagram. We constrain the minimal masses and semi-major axes of these companions and check that these constraints are compatible with the stellar companions previously detected by direct imaging or astrometry for six of these targets. We get detection limits deep into the planetary domain with 70% of our targets showing detection limits between 0.1 and 10 MJup at all orbital periods in the 1- to 103-day range. We derive BD (13 ≤mpsini ≤ 80 MJup) occurrence rates in the 1- to 103-day period range of 2-2+5% and 2.6-2.6+6.7% for stars with M⋆ in the ranges 1.1 to 1.5 and 1.5 to 3 M

  13. Palhicerines A-F, Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Palhinhaea cernua.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Xiong, Juan; Zou, Yike; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    Four fawcettimine-type (palhicerines A-D, resp.) and two lycopodine-type (palhicerines E and F) Lycopodium alkaloids together with twenty known ones were isolated from the whole plant of Palhinhaea cernua. The structures and absolute configurations of the palhicerines A-F were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, chemical transformation, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations or induced electronic circular dichroism (IECD) spectra. Among the isolates, the new C/D-ring of the palhicerines A-C (trans-fused fawcettimine-type alkaloids) are rare, and each possesses a β-oriented C-16 methyl group and a distinctive tertiary methoxy group at C-13. Chemotaxonomy for differentiating species in the genus Palhinhaea is briefly discussed.

  14. Fatigue life estimation program for Part 23 airplanes, `AFS.FOR`

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the general aviation industry a computer program which estimates the safe fatigue life of any Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 23 airplane. The algorithm uses the methodology (Miner`s Linear Cumulative Damage Theory) and the various data presented in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Report No. AFS-120-73-2, dated May 1973. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 language and is executable on a desk top personal computer. The program prompts the user for the input data needed and provides a variety of options for its intended use. The program is envisaged to be released through issuance of a FAA report, which will contain the appropriate comments, instructions, warnings and limitations.

  15. Adak NAS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-24

    operated by the U. S. Ser- vices aoi some foreig;n stations .silim, similar reporting prscticei. UiJesu otlherwise noted the Co ~luwilof suianries are...34 TRNSITERVEoRE .iF Oct 3.94 Longviev hAl Weather Sot available NA N/ N/A statin (Jo~Unit hAP & Navy) 2. 2 2/31/13 Ad~k(Joint’Unit) AF & Not available N/A I/A N/A...641214.15 2.18 cO 4 18.1 7.2 17. 9 .1.4421 FES 5 . 18.1 5.4 17.2 1 .5 19.1 17.4 L. 4 2.1 .1 76.Z IIG2 4 .7 _9.57) 1.97 MAN 5 5.5 19.5 13.3 1I.3 12. 9

  16. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0: Space Environment Software Products for 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Tautz, M.

    2002-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 (release 2002 on WindowsNT/2000/XP) is a graphics-intensive software program developed by AFRL with space environment models and applications. It has grown steadily to become a development tool for automated space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; frequency and antenna management for radar and HF communications; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; and physics research and education. The object-oriented C++ code is divided into five module classes. Science Modules control science models to give output data on user-specified grids. Application Modules manipulate these data and provide orbit generation and magnetic field line tracing capabilities. Data Modules read and assist with the analysis of user-generated data sets. Graphics Modules enable the display of features such as plane slices, magnetic field lines, line plots, axes, the Earth, stars, and satellites. Worksheet Modules provide commonly requested coordinate transformations and calendar conversion tools. Common input data archive sets, application modules, and 1-, 2-, and 3-D visualization tools are provided to all models. The code documentation includes detailed examples with click-by-click instructions for investigating phenomena that have well known effects on communications and spacecraft systems. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 builds on the success of its predecessors. The first release (Version 1.21, 1996/IRIX on SGI) contained radiation belt particle flux and dose models derived from CRRES satellite data, an aurora model, an ionosphere model, and ionospheric HF ray tracing capabilities. Next (Version 1.4, 1999/IRIX on SGI) science modules were added related to cosmic rays and solar protons, low-Earth orbit radiation dosages, single event effects probability maps, ionospheric

  17. Pope AFB, North Carolina Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    OL.A IRE.IOA$ E0.T10S 01.S T 04. RtU ASP OOtE)U 6 *L’-AL .LI"!ATCL)GY i %A %Cm 2_T SURFACE WINDS .AT-Fd 1.RV1CL’?1AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 72V~ -JP AF-!_~ _________ 7-L_________ tot ST A-T 0 k.I IsA .;T. A .L .LAT" E-’ •_ _-_ SPEED MEAN KNTS 1...0 , T ._ . _ * ,... . K . --- .. j , ,.. ’ . .. , m E¢ 800 1 ,00 2! 6100 9 . t 1200- ___? .. ..00 . . . : 100 2! goo EXAMPLE # 1 lHead ceiling

  18. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J.; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J.; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes. PMID:26566657

  19. Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Bing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Xu, Hui-Min; He, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 μM, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 μM. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. RAF Lakenheath, United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    3: 1 ... . 2 . . jb -3VI SO I 7.27b 6 . ( 5.764 5.103 4.571 4.47 1 4.367 .47 5.244 b.712 7.717 7.3< 7 5.4.7 1333 osJ 915 a37 91 ’ɘ 911 645 0. 92’ 1...LA II WE17,rY uSAFLTAC fqL" LUlLy CFS[kVATO.V AIR .LA IHfP SERVICC/MAC STATIO, NUMPER: 75 3- STAIIOf, NAME : R AF LAKtNI-ATH L91[EU KINGf0CM L CIEC

  1. Hill AFB, Utah Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    GLCqAL CLIMATOLOGY QRANCN b AX EAT,.C PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIP WE THER+ SEPICE /CPNIAC ?9 𔃿’ HILL AF- uT 14-81 ST" e~- STA?1010 1M1 VIA STN PAGE2 yeP...1 *, * 1-,* . 1 1 . I ! I i !9 -./ ., 1. 4 ,; ? , j : .. 7, dc L_ 1 I_ ’ I a AA I 6 if / "i - IT 𔃾 _ _"_ __. i ./ 2 . , 2 ., 921 ,- ’ 7 3 7.3...SEP. OCT NOV. DC ANNUAL MEAN ’’’ 7 *L 𔃾.3 23. .8 7.7 𔃽.3 4C.8 34.8 79.3 23.4 14.9 9.s SO 5D *143 7 4 7.128 7 . 94 6 .8g4 7.2;5 7 9 ;3 9.2 42 8 .632

  2. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  3. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes.

  4. Installation Restoration Program. Technical Support Document for Record of Decision, Cape Newenham, AFS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-18

    Clyde Consultants 701 Sesame Street Anchorage, AK 99503 71/46/2 71/21/1 RECORD OF DECISION Installation: The Cape Newenham AFS, is located in the...Q S-0 .- ( L to ea a -- 0 a) eoS -r-cc M A -( /5 W 4-) M 0 W) (0 4-.0 ’a - )4- -- -- 0 .0 CU E )) 0 > D. > 0 L W( ’ t’aS u to o4- E ’A W) (a( (a-a0 410...0- L4- 4-) U) to ~ Cl L EO LO. 41~ 0x - 4) 0 ) 0 0) 4-) LA- 4) 04-) a:) L/ Lu a) C Lu 0 L. +.) ~z .4-’ 41.0 0 L&i -LIi LIi JL ) Lf) 2E Li- V) L t J

  5. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  6. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  7. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriches stem-like population and enhance mammosphere formation of breast cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Charlotte Olivia; Kim, Soojin; Park, Jino

    2017-03-18

    Wnt signaling pathway is believed to be responsible for control over various types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state. Moreover, dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway is strongly associated with several diseases including cancer. Previously, we have shown that AF1q associates with a poor prognosis in leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloid, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Also, AF1q plays a pivotal role as an oncogene and metastasis enhancer in breast cancer via activation of Wnt signaling pathway. AF1q is highly expressed in stem cells, and this expression is diminished by differentiation. To understand the role of AF1q in stem-like population, we examined stem-like cells derived from breast cells which dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway by alteration of AF1q expression. The effect of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q on EMT marker expression, stem cell marker expression, and sphere formation was determined. Activated Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriched stem-like population showed enhanced sphere formation ability. Interestingly, Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, Quercetin, decreased the sphere formation in these cells. These results suggest that AF1q would have a role as an enhancer in generation of stem-like population through activation of Wnt signaling pathway.

  8. Model-based estimation of the attributable fraction for cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies using the R package AF.

    PubMed

    Dahlqwist, Elisabeth; Zetterqvist, Johan; Pawitan, Yudi; Sjölander, Arvid

    2016-06-01

    The attributable fraction (or attributable risk) is a widely used measure that quantifies the public health impact of an exposure on an outcome. Even though the theory for AF estimation is well developed, there has been a lack of up-to-date software implementations. The aim of this article is to present a new R package for AF estimation with binary exposures. The package AF allows for confounder-adjusted estimation of the AF for the three major study designs: cross-sectional, (possibly matched) case-control and cohort. The article is divided into theoretical sections and applied sections. In the theoretical sections we describe how the confounder-adjusted AF is estimated for each specific study design. These sections serve as a brief but self-consistent tutorial in AF estimation. In the applied sections we use real data examples to illustrate how the AF package is used. All datasets in these examples are publicly available and included in the AF package, so readers can easily replicate all analyses.

  9. 75 FR 9596 - Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food... residues of the antifungal ] agent, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed commodities. The...

  10. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  11. Detection of atrial fibrillation by permanent pacemakers: observations from the STOP AF trial.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C J; McComb, J M

    2003-12-01

    Pacemaker telemetry is increasingly being used to infer the presence or absence of arrhythmias in clinical practice. To evaluate the reliability of these data in patients with sick-sinus syndrome, a sub-study of eighteen consecutive patients in the Systematic Trial of Pacing to prevent Atrial Fibrillation (STOP AF) implanted with dual-chamber pacemakers had simultaneous 24-hour Holter recordings and pacemaker telemetry down-loaded. Whilst heart rate data were very similar, telemetry data achieved only 57% sensitivity with 64% specificity for the presence of atrial fibrillation on Holter recording over 24 hours. False-positive results were due to far-field sensing while false-negatives were seen with very short episodes of atrial fibrillation. The pacemaker's anti-tachycardia responses were not specific for the detection of atrial fibrillation. There are very few published reports correlating pacemaker diagnostic data and stored electrograms with external Holter monitoring. We believe that more validation studies of are needed before pacemaker diagnostic data can be used with confidence in clinical practice. It is unlikely that current devices with sophisticated detection algorithms will fail to detect prolonged episodes of arrhythmia and their capacity to confirm events with stored electrograms, intervals and markers reduces the possibility of false-positives, but care must be taken in the interpretation of stored data from devices without these capabilities. Equally, it cannot be assumed that if intracardiac electrograms from one episode confirm the presence of an arrhythmia, that all recorded events have been similarly correctly interpreted. We have shown in a sub-study of STOP-AF that simple mathematical models using heart rate bin analysis are not reliable for detection of arrhythmias with short durations. Despite these limitations, the potential of implanted pacemakers to record cardiac rhythm and trends, such as heart-rate variability, over time remains an

  12. Plateau waveform shape allows a much higher patient shock energy tolerance in AF patients.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Edvardsson, Nils; Biffi, Mauro; Silvestri, Paolo; Martignani, Cristian; Valzania, Cinzia; Diemberger, Igor; Moulder, J Christopher; Mouchawar, Gabriel; Poci, Dritan; Branzi, Angelo; Kroll, Mark W

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the possible pain reduction of the plateau waveform in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Previous studies have indicated that reduced amplitude waveforms would be less painful than a conventional (65/65% tilt) biphasic waveform. Computer modeling suggested that a moderately long (10-12 msec) plateau (flat topped) shock waveform would deliver equivalent effectiveness with the lowest possible peak amplitude. We enrolled 27 patients at two sites with persistent AF with a total of 220 shocks delivered during internal atrial cardioversion using an interleaved crossover design. Patient response was scored in three ways: (1) a verbally reported discomfort score, (2) visual analog scale (VAS), and (3) a blinded observer reporting a contraction score. All scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) by the plateau waveform with impressive statistics: Verbal discomfort (3.51 +/- 0.13 to 2.89 +/- 0.12), VAS (7.00 +/- 0.56 to 5.91 +/- 0.36), and contraction scores (1.94 +/- 0.12 to 1.62 +/- 0.12). The average pain threshold shift (TS) for the Verbal score was 2.34, while that for the VAS score was 2.30. (This means that the patient typically could tolerate 2.34 times as much energy with the plateau waveform for the same level of verbally reported discomfort.) The contraction TS was less at 1.57. Response scores were also corrected for the shock sequence number to control for the sensitization effect from multiple shocks. This increased the TS for the Verbal score to 3.58, but the shock number was not significant for the VAS. A pulmonary artery electrode return was associated with lower pain compared with a coronary sinus position. A plateau shaped biphasic waveform resulted in significantly increased shock energy pain tolerances. Controlling for session sensitization, patients tolerated over three times as much energy for the same verbally reported discomfort score.

  13. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    PubMed Central

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  14. AF printability check with a full-chip 3D resist profile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-En R.; Chang, Jason; Song, Hua; Shiely, James

    2013-09-01

    A single compact resist model capable of predicting 3D resist profile is strongly demanded for the advanced technology nodes to avoid the potential hotspots due to imperfect resist pattern shape and its lack of resistance in the subsequent etch process. In this work, we propose a resist 3D (R3D) compact model that takes acidz-diffusion effect into account. The chemical reaction between acid and base along z-direction is treated as second order effect that is absorbed into the anisotropic diffusion length as a fitting parameter. Meanwhile, the resist model in the x-y wafer plane is still kept in general by applying the compact solution of 2D reaction-diffusion equation. In order to have the 2D contour predictability at arbitrary resist height, calibration from entire 3D data (CDs at several heights) areconducted simultaneously witha single cost function so that the R3D compact model is described by a common set of resist free parameters and threshold for all resist heights. With the low energy approximation, the acid z-diffusion effect is equivalent to a z-diffused TCC that takes the form of linear combination of pure optical TCCs sampled at discrete image-depth which can be pre-calculated. With this benefit, the R3D compact model offers a more physical approach but adds no runtime concern on the OPC and verification applications. The predicted resist cross-section profiles from our test patterns are compared those computed with rigorous lithography simulator SLITHO and show very good matching results between them. The demonstration of the AF printability check from the predicted cross-section profile at AF indicates the success of our R3D compact model.

  15. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Girgis, I G; Patel, M R; Peters, G R; Moore, K T; Mahaffey, K W; Nessel, C C; Halperin, J L; Califf, R M; Fox, K A A; Becker, R C

    2014-08-01

    Two once-daily rivaroxaban dosing regimens were compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in ROCKET AF: 20 mg for patients with normal/mildly impaired renal function and 15 mg for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling data from ROCKET AF patients (n = 161) are reported and are used to confirm established rivaroxaban PK and PK/PD models and to re-estimate values of the models' parameters for the current AF population. An oral one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described rivaroxaban PK. Age, renal function, and lean body mass influenced the PK model. Prothrombin time and prothrombinase-induced clotting time exhibited a near-linear relationship with rivaroxaban plasma concentration; inhibitory effects were observed through to 24 hours post-dose. Rivaroxaban plasma concentration and factor Xa activity had an inhibitory maximum-effect (Emax ) relationship. Renal function (on prothrombin time; prothrombinase-induced clotting time) and age (on factor Xa activity) had moderate effects on PK/PD models. PK and PK/PD models were shown to be adequate for describing the current dataset. These findings confirm the modeling and empirical results that led to the selection of doses tested against warfarin in ROCKET AF. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  17. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  18. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations. PMID:27698462

  19. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-10-04

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations.

  20. 26 CFR 1.419A(f)(6)-1 - Exception for 10 or more employer plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 419A(f)(6) is based on the totality of the arrangement and all related facts and circumstances, including any related insurance contracts. Accordingly, all agreements and understandings (including... the participating employers, and those differences are not merely reflective of differences in current...

  1. 26 CFR 1.419A(f)(6)-1 - Exception for 10 or more employer plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 419A(f)(6) is based on the totality of the arrangement and all related facts and circumstances, including any related insurance contracts. Accordingly, all agreements and understandings (including... the participating employers, and those differences are not merely reflective of differences in current...

  2. 26 CFR 1.419A(f)(6)-1 - Exception for 10 or more employer plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 419A(f)(6) is based on the totality of the arrangement and all related facts and circumstances, including any related insurance contracts. Accordingly, all agreements and understandings (including... the participating employers, and those differences are not merely reflective of differences in current...

  3. Determining Aqueous Fullerene Particle Size Distributions by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) without Surfactants

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the behavior of nanoparticles in environmental systems, methods must be developed to measure nanoparticle size. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) is an aqueous compatible size separation technique which is able to separate particles from 1 nm to 10 µm in...

  4. Distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain as determined in binding studies with AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo, E.; Hammer, R.; Ladinsky, H.

    1987-03-02

    In vitro competition binding experiments with the selective muscarinic antagonists AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine (PZ) vs /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine as radioligand revealed a characteristic distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in different regions of rat brain. Based on nonlinear least squares analysis, the binding data were compatible with the presence of three different subtypes: the M/sub 1/ receptor (high affinity for PZ), the cardiac M/sub 2/ receptor (high affinity for AF-DX 116) and the glandular M/sub 2/ receptor (low affinity for PZ and AF-DX 116). The highest proportion of M/sub 1/ receptors was found in the hippocampus, while the cerebellum and the hypothalamus were the regions with the largest fraction of the cardiac M/sub 2/ and glandular M/sub 2/ receptors, respectively. In certain brain areas, depending on the relative proportions of the subtypes, flat binding curves were seen for AF-DX 116 and PZ. Based on these data, an approximate distribution pattern of the subtypes in the various brain regions is presented. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. Rhein-Main Apt, Germany/Franfurt. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    DATA PROCESSING BRANCH usAF E’ C CEILING, VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 0 RHEINMAIN APT GERMANY/FRAtKFURT...SERVICE/MAC RHEINMAIN APT GENMANY/FRANKFURT 67-7o OEZ U. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0000-.)200 , (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) o , - VISIBILITY

  6. 26 CFR 1.419A(f)(6)-1 - Exception for 10 or more employer plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by the recipient. (c) Characteristics indicating a plan is not a 10 or more employer plan—(1) In general. The presence of any of the characteristics described in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(6) of this... requirements of section 419A(f)(6) and this section, a plan having any of the following characteristics is not...

  7. Reworking Practice through an AfL Project: An Analysis of Teachers' Collaborative Engagement with New Assessment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermansen, Hege; Nerland, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Assessment for Learning (AfL) has travelled across countries, giving rise to a range of educational policy initiatives and school development projects. While researchers have focused on issues such as how formative assessment can support student learning and lead to more efficient classroom practices, less attention…

  8. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  9. Determining Aqueous Fullerene Particle Size Distributions by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) without Surfactants

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the behavior of nanoparticles in environmental systems, methods must be developed to measure nanoparticle size. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) is an aqueous compatible size separation technique which is able to separate particles from 1 nm to 10 µm in...

  10. Reworking Practice through an AfL Project: An Analysis of Teachers' Collaborative Engagement with New Assessment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermansen, Hege; Nerland, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Assessment for Learning (AfL) has travelled across countries, giving rise to a range of educational policy initiatives and school development projects. While researchers have focused on issues such as how formative assessment can support student learning and lead to more efficient classroom practices, less attention…

  11. The Implementation of Collaborative Learning Using AfL through Giving Feedback Strategy for Improving Students’ Attention to Mathematics Lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.; Pramesti, G.

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to describe the process of implementation collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy for improving students’ attention to mathematics lesson. Data which is collected in this research are students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement. The result of this research showed that the learning steps by using collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy which can improve students’ attention are: 1) pre activity: the teacher delivers the purpose of the learning, successful criteria, apperception, and motivation. 2) main activity: the teacher gives the background of learning activity, explains learning materials at a glance, divides students discuss, the teacher observes and guides students to the problem solving, present their discussion result, gives feedback, the students do AfL problem and the answer is collected and result will be given before next meeting. 3) post activity: the teacher with students concludes the material. Test result, the percentage of students who complete the examination in the second cycle is 77.27%. Based on those results can be concluded that the implementation of collaborative learning using AfL through giving feedback can improve students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement of XI IPA Students MA Al-Islam Jamsaren Surakarta academic year 2013/2014.

  12. Binding-folding induced regulation of AF1 transactivation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by a cofactor that binds to its DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Garza, Anna S; Khan, Shagufta H; Moure, Carmen M; Edwards, Dean P; Kumar, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered (ID) regions of proteins commonly exist within transcription factors, including the N-terminal domain (NTD) of steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) that possesses a powerful activation function, AF1 region. The mechanisms by which SHRs pass signals from a steroid hormone to control gene expression remain a central unresolved problem. The role of N-terminal activation function AF1, which exists in an intrinsically disordered (ID) conformation, in this process is of immense importance. It is hypothesized that under physiological conditions, ID AF1 undergoes disorder/order transition via inter- and intra-molecular communications, which allows AF1 surfaces to interact with specific co-regulatory proteins, critical for the final outcome of target gene expression regulated by SHRs. However, the means by which AF1 acquires functionally folded conformations is not well understood. In this study, we tested whether binding of jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) within the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to acquisition of functionally active structure in its AF1/NTD. Our results show that signals mediated from GR DBD:JDP2 interactions in a two domain GR fragment, consisting of the entire NTD and little beyond DBD, significantly increased secondary/tertiary structure formation in the NTD/AF1. This increased structure formation facilitated AF1's interaction with specific co-regulatory proteins and subsequent glucocorticoid response element-mediated AF1 promoter:reporter activity. These results support the hypothesis that inter- and intra-molecular signals give a functionally active structure(s) to the GR AF1, which is important for its transcriptional activity.

  13. Design of the Swiss Atrial Fibrillation Cohort Study (Swiss-AF): structural brain damage and cognitive decline among patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Conen, David; Rodondi, Nicolas; Mueller, Andreas; Beer, Juerg; Auricchio, Angelo; Ammann, Peter; Hayoz, Daniel; Kobza, Richard; Moschovitis, Giorgio; Shah, Dipen; Schlaepfer, Juerg; Novak, Jan; di Valentino, Marcello; Erne, Paul; Sticherling, Christian; Bonati, Leo; Ehret, Georg; Roten, Laurent; Fischer, Urs; Monsch, Andreas; Stippich, Christoph; Wuerfel, Jens; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Kuehne, Michael; Osswald, Stefan

    2017-07-11

    Several studies found that patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia over time. However, the magnitude of the problem, associated risk factors and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This article describes the design and methodology of the Swiss Atrial Fibrillation (Swiss-AF) Cohort Study, a prospective multicentre national cohort study of 2400 patients across 13 sites in Switzerland. Eligible patients must have documented AF. Main exclusion criteria are the inability to provide informed consent and the presence of exclusively short episodes of reversible forms of AF. All patients undergo extensive phenotyping and genotyping, including repeated assessment of cognitive functions, quality of life, disability, electrocardiography and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. We also collect information on health related costs, and we assemble a large biobank. Key clinical outcomes in Swiss-AF are death, stroke, systemic embolism, bleeding, hospitalisation for heart failure and myocardial infarction. Information on outcomes and updates on other characteristics are being collected during yearly follow-up visits. Up to 7 April 2017, we have enrolled 2133 patients into Swiss-AF. With the current recruitment rate of 15 to 20 patients per week, we expect that the target sample size of 2400 patients will be reached by summer 2017. Swiss-AF is a large national prospective cohort of patients with AF in Switzerland. This study will provide important new information on structural and functional brain damage in patients with AF and on other AF related complications, using a large variety of genetic, phenotypic and health economic parameters.

  14. Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

    2013-04-02

    U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene.

  15. The elongation complex components BRD4 and MLLT3/AF9 are transcriptional coactivators of nuclear retinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Flajollet, Sébastien; Rachez, Christophe; Ploton, Maheul; Schulz, Céline; Gallais, Rozenn; Métivier, Raphaël; Pawlak, Michal; Leray, Aymeric; Issulahi, Al Amine; Héliot, Laurent; Staels, Bart; Salbert, Gilles; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear all-trans retinoic acid receptors (RARs) initiate early transcriptional events which engage pluripotent cells to differentiate into specific lineages. RAR-controlled transactivation depends mostly on agonist-induced structural transitions in RAR C-terminus (AF-2), thus bridging coactivators or corepressors to chromatin, hence controlling preinitiation complex assembly. However, the contribution of other domains of RAR to its overall transcriptional activity remains poorly defined. A proteomic characterization of nuclear proteins interacting with RAR regions distinct from the AF-2 revealed unsuspected functional properties of the RAR N-terminus. Indeed, mass spectrometry fingerprinting identified the Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 (AF9/MLLT3), known to associate with and regulates the activity of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb), as novel RAR coactivators. In addition to promoter sequences, RAR binds to genomic, transcribed regions of retinoid-regulated genes, in association with RNA polymerase II and as a function of P-TEFb activity. Knockdown of either AF9 or BRD4 expression affected differentially the neural differentiation of stem cell-like P19 cells. Clusters of retinoid-regulated genes were selectively dependent on BRD4 and/or AF9 expression, which correlated with RAR association to transcribed regions. Thus RAR establishes physical and functional links with components of the elongation complex, enabling the rapid retinoid-induced induction of genes required for neuronal differentiation. Our data thereby extends the previously known RAR interactome from classical transcriptional modulators to components of the elongation machinery, and unravel a functional role of RAR in transcriptional elongation.

  16. The Elongation Complex Components BRD4 and MLLT3/AF9 Are Transcriptional Coactivators of Nuclear Retinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Flajollet, Sébastien; Rachez, Christophe; Ploton, Maheul; Schulz, Céline; Gallais, Rozenn; Métivier, Raphaël; Pawlak, Michal; Leray, Aymeric; Issulahi, Al Amine; Héliot, Laurent; Staels, Bart; Salbert, Gilles; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear all-trans retinoic acid receptors (RARs) initiate early transcriptional events which engage pluripotent cells to differentiate into specific lineages. RAR-controlled transactivation depends mostly on agonist-induced structural transitions in RAR C-terminus (AF-2), thus bridging coactivators or corepressors to chromatin, hence controlling preinitiation complex assembly. However, the contribution of other domains of RAR to its overall transcriptional activity remains poorly defined. A proteomic characterization of nuclear proteins interacting with RAR regions distinct from the AF-2 revealed unsuspected functional properties of the RAR N-terminus. Indeed, mass spectrometry fingerprinting identified the Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 (AF9/MLLT3), known to associate with and regulates the activity of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb), as novel RAR coactivators. In addition to promoter sequences, RAR binds to genomic, transcribed regions of retinoid-regulated genes, in association with RNA polymerase II and as a function of P-TEFb activity. Knockdown of either AF9 or BRD4 expression affected differentially the neural differentiation of stem cell-like P19 cells. Clusters of retinoid-regulated genes were selectively dependent on BRD4 and/or AF9 expression, which correlated with RAR association to transcribed regions. Thus RAR establishes physical and functional links with components of the elongation complex, enabling the rapid retinoid-induced induction of genes required for neuronal differentiation. Our data thereby extends the previously known RAR interactome from classical transcriptional modulators to components of the elongation machinery, and unravel a functional role of RAR in transcriptional elongation. PMID:23762261

  17. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  18. Implementation of AF-CBT by community practitioners serving child welfare and mental health: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Herschell, Amy D; Hart, Jonathan A; Holden, Elizabeth A; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    The Partnerships for Families project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the implementation of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT), an evidence-based treatment for family conflict, coercion, and aggression, including child physical abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program in this model, 182 community practitioners from 10 agencies were randomized to receive AF-CBT training (n = 90) using a learning community model (workshops, consultation visits) or Training as Usual (TAU; n = 92) which provided trainings per agency routine. Practitioners completed self-report measures at four time points (0, 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline). Of those assigned to AF-CBT, 89% participated in at least one training activity and 68% met a "training completion" definition. A total of 80 (44%) practitioners were still active clinicians in the study by 18-month assessment in that they had not met our staff turnover or study withdrawal criteria. Using an intent-to-train design, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significantly greater initial improvements for those in the AF-CBT training condition (vs. TAU condition) in CBT-related knowledge and use of AF-CBT teaching processes, abuse-specific skills, and general psychological skills. In addition, practitioners in both groups reported significantly more negative perceptions of organizational climate through the intervention phase. These significant, albeit modest, findings are discussed in the context of treatment training, research, and work force issues as they relate to the diverse backgrounds, settings, and populations served by community practitioners.

  19. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  1. Role of LncRNA-AF085935, IL-10 and IL-17 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Dina; Elamir, Azza; Mahmoud, Rania Hosny; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ali; Fathy, Wael

    2017-01-01

    Background The current study aimed at testing the effect of corticosteroid therapy on serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17 as well as lncRNA-AF085935 in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and evaluating the usefulness of using these parameters to predict the therapeutic efficacy of steroids in these patients. Methods Thirty healthy control subjects and 65 chronic HCV patients with RA were included in our study. Patients were subjected to clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy and received 6-methyl-prednisolone (PDN) 16 mg/day for 48 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and serum was separated to assess IL-10 and IL-17 by ELISA and HCV RNA and lncRNA-AF085935 by qRT-PCR. Results Our study revealed that there were significant increases in serum levels of IL-10, IL-17 and lncRNA-AF085935 in RA patients associated with HCV compared with healthy control subjects. Also there were significant increases in serum levels of IL-10 and HCV RNA and a significant decrease in serum level of IL-17 in patients after corticosteroid therapy, while lncRNA-AF085935 is not significantly changed. Conclusion LncRNA-AF085935 might be a useful candidate biomarker for the early detection of RA associated with HCV, providing potential new strategies for early screening and therapy of these patients. IL-17 is a non-invasive prognostic marker to predict the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in RA patients associated with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:28392862

  2. Differential modulation of plant immune responses by diverse members of the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi HopAF type III effector family.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2017-06-01

    The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire includes 33 candidates, seven of which translocate into host cells and interfere with plant defences. The present study was performed to investigate the co-existence of both plasmid- and chromosomal-encoded members of the HopAF effector family, HopAF1-1 and HopAF1-2, respectively, in the genome of NCPPB 3335. Here, we show that the HopAF1 paralogues are widely distributed in the Pseudomonas syringae complex, where HopAF1-1 is most similar to the homologues encoded by other P. syringae pathovars infecting woody hosts that belong to phylogroups 1 and 3. We show that the expression of both HopAF1-1 and HopAF-2 is transcriptionally dependent on HrpL and demonstrate their delivery into Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Although the heterologous delivery of either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 significantly suppressed the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species levels, only HopAF1-2 reduced the levels of callose deposition. Moreover, the expression of HopAF1-2 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E completely inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and significantly increased the competitiveness of the strain in Nicotiana benthamiana. Despite their functional differences, subcellular localization studies reveal that green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 are targeted to the plasma membrane when they are expressed in plant cells, a process that is completely dependent on the integrity of their N-myristoylation motif. Our results further support the notion that highly similar T3SS effectors might differentially interact with diverse plant targets, even when they co-localize in the same cell compartment. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Biodegradation of BOD and ammonia-free using bacterial consortium in aerated fixed film bioreactor (AF2B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayitno, Rulianah, Sri; Saroso, Hadi; Meilany, Diah

    2017-06-01

    BOD and Ammonia-free (NH3-N) are pollutants of hospital wastewater which often exceed the quality standards. It is because biological processes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) have not been effective in degrading BOD and NH3-N. Therefore, a study on factors that influence the biodegradation of BOD and NH3-N by choosing the type of bacteria to improve the mechanisms of biodegradation processes is required. Bacterial consortium is a collection of several types of bacteria obtained from isolation process, which is known to be more effective than a single bacterial in degrading pollutants. On the other hand, AF2B is a type of reactor in wastewater treatment system. The AF2B contains a filter media that has a large surface area so that the biodegradation process of pollutants by microorganism can be improved. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of volume of starter and air supplies on decreasing BOD and NH3-N in hospital wastewater using bacterial consortium in the AF2B on batch process. The research was conducted in three stages: the making of the growth curve of the bacterial consortium, bacterial consortium acclimatization, and hospital wastewater treatment in the AF2B with batch process. The variables used are the volume of starter (65%, 75%, and 85% in volume) and air supplies (2.5, 5, and 7.5 L/min). Meanwhile, the materials used are hospital wastewater, bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas diminuta, Pseudomonas capica, Bacillius sp, and Nitrobacter sp), blower, and AF2B. AF2B is a plastic basin containing a filter media with a wasp-nest shape used as a medium for growing the bacterial consortium. In the process of making the growth curve, a solid form of bacterial consortium was dissolved in sterilized water, then grown in a nutrient broth (NB). Then, shaking and sampling were done at any time to determine the path growth of bacterial consortium. In the acclimatization process, bacterial isolates were grown using hospital wastewater as a

  4. Clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia-AF10-positive acute leukemias: a report of 2 cases with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Huh, Ji Young; Chung, Soie; Oh, Doyeun; Kang, Myung Seo; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Cho, Eun Hae; Han, Mi Hwa; Kong, Sun Young

    2010-04-01

    The translocation t(10;11)(p13;q14q21) has been found to be recurrent in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias, and results in the fusion of the clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) gene with the AF10 gene; these genes are present on chromosomes 11 and 10, respectively. Because the CALM-AF10 rearrangement is a rare chromosomal abnormality, it is not included in routine molecular tests for acute leukemia. Here, we describe the cases of 2 patients with the CALM-AF10 fusion gene. The first patient (case 1) was diagnosed with T-cell ALL, and the second patient (case 2) was diagnosed with AML. Both patient samples showed expression of the homeobox A gene cluster and the histone methyltransferase hDOT1L, which suggests that they mediate leukemic transformation in CALM-AF10-positive and mixed-lineage leukemia-AF10-positive leukemias. Both patients achieved complete remission after induction chemotherapy. The first patient (case 1) relapsed after double-unit cord blood transplantation; there was no evidence of relapse in the second patient (case 2) after allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Since CALM-AF10- positive leukemias have been shown to have poor prognosis with conventional therapy, molecular tests for CALM-AF10 rearrangement would be necessary to detect minimal residual disease during follow-up.

  5. U2AF65 adapts to diverse pre-mRNA splice sites through conformational selection of specific and promiscuous RNA recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Agrawal, Anant A.; Gupta, Ankit; Green, Michael R.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate splice site sequences mark the intron boundaries of pre-mRNA transcripts in multicellular eukaryotes. The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65 is faced with the paradoxical tasks of accurately targeting polypyrimidine (Py) tracts preceding 3′ splice sites while adapting to both cytidine and uridine nucleotides with nearly equivalent frequencies. To understand how U2AF65 recognizes degenerate Py tracts, we determined six crystal structures of human U2AF65 bound to cytidine-containing Py tracts. As deoxy-ribose backbones were required for co-crystallization with these Py tracts, we also determined two baseline structures of U2AF65 bound to the deoxy-uridine counterparts and compared the original, RNA-bound structure. Local structural changes suggest that the N-terminal RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) is more promiscuous for cytosine-containing Py tracts than the C-terminal RRM2. These structural differences between the RRMs were reinforced by the specificities of wild-type and site-directed mutant U2AF65 for region-dependent cytosine- and uracil-containing RNA sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses further demonstrated that Py tract variations select distinct inter-RRM spacings from a pre-existing ensemble of U2AF65 conformations. Our results highlight both local and global conformational selection as a means for universal 3′ splice site recognition by U2AF65. PMID:23376934

  6. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  7. Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Both the endogenous antisecretory factor (AF) protein and peptide AF-16, which has a sequence that matches that of the active N-terminal region of AF, inhibit the increase in the epithelial transport of fluid and electrolytes induced by bacterial toxins in animal and ex vivo models. We conducted a study to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide AF-16 against the increase of transcellular passage and paracellular permeability promoted by the secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) in a cultured cellular model of the human intestinal epithelial barrier. Peptide AF-16 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the Sat-induced increase in the formation of fluid domes, in the mucosal-to-serosal passage of d-[1-14C]mannitol, and in the rearrangements in the distribution and protein expression of the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins ZO-1 and occludin in cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. In addition, we show that peptide AF-16 also inhibits the cholera toxin-induced increase of transcellular passage and the Clostridium difficile toxin-induced effects on paracellular permeability and TJ protein organization in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers by the lipid raft disorganizer methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished the inhibitory activity of peptide AF-16 at the transcellular passage level and did not modify the effect of the peptide at the paracellular level. PMID:25534938

  8. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Treated With Rivaroxaban or Warfarin: ROCKET AF Trial.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Matthew W; Nessel, Christopher C; Hellkamp, Anne S; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Piccini, Jonathan P; Suh, Eun-Young; Becker, Richard C; Singer, Daniel E; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Berkowitz, Scott D; Fox, Keith A A; Patel, Manesh R

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common complication of oral anticoagulation. This study evaluated GI bleeding in patients who received at least 1 dose of the study drug in the on-treatment arm of the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. The primary outcome was adjudicated GI bleeding reported from first to last drug dose + 2 days. Multivariable modeling was performed with pre-specified candidate predictors. Of 14,236 patients, 684 experienced GI bleeding during follow-up. These patients were older (median age 75 years vs. 73 years) and less often female. GI bleeding events occurred in the upper GI tract (48%), lower GI tract (23%), and rectum (29%) without differences between treatment arms. There was a significantly higher rate of major or nonmajor clinical GI bleeding in rivaroxaban- versus warfarin-treated patients (3.61 events/100 patient-years vs. 2.60 events/100 patient-years; hazard ratio: 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.22 to 1.66). Severe GI bleeding rates were similar between treatment arms (0.47 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.41 events/100 patient-years; p = 0.39; 0.01 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.04 events/100 patient-years; p = 0.15, respectively), and fatal GI bleeding events were rare (0.01 events/100 patient-years vs. 0.04 events/100 patient-years; 1 fatal events vs. 5 fatal events total). Independent clinical factors most strongly associated with GI bleeding were baseline anemia, history of GI bleeding, and long-term aspirin use. In the ROCKET AF trial, rivaroxaban increased GI bleeding compared with warfarin. The absolute fatality rate from GI bleeding was low and similar in both treatment arms. Our results further illustrate the need for minimizing modifiable risk factors for GI bleeding in patients on oral anticoagulation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  9. Doppler images and the underlying dynamo. The case of AF Leporis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, S. P.; Arlt, R.; Hackman, T.; Marsden, S. C.; Küker, M.; Ilyin, I. V.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Waite, I. A.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The (Zeeman-)Doppler imaging studies of solar-type stars very often reveal large high-latitude spots. This also includes F stars that possess relatively shallow convection zones, indicating that the dynamo operating in these stars differs from the solar dynamo. Aims: We aim to determine whether mean-field dynamo models of late-F type dwarf stars can reproduce the surface features recovered in Doppler maps. In particular, we wish to test whether the models can reproduce the high-latitude spots observed on some F dwarfs. Methods: The photometric inversions and the surface temperature maps of AF Lep were obtained using the Occamian-approach inversion technique. Low signal-to-noise spectroscopic data were improved by applying the least-squares deconvolution method. The locations of strong magnetic flux in the stellar tachocline as well as the surface fields obtained from mean-field dynamo solutions were compared with the observed surface temperature maps. Results: The photometric record of AF Lep reveals both long- and short-term variability. However, the current data set is too short for cycle-length estimates. From the photometry, we have determined the rotation period of the star to be 0.9660 ± 0.0023 days. The surface temperature maps show a dominant, but evolving, high-latitude (around +65°) spot. Detailed study of the photometry reveals that sometimes the spot coverage varies only marginally over a long time, and at other times it varies rapidly. Of a suite of dynamo models, the model with a radiative interior rotating as fast as the convection zone at the equator delivered the highest compatibility with the obtained Doppler images. Partially based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Based partly on STELLA SES data.Tables 1-3 and Figs. 7-14 are available in

  10. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on prognosis in atrial fibrillation: A report from the EURObservational Research Programme Pilot Survey on Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) General Registry.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile; Drozd, Marcin; Vijgen, Johan; Cozma, Dragos C; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Maggioni, Aldo P; Boriani, Giuseppe; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease, being associated with both high rates of morbidity and mortality. Similarly, atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a higher risk of both cardiovascular (CV) events and overall mortality. The AF and COPD often coexist, but the impact of COPD on prognosis in European AF patients is unknown. We evaluated COPD prevalence in patients enrolled in the EURObservational Research Programme Pilot Survey on Atrial Fibrillation Registry Pilot Phase. Clinical factors associated with COPD and adverse outcomes at 1-year follow-up were determined. In the overall cohort, a diagnosis of COPD was recorded in 339 (11.0%) of AF patients. The AF patients with COPD were more burdened with risk factors and comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus (P < .0001) and chronic heart failure (P < .0001). β-Blockers were less likely to be prescribed to patients with COPD (P = .0007). On follow-up, AF patients with COPD had a higher risk of both CV death and all-cause death (both P < .0001), as well as for the composite outcome of any thromboembolic event/bleeding /CV death (P = .0003). Cox regression analysis found that COPD was independently associated with an increase in all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI 1.05-2.28; P = .0269). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is highly prevalent in European AF patients, and is associated with higher rates of CV death, all-cause death, and the composite outcome of any thromboembolic event/bleeding/CV death. The presence of COPD in AF patients was independently associated with all-cause death in AF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A prospective survey in European Society of Cardiology member countries of atrial fibrillation management: baseline results of EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot General Registry.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Laroche, Cécile; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Santini, Massimo; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Oliveira, Mário Martins; Mairesse, Georges; Crijns, Harry J G M; Simantirakis, Emmanouil; Atar, Dan; Kirchhof, Paulus; Vardas, Panos; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P

    2014-03-01

    Given the advances in atrial fibrillation (AF) management and the availability of new European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, there is a need for the systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF in ESC member countries. We conducted a registry of consecutive in- and outpatients with AF presenting to cardiologists in nine participating ESC countries. All patients with an ECG-documented diagnosis of AF confirmed in the year prior to enrolment were eligible. We enroled a total of 3119 patients from February 2012 to March 2013, with full data on clinical subtype available for 3049 patients (40.4% female; mean age 68.8 years). Common comorbidities were hypertension, coronary disease, and heart failure. Lone AF was present in only 3.9% (122 patients). Asymptomatic AF was common, particularly among those with permanent AF. Amiodarone was the most common antiarrhythmic agent used (∼20%), while beta-blockers and digoxin were the most used rate control drugs. Oral anticoagulants (OACs) were used in 80% overall, most often vitamin K antagonists (71.6%), with novel OACs being used in 8.4%. Other antithrombotics (mostly antiplatelet therapy, especially aspirin) were still used in one-third of the patients, and no antithrombotic treatment in only 4.8%. Oral anticoagulants were used in 56.4% of CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, with 26.3% having no antithrombotic therapy. A high HAS-BLED score was not used to exclude OAC use, but there was a trend towards more aspirin use in the presence of a high HAS-BLED score. The EURObservational Research Programme Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry has provided systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of AF by cardiologists in ESC member countries. Oral anticoagulant use has increased, but novel OAC use was still low. Compliance with the treatment guidelines for patients with the lowest and higher stroke risk scores remains suboptimal.

  12. Exploration of a Capability-Focused Aerospace System of Systems Architecture Alternative with Bilayer Design Space, Based on RST-SOM Algorithmic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation. PMID:24790572

  13. SOM-based Pattern Generator: Pattern Generation Based on the Backward Projection in a Self-Organizing Map and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ishiguma, Takahiro

    A major feature of the self-organizing map (SOM) is a topology-preserving projection from the input layer to the competitive layer, and it has been used mainly as an analytical tool for discovering underlying rules in the given data set. Even though recent splendid progress in this area, there are few novel ideas to break such a conventional style. On the contrary, based on its distinctive nature, a new method for generating patterns through backward projection from the competitive layer to the input layer is proposed recently. Moreover, a promising technology for producing animation as a series of backward-projected patterns along with any pathways on the competitive layer is presented. Then, in order to carry out further considerations, some computer simulations with a variety of posed stick figures are tried in this paper. After training, four kinds of pathways, which correspond to different movements such as dancing, exercising and walking, are prepared. Though some of them does not contain any training samples, all of them worked well as we have intended in advance. As a result, it is found that the proposed method shows good performance and it is also confirmed its effectiveness.

  14. Green Electrochemical Process Solid-Oxide Oxygen-Ion-Conducting Membrane (SOM): Direct Extraction of Ti-Fe Alloys from Natural Ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xionggang; Zou, Xingli; Li, Chonghe; Zhong, Qingdong; Ding, Weizhong; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2012-06-01

    The direct electrochemical extraction of Ti-Fe alloys from natural ilmenite (FeTiO3) in molten CaCl2 is reported in this article. The sintered porous pellet of natural ilmenite acted as the cathode of the electrochemical system, and the carbon-saturated liquid tin contained in a solid-oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane (SOM) tube served as the anode of the electrolytic cell. The electrochemical process was carried out at 3.8 V, under 1223 K and 1273 K (950 °C and 1000 °C). Oxygen was ionized continuously from the cathode and discharged at the anode; solid porous Ti-Fe alloys were obtained at the cathode. The electro-deoxidation procedure of the ilmenite was characterized by analyzing partially electro-deoxidized samples taken periodically throughout the electro-deoxidation process. The findings of this study are as follows: (1) The electro-deoxidation process followed these steps: Fe2TiO5 → FeTiO3 → Fe2TiO4 → Fe, Ti (and/or Ti-Fe alloys); and TiO2 → CaTiO3 → Ti; and (2) two types of particle growth pattern are observed in the experiments. The first pattern is characterized with particle fusion and second pattern is interconnection of particles to form porous structure. A microhole oxygen-ion-migration model is suggested based on the experimental evidence.

  15. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  16. Insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af from Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran corn pests.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Rie, Jeroen Van; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda and Agrotis ipsilon. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to the two species. Vip3Ae and Vip3Af were significantly more toxic than Vip3Aa against S. frugiperda, both as protoxins and as toxins. Against A. ipsilon, Vip3Ae protoxin was more toxic than Vip3Aa and Vip3Af protoxins. Purification by metal-chelate affinity chromatography significantly affected Vip3Ae toxicity against the two insect species.

  17. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of stroke prevention through community screening for atrial fibrillation using iPhone ECG in pharmacies. The SEARCH-AF study.

    PubMed

    Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Salkeld, Glenn; Krass, Ines; McLachlan, Andrew J; Redfern, Julie; Bennett, Alexandra A; Briffa, Tom; Bauman, Adrian; Martinez, Carlos; Wallenhorst, Christopher; Lau, Jerrett K; Brieger, David B; Sy, Raymond W; Freedman, S Ben

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a third of all strokes, but often goes undetected before stroke. Identification of unknown AF in the community and subsequent anti-thrombotic treatment could reduce stroke burden. We investigated community screening for unknown AF using an iPhone electrocardiogram (iECG) in pharmacies, and determined the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Pharmacists performedpulse palpation and iECG recordings, with cardiologist iECG over-reading. General practitioner review/12-lead ECG was facilitated for suspected new AF. An automated AF algorithm was retrospectively applied to collected iECGs. Cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated costs of iECG screening, and treatment/outcome data from a United Kingdom cohort of 5,555 patients with incidentally detected asymptomatic AF. A total of 1,000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years (mean 76 ± 7 years; 44% male) were screened. Newly identified AF was found in 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8-2.5%); mean age 79 ± 6 years; all had CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2. AF prevalence was 6.7% (67/1,000). The automated iECG algorithm showed 98.5% (CI, 92-100%) sensitivity for AF detection and 91.4% (CI, 89-93%) specificity. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending iECG screening into the community, based on 55% warfarin prescription adherence, would be $AUD5,988 (€3,142; $USD4,066) per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained and $AUD30,481 (€15,993; $USD20,695) for preventing one stroke. Sensitivity analysis indicated cost-effectiveness improved with increased treatment adherence.Screening with iECG in pharmacies with an automated algorithm is both feasible and cost-effective. The high and largely preventable stroke/thromboembolism risk of those with newly identified AF highlights the likely benefits of community AF screening. Guideline recommendation of community iECG AF screening should be considered.

  18. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  19. Search for A-F Spectral type pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-L.; Lee, J. W.; Kwon, S.-G.; Youn, J.-H.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kim, C.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. A total number of 14 eclipsing binaries with A-F spectral type primary components were observed for 22 nights. We confirmed small-amplitude oscillating features of a recently detected pulsator TW Dra, which has a pulsating period of 0.053 day and a semi-amplitude of about 5 mmag in B-passband. We discovered new pulsating components in two eclipsing binaries of RX Hya and AB Per. The primary component of RX Hya is pulsating with a dominant period of 0.052 day and a semi-amplitude of about 7 mmag. AB Per has also a pulsating component with a period of 0.196 day and a semi-amplitude of about 10 mmag in B-passband. We suggest that these two new pulsators are members of the newly introduced group of mass-accreting pulsating stars in semi-detached Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/231

  20. Semi-empirical seismic relations of A-F stars from COROT and Kepler legacy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, A.; Suárez, J. C.; García Hernández, A.; Mendoza, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Asteroseismology is witnessing a revolution, thanks to high-precise asteroseismic space data (MOST, COROT, Kepler, BRITE) and their large ground-based follow-up programs. Those instruments have provided an unprecedented large amount of information, which allows us to scrutinize its statistical properties in the quest for hidden relations among pulsational and/or physical observables. This approach might be particularly useful for stars whose pulsation content is difficult to interpret. This is the case of intermediate-mass classical pulsating stars (i.e. γ Dor, δ Scuti, hybrids) for which current theories do not properly predict the observed oscillation spectra. Here, we establish a first step in finding such hidden relations from data mining techniques for these stars. We searched for those hidden relations in a sample of δ Scuti and hybrid stars observed by COROT and Kepler (74 and 153, respectively). No significant correlations between pairs of observables were found. However, two statistically significant correlations emerged from multivariable correlations in the observed seismic data, which describe the total number of observed frequencies and the largest one, respectively. Moreover, three different sets of stars were found to cluster according to their frequency density distribution. Such sets are in apparent agreement with the asteroseismic properties commonly accepted for A-F pulsating stars.

  1. Detection of a Light Echo from the Otherwise Normal SN 2007af

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, D.; Leising, M. D.; Milne, P. A.; Pearcy, J.; Riess, A. G.; Macri, L. M.; Bryngelson, G. L.; Garnavich, P. M.

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a light echo from SN 2007af, a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in NGC 5584. Hubble Space Telescope images taken three years post explosion reveal two separate echoes: an outer echo and an extended central region, which we propose to be an inner echo for which details are unresolved. Multiple images were obtained in the F160W, F350LP, F555W, and F814W using the Wide Field Camera 3. If the outer echo is produced by an interstellar dust sheet perpendicular to the line of sight, it is located ∼800 pc in front of the SN. The dust for the inner echo is 0.45 pc \\lt d\\lt 90 pc away from the SN. The inner echo color is consistent with typical interstellar dust wavelength-dependent scattering cross-sections, while the outer echo is redder than predicted. Both dust sheets, if in the foreground, are optically thin for scattering, and the outer echo sheet thickness is consistent with the inferred extinction from peak brightness. Whether the inner echo is from interstellar or circumstellar dust is ambiguous. Overall, the echo characteristics are quite similar to previously observed SN Ia echoes.

  2. La Crosse MAP, Wisconsin. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-30

    091U 15A 66 T9 PAWIS A-F 5Aso PQtI nFM NOUN.! = JAN 73 - mHO8 PoRn , FMs DAB.! MU JAN 48 - WNC 81 TD K CO PIIVU WIC 6 T O L =1 -6’S L 30 I ’em ~cu...Cosa 00.0100.0 p000 400 8693 99.8 97.0 96.3 99.1 99.9 99.8 99.6 99* 99.91 99.9 99*9w 0.0 00.000 00 30 803 4T 970 gais 99.1 99.9 99.6k 99.6 99.8199.9...bS 1 9 9 ltd 9 So&*! lid 9 Lt aL. I~ i Gai 350 $c 2.3 56.1 59.9 50.5 50.5 61.0 61.1 61.2 51.2 1.2 51.2 51.2 61.21 51.2 51.2.1.13 300S4*2 s09s 62.5 53.2

  3. Chemically peculiar A/F stars in open clusters of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2010-12-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars and open clusters that Gaia will observe in the Galaxy.

  4. Performance Analysis of Beamforming in Fixed-gain AF Relay Networks with Asymmetric Correlated Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of beamforming (BF) for a dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network, where the source and destination are each equipped with multiple antennas, is investigated. It is assumed that the source-relay and relay-destination channels experience mixed fading distributions, namely, correlated Nakagami-m/Rician and correlated Rician/Nakagami-m, respectively. By considering fixed-gain relaying, analytical expressions for outage probability (OP) and average symbol error rate (ASER) are derived in closed-form. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of our performance analysis, also illustrate the impact of channel correlation, fading severity, Rician factor and antenna configuration on the performance of the system. It is shown that the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel can achieve better performance than the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel with the increase of fading severity parameter, and the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel may outperform the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel by enlarging the Rician factor.

  5. Perturbative magnetoresistance technique used to investigate FM/AF coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alexandre; da Costa, Ricardo; Melo, Abner; Chesman, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    In this study we introduced modifications to a collinear four probe magnetoresistance set-up in order to measure magnetic properties that can only be sensed by techniques based on magnetization perturbation. In addition to the applied DC magnetic field (Hdc) , in magnetoresistance experiments, a small and quasi-static alternating magnetic field (hac, less than 10 Oe and around 800 Hz) is applied perpendicularly, both parallel to the sample plane. Due to Zeeman interaction, hac drives sample magnetization to oscillate slightly around its equilibrium position. Although we apply only DC current (few mA), the detected voltage carries DC and AC components. The DC voltage component provides information on magnetoresistance (MR) and the AC component is called perturbative magnetoresistance (PMR). We successfully demonstrated that the PMR signal is proportional to the first derivative of resistance with respect to hac. Using this technique and a phenomenological model that takes into account the relevant free energy terms of FM/AF coupled bilayers, we were able to study reversible and irreversible magnetization rotation processes in these magnetic systems. With respect to magnetic anisotropy, we investigated rotatable anisotropy, proposed by McMichael et al and Geshev et al. Financial support: CNPq, FAPERN and CAPES (Brazilian agencies).

  6. Dover AFB, Delaware Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-16

    90. 92. 93.8 94.4 94 7 9497 94o8 94.9 95.0 95.0 95.0 95.1 95.* >oo 11. 75.1 86, 91.2 93.6 94* 95.3 95.6 95.6 95.7 95.8 95.9 95.9 95.9 95, 9 95.9...BRANCH uI AUFTAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY ! A. EATHCR SERVICE/MAC 1 7 7 LOVER AF3 Or 70,73-81 FEE STATION STATION NAkE Ytms MONTe PAGE I nb ~iJ-CS( ~OtAS 4L...30 31(IN.H;) B AR OMET R I C P RE S S URE ( NB ) 100 150 600 650 900 950 1000 1050 (O1) II -I’ g 5 1 I I F P R E S 5 U R E A L T I T U D E (10 0 O’S FT

  7. High temperature dielectric properties of Apical, Kapton, Peek, Teflon AF, and Upilex polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Overton, E.; Myers, I. T.; Suthar, J. L.; Khachen, W.; Laghari, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Reliable lightweight systems capable of providing electrical power at the magawatt level are a requirement for future manned space exploration missions. This can be achieved by the development of high temperature insulating materials which are not only capable of surviving the hostile space environment but can contribute to reducing the mass and weight of the heat rejection system. In this work, Apical, Upilex, Kapton, Teflon AF, and Peek polymers are characterized for AC and DC dielectric breakdown in air and in silicone oil at temperatures up to 250 C. The materials are also tested in terms of their dielectric constant and dissipation factor at high temperatures with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 200 V/mil present. The effects of thermal aging on the properties of the films are determined after 15 hours of exposure to 200 and 250 C, each. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of these dielectrics for use in capacitors and cable insulations in high temperature environments.

  8. Joint Source-Relay Design for Full-Duplex MIMO AF Relay Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qingjiang; Hong, Mingyi; Gao, Xiqi; Song, Enbin; Cai, Yunlong; Xu, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    The performance of full-duplex (FD) relay systems can be greatly impacted by the self-interference (SI) at relays. By exploiting multi-antenna in FD relay systems, the spectral efficiency of FD relay systems can be enhanced through spatial SI mitigation. This paper studies joint source transmit beamforming and relay processing to achieve rate maximization for FD MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems with consideration of relay processing delay. The problem is difficult to solve due mainly to the SI constraint induced by the relay processing delay. In this paper, we first present a sufficient condition under which the relay amplification matrix has rank one structure. Then, for the case of rank one amplification matrix, the rate maximization problem is equivalently simplified into an unconstrained problem which can be locally solved using gradient ascent method. Next, we propose a penalty-based algorithmic framework, called P-BSUM, for a class of constrained optimization problems which have difficult equality constraints in addition to some convex constraints. By rewriting the rate maximization problem with a set of auxiliary variables, we apply the P-BSUM algorithm to the rate maximization problem in the general case. Finally, numerical results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms and show that the joint source-relay design approach under the rank one assumption could be strictly suboptimal as compared to the P-BSUM-based joint source-relay design approach.

  9. Activation function 2 (AF-2) of retinoic acid receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor: presence of a conserved autonomous constitutive activating domain and influence of the nature of the response element on AF-2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Saunders, M; Gaudon, C; Roy, B; Losson, R; Chambon, P

    1994-01-01

    A motif essential for the transcriptional activation function 2 (AF-2) present in the E region of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) alpha has been characterized as an amphipathic alpha-helix whose main features are conserved between transcriptionally active members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This conserved motif, which can activate autonomously in the absence of ligand in animal and yeast cells, can be swapped between nuclear receptors without affecting the ligand dependency for activation of transcription, thus indicating that a ligand-dependent conformational change is necessary to reveal the AF-2 activation potential within the E region of the nuclear receptor. Interestingly, we show that the precise nature of the direct repeat response element to which RAR/RXR heterodimers are bound can affect the activity of the AF-2s of the heterodimeric partners, as well as the relative efficiency with which all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acids activate the RAR partner. Images PMID:7957103

  10. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL–AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL–AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase I (RNAP1). The pSER domain of AF4 family proteins associates with SL1 on chromatin and loads TATA-binding protein (TBP) onto the promoter to initiate RNA polymerase II (RNAP2)-dependent transcription. These results reveal a previously unknown transcription initiation mechanism involving AEP and a role for SL1 as a TBP-loading factor in RNAP2-dependent gene activation. PMID:26593443

  11. Raman sensitivity enhancement for aqueous absorbing sample using Teflon-AF 2400 liquid core optical fibre cell.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanjie; Zhang, Liuyang; Zuo, Jian; Li, Zuowei; Gao, Shuqin; Lu, Guohui

    2007-01-02

    The compatibility Teflon-AF 2400 liquid core optical fibre with resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS-LCOF) was used to detect aqueous biomolecules. The maximum sensitivity enhancement factor for concentrations greater than the detection limit in a conventional cell was 10, and detection limit reduction of about 1000-fold have been achieved for the measurement of aqueous absorbing sample using Teflon-AF 2400 fibre Raman cell compared to the conventional cell. We were able to collect spectra of 2.5 x 10(-9) and 2.5 x 10(-10) M aqueous beta-carotene using 16.2 mW of laser power and 10s integration time. This volume of a 2.5 x 10(-10) M aqueous solution corresponds to only 1.5 fmol or 830 fg of beta-carotene. The results of this preliminary study indicate that RRS-LCOF has potential in bioanalytical and biomedical applications.

  12. The M4.5V flare star AF Psc as seen in K2 engineering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2014-08-01

    We present the light curve of the little studied flare star AF Psc (M4.5V) obtained using engineering data from the K2 mission. Data were obtained in long-cadence mode giving an effective exposure of 29 min and nearly 9 d of coverage. A clear modulation on a period of 1.08 d was seen which is the signature of the stellar rotation period. We identify 14 flares in the light curve, with the most luminous flares apparently coming from the same active region. We compare the flare characteristics of AF Psc to two M4V flare stars studied using Kepler data. The K2 mission will present a unique opportunity to study the rotation and flare properties of late-type dwarf stars with different ages and mass.

  13. Blood pressure control and stroke or bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial.

    PubMed

    Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Hellkamp, Anne S; Jones, W Schuyler; Piccini, Jonathan P; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Hankey, Graeme J; Berkowitz, Scott D; Nessel, Christopher C; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E; Fox, Keith A A; Patel, Manesh R

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis examining the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) or hypertension bracket and stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The study included 14,256 anticoagulated patients in the ROCKET AF trial. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of adverse outcomes by European Society of Cardiology hypertension bracket and screening SBP. In total, 90.5% of patients had hypertension (55.8% controlled, 34.6% uncontrolled). The adjusted risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SE) increased significantly for every 10-mm Hg increase in screening SBP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.13). There was a trend toward an increased adjusted risk of stroke or SE in patients with controlled (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.66) and uncontrolled hypertension (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03-1.95) (P = .06). In contrast, the adjusted risk of major bleeding was similar between hypertensive brackets and did not vary significantly by screening SBP. The benefit of rivaroxaban versus warfarin in preventing stroke or SE was consistent among patients regardless of SBP (P interaction = .69). In a trial of anticoagulated patients with AF, increasing screening SBP was independently associated with stroke and SE, and one-third of patients had uncontrolled hypertension. The relative effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were consistent across all levels of screening SBP. A single SBP may be an important factor in reducing the overall risk of stroke and SE in anticoagulated patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative calculations of individual patient time in therapeutic range while taking warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Singer, Daniel E; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R; Piccini, Jonathan P; Hankey, Graeme J; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L; Becker, Richard C; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fox, Keith A A; Califf, Robert M

    2015-03-03

    In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban-Once-daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter-INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow-up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change-based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in-range INRs ("corrections") versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction ("overshoots"). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change-based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter-regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow-up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change-based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter-regional differences previously reported. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Alternative Calculations of Individual Patient Time in Therapeutic Range While Taking Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Daniel E.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Becker, Richard C.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban–Once‐daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter‐INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow‐up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. Methods and Results We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change–based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in‐range INRs (“corrections”) versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction (“overshoots”). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change–based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter‐regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. Conclusions TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow‐up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change–based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter‐regional differences previously reported. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. PMID:25736441

  16. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  17. An Updated Version of the U.S. Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery (AF-MATB)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    assessing human performance in a controlled multitask environment. The most recent release of AF-MATB contains numerous improvements and additions...Strategic Behavior, MATB, Multitasking , Task Battery, Simulator, Multi-Attribute Task Battery, Automation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...performance and multitasking strategy. As a result, a specific Information Throughput (IT) Mode was designed to customize the task to fit the Human

  18. Spotlight on unmet needs in stroke prevention: The PIONEER AF-PCI, NAVIGATE ESUS and GALILEO trials.

    PubMed

    Hemmrich, Melanie; Peterson, Eric D; Thomitzek, Karen; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major healthcare concern, being associated with an estimated five-fold risk of ischaemic stroke. In patients with AF, anticoagulants reduce stroke risk to a greater extent than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ASA plus clopidogrel. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now a widely-accepted therapeutic option for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF (NVAF). There are particular patient types with NVAF for whom treatment challenges remain, owing to sparse clinical data, their high-risk nature or a need to harmonise anticoagulant and antiplatelet regimens if co-administered. This article focuses on three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that are investigating the utility of rivaroxaban, a direct, oral, factor Xa inhibitor, in additional areas of stroke prevention where data for anticoagulants are lacking: oPen-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre study explorIng twO treatmeNt stratEgiEs of Rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment (PIONEER AF-PCI); New Approach riVaroxoban Inhibition of factor Xa in a Global trial vs Aspirin to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE ESUS); and Global study comparing a rivAroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy to an antipLatelet-based strategy after transcatheter aortIc vaLve rEplacement to Optimize clinical outcomes (GALILEO). Data from these studies present collaborative efforts to build upon existing registrational Phase III data for rivaroxaban, driving the need for effective and safe treatment of a wider range of patients for stroke prevention.

  19. Current Status and Outcomes of Direct Oral Anticoagulant Use in Real-World Atrial Fibrillation Patients - Fushimi AF Registry.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yugo; Uozumi, Ryuji; Hamatani, Yasuhiro; Esato, Masahiro; Chun, Yeong-Hwa; Tsuji, Hikari; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Ogawa, Hisashi; Abe, Mitsuru; Morita, Satoshi; Akao, Masaharu

    2017-08-25

    The current status and outcomes of direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) use have not been widely evaluated in unselected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the real world.Methods and Results:The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF patients who visited the participating medical institutions (n=80) in Fushimi, Kyoto, Japan. Follow-up data with oral anticoagulant (OAC) status were available for 3,731 patients by the end of November 2015. We evaluated OAC status and clinical outcomes according to OAC status. The number (incidence rate) of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding events during the median follow-up of 3.0 years was 224 (2.3%/year) and 177 (1.8%/year), respectively. After the release of DOAC, the prevalence of DOAC use increased gradually and steadily, and that of warfarin, DOAC and no OAC was 37%, 26% and 36%, respectively in 2015. On Cox proportional hazards modeling incorporating change in OAC status as a time-dependent covariate for stroke/SE and major bleeding events, use of DOAC compared with warfarin was not associated with stroke/SE events (HR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.59-1.51, P=0.82) or major bleeding events (HR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.50-1.36, P=0.45). In real-world clinical practice, there were no significant differences in stroke/SE events or major bleeding events for DOAC compared with warfarin in patients with AF.

  20. KI Sawyer AFB, Gwinn, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-26

    WID DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVAlIONS) 9483’, K I SA-YFk AF6 ti1 ____, _____;______78____ _______ STATION STATiSm KAME YEAS ST ALL rf.TTlf...94816~ K I SAWYFRC AFB 1I 1A STA-1,O, STAMMO kAME YERS4M ( PAGE 2 iboo-2p00Q "OUAS (L. S.T. WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL I TOTAL IF) 1 0

  1. An illness-specific version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF IPQ-R): Unpacking beliefs about treatment control, personal control and symptom triggers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elaina C; O'Neill, Mark; Hughes, Lyndsay D; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2017-09-11

    This study modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Qualitative interviews and think-aloud techniques informed modification of the IPQ-R to be specific to AF patients. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n = 198) examined the validity of the modified IPQ-R (AF-IPQ-R). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) examined the new AF-triggers scale. Construct validity examined associations between the AF-IPQ-R, quality of life (QoL) and beliefs about medicines. Test-retest and internal reliability were examined. Interviews indicated that patients viewed triggers of AF rather than initial causes of illness as more applicable. Patients believed specific behaviours such as rest could control AF. Treatment control beliefs related to pharmacological and procedural treatments. These data were used to modify the IPQ-R subscales and to develop a triggers of AF scale. CFA indicated good model fit. EFA of the triggers scale indicated three factors: emotional; health behaviours; and over-exertion triggers. Expected correlations were found between the AF-IPQ-R, QoL and treatment beliefs, evidencing good construct validity. The AF-IPQ-R showed sound psychometric properties. It provides more detailed specification than the IPQ-R of beliefs that may help to understand poor QoL in AF patients, and guidance for future interventions in this area.

  2. Comparison of international normalized ratio audit parameters in patients enrolled in GARFIELD-AF and treated with vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, David A; Accetta, Gabriele; Haas, Sylvia; Kayani, Gloria; Lucas Luciardi, Hector; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G G; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). We evaluated the agreement between two INR audit parameters, frequency in range (FIR) and proportion of time in the therapeutic range (TTR), using data from a global population of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF, the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF). Among 17 168 patients with 1-year follow-up data available at the time of the analysis, 8445 received VKA therapy (±antiplatelet therapy) at enrolment, and of these patients, 5066 with ≥3 INR readings and for whom both FIR and TTR could be calculated were included in the analysis. In total, 70 905 INRs were analysed. At the patient level, TTR showed higher values than FIR (mean, 56·0% vs 49·8%; median, 59·7% vs 50·0%). Although patient-level FIR and TTR values were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient [95% confidence interval; CI], 0·860 [0·852-0·867]), estimates from individuals showed widespread disagreement and variability (Lin's concordance coefficient [95% CI], 0·829 [0·821-0·837]). The difference between FIR and TTR explained 17·4% of the total variability of measurements. These results suggest that FIR and TTR are not equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The SRB recovery ship Liberty Star reenters the Hangar AF area at CCAS with a spent SRB used on STS-

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Seen carrying a spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is the solid rocket booster recovery ship Liberty Star as it reenters the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  4. Self-assembly of amphiphilic peptide (AF)6H5K15 derivatives: roles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues.

    PubMed

    Thota, Naresh; Jiang, Jianwen

    2014-03-13

    A molecular dynamics simulation study is reported to investigate the roles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues in the self-assembly of (AF)6H5K15 peptide derivatives. The peptide, as well as water and counterions, are represented by the MARTINI coarse-grained model. The assembly is observed to follow a three-step process: formation of small clusters, large clusters, and micelles. With increasing length of hydrophilic Lys residues in (AF)6H5Kn (n = 10, 15, 20, and 25), assembly capability is found to be reduced with the formation of smaller micelles or the presence of individual peptide chains. Upon replacing Ala by more hydrophobic Phe in AmFnH5K15 (m + n = 12), larger micelles are formed. With increasing length of hydrophobic Phe residues in FnH5K15 (n = 4, 8, 12, and 16), micelle size increases and the morphology shifts from spherical to fiber-like. The simulation study provides mechanistic insight into the crucial roles of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in the assembly of (AF)6H5K15 derivatives; it reveals that assembly capability is reduced by increasing hydrophilicity, whereas increasing hydrophobicity leads to morphology transition.

  5. A spent SRB used on STS-87 is lifted in a hoisting slip in Hangar AF at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is lifted in a hoisting slip in the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.