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Sample records for af cancer recti

  1. The mammalian tubuli recti: ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Osman, D I; Plöen, L

    1978-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the tubuli recti was studied in the testes of sexually mature bulls, boars, rams, goats, rabbits and rats fixed by vascular perfusion. The tubuli recti are lined with a simple epithelium that varies in height, from squamous to tall columnar according to the species and the region. The cells are characterized by extensive lateral and tortuous basal plasma membranes and a luminal border with microvilli. Tight junctions and desmosomes are found in the upper half of the lateral borders. The Golgi apparatus is sizable and associated with it are coated vesicles and many smooth vesicles concentrated towards the luminal border. A distal segment of the tubuli recti is found in bulls only and is characterized by a high epithelium which is thrown into folds giving the lumen a festooned appearance. It is suggested that the epithelial cells of the tubuli recti are involved in fluid exchange and in the removal of unwanted spermatozoa.

  2. Passive limitation of adduction after Cüppers's 'Fadenoperation' on medial recti.

    PubMed Central

    Paliaga, G P; Braga, M

    1989-01-01

    In 40 eyes of 20 esotropic subjects in which a 'Fadenoperation' was performed on the medial recti we measured the resistance to ocular rotation in adduction before and after the operation. The difference between the two sets of force measurements demonstrates that the Fadenoperation on medial recti produces a mechanical restriction to adduction which can explain the effect of the surgical procedure on the strabismic deviation. PMID:2765442

  3. AF1q is a novel TCF7 co-factor which activates CD44 and promotes breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jino; Schlederer, Michaela; Schreiber, Martin; Ice, Ryan; Merkel, Olaf; Bilban, Martin; Hofbauer, Sebastian; Kim, Soojin; Addison, Joseph; Zou, Jie; Ji, Chunyan; Bunting, Silvia T; Wang, Zhengqi; Shoham, Menachem; Huang, Gang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Gibson, Laura F; Rojanasakul, Yon; Remick, Scot; Ivanov, Alexey; Pugacheva, Elena; Bunting, Kevin D; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Tse, William

    2015-08-21

    AF1q is an MLL fusion partner that was identified from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t (1; 11) (q21; q23) chromosomal abnormality. The function of AF1q is not yet fully known, however, elevated AF1q expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Here, we show that AF1q specifically binds to T-cell-factor-7 (TCF7) in the Wnt signaling pathway and results in transcriptional activation of CD44 as well as multiple downstream targets of the TCF7/LEF1. In addition, enhanced AF1q expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, mammosphere formation, and chemo-resistance. In xenograft models, enforced AF1q expression in breast cancer cells also promotes liver metastasis and lung colonization. In a cohort of 63 breast cancer patients, higher percentages of AF1q-positive cancer cells in primary sites were associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and brain metastasis-free survival (b-MFS). Using paired primary/metastatic samples from the same patients, we demonstrate that AF1q-positive breast cancer cells become dynamically dominant in the metastatic sites compared to the primary sites. Our findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent "metastatic founder cells" which have invasive properties.

  4. Histopathology of the tubuli recti at the start of experimental autoimmune orchitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Kawata, Shinichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-12-01

    We previously established an experimental model of autoimmune orchitis (EAO) by means of immunization with testicular germ cells (TGC) alone in mice and confirmed that the disease can be transferred to mice that had received CD4+ but not CD8+ or B lymphocytes obtained from TGC-immunized donor mice. The tubuli recti (TR) are special in that lymphocytes first accumulate around them before spreading to the peripheral seminiferous tubules in EAO. However, the minute changes in the TR remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the histopathology of the TR before the induction of spermatogenic disturbance. The results revealed that the first infiltrating lymphocytes around the TR were not only of T-cell but also of B-cell lineage. Moreover, it was also shown that some of these infiltrating lymphocytes migrated into the TR, with resultant degeneration of the TR epithelium before damage to the seminiferous epithelium. These findings indicate that TR epithelial cells are the first targets of autoreactive T and B lymphocytes in EAO.

  5. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  6. Evidence for impaired retinoic acid receptor-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2 cofactor activity in human lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moghal, N; Neel, B G

    1995-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is required for normal airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. One of the earliest events following the exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to RA is the strong induction of RA receptor beta (RAR beta) mRNA. Previous work established that many lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors display abnormal RAR beta mRNA expression, most often absence or weak expression of the RAR beta 2 isoform, even after RA treatment. Restoration of RAR beta 2 into RAR beta-negative lung cancer cell lines has been reported to inhibit tumorigenicity. Since RAR beta 2 inactivation may contribute to lung cancer, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of defective RAR beta 2 expression. Nuclear run-on assays and transient transfections with RAR beta 2 promoter constructs indicate the presence of trans-acting transcriptional defects in most lung cancer cell lines, which map to the RA response element (RARE). These defects cannot be complemented by RAR-retinoid X receptor cotransfection and can be separated into two types: (i) one affecting transcription from direct repeat RAREs, but not palindromic RAREs, and (ii) another affecting transcription from both types of RARE. Studies using chimeras between RAR alpha, TR alpha, and other transcription factors suggest the existence of novel RAR-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2-specific cofactors, which are necessary for high levels of transcription. Furthermore, these factors may be frequently inactivated in human lung cancer. PMID:7791800

  7. Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Ellström-Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as a separation of the 2 muscle bellies of rectus abdominis. To date there is scant knowledge on prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the condition. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DRA during pregnancy and post partum, presence of possible risk factors, and the occurrence of lumbopelvic pain among women with and without DRA. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 300 first-time pregnant women from pregnancy till 12 months post partum. Data were collected by electronic questionnaire and clinical examinations. DRA was defined as a palpated separation of ≥2 fingerbreadths either 4.5 cm above, at or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. Women with and without DRA were compared with independent samples Student's t-test and χ2/Fisher exact test, and OR with significance level >0.05. Results Prevalence of DRA was 33.1%, 60.0%, 45.4%, and 32.6% at gestation week 21, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post partum, respectively. No difference in risk factors was found when comparing women with and without DRA. OR showed a greater likelihood for DRA among women reporting heavy lifting ≥20 times weekly (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.05 to 4.52). There was no difference in reported lumbopelvic pain (p=0.10) in women with and without DRA. Conclusions Prevalence of mild DRA was high both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Women with and without DRA reported the same amount of lumbopelvic pain 12 months post partum. PMID:27324871

  8. Three-Year Follow-Up of an Alectinib Phase I/II Study in ALK-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: AF-001JP.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomohide; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Seto, Takashi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maemondo, Makoto; Inoue, Akira; Hida, Toyoaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Harada, Masao; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nogami, Naoyuki; Murakami, Haruyasu; Kuriki, Hiroshi; Shimada, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nishio, Makoto

    2017-03-15

    Purpose Alectinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -specific kinase inhibitor that seems to be effective against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a variety of ALK mutations. The primary analysis of AF-001JP reported a promising overall response rate. To assess progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), patients from the phase II part of AF-001JP were followed up for approximately 3 years. Patients and Methods Oral alectinib 300 mg was administered twice per day to patients with ALK inhibitor-naïve, ALK-positive NSCLC who had progressed after one or more regimens of previous chemotherapy. In this long-term follow-up, efficacy (PFS, OS), correlation between tumor shrinkage and PFS, safety of alectinib, and relief of cancer symptoms were evaluated. Results At the updated data cutoff (September 10, 2015; first patient in August 30, 2011, last patient in April 18, 2012), 25 of 46 phase II patients were still receiving alectinib. Disease progression was confirmed in 18 patients (39%); median PFS was not reached (3-year PFS rate, 62%; 95% CI, 45 to 75). Fourteen patients had brain metastases at baseline; of these, 6 remained in the study without CNS and systemic progression. Tumor shrinkage and PFS showed no correlation. The 3-year OS rate was 78% (13 events). The most common treatment-related adverse event (all grades) was increased blood bilirubin (36.2%). Most cancer symptoms were relieved early, and medication for symptoms was dramatically decreased during alectinib therapy. Conclusion Alectinib was effective in this 3-year follow-up with a favorable safety profile over a long administration period in ALK-positive NSCLC without previous ALK inhibitor treatment.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection related long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) AF147447 inhibits gastric cancer proliferation and invasion by targeting MUC2 and up-regulating miR-34c.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Han; Zhu, Li; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Weifeng; Hua, Jie; Gu, Huiyuan; Jin, Wujuan; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-12-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were shown to play critical roles in cancer biology. We investigated whether H. pylori infection could promote gastric cancer by regulating lncRNAs expression. Differentially expressed lncRNAs between H. pylori positive and negative tissues were identified by microarray and validated by qRT-PCR. Our results indicated that H. pylori positive tissues have a specific profile of lncRNAs. Cell biological assays with siRNA-mediated knockdown or lentivirus vector-mediated over-expression were performed to probe the functional relevance of the lncRNAs. We identified an lncRNA-AF147447 decreased expressed by H. pylori infection, which can inhibit GC proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo, act as a tumor suppressor in the development of H. pylori induced GC. LncRNA AF147447 could repress MUC2 expression by direct binding or increasing miR-34c expression. We also found that transcription factor E2F1 could be recruited to lncRNA AF147447 promoter by RNA immunoprecipatation and RNA pull down assays. These findings support a role of lncRNA AF147447 in tumor suppression. This discovery contributes to a better understanding of the importance of the deregulated lncRNAs by H. pylori infection and provides a rationale for the potential development of lncRNA-based targeted approaches for the treatment of H. pylori-related gastric cancer.

  10. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  11. Prospective and clinical validation of ALK immunohistochemistry: results from the phase I/II study of alectinib for ALK-positive lung cancer (AF-001JP study)

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, K.; Togashi, Y.; Kamihara, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Inoue, A.; Katsuki, H.; Kiura, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Seto, T.; Maemondo, M.; Hida, T.; Harada, M.; Ohe, Y.; Nogami, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Nishio, M.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions need to be accurately and efficiently detected for ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) remains the reference test. Although increasing data are supporting that ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) is highly concordant with FISH, IHC screening needed to be clinically and prospectively validated. Patients and methods In the AF-001JP trial for alectinib, 436 patients were screened for ALK fusions through IHC (n = 384) confirmed with FISH (n = 181), multiplex RT-PCR (n = 68), or both (n = 16). IHC results were scored with iScore. Result ALK fusion was positive in 137 patients and negative in 250 patients. Since the presence of cancer cells in the samples for RT-PCR was not confirmed, ALK fusion negativity could not be ascertained in 49 patients. IHC interpreted with iScore showed a 99.4% (173/174) concordance with FISH. All 41 patients who had iScore 3 and were enrolled in phase II showed at least 30% tumor reduction with 92.7% overall response rate. Two IHC-positive patients with an atypical FISH pattern responded to ALK inhibitor therapy. The reduction rate was not correlated with IHC staining intensity. Conclusions Our study showed (i) that when sufficiently sensitive and appropriately interpreted, IHC can be a stand-alone diagnostic for ALK inhibitor therapies; (ii) that when atypical FISH patterns are accompanied by IHC positivity, the patients should be considered as candidates for ALK inhibitor therapies, and (iii) that the expression level of ALK fusion is not related to the level of response to ALK inhibitors and is thus not required for patient selection. Registration number JapicCTI-101264 (This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center). PMID:26487585

  12. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  13. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3' splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans.

  14. Sabiperones A-F, new diterpenoids from Juniperus sabina.

    PubMed

    Janar, Jenis; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Wong, Chin Piow; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Six new diterpenoids, sabiperones A-F (1-6) have been isolated from the aerial part of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. Sabiperone F showed moderate cell growth inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines.

  15. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  16. A new AF gravitational instanton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2011-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that the Euclidean Schwarzschild and Euclidean Kerr instantons are the only non-trivial asymptotically flat (AF) gravitational instantons. In this Letter, we show that this conjecture is false by explicitly constructing a new two-parameter AF gravitational instanton with a U (1) × U (1) isometry group, using the inverse-scattering method. It has Euler number χ = 3 and Hirzebruch signature τ = 1, and its global topology is CP2 with a circle S1 removed appropriately. Various other properties of this gravitational instanton are also discussed.

  17. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    registered with Defense Technical Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station ...Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 U’ B...Contract No. F08637 84 C0070. The locations of these installations are shown in Figure 1. INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION Galena AFS * Galena Air Force Station

  18. Recognition of the 3' splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift.

    PubMed

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C

    2016-11-15

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3' splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3' splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein-RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3' splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants.

  19. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Wildfires Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) PDF Healthy ...

  20. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriches stem-like population and enhance mammosphere formation of breast cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Charlotte Olivia; Kim, Soojin; Park, Jino

    2017-03-18

    Wnt signaling pathway is believed to be responsible for control over various types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state. Moreover, dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway is strongly associated with several diseases including cancer. Previously, we have shown that AF1q associates with a poor prognosis in leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloid, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Also, AF1q plays a pivotal role as an oncogene and metastasis enhancer in breast cancer via activation of Wnt signaling pathway. AF1q is highly expressed in stem cells, and this expression is diminished by differentiation. To understand the role of AF1q in stem-like population, we examined stem-like cells derived from breast cells which dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway by alteration of AF1q expression. The effect of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q on EMT marker expression, stem cell marker expression, and sphere formation was determined. Activated Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriched stem-like population showed enhanced sphere formation ability. Interestingly, Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, Quercetin, decreased the sphere formation in these cells. These results suggest that AF1q would have a role as an enhancer in generation of stem-like population through activation of Wnt signaling pathway.

  1. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  2. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  3. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  4. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  5. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  6. Seladoeflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella doederleinii.

    PubMed

    Zou, ZhenXing; Xu, KangPing; Xu, PingSheng; Li, XiaoMin; Cheng, Fei; Li, Jing; Yu, Xia; Cao, DongSheng; Li, Dan; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, GuoGang; Tan, GuiShan

    2017-01-01

    Six new flavonoids, seladoeflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the whole herbs of Selaginella doederleinii, together with one known flavonoid (7). Their structures including absolute configuration were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds consist of an aryl substituent at the C-3' position of naringenin or apigenin skeletons, and compounds 1 and 6 were identified as R configurations, which are uncommonly encountered in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. In addition, bioassay of the isolates revealed that 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines NCI-H460, A549, and K562 in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 8.17 to 18.66μM.

  7. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  8. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  9. UHM–ULM interactions in the RBM39–U2AF65 splicing-factor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanyuk, Galina A.; Serrano, Pedro; Peralta, Eigen; Farr, Carol L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Geralt, Michael; Das, Debanu; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Deacon, Ashley M.; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Godzik, Adam; Wilson, Ian A.; Wüthrich, Kurt; Salomon, Daniel R.; Williamson, James R.

    2016-03-24

    RNA-binding protein 39 (RBM39) is a splicing factor and a transcriptional co-activator of estrogen receptors and Jun/AP-1, and its function has been associated with malignant progression in a number of cancers. The C-terminal RRM domain of RBM39 belongs to the U2AF homology motif family (UHM), which mediate protein–protein interactions through a short tryptophan-containing peptide known as the UHM-ligand motif (ULM). Here, crystal and solution NMR structures of the RBM39-UHM domain, and the crystal structure of its complex with U2AF65-ULM, are reported. The RBM39–U2AF65 interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation from human cell extracts, by isothermal titration calorimetry and by NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments with the purified proteins. When compared with related complexes, such as U2AF35–U2AF65 and RBM39–SF3b155, the RBM39-UHM–U2AF65-ULM complex reveals both common and discriminating recognition elements in the UHM–ULM binding interface, providing a rationale for the known specificity of UHM–ULM interactions. This study therefore establishes a structural basis for specific UHM–ULM interactions by splicing factors such as U2AF35, U2AF65, RBM39 and SF3b155, and a platform for continued studies of intermolecular interactions governing disease-related alternative splicing in eukaryotic cells.

  10. Coaxially electrospun PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats with superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2010-08-03

    This work reports the coaxial electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats yielding superhydrophobic properties. The coaxial electrospinning configuration allows for the electrospinning of Teflon AF, a nonelectrospinnable polymer, with the help of an electrospinnable PVDF polymer. PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath fibers have been found to a have mean fiber diameter ranging from 400 nm to less than 100 nm. TEM micrographs exhibit a typical core-sheath fiber structure for these fibers, where the sheath fiber coats the core fiber almost thoroughly. Water contact angle measurements by sessile drop method on these core-sheath nanofiber mats exhibited superhydrophobic characteristics with contact angles close to or higher than 150 degrees. Surprisingly, PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF nanofiber mat surface properties were dominated by the fiber dimensions and less influenced by the type of sheath polymer. This suggests that highly fluorinated polymer Teflon AF does not advance the hydrophobicity beyond what surface physics and slightly fluorinated polymer PVDF can achieve. It is concluded that PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath electrospun nanofiber mats may be used in lithium (Li)-air batteries.

  11. Histone Acetyltransferase Activity of MOF Is Required for MLL-AF9 Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Daria G; Xu, Haiming; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hoshii, Takayuki; Eisold, Meghan E; Delaney, Christopher; Cusan, Monica; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Huang, Chun-Hao; Lujambio, Amaia; Zheng, YuJun George; Zuber, Johannes; Pandita, Tej K; Lowe, Scott W; Armstrong, Scott A

    2017-02-15

    Chromatin-based mechanisms offer therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that are of great current interest. In this study, we conducted an RNAi-based screen to identify druggable chromatin regulator-based targets in leukemias marked by oncogenic rearrangements of the MLL gene. In this manner, we discovered the H4K16 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) MOF to be important for leukemia cell growth. Conditional deletion of Mof in a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemogenesis reduced tumor burden and prolonged host survival. RNA sequencing showed an expected downregulation of genes within DNA damage repair pathways that are controlled by MOF, as correlated with a significant increase in yH2AX nuclear foci in Mof-deficient MLL-AF9 tumor cells. In parallel, Mof loss also impaired global H4K16 acetylation in the tumor cell genome. Rescue experiments with catalytically inactive mutants of MOF showed that its enzymatic activity was required to maintain cancer pathogenicity. In support of the role of MOF in sustaining H4K16 acetylation, a small-molecule inhibitor of the HAT component MYST blocked the growth of both murine and human MLL-AF9 leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, Mof inactivation suppressed leukemia development in an NUP98-HOXA9-driven AML model. Taken together, our results establish that the HAT activity of MOF is required to sustain MLL-AF9 leukemia and may be important for multiple AML subtypes. Blocking this activity is sufficient to stimulate DNA damage, offering a rationale to pursue MOF inhibitors as a targeted approach to treat MLL-rearranged leukemias. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1-10. ©2017 AACR.

  12. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  17. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  18. Compliance Testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, Coal-Fired Boiler 1 Clear AFS, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Background On 3 February 1987 Clear AFS requested a permit modification to allow limited burning of waste oil for their power plant shown in Figure 1...The Alaska DEC rescindel Permit to Operate No. 8331-AA003 and issued Permit No. 8731-AA004 (Appendix B) allowing the burning of waste oil. As a...below. 1. Visible Emissions (18 AAC 50.050(a)) Visible emissions, excluding condensed water vapor from an industrial process or fuel burning

  19. Quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using amplicon-fusion-site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR).

    PubMed

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Zur Stadt, Udo; Horstmann, Martin; Krohn, Knut; Bradtke, Jutta; Teigler-Schlegel, Andrea; Leiblein, Sabine; Christiansen, Holger

    2012-11-09

    The amplification of putative oncogenes is a common finding within the genome of various cancer types. Identification and further targeting of specific junction sites within the sequence of genomic amplicons (amplicon fusion sites, AFS) by PCR (AFS-PCR) is suitable for quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). This approach has recently been developed and described for MYCN amplified neuroblastomas. To compare AFS-PCR directly to routinely used MRD diagnostic strategies, we mapped the amplified genomic regions (ampGR) of an iAMP21-amplicon in high resolution of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Successfully, we established AFS-PCR covering junction sites between ampGR within the iAMP21-amplicon. Quantification of MRD by AFS-PCR was directly comparable to IgH/TCR based real time quantitative PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis in consecutive bone marrow (BM) specimens. Our data give an additional proof of concept of AFS-PCR for quantification of MRD. The method could be taken into account for ALL patients with genomic amplifications as alternative MRD diagnostic, if no or qualitatively poor Ig/TCR-PCRs are available.

  20. U2AF35(S34F) Promotes Transformation by Directing Aberrant ATG7 Pre-mRNA 3' End Formation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Mi; Ou, Jianhong; Chamberlain, Lynn; Simone, Tessa M; Yang, Huan; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Ali, Abdullah M; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Raza, Azra; Green, Michael R

    2016-05-19

    Recurrent mutations in the splicing factor U2AF35 are found in several cancers and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). How oncogenic U2AF35 mutants promote transformation remains to be determined. Here we derive cell lines transformed by the oncogenic U2AF35(S34F) mutant and identify aberrantly processed pre-mRNAs by deep sequencing. We find that in U2AF35(S34F)-transformed cells the autophagy-related factor 7 (Atg7) pre-mRNA is abnormally processed, which unexpectedly is not due to altered splicing but rather selection of a distal cleavage and polyadenylation (CP) site. This longer Atg7 mRNA is translated inefficiently, leading to decreased ATG7 levels and an autophagy defect that predisposes cells to secondary mutations, resulting in transformation. MDS and acute myeloid leukemia patient samples harboring U2AF35(S34F) have a similar increased use of the ATG7 distal CP site, and previous studies have shown that mice with hematopoietic cells lacking Atg7 develop an MDS-like syndrome. Collectively, our results reveal a basis for U2AF35(S34F) oncogenic activity.

  1. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  2. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  3. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  4. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  5. Monitoring of individual human exposure to aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) by immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, C.P.; Umbenhauer, D.; Chapot, B.; Montesano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Highly sensitive immunoassays have been used to quantitate aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) in human body fluids and tissues, respectively. This approach was taken in order to quantitate environmental exposure to these agents at an individual level to facilitate the investigation of their role in the etiology of human cancer. In order to analyse AF in human urine, an immunopurification step has been developed by using AF-specific antibody bound to AH-Sepharose 4B gel in a small (4-ml gel volume) affinity column prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA can be used to quantitate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) over the range 0.01 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml and the assay system has been validated by using human urine samples spiked with AFB1 over this concentration range. In addition, 29 urine samples from the Philippines have been analyzed and found to contain a range of levels from zero to 4.25 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent with a mean of 0.875 ng/ml. This compared with a mean of 0.066 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent in samples from France. Radioimmunoassay of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) has been performed on human esophageal and cardiac stomach mucosal DNA from tissue samples obtained during surgery in Linxian County, People's Republic of China, an area of high risk for both esophageal and stomach cancer. Using the methodology described and having 1 mg of hydrolyzed DNA allows the detection of approximately 25 fmol O6medG per mg DNA.

  6. Smyd2 is a Myc-regulated gene critical for MLL-AF9 induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bagislar, Sevgi; Sabò, Arianna; Kress, Theresia R.; Doni, Mirko; Nicoli, Paola; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The Smyd2 protein (Set- and Mynd domain containing protein 2) is a methyl-transferase that can modify both histones and cytoplasmic proteins. Smyd2 is over-expressed in several cancer types and was shown to be limiting for tumor development in the pancreas. However, genetic evidence for a role of Smyd2 in other cancers or in mouse development was missing to date. Using germ line-deleted mouse strains, we now show that Smyd2 and the related protein Smyd3 are dispensable for normal development. Ablation of Smyd2 did not affect hematopoiesis, but retarded the development of leukemia promoted by MLL-AF9, a fusion oncogene associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in humans. Smyd2-deleted leukemic cells showed a competitive disadvantage relative to wild-type cells, either in vitro or in vivo. The Smyd2 gene was directly activated by the oncogenic transcription factor Myc in either MLL9-AF9-induced leukemias, Myc-induced lymphomas, or fibroblasts. However, unlike leukemias, the development of lymphomas was not dependent upon Smyd2. Our data indicate that Smyd2 has a critical role downstream of Myc in AML. PMID:27655694

  7. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    OBSERVATIONS) L P- 14 H~N A A-F S .~ 73-F2 ____ JA&,. ALL WI- LAt E -- .. - - 6 7 0 11 16 17 21 22 27 28- 33 34 *0 41 A7 48 5 .7 * . .3 .4 .4 . 1 . i E...PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4LL . LAT -E- - 10 1 1 i 7 23 22 ’ 2 3 3 A 40 A 3 5 A7 A • ’ .. 5 .t",5...SCOTT A. APR 03 UNCLASSIFIED USAFETAC/DS-83/019 SBI-AD-EB50 397 F/6 4/2 NL SU 2. lii .0 EM *,*,- Ica L- 11111 1.25 s~w ,r- 1 . 11.6 I MiCRQ OPY

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two kinds of lymphocytes can attack and kill cancer cells: T-cells and B-cells. Immunotherapy aims to boost the ability of the T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes to kill cancer. This kind of therapy can also be used ...

  9. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  10. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  11. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weaken. Talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control. Support Groups The diagnosis and treatment of cancer often causes ...

  12. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  13. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  14. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  15. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  16. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  17. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  18. Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain AF2240 on Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Keong, Yong Yoke; Othman, Fauziah

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant tumour that developed from cells of the breast and is the first leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the available treatments for breast cancer, but these were reported to have side effects. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) known as Avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV1) belongs to the genus Avulavirus in a family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is shown to be a promising anticancer agent, killing tumour cells while sparing normal cells unharmed. In this study, the oncolytic and cytotoxic activities of NDV AF2240 strain were evaluated on MDA-MB-231, human mammary carcinoma cell line, using MTT assay, and its inhibitory effects were further studied using proliferation and migration assays. Morphological and apoptotic-inducing effects of NDV on MD-MB-231 cells were observed using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Detection of DNA fragmentation was done following terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated Br-dUTP nick end labeling staining (TUNEL) assay, which confirmed that the mode of death was through apoptosis and was quantified by flow cytometry. Furthermore, analysis of cellular DNA content demonstrated that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic peak) of the cell cycle. It appears that NDV AF2240 strain is a potent anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in time-dependent manner. PMID:25821783

  19. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  20. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  1. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  2. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  3. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  4. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  5. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  6. Interaction between Subunits of Heterodimeric Splicing Factor U2AF Is Essential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Kanaar, Roland; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor), plays a critical role in 3′ splice site selection. Although the U2AF subunits associate in a tight complex, biochemical experiments designed to address the requirement for both subunits in splicing have yielded conflicting results. We have taken a genetic approach to assess the requirement for the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer in vivo. We developed a novel Escherichia coli copurification assay to map the domain on the Drosophila U2AF large subunit (dU2AF50) that interacts with the Drosophila small subunit (dU2AF38). A 28-amino-acid fragment on dU2AF50 that is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with dU2AF38 was identified. Using the copurification assay, we scanned this 28-amino-acid interaction domain for mutations that abrogate heterodimer formation. A collection of these dU2AF50 point mutants was then tested in vivo for genetic complementation of a recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. A mutation that completely abolished interaction with dU2AF38 was incapable of complementation, whereas dU2AF50 mutations that did not effect heterodimer formation rescued the recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. Analysis of heterodimer formation in embryo extracts derived from these interaction mutant lines revealed a perfect correlation between the efficiency of subunit association and the ability to complement the dU2AF50 recessive lethal allele. These data indicate that Drosophila U2AF heterodimer formation is essential for viability in vivo, consistent with a requirement for both subunits in splicing in vitro. PMID:9528748

  7. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    to U2AF1(WT). We validated several homologous dysregulated junctions (i.e., across species) in MDS patient bone marrow samples that have mutant ...U2AF1(S34F) versus U2AF1(WT). Together, these results suggest that mutant U2AF1 expression contributes to the altered hematopoiesis and pre-mRNA...whether the U2AF1(S34F) mutation alters hematopoiesis in vivo. We will inducibly express wild-type and S34F mutant (resulting from the most common

  8. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  9. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F, cytotoxic polyacetylenes from Gymnaster koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Hwan

    2002-06-01

    Six new polyacetylenes, gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6), were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis, together with 2,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (7) and 1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8), by bioassay-guided fractionation using the L1210 tumor cell line as a model for cytotoxicity. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established spectroscopically, which included 2D NMR experiments. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6) are linear diacetylenes and are structurally related to falcarinol, panaxynol, panaxydiol, and panaxytriol. Of the compounds isolated, gymnasterkoreaynes B (2), C (3), F (6), and 1,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against L1210 tumor cells with ED(50) values of 0.12-3.3 microg/mL.

  10. Improved AF Squadron Command Structure for Leadership, Accountability, and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    of Defense respectively focus on span of control. The concept of span of control was developed in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton based on the assumption...For the AF, this means squadrons must be organized across a wing to minimize inconsistency within units as well as across them. A study by Dewar ... Dewar , Robert D., and Simet, Donald P. “A Level Specific Prediction of Spans of Control Examining the Effects of Size, Technology, and

  11. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the development of green rocket propellants . The Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) monopropellant, AF-M315E, has been selected for...art rocket fuels and propellants . A known quantity of liquid propellant is placed in a metal U-tube and held isothermally in a preheated mixture of... Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) program. As the propulsion system developed by Aerojet- Rocketdyne for this propellant advances in maturity, studies

  12. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  13. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  14. Atrial Fibrillation is Associated With Morphine Treatment in Female Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between morphine treatment and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in female patients with breast cancer. We identified a malignancy cohort of 73,917 female breast cancer patients without an AF history before the date of breast cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2010 by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for Catastrophic Illness Patients in Taiwan. This malignancy cohort was divided into morphine and comparison cohorts comprising 18,671 and 55,246 patients, respectively, and the incidences of newly diagnosed AF were calculated. We used the Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent exposure covariates to estimate the risk of AF. The effect of morphine was assessed through multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression controlling for age, the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, and the use of bisphosphonates and paclitaxel. Compared with nonmorphine users, patients who received morphine exhibited a 4.37-fold (95% CI = 3.56–5.36) increase in the risk of developing AF. The risk of AF increased as the CCI score increased, but decreased in patients with tamoxifen treatment. This risk is especially significant in current morphine users of all ages and with low CCI score. AF risk increased as the duration of morphine use lengthened (P for trend <0.0001). The incidence of AF in female breast cancer patients in Taiwan is associated with morphine, but prevented by tamoxifen treatment. PMID:26986153

  15. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  16. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  17. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  18. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  19. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  20. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  1. Association between Postoperatively Developed Atrial Fibrillation and Long-Term Mortality after Esophagectomy in Esophageal Cancer Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Ji-Hyun; Moon, Young-Jin; Jo, Jun-Young; Han, Yun A.; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Choi, In-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Newly developed atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients who have undergone an esophagectomy increases the incidence of postoperative complications. However, the clinical implications of AF have not been fully elucidated in these patients. This retrospective observational study investigated the predictors for AF and the effect of AF on the mortality in esophageal cancer patients undergoing esophagectomy. Methods This study evaluated 583 patients undergoing esophagectomy, from January 2005 to April 2012. AF was defined as newly developed postoperative AF requiring treatment. The risk factors for AF and the association between AF and mortality were evaluated. The long-term mortality was the all-cause mortality, for which the cutoff date was May 31, 2014. Results AF developed in 63 patients (10.8%). Advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 1.099, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.056–1.144, P < 0.001), preoperative calcium channel blocker (CCB) (OR 2.339, 95% CI 1.143–4.786, P = 0.020), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (OR 0.206, 95% CI 0.067–0.635, P = 0.006) were associated with the incidence of AF. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significantly lower survival rate in the AF group compared to the non-AF group (P = 0.045), during a median follow-up of 50.7 months. The multivariable analysis revealed associations between AF and the 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.556, 95% CI 1.430–4.570, P = 0.002) and between AF and the long-term mortality (HR 1.507, 95% CI 1.003–2.266, P = 0.049). Conclusions In esophageal cancer patients, the advanced age and the preoperative medications (CCB, ACEI or ARB) were associated with the incidence of AF. Furthermore, postoperatively developed AF was associated with mortality in esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy, suggesting that a close surveillance might be required in patients who showed AF during postoperative period. PMID:27148877

  2. A Conditional Role of U2AF in Splicing of Introns with Unconventional Polypyrimidine Tracts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of polypyrimidine (Py) tracts typically present between the branch point and the 3′ splice site by the large subunit of the essential splicing factor U2AF is a key early step in pre-mRNA splicing. Diverse intronic sequence arrangements exist, however, including 3′ splice sites lacking recognizable Py tracts, which raises the question of how general the requirement for U2AF is for various intron architectures. Our analysis of fission yeast introns in vivo has unexpectedly revealed that whereas introns lacking Py tracts altogether remain dependent on both subunits of U2AF, introns with long Py tracts, unconventionally positioned upstream of branch points, are unaffected by U2AF inactivation. Nevertheless, mutation of these Py tracts causes strong dependence on the large subunit U2AF59. We also find that Py tract diversity influences the requirement for the conserved C-terminal domain of U2AF59 (RNA recognition motif 3), which has been implicated in protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Py tract binding by U2AF, supplementary mechanisms of U2AF recruitment and 3′ splice site identification exist to accommodate diverse intron architectures, which have gone unappreciated in biochemical studies of model pre-mRNAs. PMID:17709389

  3. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  4. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  5. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  6. The leukemogenic CALM/AF10 fusion protein alters the subcellular localization of the lymphoid regulator Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Greif, P A; Tizazu, B; Krause, A; Kremmer, E; Bohlander, S K

    2008-05-01

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation leads to the fusion of the CALM and AF10 genes. This translocation can be found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and in malignant lymphomas. The expression of CALM/AF10 in primary murine bone marrow cells results in the development of an aggressive leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the lymphoid regulator Ikaros as an AF10 interacting protein. Interestingly, Ikaros is required for normal development of lymphocytes, and aberrant expression of Ikaros has been found in leukemia. In a murine model, the expression of a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros causes leukemias and lymphomas. The Ikaros interaction domain of AF10 was mapped to the leucine zipper domain of AF10, which is required for malignant transformation both by the CALM/AF10 and the MLL/AF10 fusion proteins. The interaction between AF10 and Ikaros was confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Coexpression of CALM/AF10 but not of AF10 alters the subcellular localization of Ikaros in murine fibroblasts. The transcriptional repressor activity of Ikaros is reduced by AF10. These results suggest that CALM/AF10 might interfere with normal Ikaros function, and thereby block lymphoid differentiation in CALM/AF10 positive leukemias.

  7. Expression of MLL-AF4 or AF4-MLL fusions does not impact the efficiency of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Julio; Herrero, Ana B; Bursen, Aldeheid; González, Federico; Marschalek, Rolf; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-05-24

    The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide. Conversely, the genome-wide mutational landscape in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL has been reported silent. Thus, whether MLL fusions compromise the recognition and/or repair of DNA damage remains unanswered. Here, the fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (MA4) and AF4-MLL (A4M) were CRISPR/Cas9-genome edited in the AAVS1 locus of HEK293 cells as a model to study MLL fusion-mediated DNA-DSB formation/repair. Repair kinetics of etoposide- and ionizing radiation-induced DSBs was identical in WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells, as revealed by flow cytometry, by immunoblot for γH2AX and by comet assay. Accordingly, no differences were observed between WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells in the presence of master proteins involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ; i.e.KU86, KU70), alternative-NHEJ (Alt-NHEJ; i.e.LigIIIa, WRN and PARP1), and homologous recombination (HR, i.e.RAD51). Moreover, functional assays revealed identical NHEJ and HR efficiency irrespective of the genotype. Treatment with etoposide consistently induced cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M independent of MA4/A4M expression, revealing a proper activation of the DNA damage checkpoints. Collectively, expression of MA4 or A4M does neither influence DNA signaling nor DNA-DSB repair.

  8. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  9. Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  10. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  11. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  12. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  13. Cancer--Living with Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Changes in Taste and Smell with Cancer ...

  14. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  15. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  16. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM).

  17. Detection of early bronchial cancer by autofluorescence: results in patients with H&N cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Radu, Alexandre; Zellweger, Matthieu; Lovisa, Blaise; Goujon, Didier; Grosjean, Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-07-01

    Head and neck (H&N) cancer patients have a high incidence of second primary tumours in the tracheobronchial tree. Diagnostic autofluorescence bronchoscopy (DAFE) has shown promising results in the detection of early neoplastic and pre-neoplastic changes in the bronchi. We have investigated the medical impact of DAFE in a population of H&N cancer patients. The bronchoscopies were performed using a modified commercially available DAFE system. Endoscopic imaging of the tissue autofluorescence (AF) was combined with an online image analysis procedure allowing to discriminate between true and false positive results. White light (WL) bronchoscopy was performed as a control. Twenty-one patients with high lung cancer risk factors underwent WL and AF bronchoscopy with this improved system. Forty-one biopsies were taken on macroscopicall suspicious (WL or AF positive) sites. Seven patients were found to have second primary tumours in the bronchi. The sensitivity for the detection of these early lesions with the DAFE was 1.6 times larger than the sensitivity of WL bronchoscopy only. The positive predictive value (PPV) for AF is 79% (33% for WL alone). The PPV of both methods together is 100%. DAFE proved to be efficient for the detection of second primary lesions in H&N cancer patients and can be used as a simple addition to pre-operative work-up or follow-up in this patient population.

  18. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells.

    PubMed

    Whisenant, Thomas C; Peralta, Eigen R; Aarreberg, Lauren D; Gao, Nina J; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R; Salomon, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as "central" interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, "peripheral" interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly of RNA

  19. The Activation-Induced Assembly of an RNA/Protein Interactome Centered on the Splicing Factor U2AF2 Regulates Gene Expression in Human CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aarreberg, Lauren D.; Gao, Nina J.; Head, Steven R.; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Williamson, Jamie R.; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of CD4 T cells is a reaction to challenges such as microbial pathogens, cancer and toxins that defines adaptive immune responses. The roles of T cell receptor crosslinking, intracellular signaling, and transcription factor activation are well described, but the importance of post-transcriptional regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has not been considered in depth. We describe a new model expanding and activating primary human CD4 T cells and applied this to characterizing activation-induced assembly of splicing factors centered on U2AF2. We immunoprecipitated U2AF2 to identify what mRNA transcripts were bound as a function of activation by TCR crosslinking and costimulation. In parallel, mass spectrometry revealed the proteins incorporated into the U2AF2-centered RNA/protein interactome. Molecules that retained interaction with the U2AF2 complex after RNAse treatment were designated as “central” interactome members (CIMs). Mass spectrometry also identified a second class of activation-induced proteins, “peripheral” interactome members (PIMs), that bound to the same transcripts but were not in physical association with U2AF2 or its partners. siRNA knockdown of two CIMs and two PIMs caused changes in activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and gene expression that were unique to each protein and mapped to pathways associated with key aspects of T cell activation. While knocking down the PIM, SYNCRIP, impacts a limited but immunologically important set of U2AF2-bound transcripts, knockdown of U2AF1 significantly impairs assembly of the majority of protein and mRNA components in the activation-induced interactome. These results demonstrated that CIMs and PIMs, either directly or indirectly through RNA, assembled into activation-induced U2AF2 complexes and play roles in post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cytokine secretion. These data suggest an additional layer of regulation mediated by the activation-induced assembly

  20. High-resolution micropatterned Teflon AF substrates for biocompatible nanofluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hakonen, Bodil; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2012-02-14

    We describe a general photolithography-based process for the microfabrication of surface-supported Teflon AF structures. Teflon AF patterns primarily benefit from superior optical properties such as very low autofluorescence and a low refractive index. The process ensures that the Teflon AF patterns remain strongly hydrophobic in order to allow rapid lipid monolayer spreading and generates a characteristic edge morphology which assists directed cell growth along the structured surfaces. We provide application examples, demonstrating the well-controlled mixing of lipid films on Teflon AF structures and showing how the patterned surfaces can be used as biocompatible growth-directing substrates for cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells develop in a guided fashion along the sides of the microstructures, selectively avoiding to grow over the patterned areas.

  1. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    dynamic response • Waterhammer effect Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate ...Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HEHN) (HAN) [ ]-NO3 + [ ]HOCH2CH2N2H4 [ ]-+[ ]NH3OH NO3 AF-M315E

  2. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  3. Services Officer Utilization Field (AFS 62XX and Equivalent-Grade Civilians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    CHART le~ -- Sq ,.. O. pt’*. q UNITED STATES AIR FORCE cv, Lfl o D SERVICES OFFICER UTILIZATION FIELD (AFS 62XX AND EQUIVALENT-GRADE CIVILLANS) AFPT 90...Administration From January through Ma’ch 1985, job inventories were administered to all elicible AFSC 62XX nfficer: in the continental United States ... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t, , . . . .. .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . _". ... , I! . . $ IJSTRIBIJTION FOR AFS( u-)XX OSR AND SUPPORTING

  4. AF-M315E Propulsion System Advances and Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert K.; Allen, May; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Spores, Ronald A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.; Vasek, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Even as for the GR-1 awaits its first on-orbit demonstration on the planned 2017 launch of NASA's Green Propulsion Infusion Mission (GPIM) program, ongoing efforts continue to advance the technical state-of-the-art through improvements in the performance, life capability, and affordability of both Aerojet Rocketdyne's 1-N-class GR-1 and 20-N-class GR-22 green monopropellant thrusters. Hot-fire testing of a design upgrade of the GR-22 thruster successfully demonstrated resolution of a life-limiting thermo-structural issue encountered during prototype testing on the GPIM program, yielding both an approximately 2x increase in demonstrating life capability, as well as fundamental insights relating to how ionic liquid thrusters operate, thruster scaling, and operational factors affecting catalyst bed life. Further, a number of producibility improvements, related to both materials and processes and promising up to 50% unit cost reduction, have been identified through a comprehensive Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) assessment activity recently completed at Aerojet Rocketdyne. Focused specifically on the GR-1 but applicable to the common-core architecture of both thrusters, ongoing laboratory (heavyweight) thruster testing being conducted under a Space Act Agreement at NASA Glenn Research Center has already validated a number of these proposed manufacturability upgrades, additionally achieving a greater than 40% increase in thruster life. In parallel with technical advancements relevant to conventional large spacecraft, a joint effort between NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne is underway to prepare 1-U CubeSat AF-M315E propulsion module for first flight demonstration in 2018.

  5. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  6. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  7. Estimating attributable fraction of lung cancer linked to smoking in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Obtel, M; Nejjari, C; Tachfouti, N; Abda, N; Belakhel, L; Mathoulin-Pelissier, S

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this research was to estimate the attributable fraction (AF) of lung cancer linked to smoking in Morocco. The estimation was based on the SAMMEC (Adult Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity and Economic Costs) method based on the Levin formula to calculate AF linked to tobacco. Data about frequencies, association measures and relative risks were taken from available sources. The AF of lung cancer linked to smoking was about 87%, and around 3049 cases of this cancer in men could be avoided if tobacco use could be prevented. About a 10% reduction in smoking prevalence would result in a reduction of 346 lung cancer cases. Our study provides additional important elements for further advocacy to policy-makers to implement a tobacco control strategy based on a prevention policy in line with the epidemiological situation which could avoid a huge burden on the country.

  8. Combining near-infrared-excited autofluorescence and Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-06-15

    This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the combined near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and Raman spectroscopy for improving in vivo detection of gastric cancer at clinical gastroscopy. A rapid Raman endoscopic technique was employed for in vivo spectroscopic measurements of normal (n=1098) and cancer (n=140) gastric tissues from 81 gastric patients. The composite NIR AF and Raman spectra in the range of 800-1800 cm(-1) were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant (LDA) to extract diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic processes of gastric malignancies. High quality in vivo composite NIR AF and Raman spectra can routinely be acquired from the gastric within 0.5s. The integrated intensity over the range of 800-1800 cm(-1) established the diagnostic implications (p=1.6E-14) of the change of NIR AF intensity associated with neoplastic transformation. PCA-LDA diagnostic modeling on the in vivo tissue NIR AF and Raman spectra acquired yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 92.2% (sensitivity of 97.9% and specificity of 91.5%) for identifying gastric cancer from normal tissue. The integration area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve using the combined NIR AF and Raman spectroscopy was 0.985, which is superior to either the Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This work demonstrates that the complementary Raman and NIR AF spectroscopy techniques can be integrated together for improving the in vivo diagnosis and detection of gastric cancer at endoscopy.

  9. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  10. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  11. SIP1/NHERF2 enhances estrogen receptor alpha transactivation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Morales, Ivan; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles C.; Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Trujillo-González, Isis; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Méndez-Enríquez, Erika; Cervantes-Roldán, Rafael; Pérez-Sánchez, Víctor; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that possesses two activating domains designated AF-1 and AF-2 that mediate its transcriptional activity. The role of AF-2 is to recruit coregulator protein complexes capable of modifying chromatin condensation status. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for the ligand-independent AF-1 activity and for its synergistic functional interaction with AF-2 is unclear. In this study, we have identified the protein Na+/H+ Exchanger RegulatoryFactor 2 (NHERF2) as an ERα-associated coactivator that interacts predominantly with the AF-1 domain of the nuclear receptor. Overexpression of NHERF2 in breast cancer MCF7 cells produced an increase in ERα transactivation. Interestingly, the presence of SRC-1 in NHERF2 stably overexpressing MCF7 cells produced a synergistic increase in ERα activity. We show further that NHERF2 interacts with ERα and SRC-1 in the promoter region of ERα target genes. The binding of NHERF2 to ERα in MCF7 cells increased cell proliferation and the ability of MCF7 cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We analyzed the expression of NHERF2 in breast cancer tumors finding a 2- to 17-fold increase in its mRNA levels in 50% of the tumor samples compared to normal breast tissue. These results indicate that NHERF2 is a coactivator of ERα that may participate in the development of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors. PMID:24771346

  12. Second Cancers After Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer After Treatment Second Cancers After Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer survivors can be affected by a ... many of these cancers. Follow-up after colorectal cancer treatment After completing treatment for colorectal cancer, you ...

  13. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  14. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  15. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  16. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  17. GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  18. Prenylation inhibitors stimulate both estrogen receptor α transcriptional activity through AF-1 and AF-2 and estrogen receptor β transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Cestac, Philippe; Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Médale-Giamarchi, Claire; Rochaix, Philippe; Balaguer, Patrick; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles; Doisneau-Sixou, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We showed in a previous study that prenylated proteins play a role in estradiol stimulation of proliferation. However, these proteins antagonize the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) α to stimulate estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent transcriptional activity, potentially through the formation of a co-regulator complex. The present study investigates, in further detail, how prenylated proteins modulate the transcriptional activities mediated by ERα and by ERβ. Methods The ERE-β-globin-Luc-SV-Neo plasmid was either stably transfected into MCF-7 cells or HeLa cells (MELN cells and HELN cells, respectively) or transiently transfected into MCF-7 cells using polyethylenimine. Cells deprived of estradiol were analyzed for ERE-dependent luciferase activity 16 hours after estradiol stimulation and treatment with FTI-277 (a farnesyltransferase inhibitor) or with GGTI-298 (a geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor). In HELN cells, the effect of prenyltransferase inhibitors on luciferase activity was compared after transient transfection of plasmids coding either the full-length ERα, the full-length ERβ, the AF-1-deleted ERα or the AF-2-deleted ERα. The presence of ERα was then detected by immunocytochemistry in either the nuclei or the cytoplasms of MCF-7 cells. Finally, Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme treatment was used to determine the involvement of Rho proteins in ERE-dependent luciferase activity. Results FTI-277 and GGTI-298 only stimulate ERE-dependent luciferase activity in stably transfected MCF-7 cells. They stimulate both ERα-mediated and ERβ-mediated ERE-dependent luciferase activity in HELN cells, in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. The roles of both AF-1 and AF-2 are significant in this effect. Nuclear ERα is decreased in the presence of prenyltransferase inhibitors in MCF-7 cells, again in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. By contrast, cytoplasmic ERα is mainly decreased after treatment with FTI

  19. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  20. Structure-guided U2AF65 variant improves recognition and splicing of a defective pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant A.; McLaughlin, Krystle J.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2014-01-01

    Purine interruptions of polypyrimidine (Py) tract splice site signals contribute to human genetic diseases. The essential splicing factor U2AF65 normally recognizes a Py tract consensus sequence preceding the major class of 3′ splice sites. We found that neurofibromatosis- or retinitis pigmentosa-causing mutations in the 5′ regions of Py tracts severely reduce U2AF65 affinity. Conversely, we identified a preferred binding site of U2AF65 for purine substitutions in the 3′ regions of Py tracts. Based on a comparison of new U2AF65 structures bound to either A- or G-containing Py tracts with previously identified pyrimidine-containing structures, we expected to find that a D231V amino acid change in U2AF65 would specify U over other nucleotides. We found that the crystal structure of the U2AF65-D231V variant confirms favorable packing between the engineered valine and a target uracil base. The D231V amino acid change restores U2AF65 affinity for two mutated splice sites that cause human genetic diseases and successfully promotes splicing of a defective retinitis pigmentosa-causing transcript. We conclude that reduced U2AF65 binding is a molecular consequence of disease-relevant mutations, and that a structure-guided U2AF65 variant is capable of manipulating gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25422459

  1. An Evaluation of the Impacts of AF-M315E Propulsion Systems for Varied Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fittje, James; Colozza, Anthony; Packard, Tom; Gyekenyesi, John; McLean, Christopher H.; Spores, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the AF-M315E COMPASS study is to identify near-term (3-5 years) and long term (5 years +) opportunities for infusion, specifically the thruster and associated component technologies being developed as part of the GPIM project. Develop design reference missions which show the advantages of the AF-M315E green propulsion system. Utilize a combination of past COMPASS designs and selected new designs to demonstrate AF-M315E advantages. Use the COMPASS process to show the puts and takes of using AF-M315E at the integrated system level.

  2. CDKN1A-mediated responsiveness of MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia to Aurora kinase-A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Ping; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Jiann-Shiuh; Tsai, Ming-Ying; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chen, Nai-Feng; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Su, Wu-Chou; Yang, Shu-Ting; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Liang-Yi; Chen, Tsai-Yun

    2014-08-01

    Overexpression of Aurora kinases is largely observed in many cancers, including hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of Aurora kinase inhibitors in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Western blot analysis showed that both Aurora-A and Aurora-B are overexpressed in ALL cell lines and primary ALL cells. Both VE-465 and VX-680 effectively inhibited Aurora kinase activities in nine ALL cell lines, which exhibited different susceptibilities to the inhibitors. Cells sensitive to Aurora kinase inhibitors underwent apoptosis at an IC50 of ∼10-30 nM and displayed a phenotype of Aurora-A inhibition, whereas cells resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors (with an IC50 more than 10 μM) accumulated polyploidy, which may have resulted from Aurora-B inhibition. Drug susceptibility of ALL cell lines was not correlated with the expression level or activation status of Aurora kinases. Interestingly, RS4;11 and MV4;11 cells, which contain the MLL-AF4 gene, were both sensitive to Aurora kinase-A inhibitors treatment. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis suggested that CDKN1A might govern the drug responsiveness of ALL cell lines in a TP53-independent manner. Most importantly, primary ALL cells with MLL-AF4 and CDKN1A expression were sensitive to Aurora kinase inhibitors. Our study suggests CDKN1A could be a potential biomarker in determining the drug responsiveness of Aurora kinase inhibitors in ALL, particularly in MLL-AF4-positive patients.

  3. 27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing No. AF600915, sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-60-09-15, sheet 1 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/20, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/17/59. Site plan of 20,000-foot track, including construction phasing notes. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. The splicing factor U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghee; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Identification of U2AF65 as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. •U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. •U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4. •U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres. -- Abstract: The human telomeric protein TRF1 is a component of the six-subunit protein complex shelterin, which provides telomere protection by organizing the telomere into a high-order structure. TRF1 functions as a negative regulator of telomere length by controlling the access of telomerase to telomeres. Thus, the cellular abundance of TRF1 at telomeres should be maintained and tightly regulated to ensure proper telomere function. Here, we identify U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65), an essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. U2AF65 interacts with TRF1 in vitro and in vivo and is capable of stabilizing TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We also found that U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TRF1. Depletion of endogenous U2AF65 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the stability of endogenous TRF1 whereas overexpression of U2AF65 significantly extended the half-life of TRF1. These findings demonstrate that U2AF65 plays a critical role in regulating the level of TRF1 through physical interaction and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Hence, U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres.

  5. Mouth Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is sometimes called oral cancer or oral cavity cancer. Mouth cancer is one of several types of cancer grouped in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other head and neck cancers are ...

  6. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is, how cancer is tracked, and the economic impact of cancer in the United States. Lifetime Risk ... Cancer? Cancer Surveillance Programs in the United States Economic Impact of Cancer Finding Cancer Information Learn how to ...

  7. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org Cancer.Net -- www.cancer.net/coping- ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  9. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Melen, Gustavo J; Ramos-Mejia, Verónica; Real, Pedro J; Ayllón, Verónica; Sanchez, Laura; Ligero, Gertrudis; Gutierrez-Aranda, Iván; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; Plaza-Calonge, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan C; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-06-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants. Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development, its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored. We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Functional studies, clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic, functional and gene expression impact. MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs. Functionally, MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate. MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation, as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells. This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes, known to arise prenatally, regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification.

  10. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Melen, Gustavo J; Ramos-Mejia, Verónica; Real, Pedro J; Ayllón, Verónica; Sanchez, Laura; Ligero, Gertrudis; Gutierrez-Aranda, Iván; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; del Carmen Plaza-Calonge, María; Rodríguez-Manzaneque, Juan C; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants. Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development, its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored. We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Functional studies, clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic, functional and gene expression impact. MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs. Functionally, MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate. MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation, as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells. This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes, known to arise prenatally, regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification. PMID:22212479

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1.

  12. Steroid hormone receptors and prostate cancer: role of structural dynamics in therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) act in cell type- and gene-specific manner through interactions with coregulatory proteins to regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes at the level of gene regulation. Binding of steroid receptor modulator (SRM) ligand leads to allosteric changes in SHR to exert positive or negative effects on the expression of target genes. Due, in part, to the fact that current SRMs generally target ligand binding domain (LBD)/AF2 and neglect intrinsically disordered (ID) N-terminal domain (NTD)/AF1, clinically relevant SRMs lack selectivity and are also prone to the development of resistance over time. Therefore, to maximize the efficacy of SHR-based therapeutics, the possibility of developing unique modulators that act to control AF1 activity must be considered. Recent studies targeting androgen receptor's (AR's) ID AF1 domain for the castration-resistant prostate cancer has provided the possibility of therapeutically targeting ID NTD/AF1 surfaces by allosteric modulations to achieve desired effects. In this review article, we discuss how inter- and intra- molecular allosteric regulations controlled by AR's structural flexibility and dynamics particularly the ID NTD/AF1 is an emerging area of investigation, which could be exploited for drug development and therapeutic targeting of prostate cancer. PMID:27364545

  13. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  16. Flow ozonolysis using a semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 membrane to effect gas-liquid contact.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew; Baxendale, Ian R; Ley, Steven V

    2010-04-02

    A flow-through chemistry apparatus has been developed which allows gases and liquids to contact via a semipermeable Teflon AF-2400 membrane. In this preliminary investigation, the concept was proven by application to the ozonolysis of a series of alkenes.

  17. Utilizing an Experiential Approach to Teacher Learning about AfL: A Consciousness Raising Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Helen; Hawe, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    In this article we focus on how an experiential based approach to teacher learning about assessment for learning (AfL) provided opportunities for teachers to examine: their deep-seated beliefs about effective learning (and teaching); how these beliefs permeated their day-to-day actions and interactions with students, and the consequence of these…

  18. Fracture Mechanics Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. W.; Martinez, J.; McLean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant on orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent processing flaws will not cause failure during the design life of the tank. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking (KEAC) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched, or SE(B), specimens representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to AF-M315E at 50 C for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material was found to be at least 22 ksivin and at least 31 ksivin for the weld material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant.

  19. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Native Apiculate Wine Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF

    PubMed Central

    Giorello, Facundo M.; Berná, Luisa; Greif, Gonzalo; Camesasca, Laura; Salzman, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Robello, Carlos; Gaggero, Carina; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of novel yeast strains for winemaking improves quality and provides variety including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. Here we report the first genome of a yeast strain native to Uruguay, Hanseniaspora vineae T02/19AF, which has been shown to positively contribute to aroma and wine quality. PMID:24874663

  1. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  2. Mylar and Teflon-AF as cell culture substrates for studying endothelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Anamelechi, Charles C; Truskey, George A; Reichert, W Monty

    2005-12-01

    The textured and opaque nature of Dacron and ePTFE has prevented the use of these fabrics in conventional cell culture techniques normally employed to optimize cell attachment and retention. This lack of optimization has led, in part, to the poor performance of endothelialization strategies for improving vascular graft patency. Here we show that thin, transparent films of Mylar and Teflon-AF are viable in vitro cell culture mimics of Dacron and ePTFE vascular graft materials, particularly for the study of protein mediated endothelial cell (EC) attachment, spreading and adhesion. Glass substrates were used as controls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis showed that Mylar and Teflon-AF have surface chemistries that closely match Dacron and ePTFE. (125)I radiolabeling was used to quantify fibronectin (FN) adsorption, and FN and biotinylated-BSA "dual ligand" co-adsorption onto glass, Mylar and Teflon-AF substrates. Native human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and streptavidin-incubated biotinylated-HUVEC (SA-b-HUVEC) spreading was measured using phase contrast microscopy. Cell retention and adhesion was determined using phase contrast microscopy under laminar flow. All surfaces lacking protein pre-treatment, regardless of surface type, showed the lowest degree of cell spreading and retention. Dual ligand treated Mylar films showed significantly greater SA-b-HUVEC spreading up to 2 h, but were similar to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar at longer times; whereas SA-b-HUVEC spreading on dual ligand treated Teflon-AF was never significantly different from HUVEC on FN treated Teflon-AF at any time point. SA-b-HUVEC retention was significantly greater on dual ligand treated Mylar compared to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar over the entire range of shear stresses tested (3.54-28.3 dynes/cm(2)); whereas SA-b-HUVEC retention to dual ligand and HUVEC retention to FN treated Teflon-AF gave similar results at each shear stress, with only the mid

  3. POU2AF1 Functions in the Human Airway Epithelium To Regulate Expression of Host Defense Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Brekman, Angelika; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Ou, Xuemei; Shaykhiev, Renat; Agosto-Perez, Francisco J; Wang, Rui; Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    In the process of seeking novel lung host defense regulators by analyzing genome-wide RNA sequence data from normal human airway epithelium, we detected expression of POU domain class 2-associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), a known transcription cofactor previously thought to be expressed only in lymphocytes. Lymphocyte contamination of human airway epithelial samples obtained by bronchoscopy and brushing was excluded by immunohistochemistry staining, the observation of upregulation of POU2AF1 in purified airway basal stem/progenitor cells undergoing differentiation, and analysis of differentiating single basal cell clones. Lentivirus-mediated upregulation of POU2AF1 in airway basal cells induced upregulation of host defense genes, including MX1, IFIT3, IFITM, and known POU2AF1 downstream genes HLA-DRA, ID2, ID3, IL6, and BCL6. Interestingly, expression of these genes paralleled changes of POU2AF1 expression during airway epithelium differentiation in vitro, suggesting POU2AF1 helps to maintain a host defense tone even in pathogen-free condition. Cigarette smoke, a known risk factor for airway infection, suppressed POU2AF1 expression both in vivo in humans and in vitro in human airway epithelial cultures, accompanied by deregulation of POU2AF1 downstream genes. Finally, enhancing POU2AF1 expression in human airway epithelium attenuated the suppression of host defense genes by smoking. Together, these findings suggest a novel function of POU2AF1 as a potential regulator of host defense genes in the human airway epithelium.

  4. Low incidence of left atrial delayed enhancement with MRI in patients with AF: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bois, John P; Glockner, James; Young, Phillip M; Foley, Thomas A; Sheldon, Seth; Newman, Darrell B; Lin, Grace; Packer, Douglas L; Brady, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained atrial arrhythmia. One potential target for ablation is left atrial (LA) scar (LAS) regions that may be the substrate for re-entry within the atria, thereby sustaining AF. Identification of LAS through LA delayed gadolinium enhancement (LADE) with MRI has been proposed. Objectives We sought to evaluate LADE in patients referred for catheter ablation of AF. Methods Prospective analysis was conducted of consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) ablation for AF at a single institution. Patients underwent LADE with MRI to determine LAS regions before ablation. MRI data were analysed independently in accordance with prespecified institutional protocol by two staff cardiac radiologists to whom patient outcomes were masked, and reports of LADE were documented. Where no initial consensus occurred regarding delayed enhancement (DE), a third staff cardiac radiologist independently reviewed the case and had the deciding vote. Results Of the 149 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age, 59 (9) years), AF was persistent in 64 (43%) and paroxysmal in 85 (57%); 45 (30%) had prior ablation. Only five patients (3%) had identifiable DE in LA walls (persistent AF, n=1; paroxysmal AF, n=4). LADE was present in two (4%) of the 45 patients with previous left PVAI. The presence of LADE was not associated with a higher recurrence rate of AF. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies, the finding of DE within LA walls was uncommon and, when present, did not correlate with AF type or risk of AF recurrence. It therefore is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:28123766

  5. Equalization characteristics of an upflow sludge blanket-aerated biofilter (USB-AF) system.

    PubMed

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Lee, S H

    2005-01-01

    Equalization characteristics of the upflow sludge blanket-aerated bio-filter (USB-AF) were investigated with the fluctuated raw domestic sewage. Recycle of nitrified effluent from AF to USB triggered the equalization characteristics of the sludge blanket on both soluble and particulate organic matter. Increment of EPS in sludge blanket by nitrate recycle was detected and removal of turbidity and particulates increased at higher recycle ratios by bio-flocculation. Increased TCOD removal in the USB was due to both denitrification of recycled nitrate and entrapment of the particulate organic matter in sludge blanket. Capture of both soluble and particulate organic matter increased sludge blanket layer in the USB, which improved the reactor performances and reduced the organic load on the subsequent AF. Overall TCOD and SS removal efficiencies were about 98% and 96%, respectively in the USB-AF system. Turbidity in the USB effluent was about 44, 20 and 5.5 NTU, at recycle ratios of 0, 100 and 200%, respectively. Particle counts in the range 2-4 microm in the USB effluent were higher than those in influent without nitrate recycle, while particle counts in the range of 0.5-15 microm in the USB effluent decreased 70% at recycle ratio of 200%. The major constituent of EPS extracted from anaerobic sludge was protein and total EPS increased from 109.1 to 165.7 mg/g-VSS with nitrate recycle of 100%. Removal efficiency and concentration of T-N in the UBS-AF effluent was over 70% and below 16 mg/L, respectively.

  6. Properties and transport behavior of perfluorotripentylamine (FC-70)-doped amorphous teflon AF 2400 films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Hussam, Abul; Weber, Stephen G

    2010-12-22

    Teflon AF 2400 films are known to imbibe solvents, making films in the presence of solvents less fluorous than they might otherwise be. Herein, we demonstrate that doping films with perfluorotripentylamine (Fluorinert FC-70) maintains the fluorous nature of Teflon AF 2400 and improves transport selectivity for fluorine-containing organic compounds. Density measurements on the FC-70-doped films reveal that free volume decreases dramatically as the dopant concentration increases (0-12 wt %) and then increases to approach that of pure FC-70. Remarkably, films from 0 to 12 wt % FC-70 have the same w/v concentration of Teflon AF 2400, indicating that FC-70 fills the free volume of Teflon AF 2400. This is consistent with the observed increased storage modulus and significant decrease (compared to undoped films) of solute diffusion coefficients in the same range of FC-70 concentrations. In contrast, FC-70 at concentrations greater than 12 wt % dilutes Teflon AF 2400, leading to a decrease of storage modulus and dramatic increase in solute diffusion coefficients. Sorption of chloroform decreases from 11.8 g of chloroform/100 g of film (pure Teflon film) to 3.8 g of chloroform/100 g of film (27 wt % FC-70-doped Teflon film), less than the solubility of chloroform in pure FC-70 (4.06 g of chloroform/100 g of FC-70). Solute partition coefficients from chloroform to FC-70-doped films generally decrease with increased dopant concentration. However, within a series of toluenes and nitrobenzenes, selectivity for F-containing solutes over analogous H-containing solutes increases as dopant concentration increases if the substitution is on the aromatic ring but not if it is on the methyl group (toluene). Transport (partitioning × diffusion) rates, as they involve both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, are not simply related to composition.

  7. TYPE AF CERTIFICATE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW ENRICHED URANIUM OXIDE (LEUO) FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Kenneth Yates, K

    2007-10-19

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SRS had the need to ship 227 drums of low enriched uranium oxide (LEUO) to a disposal site. The LEUO had been packaged nearly 25 years ago in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 17C 55-gallon drums and stored in a warehouse. Since the 235U enrichment was just above 1 percent by weight (wt%) the material did not qualify for the fissile material exceptions in 49 CFR 173.453, and therefore was categorized as 'fissile material' for shipping purposes. WSRC evaluated all existing Type AF packages and did not identify any feasible packaging. Applying for a new Type AF certificate of compliance was considered too costly for a one-time/one-way shipment for disposal. Down-blending the material with depleted uranium (to reduce enrichment below 1 wt% and enable shipment as low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material) was considered, but appropriate blending facilities do not exist at SRS. After reviewing all options, WSRC concluded that seeking a DOT Special Permit was the best option to enable shipment of the material for permanent disposal. WSRC submitted the Special Permit application to the DOT, and after one request-for-additional-information (RAI) the permit was considered acceptable. However, in an interesting development that resulted from the DOT Special Permit application process, it was determined that it was more appropriate for the DOE to issue a Type AF certificate [Ref. 1] for this shipping campaign. This paper will outline the DOT Special Permit application and Type AF considerations, and will discuss the issuance of the new DOE Type AF certificate of compliance.

  8. Binding of hnRNP H and U2AF65 to Respective G-codes and a Poly-Uridine Tract Collaborate in the N50-5'ss Selection of the REST N Exon in H69 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Pineda, Carlos; Galindo-Rosales, José Manuel; Calderón-Salinas, José Victor; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica; Valdés, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The splicing of the N exon in the pre-mRNA coding for the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) results in a truncated protein that modifies the expression pattern of some of its target genes. A weak 3'ss, three alternative 5'ss (N4-, N50-, and N62-5'ss) and a variety of putative target sites for splicing regulatory proteins are found around the N exon; two GGGG codes (G2-G3) and a poly-Uridine tract (N-PU) are found in front of the N50-5'ss. In this work we analyzed some of the regulatory factors and elements involved in the preferred selection of the N50-5'ss (N50 activation) in the small cell lung cancer cell line H69. Wild type and mutant N exon/β-globin minigenes recapitulated N50 exon splicing in H69 cells, and showed that the N-PU and the G2-G3 elements are required for N50 exon splicing. Biochemical and knockdown experiments identified these elements as U2AF65 and hnRNP H targets, respectively, and that they are also required for N50 exon activation. Compared to normal MRC5 cells, and in keeping with N50 exon activation, U2AF65, hnRNP H and other splicing factors were highly expressed in H69 cells. CLIP experiments revealed that hnRNP H RNA-binding occurs first and is a prerequisite for U2AF65 RNA binding, and EMSA and CLIP experiments suggest that U2AF65-RNA recognition displaces hnRNP H and helps to recruit other splicing factors (at least U1 70K) to the N50-5'ss. Our results evidenced novel hnRNP H and U2AF65 functions: respectively, U2AF65-recruiting to a 5'ss in humans and the hnRNP H-displacing function from two juxtaposed GGGG codes. PMID:22792276

  9. In vivo diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer using near-infrared autofluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the biochemical foundation and clinical capability of an image-guided near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy technique for in vivo diagnosis of colonic malignancies during clinical colonoscopy. A novel endoscopic fiber-optic AF system was utilized for in vivo NIR AF measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 263 in vivo NIR AF spectra of colonic tissues were measured from 100 patients, in which 164 spectra were from benign tissue (116 normal and 48 hyperplastic polyps), 34 spectra were from precancer (adenomatous polyps), and 65 spectra were from cancer. The non-negativity constrained least squares minimization biochemical modeling was explored to estimate the biochemical compositions of colonic tissue using nine basis reference spectra from the representative biochemicals (i.e., collagen I, elastin, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide, L-tryptophan, hematoporphyrin, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and water) associated with structural or cellular metabolic progression in colonic precancer and cancer. High-quality in vivo NIR AF spectra in the spectral range of 810 to 1000 nm were acquired from colonic benign, precancerous, and cancerous mucosa under white-light reflectance endoscopic imaging guidance. Partial least squares discriminant analysis, together with the leave-one tissue site-out, cross validation on in vivo NIR AF spectra yields diagnostic sensitivities of 85.4%, 76.5%, and 84.6%, and specificities of 89.9%, 93.4%, and 91.4%, respectively, for classification of benign, precancer, and cancer in the colon. This work demonstrates that image-guided NIR AF spectroscopy in conjunction with biochemical modeling has promising potential for improving in vivo detection and diagnosis of colonic precancer and cancer during clinical colonoscopic screening.

  10. A Specific Antibody to Neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide) Recognizes a Small Subset of Neurons in Ascaris suum: Differences from Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Jarecki, Jessica L.; Stretton, Antony O.W.

    2016-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF1-003, highly specific to the Ascaris suum neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide), was generated. This antibody binds strongly to AF1 and extremely weakly to other peptides with C-terminal FIR-Famide: AF5 (SGKPTFIRFamide), AF6 (FIRFamide), and AF7 (AGPRFIRFamide). It does not recognize 35 other AF (A. suum FMRFamide-like) peptides at the highest concentration tested, nor does it recognize FMRFamide. When crude peptide extracts of A. suum are fractionated by two-step HPLC, the only fractions recognized by AF1-003 are those comigrating with synthetic AF1. By immunocytochemistry, antibody AF1-003 recognizes a small subset of the 298 neurons of A. suum: these include the paired URX and RIP neurons, two pairs of lateral ganglion neurons in the head, and the unpaired PQR and PDA or -B tail neurons that send processes to the head along the dorsal and ventral nerve cords, respectively. AF1 immunoreactivity is also seen in three pairs of pharyngeal neurons. Mass spectroscopy (MS) shows the presence of AF1 in the head, pharynx, and dorsal and ventral nerve cords. In A. suum, the neurons that contain AF1 show little overlap with neurons that express green fluorescent protein constructs targeting the flp-8 gene, which encodes AF1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Kim and Li [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 475:540– 550); the URX neurons express AF1 in both species, but, in C. elegans, flp-8 expression was not detected in RIP, PQR, and PDA or -B or in the pharynx. Other, less specific monoclonal antibodies recognize AF1, as well as other peptides to differing degrees; these antibodies are useful reagents for determination of neuronal morphology. PMID:21452223

  11. Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic vehicles: a novel approach for the treatment of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Bitsika, Vasiliki; Roubelakis, Maria G; Zagoura, Dimitra; Trohatou, Ourania; Makridakis, Manousos; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Marini, Frank C; Vlahou, Antonia; Anagnou, Nicholas P

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies support cell-based therapies for cancer treatment. An advantageous cell type for such therapeutic schemes are the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be easily propagated in culture, genetically modified to express therapeutic proteins, and exhibit an innate tropism to solid tumors in vivo. Recently, we successfully isolated and expanded MSCs from second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs). The main characteristic of AF-MSCs is their efficient and rapid expansion in vitro. Herein, we investigated the AF-MSCs tropism and capability to transport interferon beta (IFNβ) to the region of neoplasia in a bladder tumor model. To this end, we used the T24M bladder cancer cell line, previously generated from our studies, and developed a disease progression model in immunosuppressed mice, that can recapitulate the molecular events of bladder carcinogenesis. Our results documented that AF-MSCs exhibited high motility, when migrated either to T24M cells or to T24M-conditioned medium, and we further identified and studied the secreted factors which may trigger these enhanced migratory properties. Further, lentivirus-transduced AF-MSCs, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or IFNβ, were intravenously administered to T24M tumor-bearing animals at multiple doses to examine their therapeutic effect. GFP- and IFNβ-AF-MSCs successfully migrated and colonized at the tumor site. Notably, significant inhibition of tumor growth as well as prolonged survival of mice were observed in the presence of IFNβ-AF-MSCs. Collectively, these results document the great potential of AF-MSCs as anti-cancer vehicles, implemented by the targeting of the tumor site and further facilitated by their high proliferation rate and expansion efficiency in culture.

  12. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  13. Cancer Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  14. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  15. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Accellular Nerve Allografts Plus Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Li, Zhongyu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wake Forest...Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Major accomplishments this year include successful seeding of AFS into ANA. This accomplishment also documented that these cells remained viable up

  16. An Observational, Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia Pacific: Rationale and Design of the RecordAF-AP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be lower in Asian countries than in Western countries. Nevertheless, AF remains a significant public health problem in the region. The burden of AF, the experiences of previous trials and the lack of data on AF and its management in Asia Pacific highlight the need for a comprehensive prospective study of AF management. Methods: The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation Asia Pacific (RecordAF-AP) is a prospective, observational survey of the management of recently diagnosed AF patients with 1-year follow-up in 8 countries across Asia Pacific. Eligible patients presenting with AF, treated or not, will be included in the registry and data will be recorded prospectively during follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months. Results: RecordAF-AP will recruit more than 3000 patients. Study recruitment commenced in April 2009 and the final results anticipated at the end of 2011. Conclusions: RecordAF-AP will assess the real-life management of AF patients in Asia Pacific, including a comparison of clinical outcomes in rhythm versus rate control strategies, providing much needed insight into the costs, treatment choices and clinical outcomes of AF patients in this region. PMID:21344019

  17. Identification and functional characterization of an afsR homolog regulatory gene from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Oh, Tae-Jin; Lee, Hei Chan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2009-02-01

    Sequencing analysis of a 5-kb DNA fragment from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 revealed the presence of one 3.1-kb open reading frame (ORF), designated afsRsv. The deduced product of afsR-sv (1,056 aa) was found to have high homology with the global regulatory protein AfsR. Homology-based analysis showed that afsR-sv represents a transcriptional activator belonging to the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family that includes an Nterminal SARP domain containing a bacterial transcriptional activation domain (BTAD), an NB-ARC domain, and a Cterminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated the activation of transcription of genes belonging to pikromycin production, when afsR-sv was overexpressed in S. venezuelae. Heterologous expression of the afsR-sv in different Streptomyces strains resulted in increased production of the respective antibiotics, suggesting that afsR-sv is a positive regulator of antibiotics biosynthesis.

  18. Vulva cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... is rare. Risk factors include: Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts ) infection in women under age ...

  19. Hot Isostatic Pressing/Heat Treatment of Cast Superalloy AF2-1DA, Radial Turbine Wheels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    showing typical 19 shrinkage porosity Mag: 400X Etch: Electrolytic oxalic acid 10 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA alloy 29 Mag: 400X Etch...Electrolytic oxalic acid 11 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA alloy note 30 void formations form incipient melting after 2250OF hip Mag: 400X Etch: Electrolytic... oxalic acid V a.w LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) Figure Title Page 12 Microstructure of HIPped AF2-1DA showing effects 31 of solution heat

  20. King Salmon, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-10

    1 .2 - i 121 1b 15 o -- 9 2.4 z 2 22 2 2 2fi 2 13 1ee (X) I me. O.. N.. o Nof " . Tom .eet W .. I T 0 F s 32P IN 67 P 3 FNP -93 P T...I w e Or ulb t...CLIMATOLOGY BRANCHT 2 AkETAHRSRVC/A PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY2 I ETE EVC /A 7 3260_ KING SALMON AFS AK 73-82 JAN STAT.Oft STATION NWAI villOAN *PAGE ? 1890...T,,.) .. ." " " , . - . . 1 i. . , ’. . ; : ; .-. A f;: ’ ,- ;. * GLr rA E LMTL~ T AC? PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYT2 FAH- EVC /A 7 3267 XING SALM4ON AFS

  1. Nanopatterning of mobile lipid monolayers on electron-beam-sculpted Teflon AF surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shaali, Mehrnaz; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Dommersnes, Paul; Ainla, Alar; Kubatkin, Sergey; Jesorka, Aldo

    2015-02-24

    Direct electron-beam lithography is used to fabricate nanostructured Teflon AF surfaces, which are utilized to pattern surface-supported monolayer phospholipid films with 50 nm lateral feature size. In comparison with unexposed Teflon AF coatings, e-beam-irradiated areas show reduced surface tension and surface potential. For phospholipid monolayer spreading experiments, these areas can be designed to function as barriers that enclose unexposed areas of nanometer dimensions and confine the lipid film within. We show that the effectiveness of the barrier is defined by pattern geometry and radiation dose. This surface preparation technique represents an efficient, yet simple, nanopatterning strategy supporting studies of lipid monolayer behavior in ultraconfined spaces. The generated structures are useful for imaging studies of biomimetic membranes and other specialized surface applications requiring spatially controlled formation of self-assembled, molecularly thin films on optically transparent patterned polymer surfaces with very low autofluorescence.

  2. Unciflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hui; Xu, Kang-Ping; Li, Fu-Shuang; Zou, Zhen-Xing; Liu, Rui; Liu, Rui-Huan; Li, Jing; Tan, Lei-Hong; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2014-12-01

    Six new flavonoids, unciflavones A-F (1-6), have been isolated from medicinal plant Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR analysis including 1D NMR ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT) and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. All compounds possess exceptional structural features with an aryl substituent at the C-8 position, which are uncommonly encountered in natural resources and firstly reported in genus Selaginella.

  3. Installation Restoration Program. Technical Support Document for Record of Decision, Cape Newenham, AFS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-18

    observed at any site. o No threatened or endangered species are known to use or exist on the installation. 0 No economically or commercially important ...which have the potential to exist in the environment at Cape Newenham AFS include many substances commonly used at LRRS installations. The most important ...Once adsorbed, PCBs 2-20 73/5/21 do not readily desorb. The implication is that PCBs will not leach or diffuse in soils; transport into the hydrosphere

  4. Oxytrofalcatins A-F, N-benzoylindole analogues from the roots of Oxytropis falcata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Wu, Quan-Xiang; Wang, Rui; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2010-06-01

    Indole alkaloids, oxytrofalcatins A-F (1-6), together with five other known alkaloids (7-11), were isolated from the roots of Oxytropis falcata. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This is the first report of N-benzoylindoles from a natural source. Compounds 1-6 lacked significant cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and HL-60 tumor cell lines.

  5. Evolution of iron speciation during hydration of C{sub 4}AF

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; El Mrabet, S.; Masion, A.; Moulin, I.; Briois, V.; Olivi, L.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2006-07-01

    It is now well accepted and demonstrated that calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and calcium sulfo aluminate (ettringite, AFm) phases exhibit a good capability to fix metals and metalloids. Unfortunately the role of minor phases and especially calcium-ferric aluminate phase, shorthand C{sub 4}AF is not well defined. In other systems like in soils or sediments iron phases play a key role in the fixation of pollutant. In cement sorption isotherms, indicated that various metals can be retained by the C{sub 4}AF hydrated products. Therefore the capabilities of those phase to retain heavy metal should not be neglected. Previous investigations have shown that the minerals formed during the hydration of C{sub 4}AF are similar to those formed from C3A (pure tri-calcium aluminate) under comparable conditions. Nevertheless no investigation was conducted at the molecular level and there is still a controversy whether Fe substitutes for Al in the hydrated minerals in whole or in part, or if it forms FeOOH clusters scattered throughout the matrix. In this context we have conducted XAS experiments using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the hydration of C{sub 4}AF forms C{sub 3}AH{sub 6} (hydrogarnet) in which Fe randomly substitutes for Al as well as an amorphous FeOOH phase. Intermediate products like AFm (i.e., an ill organized lamellar phase) are also formed but rapidly evolve to C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}; iron does not seem to be incorporated in the AFm structure.

  6. AF-TRUST, Air Force Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    Live Streaming Systems. PhD. June 2008 • Jeffrey Hartline. Incremental Optimization, PhD, January 2008 AF-TRUST Final Performance Report...Against Intrusion in a Live Streaming Multicast System. Maya Haridasan, Robbert van Renesse. In Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference...Walker White. In Proceedings of SIGMOD 2007 2008 Enforcing Fairness in a Live - Streaming System. Maya Haridasan, Ingrid Jansch-Porto, Kenneth Birman

  7. Updated Reference Genome Sequence and Annotation of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Damien; Stuber, Tod P.; Schubert, Olga T.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here an update to the reference genome sequence of the bovine tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97, generated using an integrative multiomics approach. The update includes 42 new coding sequences (CDSs), 14 modified annotations, 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) corrections, and disclosure that the RD900 locus, previously described as absent from the genome, is in fact present. PMID:28385856

  8. Air Traffic Control Radar Specialty AFS 303X1. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Surveillance Radars, and AN/ MPN -14H Mobile RAPCONs. Typical tasks performed by these incumbents when maintaining these radar systems include: perform PMIs on...document forms (AF Form 264) issue job control numbers maintain status boards, graphs, or charts maintain equipment status reports document equipment...related matters determine work priorities plan work assignments maintain training records, charts , or graphs These incumbents are the most senior of all

  9. Superior Oblique Anterior Transposition with Horizontal Recti Recession-Resection for Total Third-Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Eraslan, Muhsin; Cerman, Eren; Onal, Sumru; Ogut, Mehdi Suha

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To report the results of lateral rectus muscle recession, medial rectus muscle resection, and superior oblique muscle transposition in the restoration and maintenance of ocular alignment in primary position for patients with total third-nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of patients who underwent surgery between March 2007 and September 2011 for total third-nerve palsy were reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative assessment, including a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Results. A total of 6 patients (age range, 14–45 years) were included. The median preoperative horizontal deviation was 67.5 Prism Diopter (PD) (interquartile range [IQR] 57.5–70) and vertical deviation was 13.5 PD (IQR 10–20). The median postoperative horizontal residual exodeviation was 8.0 PD (IQR 1–16), and the vertical deviation was 0 PD (IQR 0–4). The median correction of hypotropia following superior oblique transposition was 13.5 ± 2.9 PD (range, 10–16). All cases were vertically aligned within 5 PD. Four of the six cases were aligned within 10 PD of the horizontal deviation. Adduction and head posture were improved in all patients. All patients gained new area of binocular single vision in the primary position after the operation. Conclusion. Lateral rectus recession, medial rectus resection, and superior oblique transposition may be used to achieve satisfactory cosmetic and functional results in total third-nerve palsy. PMID:26640703

  10. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  11. Fracture Growth Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Martinez, Jonathan; McLean, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant in orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent flaws will not cause failure during the design life. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environmentally-assisted cracking (K (sub EAC)) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched specimens SE(B) representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to the monopropellant at 50 degrees Centigrade for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant was found to be at least 22.0 kilopounds per square inch. The stress intensity factor of the weld material was at least 31.3 kilopounds per square inch.

  12. [Improvement of natamycin production in an industrial strain by heterologous expression of the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes].

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Yemin; Zheng, Hualiang; Tao, Meifeng

    2015-05-01

    The afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus activate the production of two antibiotics in Streptomyces lividans. In this study, we gained an increase of 38% in the production of natamycin (3.56 g/L) in an industrial strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus TZ1401 through the integration of pHL851 that bears the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes into its genome. We discovered by quantitive real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that the expression of 6 genes of the natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster were improved from 1.9 to 2.7 times. This suggests that afsRS(cla) improve the production of natamycin through increased transcription. This study provides a good example for applying afsRS(cla) in high yield breeding of industrial antibiotic producers.

  13. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  14. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-02-12

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region.

  15. Microstructural basis for the effect of chromium on the strength and toughness of AF1410-based high performance steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Machmeier, P. M.

    1996-09-01

    The variation in strength and Charpy impact toughness as a function of tempering temperature in the range of 200 ‡C to 650 ‡C was investigated in AF 1410 and AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steels produced in a laboratory-scale, and a commercially produced AerMet 100 steel. The tensile test results showed that AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr had lower strength compared to AF 1410, while AerMet 100 had the highest strength of the three steels examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated that the strength variations among the steels can be attributed to differences in the matrix/carbide coherency strain and the volume fraction of the strengthening M2C carbides. The toughness values of the three steels were comparable when tempered up to 424 ‡C. Tempering at and above 454 ‡C resulted in a relative enhancement of toughness in AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steel compared to AF 1410. This toughening was attributed to the destabilization of cementite at lath and prior austenite boundaries and the formation of reverted austenite.

  16. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-02-27

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  17. Structural Basis for Polypyrimidine Tract Recognition by the Essential Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor U2AF65

    SciTech Connect

    Sickmier,E.; Frato, K.; Shen, H.; Paranawithana, S.; Green, M.; Kielkopf, C.

    2006-01-01

    The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF{sup 65}, guides the early stages of splice site choice by recognizing a polypyrimidine (Py)-tract consensus sequence near the 3'-splice site. Since Py-tracts are relatively poorly conserved in higher eukaryotes, U2AF{sup 65} is faced with the problem of specifying uridine-rich sequences, yet tolerating a variety of nucleotide substitutions found in natural Py-tracts. To better understand these apparently contradictory RNA binding characteristics, the X-ray structure of the U2AF{sup 65} RNA binding domain bound to a Py-tract composed of seven uridines has been determined at 2.5Angstroms resolution. Specific hydrogen bonds between U2AF{sup 65} and the uracil bases provide an explanation for polyuridine recognition. Flexible sidechains and bound water molecules form the majority of the base contacts, and potentially could rearrange when the U2AF{sup 65} structure adapts to different Py-tract sequences. The energetic importance of conserved residues for Py-tract binding is established by analysis of site-directed mutant U2AF{sup 65} proteins using surface plasmon resonance.

  18. [Biomechanics of AF new 3-d pedical screw system and treatment of 31 patients with unstable thoracolumbar fracture].

    PubMed

    Zou, D; Hai, Y; Ma, H

    1995-04-01

    For anatomic reduction of the spinal frectures, the 3 dimensional multiple correction forces were needed. Several pedical screw systems were designed for reducion and fixation of the spinal fractures as the AO universal joint system and the RF angle screw system. Because of the contradiction of the universal joint and the fixed angle, a new generation of RF was designed and named AF (atlas fixator) system. This is a new concept of 3-D reduction, without complex structure as universal joint, but has truly 3-D adjustment that allowed to reduce the intra-canal compromise. It also provided rigid fixation to maintain the reduction. Comparison with CD, AO, Steffee, and RF, the AF was truly 3-D reduction in XTZ axis. It provided strong symmetric transmitter orthotic force to correct the deformity. 31 patients with unstable thoracolumbar fractures were treated with the new AF system. 17 had partial (15) or complete (2) neurologic deficits. The AF system provided accurate angle to restore the normal thoracic-lumbar lordosis and to maintain it. All patients had a anatomic reduction by AF system. The spinal canal area increased over 33% by CT scan (P < 0.01). All cases were followed up over 8 months. No one deteriorated neurologically after AF fixation.

  19. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  20. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  1. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  2. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot℠ Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ... Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in ...

  3. Molecular Profiles for Lung Cancer Pathogenesis and Detection in U.S. Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Wistuba II, Gazdar AF. Lung cancer preneoplasia. Annu Rev Pathol 2006;1:331–348. 8. David H. Rudolf Virchow and modern aspects of tumor pathology. Pathol...carcinogen induced lung adenocarcinoma development in Gprc5a-knockout mice. PLoS ONE 2010;5:e11847. 20. Braakhuis BJ, Tabor MP, Kummer JA, Leemans CR

  4. Molecular Profiles for Lung Cancer Pathogenesis and Detection in U.S. Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gazdar AF. Lung cancer preneoplasia. Annu Rev Pathol 2006;1:331–348. 8. David H. Rudolf Virchow and modern aspects of tumor pathology. Pathol Res...induced lung adenocarcinoma development in Gprc5a-knockout mice. PLoS ONE 2010;5:e11847. 20. Braakhuis BJ, Tabor MP, Kummer JA, Leemans CR, Brakenhoff

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  7. Responsiveness of AF6, a new, short, validated, atrial fibrillation-specific questionnaire—symptomatic benefit of direct current cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Bengtson, Ann; Medin, Jennie; Frison, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effects on symptoms of electrical cardioversion (DC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a new, short, validated, AF-specific questionnaire, the AF6. Methods One hundred eleven patients (67 ± 12 years, 89 men) were screened before and 12 ± 3 days after DC using AF6, covering ‘breathing difficulties at rest’, ‘breathing difficulties on exertion’, ‘limitations in day-to-day life due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘feeling of discomfort due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’, and ‘worry/anxiety due to atrial fibrillation’. A single global score was calculated. The Toronto AF Symptoms and Severity Check List (AFSS) and the generic SF-36 were also administered. Patients in sinus rhythm at 12 ± 3 days (n = 56) were defined as responders and patients in AF (n = 55) as non-responders. Results The mean single global score decreased in all patients (18 ± 12.4 to 13 ± 11.6, p < 0.0001) and in responders (22 ± 14 vs. 12 ± 12, p < 0.01) but not in non-responders (14 ± 9 vs. 14 ± 11, N.S). The AFSS frequency scores decreased from 14.5 ± 7.7 to 9.5 ± 7.8 in responders, p = 0.001, but not in non-responders. There was a strong correlation between changes in the AF6 and the SF-36 regarding four of the six items. Effect sizes of AF6 ranged from 0 to 0.52 in all patients, in responders from 0.10 to 0.85 and in non-responders from −0.23 to 0.34, the highest figures consistently referring to ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’. Conclusions The symptom scores measured by AF6 decreased significantly, especially in responders. AF6 demonstrated adequate responsiveness to change, and effect sizes were mostly moderate, in responders moderate to high. PMID:20461545

  8. Differential modulation of plant immune responses by diverse members of the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi HopAF type III effector family.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, M Pilar; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Ramos, Cayo

    2016-04-26

    The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 type III secretion system (T3SS) effector repertoire includes 33 candidates, seven of which translocate into host cells and interfere with plant defences. The present study was performed to investigate the co-existence of both plasmid- and chromosomal-encoded members of the HopAF effector family, HopAF1-1 and HopAF1-2, respectively, in the genome of NCPPB 3335. Here, we show that the HopAF1 paralogues are widely distributed in the Pseudomonas syringae complex, where HopAF1-1 is most similar to the homologues encoded by other P. syringae pathovars infecting woody hosts that belong to phylogroups 1 and 3. We show that the expression of both HopAF1-1 and HopAF-2 is transcriptionally dependent on HrpL and demonstrate their delivery into Nicotiana tabacum leaves. Although the heterologous delivery of either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 significantly suppressed the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species levels, only HopAF1-2 reduced the levels of callose deposition. Moreover, the expression of HopAF1-2 by functionally effectorless P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000D28E completely inhibited the hypersensitive response in tobacco and significantly increased the competitiveness of the strain in Nicotiana benthamiana. Despite their functional differences, subcellular localization studies reveal that green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to either HopAF1-1 or HopAF1-2 are targeted to the plasma membrane when they are expressed in plant cells, a process that is completely dependent on the integrity of their N-myristoylation motif. Our results further support the notion that highly similar T3SS effectors might differentially interact with diverse plant targets, even when they co-localize in the same cell compartment.

  9. AF710B, a Novel M1/σ1 Agonist with Therapeutic Efficacy in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Abraham; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Wu, Lili; Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Bar-Ner, Nira; Natan, Niva; Brandeis, Rachel; Elkon, Hanoch; Nahum, Victoria; Gershonov, Eitan; LaFerla, Frank M.; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed orthosteric M1 muscarinic agonists (e.g., AF102B, AF267B, and AF292), which act as cognitive enhancers and potential disease modifiers. We now report on a novel compound, AF710B, a highly potent and selective allosteric M1 muscarinic and σ1 receptor agonist. AF710B exhibits an allosteric agonistic profile on M1 muscarinic receptor; very low concentrations of AF710B significantly potentiated the binding and efficacy of carbachol on M1 receptors and their downstream effects (phopho-ERK1/2, phospho-CREB). AF710B (1–30 µg/kg, po) was a potent and safe cognitive enhancer in rats treated with the M1 antagonist trihexyphenidyl (passive avoidance impairment). These effects of AF710B involve σ1 receptor activation. In agreement with its anti-amnesic properties, AF710B (at 30 nM), via activation of M1 and a possible involvement of σ1 receptors, rescued mushroom synapse loss in PS1-KI and APP-KI neuronal cultures, while AF267B (1 µM) was less potent in PS1-KI and ineffective in APP-KI models, respectively. In female 3xTg-AD mice AF710B (10 µg/kg, ip/daily/2 months) – i) mitigated cognitive impairments in Morris water maze; ii) decreased BACE1, GSK3β activity, p25/CDK5, neuroinflammation, soluble and insoluble Aβ40, Aβ42, plaques and tau pathologies. AF710B differs from conventional σ1, M1 muscarinic (orthosteric, allosteric or bi-topic) or σ1/muscarinic agonists. These results highlight AF710B as a potential treatment for AD (e.g., improving cognitive deficits, synaptic loss, amyloid and tau pathologies, and neuroinflammation) with a superior profile over a plethora of other therapeutic strategies. PMID:26606130

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  11. Involvenflavones A-F, six new flavonoids with 3'-aryl substituent from Selaginella involven.

    PubMed

    Long, Hong-Ping; Zou, Hui; Li, Fu-Shuang; Li, Jing; Luo, Ping; Zou, Zhen-Xing; Hu, Chang-Ping; Xu, Kang-Ping; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Six new flavonoids, involvenflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from Selaginella involven. Their structures were elucidated based on UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS techniques. All compounds belong to apigenin derivatives with 3'-aryl substituent. This is the first report of the apigenin derivatives with 3'-aryl substituent from nature resources. These compounds also exhibited a potent effect against the injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) induced by high concentrations of glucose in vitro.

  12. Fulda AAF, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-08

    SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 355 Fi,&DA GERMiN ~IY 4AF b-~-Z______ STATON STATION MAN9 ICA.$ O.N ALL EATnE., 3" ,-.5 cuss NOUAS (L s 1 SPEEDN MEAN...30,1 33,1 3346 33,3 33 O 33, 34.7 1600 0 30,4 319,2 33,3 33,3 337. 239, 11000 1 4, 2 7,2 279 213 29,9 30.1 3,4 33.1 33.4 33,3 36 3,6 ’,>_20oo2. Zola

  13. Candenatenins A-F, phenolic compounds from the heartwood of Dalbergia candenatensis.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Karalai, Chatchanok; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

    2009-08-01

    Chemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of the heartwood of Dalbergia candenatensis affored six new phenolic compounds, designated candenatenins A-F (1-6), as well as four known compounds, (2R,3R)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (7), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan (8), nutiducol (9), and sophoraflavanone A (10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies as well as by MS analysis. The cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds are also reported.

  14. Dover AFB Delaware. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-07

    SNOW X OF SMOKE DUST X OF OSS TOTALMONTH T. STORMS AD/OR RAIN &/fOR AND/OR HAIL IObs WITH FOG AND/ORt BOWIG AND/ORt WITH ORST NO. OF( ST )DRIZZLE DRIZZLE...OBSERVATIONS) 13707 DUVEF AF8 DELAWARE 4 Ago4 f!,SL 55 AR STATION STATION RA50 01055 MONTH ALL WEATHER ALL CLASS NOVAS ( ST .) ( CONDITION SPE MEAN (NT...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1.3707 )0VEIc AFB 0ELAwAIRE 43-46251-72 JAN4 ALL WEATHEV, 0600-0800 Cuss x05o5 ILL ST .) SIPEED i MEAN (KNTS

  15. A novel clinical multimodal multiphoton tomograph for AF, SHG, CARS imaging, and FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    We report on a flexible nonlinear medical tomograph with multiple miniaturized detectors for simultaneous acquisition of two-photon autofluorescence (AF), second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The simultaneous visualization of the distribution of endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, melanin and elastin, SHG-active collagen and as well as non-fluorescent lipids within human skin in vivo is possible. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) can be generated using time-correlated single photon counting.

  16. miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Hsieh, James; Rao, Prakash K; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-11-05

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.

  17. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large Gap-Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts Plus Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas L. Smith, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wake Forest University Health Sciences...Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0309 5b. GRANT NUMBER OR120157 5c...year include successful seeding of AFS into ANA. This accomplishment also documented that these cells remained viable up to 72 hours after seeding. The

  18. Early and comprehensive management of atrial fibrillation: executive summary of the proceedings from the 2nd AFNET-EHRA consensus conference 'research perspectives in AF'.

    PubMed

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Bax, Jeroen; Blomstrom-Lundquist, Carina; Calkins, Hugh; Camm, A John; Cappato, Ricardo; Cosio, Francisco; Crijns, Harry; Diener, Hans-Christian; Goette, Andreas; Israel, Carsten W; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lip, Gregory Y H; Nattel, Stanley; Page, Richard L; Ravens, Ursula; Schotten, Ulrich; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Vardas, Panos; Waldo, Albert; Wegscheider, Karl; Willems, Stephan; Breithardt, Günter

    2009-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes important mortality and morbidity on a population-level. So far, we do not have the means to prevent AF or AF-related complications adequately. Therefore, over 70 experts on atrial fibrillation convened for the 2nd AFNET/EHRA consensus conference to suggest directions for research to improve management of AF patients (Appendix 1). The group defined three main areas in need for research in AF: 1. better understanding of the mechanisms of AF; 2. Improving rhythm control monitoring and management; and 3. comprehensive cardiovascular risk management in AF patients. The group put forward the hypothesis that successful therapy of AF and its associated complications will require comprehensive therapy. This applies e.g. to the "old" debate of "rate versus rhythm control", since rhythm control is generally added to underlying (continued) rate control therapy, but also to the emerging debate of "antiarrhythmic drugs versus catheter ablation", of which both may be needed in most patients to maintain sinus rhythm, but also to therapy of conditions that predispose to AF and contribute to cardiovascular complications such as stroke, cognitive decline, heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. We call for research initiatives aiming at a better understanding of the different causes of AF and its complications, and at development and validation of mechanism-based therapies. The future of AF therapy may require a combination of management of underlying and concomitant conditions, early and comprehensive rhythm control therapy, adequate control of ventricular rate and cardiac function, and continuous therapy to prevent AF-associated complications (e.g. antithrombotic therapy). The reasons for these suggestions are detailed in this paper.

  19. The splicing factor U2AF65 is functionally conserved in the thermotolerant deep-sea worm Alvinella pompejana.

    PubMed

    Henscheid, Kristy L; Shin, David S; Cary, S Craig; Berglund, J Andrew

    2005-03-10

    Due to their inherent stability, thermophilic bacteria and archaea serve as important resources for biochemical and biophysical analyses of many biological processes. Unfortunately, scientists characterizing eukaryote-specific processes, such as nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, are unable to take advantage of these sources of thermostable proteins. To identify and provide a source of thermostable eukaryotic proteins, we are characterizing splicing factors in the thermotolerant deep-sea vent polychaete, Alvinella pompejana. This worm, also known as the Pompeii worm, is found in the extreme environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and is one of the most thermotolerant eukaryotic organisms known. We report on detailed analyses of U2AF65, the large subunit of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor, an essential splicing factor important for intron definition and alternative splicing. The cloning and characterization of Pompeii U2AF65 show it is highly similar to human U2AF65 in sequence and function and is more thermostable than the human protein when bound to RNA in vitro. Notably, Pompeii U2AF65 can restore splicing in a human extract depleted of human U2AF. We also determine that the general splicing mechanisms and signal sequences are conserved in the Pompeii worm, an annelid which has previously been uncharacterized in terms of splicing factors and signals.

  20. Substrate specificity and gene expression of two Penicillium chrysogenum α-L-arabinofuranosidases (AFQ1 and AFS1) belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 51 and 54.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Inui, Misako; Yasui, Kana; Hosokawa, Sachiko; Ihara, Hideshi

    2013-02-01

    We previously isolated two α-L-arabinofuranosidases (ABFs), termed AFQ1 and AFS1, from the culture filtrate of Penicillium chrysogenum 31B. afq1 and afs1 complementary DNAs encoding AFQ1 and AFS1 were isolated by in vitro cloning. The deduced amino acid sequences of AFQ1 and AFS1 are highly similar to those of Penicillium purpurogenum ABF 2 and ABF 1, respectively, which belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 51 and 54, respectively. Pfam analysis revealed an "Alpha-L-AF_C" domain in AFQ1 and "ArabFuran-catal" and "AbfB" domains in AFS1. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the afq1 gene was constitutively expressed in P. chrysogenum 31B at a low level, although the expression was slightly induced with arabinose, arabinitol, arabinan, and arabinoxylan. In contrast, expression of the afs1 gene was strongly expressed by the above four carbohydrates and less strongly induced by galactan. Recombinant enzymes (rAFQ1 and rAFS1) expressed in Escherichia coli were active against both p-nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside and polysaccharides with different specificities. (1)H-NMR analysis revealed that rAFS1 degraded arabinofuranosyl side chains that were both singly and doubly linked to the backbones of arabinoxylan and L-arabinan. On the other hand, rAFQ1 preferentially released arabinose linked to C-3 of single-substituted xylose or arabinose residues in the two polysaccharides.

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of the heterodimeric splicing factor U2AF: the RS domain on either the large or small Drosophila subunit is dispensable in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor) has an essential role in 3′ splice site selection. U2AF binds the intron pyrimidine tract between the branchpoint and the 3′ splice site and recruits U2 snRNP to the branch site at an early step in spliceosome assembly. Human U2AF is a heterodimer composed of large (hU2AF65) and small (hU2AF35) subunits. Both subunits contain a domain enriched in arginine–serine dipeptide repeats termed an RS domain. The two U2AF RS domains have been assigned essential and independent roles in spliceosome assembly in vitro—the hU2AF65 RS domain is required to target U2 snRNP to the branch site and the hU2AF35 RS domain is necessary for protein–protein interactions with constitutive and alternative splicing factors. We have investigated the functional requirements for the RS domains on the Drosophila U2AF homolog in vivo. In sharp contrast to its essential role in U2 snRNP recruitment in vitro, the RS domain on the Drosophila large subunit homolog (dU2AF50) was completely dispensable in vivo. Prompted by this unexpected result, we analyzed the RS domain on the Drosophila small subunit homolog (dU2AF38). Despite its requirement for enhancer-dependent splicing activity in vitro, the dU2AF38 RS domain was also inessential in vivo. Finally, we have tested whether the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer requires any RS domain. Flies mutant for both the small and large subunits could not be rescued by dU2AF50ΔRS and dU2AF38ΔRS transgenes. Therefore, in contrast to the separate roles assigned to the U2AF RS domains in vitro, our genetic data suggest that they may have redundant functions in vivo. PMID:9531538

  2. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-07-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes' status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors' detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability.

  3. Loss of Dnmt3b accelerates MLL-AF9 leukemia progression.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Li, X; Lu, P; Dong, F; Pang, Y; Ma, S; Cheng, H; Hao, S; Tang, F; Yuan, W; Zhang, X; Cheng, T

    2016-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous hematopoietic disorder with a poor prognosis. Abnormal DNA methylation is involved in the initiation and progression of AML. The de novo methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for the generation of genomic methylation patterns. While DNMT3A is frequently mutated in hematological malignancies, DNMT3B is rarely mutated. Although it has been previously reported that Dnmt3b functions as a tumor suppressor in a mouse model of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis, its function in AML is yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that deletion of Dnmt3b accelerated the progression of MLL-AF9 leukemia by increasing stemness and enhancing cell cycle progression. Gene profiling analysis revealed upregulation of the oncogenic gene set and downregulation of the cell differentiation gene set. Furthermore, loss of Dnmt3b was able to synergize with Dnmt3a deficiency in leukemia development. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Dnmt3b plays a tumor suppressive role in MLL-AF9 AML progression, thereby providing new insights into the roles of DNA methylation in leukemia development.

  4. Intracardiac impedance response during acute AF internal cardioversion using novel rectilinear and capacitor-discharge waveforms.

    PubMed

    Rababah, A S; Walsh, S J; Manoharan, G; Walsh, P R; Escalona, O J

    2016-07-01

    Intracardiac impedance (ICI) is a major determinant of success during internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there have been few studies that have examined the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during internal cardioversion in relation to clinical outcome. In this study, voltage and current waveforms captured during internal cardioversion of acute AF in ovine models using novel radiofrequency (RF) generated low-tilt rectilinear and conventional capacitor-discharge based shock waveforms were retrospectively analysed using a digital signal processing algorithm to investigate the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during cardioversion. The algorithm was specifically designed to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple impedance parameters, including: mean intracardiac impedance (Z M), intracardiac impedance variance (ICIV) and impedance amplitude spectrum area (IAMSA) for each cardioversion event. A significant reduction in ICI was observed when comparing two successive shocks of increasing energy where cardioversion outcome was successful. In addition, ICIV and IAMSA variables were found to inversely correlate to the magnitude of energy delivered; with a stronger correlation found to the former parameter. In conclusion, ICIV and IAMSA have been evidenced as two key dynamic intracardiac impedance variables that may prove useful in better understanding of the cardioversion process and that could potentially act as prognostic markers with respect to clinical outcome.

  5. Multiple-image-depth modeling for hotspot and AF printing detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. P.; Chou, C. S.; Huang, W. C.; Liu, R. G.; Gau, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    Typical OPC models focus on predicting wafer contour or CD; therefore, the modeling approach emphasizes careful determination of feature and edge locations in the photo-resist (PR) as well as the exposure threshold, so that the 'cut' model image matches the wafer SEM contours or cut-line CDs most closely. This is an exquisite approach with regard to the contour-based OPC, for the model is calibrated directly from wafer CDs. However, for other applications such as hotspot detection or assist feature (AF) printing prediction that might occur at the top or the bottom of the PR, the typical OPC model approach may not be accurate enough. Usually, these kinds of phenomenon can only be properly described by rigorous simulation, which is very time-consuming and hence not suitable for OPC. In this paper, the approach of building the OPC model with multiple image depths will be discussed. This approach references the images at the bottom and/or the top of the PR. This way, the behavior of the images which are not shown at the normal image depth can be predicted more accurately without distorting the optical model. This compromised OPC modeling approach is beneficial for runtime reduction compared to the rigorous simulation, and for better accuracy compared to conventional model. The applications for AF printing and hotspot predictions using the multiple image depth approach will be demonstrated.

  6. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  7. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  8. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes’ status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors’ detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability. PMID:26193280

  9. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals ...

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  11. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  12. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a direct link between breast cancer and pesticides. Symptoms Early breast cancer often does not cause ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  13. Anal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - anus; Squamous cell carcinoma - anal; HPV - anal cancer ... cancer and the human papillomavirus or HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that has been linked to other cancers as well. Other major risk factors include: HIV ...

  14. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  15. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a family history of thyroid cancer and chronic goiter (enlarged thyroid). There are several types of thyroid ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Breathing difficulty Cancer Goiter - simple Metastasis Radiation therapy Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma ...

  16. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  17. The planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Diversin translocates to the nucleus to interact with the transcription factor AF9

    SciTech Connect

    Haribaskar, Ramachandran; Puetz, Michael; Schupp, Birte; Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Walz, Gerd; Schaefer, Tobias

    2009-09-11

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a {beta}-catenin-independent branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, orients cells and their appendages with respect to the body axes. Diversin, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein Diego, acts as a molecular switch that blocks {beta}-catenin-dependent and promotes {beta}-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. We report now that Diversin, containing several nuclear localization signals, translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the transcription factor AF9. Both Diversin and AF9 block canonical Wnt signaling; however, this occurs independently of each other, and does not require nuclear Diversin. In contrast, AF9 strongly augments the Diversin-driven activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent gene expression in the nucleus, and this augmentation largely depends on the presence of nuclear Diversin. Thus, our findings reveal that components of the PCP cascade translocate to the nucleus to participate in transcriptional regulation and PCP signaling.

  18. A novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-degrading Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1 isolated from soil and purification of PHB-depolymerase.

    PubMed

    Shah, A A; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, A; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-12-01

    A new bacterial strain, capable of degrading poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was isolated from soil. This organism, identified as Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1, secreted PHB depolymerases both on solid as well as in liquid mineral salt medium containing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) as sole carbon source. The optimum production of PHB depolymerase was observed at pH 8 and 7, at 45 degrees C, 1% substrate concentration and in the presence of lactose as an additional carbon source. The extracellular PHB depolymerase was purified by gel permeation chromatography using Sephadex G-75. The Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1 produced two types of PHB depolymerases having molecular weights of about 37 and 45 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The difference in dry cell mass and amount of CO2 evolved in the test and control calculated gravimetrically through Sturm test indicated the degradative capabilities of Streptoverticillium kashmirense AF1.

  19. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  20. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  1. An update clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) in cancer cell therapy and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Fardyazar, Zahra; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that cell-based therapies are promising for cancer treatments. The human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are advantageous cells for such therapeutic schemes that can be innately changed to express therapeutic proteins. HAFSCs display a natural tropism to cancer cells in vivo. They can be useful in cancer cells targeting. Moreover, they are easily available from surplus diagnostic samples during pregnancy and less ethical and legal concern are associated with the collection and application than other putative cells are subjected. This review will designate representatives of amniotic fluid and stem cell derived from amniotic fluid. For this propose, we collect state of human AFS cells data applicable in cancer therapy by dividing this approach into two main classes (nonengineered and engineered based approaches). Our study shows the advantage of AFS cells over other putative cells types in terms differentiation ability to a wide range of cells by potential and effective use in preclinical studies for a variety of diseases. This study has shown the elasticity of human AFS cells and their favorable potential as a multipotent cell source for regenerative stem cell therapy and capable of giving rise to multiple lineages including such as osteoblasts and adipocyte.

  2. Anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular AF in general practice: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Adam; Metaxa, Sofia; Kassianos, George; Missouris, Constantinos G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to assess whether the recommendations and guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been adopted in general practice (GP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the GP computer database (Hatfield, UK) on all 9400 patients to assess the quality of anticoagulation in patients with a recorded diagnosis of AF. Results: Of the 180 patients with a diagnosis of AF, 107 (59.4%) were treated with warfarin, 19 (10.6%) with a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC), 31 (17.2%) with aspirin or clopidogrel, and 23 (12.8%) received none. Thirty-seven patients (34.6%) who were taking warfarin had a time in the therapeutic range (TTR) of less than 65%. Forty-five (27.6%) of the 163 patients who had a CHA2DS2VASc score of two or more were not prescribed a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or a NOAC. None had a HAS-BLED greater than the CHA2DS2VASc score. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that one in four patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a stroke, is not being adequately treated with an oral anticoagulant in primary care. The majority were treated with warfarin, a third of which had a low TTR. A high proportion of patients are prescribed antiplatelet therapy instead. This is despite overwhelming evidence that VKAs and NOACs, and not aspirin or clopidogrel, improve outcome in patients with non-valvular AF. We suggest that a review of GP practice databases should be considered to identify patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a disabling or fatal event, and measures taken to initiate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:27403193

  3. A Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring Strategies After Cryptogenic Stroke (from the Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying AF Trial).

    PubMed

    Choe, William C; Passman, Rod S; Brachmann, Johannes; Morillo, Carlos A; Sanna, Tommaso; Bernstein, Richard A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Rymer, Marilyn M; Beckers, Frank; Koehler, Jodi; Ziegler, Paul D

    2015-09-15

    Ischemic stroke cause remains undetermined in 30% of cases, leading to a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke but may go undetected with short periods of ECG monitoring. The Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying Atrial Fibrillation trial (CRYSTAL AF) demonstrated that long-term electrocardiographic monitoring with insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) is superior to conventional follow-up in detecting AF in the population with cryptogenic stroke. We evaluated the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of various external monitoring techniques within a cryptogenic stroke cohort. Simulated intermittent monitoring strategies were compared to continuous rhythm monitoring in 168 ICM patients of the CRYSTAL AF trial. Short-term monitoring included a single 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holter and 21-day and 30-day event recorders. Periodic monitoring consisted of quarterly monitoring through 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holters and monthly 24-hour Holters. For a single monitoring period, the sensitivity for AF diagnosis was lowest with a 24-hour Holter (1.3%) and highest with a 30-day event recorder (22.8%). The NPV ranged from 82.3% to 85.6% for all single external monitoring strategies. Quarterly monitoring with 24-hour Holters had a sensitivity of 3.1%, whereas quarterly 7-day monitors increased the sensitivity to 20.8%. The NPVs for repetitive periodic monitoring strategies were similar at 82.6% to 85.3%. Long-term continuous monitoring was superior in detecting AF compared to all intermittent monitoring strategies evaluated (p <0.001). Long-term continuous electrocardiographic monitoring with ICMs is significantly more effective than any of the simulated intermittent monitoring strategies for identifying AF in patients with previous cryptogenic stroke.

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  6. The role of miR-24 as a race related genetic factor in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Kato, Taku; Yamamura, Soichiro; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Shahryari, Varahram; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Desgupta, Pritha; Mitsui, Yozo; Sumida, Mitsuho; Deng, Guoren; Tabatabai, Laura; Kumar, Deepak; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2017-02-02

    The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) among African-Americans (AfA) is significantly higher than Caucasian-Americans (CaA) but the genetic basis for this disparity is not known. To address this problem, we analyzed miRNA expression in AfA (n = 81) and CaA (n = 51) PCa patients. Here, we found that miR-24 is differentially expressed in AfA and CaA PCa patients and attempt to clarify its role in AfA patients. Also, the public sequencing data of the miR-24 promoter confirmed that it was highly methylated and down-regulated in PCa patients. Utilizing a VAMCSF and NDRI patient cohorts, we discovered that miR-24 expression was linked to a racial difference between AfA/CaA PCa patients. Interestingly, miR-24 was restored after treatment of PCa cells with 5Aza-CdR in an AfA cell line (MDA-PCa-2b), while restoration of miR-24 was not observed in CaA cells, DU-145. Ectopic expression of miR-24 showed decreased growth and induced apoptosis, though the effect was less in the CaA cell line compared to the AfA cell line. Finally, we found unique changes in biological pathways and processes associated with miR-24 transfected AfA cells by quantitative PCR-based gene expression array. Evaluation of the altered pathways showed that AR, IGF1, IGFBP5 and ETV1 were markedly decreased in the AfA derived cell line compared with CaA cells, and there was a reciprocal regulatory relationship of miR-24/target expression in prostate cancer patients. These results demonstrate that miR-24 may be a central regulator of key events that contribute to race-related tumorigenesis and has potential to be a therapeutic agent for PCa treatment.

  7. USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook. Volume 166. AF/M32T-1 Tester, Pressurized Cabin Leakage, Aircraft,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    OPERATOR NOISE MEASUREMENTS AF/M32T-1 Tester, Pressurized Cabin Leakage, Aircraft Tyndall AFB, 19 June 1980 NSN 4920-00- 347 -9455, Field * J108...a- a a o a af .4a a0 1 P ,? o4 o1 01 ao aD Nh s 1AA a ~ ~ a naaa .4 a aif CL O va I am wEj r .M PO -ODM.a)a D aa CDo NW)N 4 % ma a a. . 9 w ao N~ a I

  8. Aspiration as a late complication after accelerated versus conventional radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Ulrika; Nilsson, Per; Gärskog, Ola; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Laurell, Göran; Wahlberg, Peter; Zackrisson, Björn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Neck dissection after radiotherapy increased the risk of aspiration as a late effect in a sub-sample of patients treated for head and neck cancer in the ARTSCAN study. Patients treated with accelerated fractionation (AF) developed aspiration, with or without coughing, more frequently than patients treated with conventional fractionation (CF). Objectives A long-term follow-up study was conducted to determine the frequency of aspiration as a late effect in patients with head and neck cancer treated with AF or CF. Method One-hundred and eight patients were recruited from two centres of the Swedish multi-centre study, ARTSCAN, where AF and CF were compared. Patients with positive lymph nodes were treated with neck dissection after completing radiotherapy. The follow-up was performed at a median of 65 months after initiation of radiotherapy and included an ENT and a videofluoroscopic examination. Results Aspiration was found in 51/108 (47%) and silent aspiration in 34/96 (35%) patients. Neck dissection (n = 47 patients) was significantly associated with both aspiration and silent aspiration. Aspiration was more common among patients treated with AF (34/61; 56%) compared to CF (17/47; 36%; p = 0.053). Silent aspiration was also more common after AF (24/54; 44%) than after CF (10/42; 24%; p = 0.052).

  9. Validation of the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF Risk Scores for Atrial Fibrillation in Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Eric; Kargoli, Faraj; Aagaard, Philip; Hoch, Ethan; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Krumerman, Andrew; Ferrick, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    A risk score for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE)-AF consortium. However, validation of these risk scores in an inner-city population is uncertain. Thus, a validation model was built using the Framingham Risk Score for AF and CHARGE-AF covariates. An in and outpatient electrocardiographic database was interrogated from 2000 to 2013 for the development of AF. Patients were included if their age was >45 and <95 years, had <10-year follow-up, if their initial electrocardiogram was without AF, had ≥ 2 electrocardiograms, and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, African-American, or Hispanic. For the Framingham Heart Study, 49,599 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,860 developed AF. Discrimination analysis using area under the curve (AUC) for original risk equations: non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.712 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.694 to 0.731), African-American AUC = 0.733 (95% CI 0.716 to 0.751), and Hispanic AUC = 0.740 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.757). For the CHARGE-AF, 45,571 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,512 developed AF. Non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.694), African-American AUC = 0.706 (95% CI 0.685 to 0.727), and Hispanic AUC = 0.711 (95% CI 0.691 to 0.732). Calibration analysis showed qualitative similarities between cohorts. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate both the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF risk scores in both a Hispanic and African-American cohort. All models predicted AF well across all race and ethnic cohorts.

  10. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  11. Fluorous Polymeric Membranes for Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Potentiometry: How Inert is Teflon AF?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Ze; Koseoglu, Secil S.; Lugert, Elizabeth C.; Boswell, Paul G.; Rábai, József; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fluorous media are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. Their use as membrane materials considerably increases the selectivity and robustness of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). In this research, a fluorous amorphous perfluoropolymer was used for the first time as a matrix for an ISE membrane. Electrodes for pH measurements with membranes composed of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole]-co-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (87% dioxole monomer content; known as Teflon AF2400) as polymer matrix, a linear perfluorooligoether as plasticizer, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate providing for ionic sites, and bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine as H+-ionophore were investigated. All electrodes had excellent potentiometric selectivities, showed Nernstian responses to H+ over a wide pH range, exhibited enhanced mechanical stability and maintained their selectivity over at least four weeks. For membranes of low ionophore concentration, the polymer affected the sensor selectivity noticeably at polymer concentrations exceeding 15%. Also, the membrane resistance increased quite strongly at high polymer concentrations, which cannot be explained by the Mackie–Meares obstruction model. The selectivities and resistances depend on the polymer concentration because of a functional group associated with Teflon AF2400, with a concentration of one functional group per 854 monomer units of the polymer. In the fluorous environment of these membranes, this functional group binds to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and the unprotonated ionophore with binding constants of 103.5, 101.8, 106.8 and 104.4 M−1, respectively. Potentiometric and spectroscopic evidence indicates that these functional groups are COOH groups formed by the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid fluoride (COF) groups originally present in Teflon AF2400. The use of higher ionophore concentrations removes the undesirable effect of these COOH groups almost completely

  12. 75 FR 9596 - Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food... residues of the antifungal ] agent, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed commodities....

  13. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  14. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  15. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Pedro R; Gil, Raúl A; Moyano, Susana; De Vito, Irma; Martinez, Luis D

    2009-01-30

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 microg L(-1) Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 microg L(-1)Hg.

  16. Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Bing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Xu, Hui-Min; He, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 μM, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 μM. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 μM.

  17. Adak NAS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-24

    operated by the U. S. Ser- vices aoi some foreig;n stations .silim, similar reporting prscticei. UiJesu otlherwise noted the Co ~luwilof suianries are...34 TRNSITERVEoRE .iF Oct 3.94 Longviev hAl Weather Sot available NA N/ N/A statin (Jo~Unit hAP & Navy) 2. 2 2/31/13 Ad~k(Joint’Unit) AF & Not available N/A I/A N/A...641214.15 2.18 cO 4 18.1 7.2 17. 9 .1.4421 FES 5 . 18.1 5.4 17.2 1 .5 19.1 17.4 L. 4 2.1 .1 76.Z IIG2 4 .7 _9.57) 1.97 MAN 5 5.5 19.5 13.3 1I.3 12. 9

  18. RAF Lakenheath, United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    3: 1 ... . 2 . . jb -3VI SO I 7.27b 6 . ( 5.764 5.103 4.571 4.47 1 4.367 .47 5.244 b.712 7.717 7.3< 7 5.4.7 1333 osJ 915 a37 91 ’ɘ 911 645 0. 92’ 1...LA II WE17,rY uSAFLTAC fqL" LUlLy CFS[kVATO.V AIR .LA IHfP SERVICC/MAC STATIO, NUMPER: 75 3- STAIIOf, NAME : R AF LAKtNI-ATH L91[EU KINGf0CM L CIEC

  19. Hill AFB, Utah Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    GLCqAL CLIMATOLOGY QRANCN b AX EAT,.C PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIP WE THER+ SEPICE /CPNIAC ?9 𔃿’ HILL AF- uT 14-81 ST" e~- STA?1010 1M1 VIA STN PAGE2 yeP...1 *, * 1-,* . 1 1 . I ! I i !9 -./ ., 1. 4 ,; ? , j : .. 7, dc L_ 1 I_ ’ I a AA I 6 if / "i - IT 𔃾 _ _"_ __. i ./ 2 . , 2 ., 921 ,- ’ 7 3 7.3...SEP. OCT NOV. DC ANNUAL MEAN ’’’ 7 *L 𔃾.3 23. .8 7.7 𔃽.3 4C.8 34.8 79.3 23.4 14.9 9.s SO 5D *143 7 4 7.128 7 . 94 6 .8g4 7.2;5 7 9 ;3 9.2 42 8 .632

  20. Palhicerines A-F, Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Palhinhaea cernua.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Xiong, Juan; Zou, Yike; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    Four fawcettimine-type (palhicerines A-D, resp.) and two lycopodine-type (palhicerines E and F) Lycopodium alkaloids together with twenty known ones were isolated from the whole plant of Palhinhaea cernua. The structures and absolute configurations of the palhicerines A-F were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, chemical transformation, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations or induced electronic circular dichroism (IECD) spectra. Among the isolates, the new C/D-ring of the palhicerines A-C (trans-fused fawcettimine-type alkaloids) are rare, and each possesses a β-oriented C-16 methyl group and a distinctive tertiary methoxy group at C-13. Chemotaxonomy for differentiating species in the genus Palhinhaea is briefly discussed.

  1. Holloman AFB, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-12

    Information is provided: a. The min body of the sumary comslste of a bivariate percentage frequency distribution of wet-bulb depression in 17 classes...SERVICE/MAC C. 747320 HOLLOMAN AFS NM 68-70.7S-81 MAR STATION STATION WA&C VYZWS WONT" C PAGE 1 0 -MO. Temp. WET OUL11 TEMPEIATUIDE DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL...Tep. WET SUL& TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION (P) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-1 9.10 11-1213-14 15-16 17.18 19. 21.n23-24 25-262.029.20 -31 .L’W. S Ib Wt

  2. Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars. IX. The HARPS southern sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgniet, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Meunier, N.; Galland, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Massive, main-sequence (MS) AF-type stars have so far remained unexplored in past radial velocities (RV) surveys due to their small number of spectral lines and high rotational velocities that prevent the classic RV computation method. Aims: Our aim is to search for giant planets (GPs) around AF MS stars, to get primary statistical information on their occurrence rate and to compare the results with evolved stars and lower-mass MS stars. Methods: We used the HARPS spectrograph located on the 3.6 m telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory to observe 108 AF MS stars with B-V in the range -0.04 to 0.58 and masses in the range 1.1 to 3.6 M⊙. We used our SAFIR software developed to compute the RV and other spectroscopic observables of these early-type stars. We characterized the detected companions as well as the intrinsic stellar variability. We computed the detection limits and used them as well as the detected companions to derive the first estimates of the close-in brown dwarf (BD) and GP frequencies around AF stars. Results: We report the detection of a mpsini = 4.51MJup planetary companion with an 826-day period to the F6V dwarf HD 111998. We also present new data on the two-planet system around the F6IV-V dwarf HD 60532. We also report the detections of 14 binaries with long-term RV trends and/or high-amplitude RV variations combined to a flat RV-bisector span diagram. We constrain the minimal masses and semi-major axes of these companions and check that these constraints are compatible with the stellar companions previously detected by direct imaging or astrometry for six of these targets. We get detection limits deep into the planetary domain with 70% of our targets showing detection limits between 0.1 and 10 MJup at all orbital periods in the 1- to 103-day range. We derive BD (13 ≤mpsini ≤ 80 MJup) occurrence rates in the 1- to 103-day period range of 2-2+5% and 2.6-2.6+6.7% for stars with M⋆ in the ranges 1.1 to 1.5 and 1.5 to 3 M

  3. Pope AFB, North Carolina Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    OL.A IRE.IOA$ E0.T10S 01.S T 04. RtU ASP OOtE)U 6 *L’-AL .LI"!ATCL)GY i %A %Cm 2_T SURFACE WINDS .AT-Fd 1.RV1CL’?1AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 72V~ -JP AF-!_~ _________ 7-L_________ tot ST A-T 0 k.I IsA .;T. A .L .LAT" E-’ •_ _-_ SPEED MEAN KNTS 1...0 , T ._ . _ * ,... . K . --- .. j , ,.. ’ . .. , m E¢ 800 1 ,00 2! 6100 9 . t 1200- ___? .. ..00 . . . : 100 2! goo EXAMPLE # 1 lHead ceiling

  4. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J.; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J.; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes. PMID:26566657

  5. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes.

  6. Taipei IAP, Taiwan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-07

    t5LLA TwP r <,AT okES DFC F fk’ *J.Y SFRkv A C.. 4 66 T ’ " lrA.IPtl JAP TYA1xA 54-7, ’ AN FEB AR APR ~ A’ Wl -. A’ Af N NNC.A 5EA. 51-o1 5,4 58,9 64 77...C AC7-RESS Z2 REPORT ZA-E US~ t ~ ~ 7 Sep, 73 Air Weather Service (MAC) N~BR2 A Scott AFB IL 62225 4 M041TORINS A CN’.Y N AME 3 AUCAE3S,f :ie- floll t ...over) ’ T & report is sx-pat t sti~ calsmmr of surface weather observations for h,,jei IAP, Taiwan It contains the following parts: (A) Weather

  7. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  8. AF printability check with a full-chip 3D resist profile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-En R.; Chang, Jason; Song, Hua; Shiely, James

    2013-09-01

    A single compact resist model capable of predicting 3D resist profile is strongly demanded for the advanced technology nodes to avoid the potential hotspots due to imperfect resist pattern shape and its lack of resistance in the subsequent etch process. In this work, we propose a resist 3D (R3D) compact model that takes acidz-diffusion effect into account. The chemical reaction between acid and base along z-direction is treated as second order effect that is absorbed into the anisotropic diffusion length as a fitting parameter. Meanwhile, the resist model in the x-y wafer plane is still kept in general by applying the compact solution of 2D reaction-diffusion equation. In order to have the 2D contour predictability at arbitrary resist height, calibration from entire 3D data (CDs at several heights) areconducted simultaneously witha single cost function so that the R3D compact model is described by a common set of resist free parameters and threshold for all resist heights. With the low energy approximation, the acid z-diffusion effect is equivalent to a z-diffused TCC that takes the form of linear combination of pure optical TCCs sampled at discrete image-depth which can be pre-calculated. With this benefit, the R3D compact model offers a more physical approach but adds no runtime concern on the OPC and verification applications. The predicted resist cross-section profiles from our test patterns are compared those computed with rigorous lithography simulator SLITHO and show very good matching results between them. The demonstration of the AF printability check from the predicted cross-section profile at AF indicates the success of our R3D compact model.

  9. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    PubMed Central

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  10. Reworking Practice through an AfL Project: An Analysis of Teachers' Collaborative Engagement with New Assessment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermansen, Hege; Nerland, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Assessment for Learning (AfL) has travelled across countries, giving rise to a range of educational policy initiatives and school development projects. While researchers have focused on issues such as how formative assessment can support student learning and lead to more efficient classroom practices, less attention…

  11. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-10-04

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations.

  12. Distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain as determined in binding studies with AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo, E.; Hammer, R.; Ladinsky, H.

    1987-03-02

    In vitro competition binding experiments with the selective muscarinic antagonists AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine (PZ) vs /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine as radioligand revealed a characteristic distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in different regions of rat brain. Based on nonlinear least squares analysis, the binding data were compatible with the presence of three different subtypes: the M/sub 1/ receptor (high affinity for PZ), the cardiac M/sub 2/ receptor (high affinity for AF-DX 116) and the glandular M/sub 2/ receptor (low affinity for PZ and AF-DX 116). The highest proportion of M/sub 1/ receptors was found in the hippocampus, while the cerebellum and the hypothalamus were the regions with the largest fraction of the cardiac M/sub 2/ and glandular M/sub 2/ receptors, respectively. In certain brain areas, depending on the relative proportions of the subtypes, flat binding curves were seen for AF-DX 116 and PZ. Based on these data, an approximate distribution pattern of the subtypes in the various brain regions is presented. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Rhein-Main Apt, Germany/Franfurt. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    DATA PROCESSING BRANCH usAF E’ C CEILING, VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 0 RHEINMAIN APT GERMANY/FRAtKFURT...SERVICE/MAC RHEINMAIN APT GENMANY/FRANKFURT 67-7o OEZ U. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0000-.)200 , (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) o , - VISIBILITY

  14. Determining Aqueous Fullerene Particle Size Distributions by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) without Surfactants

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the behavior of nanoparticles in environmental systems, methods must be developed to measure nanoparticle size. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) is an aqueous compatible size separation technique which is able to separate particles from 1 nm to 10 µm in...

  15. The Implementation of Collaborative Learning Using AfL through Giving Feedback Strategy for Improving Students’ Attention to Mathematics Lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.; Pramesti, G.

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to describe the process of implementation collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy for improving students’ attention to mathematics lesson. Data which is collected in this research are students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement. The result of this research showed that the learning steps by using collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy which can improve students’ attention are: 1) pre activity: the teacher delivers the purpose of the learning, successful criteria, apperception, and motivation. 2) main activity: the teacher gives the background of learning activity, explains learning materials at a glance, divides students discuss, the teacher observes and guides students to the problem solving, present their discussion result, gives feedback, the students do AfL problem and the answer is collected and result will be given before next meeting. 3) post activity: the teacher with students concludes the material. Test result, the percentage of students who complete the examination in the second cycle is 77.27%. Based on those results can be concluded that the implementation of collaborative learning using AfL through giving feedback can improve students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement of XI IPA Students MA Al-Islam Jamsaren Surakarta academic year 2013/2014.

  16. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations. PMID:27698462

  17. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  18. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Girgis, I G; Patel, M R; Peters, G R; Moore, K T; Mahaffey, K W; Nessel, C C; Halperin, J L; Califf, R M; Fox, K A A; Becker, R C

    2014-08-01

    Two once-daily rivaroxaban dosing regimens were compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in ROCKET AF: 20 mg for patients with normal/mildly impaired renal function and 15 mg for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling data from ROCKET AF patients (n = 161) are reported and are used to confirm established rivaroxaban PK and PK/PD models and to re-estimate values of the models' parameters for the current AF population. An oral one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described rivaroxaban PK. Age, renal function, and lean body mass influenced the PK model. Prothrombin time and prothrombinase-induced clotting time exhibited a near-linear relationship with rivaroxaban plasma concentration; inhibitory effects were observed through to 24 hours post-dose. Rivaroxaban plasma concentration and factor Xa activity had an inhibitory maximum-effect (Emax ) relationship. Renal function (on prothrombin time; prothrombinase-induced clotting time) and age (on factor Xa activity) had moderate effects on PK/PD models. PK and PK/PD models were shown to be adequate for describing the current dataset. These findings confirm the modeling and empirical results that led to the selection of doses tested against warfarin in ROCKET AF.

  19. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  20. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  1. TUSC2(FUS1)-erlotinib Induced Vulnerabilities in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor(EGFR) Wildtype Non-small Cell Lung Cancer(NSCLC) Targeted by the Repurposed Drug Auranofin

    PubMed Central

    Xiaobo, Cao; Majidi, Mourad; Feng, Meng; Shao, Ruping; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Song, Juhee; Fang, Bingliang; Ji, Lin; Mehran, Reza; Roth, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the TUSC2/FUS1 tumor suppressor gene in TUSC2 deficient EGFR wildtype lung cancer cells increased sensitivity to erlotinib. Microarray mRNA expression analysis of TUSC2 inducible lung cancer cells treated with erlotinib uncovered defects in the response to oxidative stress suggesting that increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) would enhance therapeutic efficacy. Addition of the thioredoxin reductase 1 inhibitor (TXNRD1) auranofin (AF) to NSCLC cells treated with combination of TUSC2 forced expression with erlotinib increased tumor cell apoptosis and inhibited colony formation. TXNRD1 overexpression rescued tumors from AF-TUSC2-erlotinib induced apoptosis. Neutralizing ROS with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) abrogated cell death induced by AF-TUSC2-erlotinib, indicating a regulatory role for ROS in the efficacy of the three drug combination. Isobologram-based statistical analysis of this combination demonstrated superior synergism, compared with each individual treatment at lower concentrations. In NSCLC tumor xenografts, tumor growth was markedly inhibited and animal survival was prolonged over controls by AF-TUSC2-erlotinib. Microarray mRNA expression analysis uncovered oxidative stress and DNA damage gene signatures significantly upregulated by AF-TUSC2-erlotinib compared to TUSC2-erlotinib. Pathway analysis showed the highest positive z-score for the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response. Taken together these findings show that the combination of TUSC2-erlotinib induces additional novel vulnerabilities that can be targeted with AF. PMID:27845352

  2. Complementary DNA cloning, sequence analysis, and tissue transcription profile of a novel U2AF2 gene from the Chinese Banna mini-pig inbred line.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Huo, J L; Miao, Y W; Cheng, W M; Zeng, Y Z

    2013-04-02

    U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 2 (U2AF2) is an important gene for pre-messenger RNA splicing in higher eukaryotes. In this study, the Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) U2AF2 coding sequence (CDS) was cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The U2AF2 complete CDS was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique based on the conserved sequence information of cattle and known highly homologous swine expressed sequence tags. This novel gene was deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information database (Accession No. JQ839267). Sequence analysis revealed that the BMI U2AF2 coding sequence consisted of 1416 bp and encoded 471 amino acids with a molecular weight of 53.12 kDa. The protein sequence has high sequence homology with U2AF65 of 6 species - Homo sapiens (100%), Equus caballus (100%), Canis lupus (100%), Macaca mulatta (99.8%), Bos taurus (74.4%), and Mus musculus (74.4%). The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that BMI U2AF65 has a closer genetic relationship with B. taurus U2AF65 than with U2AF65 of E. caballus, C. lupus, M. mulatta, H. sapiens, and M. musculus. RT-PCR analysis showed that BMI U2AF2 was most highly expressed in the brain; moderately expressed in the spleen, lung, muscle, and skin; and weakly expressed in the liver, kidney, and ovary. Its expression was nearly silent in the spinal cord, nerve fiber, heart, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. Three microRNA target sites were predicted in the CDS of BMI U2AF2 messenger RNA. Our results establish a foundation for further insight into this swine gene.

  3. Stages of Parathyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  4. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  5. The Elongation Complex Components BRD4 and MLLT3/AF9 Are Transcriptional Coactivators of Nuclear Retinoid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Flajollet, Sébastien; Rachez, Christophe; Ploton, Maheul; Schulz, Céline; Gallais, Rozenn; Métivier, Raphaël; Pawlak, Michal; Leray, Aymeric; Issulahi, Al Amine; Héliot, Laurent; Staels, Bart; Salbert, Gilles; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear all-trans retinoic acid receptors (RARs) initiate early transcriptional events which engage pluripotent cells to differentiate into specific lineages. RAR-controlled transactivation depends mostly on agonist-induced structural transitions in RAR C-terminus (AF-2), thus bridging coactivators or corepressors to chromatin, hence controlling preinitiation complex assembly. However, the contribution of other domains of RAR to its overall transcriptional activity remains poorly defined. A proteomic characterization of nuclear proteins interacting with RAR regions distinct from the AF-2 revealed unsuspected functional properties of the RAR N-terminus. Indeed, mass spectrometry fingerprinting identified the Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 (AF9/MLLT3), known to associate with and regulates the activity of Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb), as novel RAR coactivators. In addition to promoter sequences, RAR binds to genomic, transcribed regions of retinoid-regulated genes, in association with RNA polymerase II and as a function of P-TEFb activity. Knockdown of either AF9 or BRD4 expression affected differentially the neural differentiation of stem cell-like P19 cells. Clusters of retinoid-regulated genes were selectively dependent on BRD4 and/or AF9 expression, which correlated with RAR association to transcribed regions. Thus RAR establishes physical and functional links with components of the elongation complex, enabling the rapid retinoid-induced induction of genes required for neuronal differentiation. Our data thereby extends the previously known RAR interactome from classical transcriptional modulators to components of the elongation machinery, and unravel a functional role of RAR in transcriptional elongation. PMID:23762261

  6. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  7. Common data model for natural language processing based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.

    PubMed

    Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D

    2012-08-01

    An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a common data model and a common terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a common standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This common data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications.

  8. Role of LncRNA-AF085935, IL-10 and IL-17 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Dina; Elamir, Azza; Mahmoud, Rania Hosny; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ali; Fathy, Wael

    2017-01-01

    Background The current study aimed at testing the effect of corticosteroid therapy on serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-17 as well as lncRNA-AF085935 in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and evaluating the usefulness of using these parameters to predict the therapeutic efficacy of steroids in these patients. Methods Thirty healthy control subjects and 65 chronic HCV patients with RA were included in our study. Patients were subjected to clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy and received 6-methyl-prednisolone (PDN) 16 mg/day for 48 weeks. Blood samples were collected from all subjects and serum was separated to assess IL-10 and IL-17 by ELISA and HCV RNA and lncRNA-AF085935 by qRT-PCR. Results Our study revealed that there were significant increases in serum levels of IL-10, IL-17 and lncRNA-AF085935 in RA patients associated with HCV compared with healthy control subjects. Also there were significant increases in serum levels of IL-10 and HCV RNA and a significant decrease in serum level of IL-17 in patients after corticosteroid therapy, while lncRNA-AF085935 is not significantly changed. Conclusion LncRNA-AF085935 might be a useful candidate biomarker for the early detection of RA associated with HCV, providing potential new strategies for early screening and therapy of these patients. IL-17 is a non-invasive prognostic marker to predict the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in RA patients associated with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:28392862

  9. Src-JNK Potentiation of Estrogen Receptor AF-1; Mechanism, and Role in Estrogen Action in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Kawashima, H., Metzger, D3., and Chamnbon, P. (1995) Science 270, 1491-1494 REFERENCES 24. Ignar -Trowhridge, D3. M., Pimentel, Md., Teng, C. T., Korach, K. S...Apriletti, J. W., Fletterick 2174-2183 R. J., Baxter, J. D3., Kushner, P. J1., and West, B. L. (1998) Science 280;. 26. Ignar , T. D., Pimentel, M., Parker...a J Pathol 180:383-388 histone acetyltransferase. Nature 389:194-198 50. Muthuswamy SK, Muller WJ 1994 Activation of the Src 33. Ignar -Trowbridge DM

  10. Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  11. Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  12. Stomach cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - stomach; Gastric cancer; Gastric carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of the stomach ... Several types of cancer can occur in the stomach. The most common type is called adenocarcinoma. It starts from one of the cell ...

  13. Cancer Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  14. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  15. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  16. Cancer Today

    MedlinePlus

    ... Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions early when ... active or are older than 21. Prostate Cancer Screening (Men): Get advice from your doctor if you ...

  17. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cancer in women in the United States and it is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. Fallopian Tubes Ovaries Uterus Cervix Vagina Vulva www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ knowledge 800-CDC-INFO Inside Knowledge is an initiative ...

  18. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  19. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... work with the chemical trichloroethylene. What Are the Kidneys? The body has two kidneys, one on each ...

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  3. Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and how advanced the cancer is. It might include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or biologic therapy. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  4. Esophageal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - esophagus ... Esophageal cancer is not common in the United States. It occurs most often in men over 50 years old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types ...

  5. Annual fasting; the early calories restriction for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Solat; Barzgari, Zahra; Saliani, Negar; Saeedi, Nazli; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Essentially, people's diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF) before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  6. Auranofin induces apoptosis by ROS-mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and displayed synergistic lethality with piperlongumine in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Peng; Chen, Minxiao; Ji, Jiansong; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Xi; Ying, Shilong; Zhang, Junru; Zhang, Ziheng; Liu, Zhiguo; Yang, Shulin; Liang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world. In addressing the need of treatments for relapsed disease, we report the identification of an existing U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved small-molecule drug to repurpose for GC treatment. Auranofin (AF), clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, but it exhibited preclinical efficacy in GC cells. By increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, AF induces a lethal endoplasmic reticulum stress response and mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured GC cells. Blockage of ROS production reversed AF-induced ER stress and mitochondrial pathways activation as well as apoptosis. In addition, AF displays synergistic lethality with an ROS-generating agent piperlongumine, which is a natural product isolated from the long pepper Piper longum L. Taken together, this work provides a novel anticancer candidate for the treatment of gastric cancer. More importantly, it reveals that increased ROS generation might be an effective strategy in treating human gastric cancer. PMID:26431378

  7. Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Both the endogenous antisecretory factor (AF) protein and peptide AF-16, which has a sequence that matches that of the active N-terminal region of AF, inhibit the increase in the epithelial transport of fluid and electrolytes induced by bacterial toxins in animal and ex vivo models. We conducted a study to investigate the inhibitory effect of peptide AF-16 against the increase of transcellular passage and paracellular permeability promoted by the secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) in a cultured cellular model of the human intestinal epithelial barrier. Peptide AF-16 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the Sat-induced increase in the formation of fluid domes, in the mucosal-to-serosal passage of d-[1-14C]mannitol, and in the rearrangements in the distribution and protein expression of the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins ZO-1 and occludin in cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. In addition, we show that peptide AF-16 also inhibits the cholera toxin-induced increase of transcellular passage and the Clostridium difficile toxin-induced effects on paracellular permeability and TJ protein organization in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers by the lipid raft disorganizer methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished the inhibitory activity of peptide AF-16 at the transcellular passage level and did not modify the effect of the peptide at the paracellular level. PMID:25534938

  8. U2AF65 adapts to diverse pre-mRNA splice sites through conformational selection of specific and promiscuous RNA recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Agrawal, Anant A.; Gupta, Ankit; Green, Michael R.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate splice site sequences mark the intron boundaries of pre-mRNA transcripts in multicellular eukaryotes. The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65 is faced with the paradoxical tasks of accurately targeting polypyrimidine (Py) tracts preceding 3′ splice sites while adapting to both cytidine and uridine nucleotides with nearly equivalent frequencies. To understand how U2AF65 recognizes degenerate Py tracts, we determined six crystal structures of human U2AF65 bound to cytidine-containing Py tracts. As deoxy-ribose backbones were required for co-crystallization with these Py tracts, we also determined two baseline structures of U2AF65 bound to the deoxy-uridine counterparts and compared the original, RNA-bound structure. Local structural changes suggest that the N-terminal RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) is more promiscuous for cytosine-containing Py tracts than the C-terminal RRM2. These structural differences between the RRMs were reinforced by the specificities of wild-type and site-directed mutant U2AF65 for region-dependent cytosine- and uracil-containing RNA sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses further demonstrated that Py tract variations select distinct inter-RRM spacings from a pre-existing ensemble of U2AF65 conformations. Our results highlight both local and global conformational selection as a means for universal 3′ splice site recognition by U2AF65. PMID:23376934

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  10. Attributing the burden of cancer at work: three areas of concern when examining the example of shift-work

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary intends to instigate discussions about epidemiologic estimates and their interpretation of attributable fractions (AFs) and the burden of disease (BOD) of cancers due to factors at workplaces. By examining recent work that aims to estimate the number of cancers attributable to shift-work in Britain, we suggest that (i) causal, (ii) practical and (iii) methodological areas of concern may deter us from attributable caseload estimations of cancers at this point in time. Regarding (i), such calculations may have to be avoided as long as we lack established causality between shift-work and the development of internal cancers. Regarding (ii), such calculations may have to be avoided as long as we can neither abandon shift-work nor identify personnel that may be unaffected by shift-work factors. Regarding (iii), there are at least four methodological pitfalls which are likely to make AF calculations uninterpretable at this stage. The four pitfalls are: (1) The use of Levin's 1953 formula in case of adjusted relative risks; (2) The use of broad definitions of exposure in calculations of AFs; (3) The non-additivity of AFs across different levels of exposure and covariables; (4) The fact that excess mortality counts are misleading due to the fact that a human being dies exactly once - a death may occur earlier or later, but a death cannot occur more than once nor can it be avoided altogether for any given individual. Overall, causal, practical and methodological areas of concern should be diligently considered when performing and interpreting AF or BOD computations which - at least at the present time - may not be defensible. PMID:21962031

  11. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of stroke prevention through community screening for atrial fibrillation using iPhone ECG in pharmacies. The SEARCH-AF study.

    PubMed

    Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Salkeld, Glenn; Krass, Ines; McLachlan, Andrew J; Redfern, Julie; Bennett, Alexandra A; Briffa, Tom; Bauman, Adrian; Martinez, Carlos; Wallenhorst, Christopher; Lau, Jerrett K; Brieger, David B; Sy, Raymond W; Freedman, S Ben

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a third of all strokes, but often goes undetected before stroke. Identification of unknown AF in the community and subsequent anti-thrombotic treatment could reduce stroke burden. We investigated community screening for unknown AF using an iPhone electrocardiogram (iECG) in pharmacies, and determined the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Pharmacists performedpulse palpation and iECG recordings, with cardiologist iECG over-reading. General practitioner review/12-lead ECG was facilitated for suspected new AF. An automated AF algorithm was retrospectively applied to collected iECGs. Cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated costs of iECG screening, and treatment/outcome data from a United Kingdom cohort of 5,555 patients with incidentally detected asymptomatic AF. A total of 1,000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years (mean 76 ± 7 years; 44% male) were screened. Newly identified AF was found in 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8-2.5%); mean age 79 ± 6 years; all had CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2. AF prevalence was 6.7% (67/1,000). The automated iECG algorithm showed 98.5% (CI, 92-100%) sensitivity for AF detection and 91.4% (CI, 89-93%) specificity. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending iECG screening into the community, based on 55% warfarin prescription adherence, would be $AUD5,988 (€3,142; $USD4,066) per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained and $AUD30,481 (€15,993; $USD20,695) for preventing one stroke. Sensitivity analysis indicated cost-effectiveness improved with increased treatment adherence.Screening with iECG in pharmacies with an automated algorithm is both feasible and cost-effective. The high and largely preventable stroke/thromboembolism risk of those with newly identified AF highlights the likely benefits of community AF screening. Guideline recommendation of community iECG AF screening should be considered.

  12. Insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af from Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran corn pests.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Rie, Jeroen Van; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda and Agrotis ipsilon. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to the two species. Vip3Ae and Vip3Af were significantly more toxic than Vip3Aa against S. frugiperda, both as protoxins and as toxins. Against A. ipsilon, Vip3Ae protoxin was more toxic than Vip3Aa and Vip3Af protoxins. Purification by metal-chelate affinity chromatography significantly affected Vip3Ae toxicity against the two insect species.

  13. Testicular Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  14. Activation function 2 (AF-2) of retinoic acid receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor: presence of a conserved autonomous constitutive activating domain and influence of the nature of the response element on AF-2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Saunders, M; Gaudon, C; Roy, B; Losson, R; Chambon, P

    1994-01-01

    A motif essential for the transcriptional activation function 2 (AF-2) present in the E region of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) alpha has been characterized as an amphipathic alpha-helix whose main features are conserved between transcriptionally active members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This conserved motif, which can activate autonomously in the absence of ligand in animal and yeast cells, can be swapped between nuclear receptors without affecting the ligand dependency for activation of transcription, thus indicating that a ligand-dependent conformational change is necessary to reveal the AF-2 activation potential within the E region of the nuclear receptor. Interestingly, we show that the precise nature of the direct repeat response element to which RAR/RXR heterodimers are bound can affect the activity of the AF-2s of the heterodimeric partners, as well as the relative efficiency with which all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acids activate the RAR partner. Images PMID:7957103

  15. Perturbative magnetoresistance technique used to investigate FM/AF coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alexandre; da Costa, Ricardo; Melo, Abner; Chesman, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    In this study we introduced modifications to a collinear four probe magnetoresistance set-up in order to measure magnetic properties that can only be sensed by techniques based on magnetization perturbation. In addition to the applied DC magnetic field (Hdc) , in magnetoresistance experiments, a small and quasi-static alternating magnetic field (hac, less than 10 Oe and around 800 Hz) is applied perpendicularly, both parallel to the sample plane. Due to Zeeman interaction, hac drives sample magnetization to oscillate slightly around its equilibrium position. Although we apply only DC current (few mA), the detected voltage carries DC and AC components. The DC voltage component provides information on magnetoresistance (MR) and the AC component is called perturbative magnetoresistance (PMR). We successfully demonstrated that the PMR signal is proportional to the first derivative of resistance with respect to hac. Using this technique and a phenomenological model that takes into account the relevant free energy terms of FM/AF coupled bilayers, we were able to study reversible and irreversible magnetization rotation processes in these magnetic systems. With respect to magnetic anisotropy, we investigated rotatable anisotropy, proposed by McMichael et al and Geshev et al. Financial support: CNPq, FAPERN and CAPES (Brazilian agencies).

  16. Chemically peculiar A/F stars in open clusters of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2010-12-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars and open clusters that Gaia will observe in the Galaxy.

  17. Performance Analysis of Beamforming in Fixed-gain AF Relay Networks with Asymmetric Correlated Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of beamforming (BF) for a dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network, where the source and destination are each equipped with multiple antennas, is investigated. It is assumed that the source-relay and relay-destination channels experience mixed fading distributions, namely, correlated Nakagami-m/Rician and correlated Rician/Nakagami-m, respectively. By considering fixed-gain relaying, analytical expressions for outage probability (OP) and average symbol error rate (ASER) are derived in closed-form. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of our performance analysis, also illustrate the impact of channel correlation, fading severity, Rician factor and antenna configuration on the performance of the system. It is shown that the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel can achieve better performance than the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel with the increase of fading severity parameter, and the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel may outperform the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel by enlarging the Rician factor.

  18. Search for A-F Spectral type pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-L.; Lee, J. W.; Kwon, S.-G.; Youn, J.-H.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kim, C.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. A total number of 14 eclipsing binaries with A-F spectral type primary components were observed for 22 nights. We confirmed small-amplitude oscillating features of a recently detected pulsator TW Dra, which has a pulsating period of 0.053 day and a semi-amplitude of about 5 mmag in B-passband. We discovered new pulsating components in two eclipsing binaries of RX Hya and AB Per. The primary component of RX Hya is pulsating with a dominant period of 0.052 day and a semi-amplitude of about 7 mmag. AB Per has also a pulsating component with a period of 0.196 day and a semi-amplitude of about 10 mmag in B-passband. We suggest that these two new pulsators are members of the newly introduced group of mass-accreting pulsating stars in semi-detached Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/231

  19. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  20. Joint Source-Relay Design for Full-Duplex MIMO AF Relay Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qingjiang; Hong, Mingyi; Gao, Xiqi; Song, Enbin; Cai, Yunlong; Xu, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    The performance of full-duplex (FD) relay systems can be greatly impacted by the self-interference (SI) at relays. By exploiting multi-antenna in FD relay systems, the spectral efficiency of FD relay systems can be enhanced through spatial SI mitigation. This paper studies joint source transmit beamforming and relay processing to achieve rate maximization for FD MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems with consideration of relay processing delay. The problem is difficult to solve due mainly to the SI constraint induced by the relay processing delay. In this paper, we first present a sufficient condition under which the relay amplification matrix has rank one structure. Then, for the case of rank one amplification matrix, the rate maximization problem is equivalently simplified into an unconstrained problem which can be locally solved using gradient ascent method. Next, we propose a penalty-based algorithmic framework, called P-BSUM, for a class of constrained optimization problems which have difficult equality constraints in addition to some convex constraints. By rewriting the rate maximization problem with a set of auxiliary variables, we apply the P-BSUM algorithm to the rate maximization problem in the general case. Finally, numerical results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms and show that the joint source-relay design approach under the rank one assumption could be strictly suboptimal as compared to the P-BSUM-based joint source-relay design approach.

  1. Dover AFB, Delaware Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-16

    90. 92. 93.8 94.4 94 7 9497 94o8 94.9 95.0 95.0 95.0 95.1 95.* >oo 11. 75.1 86, 91.2 93.6 94* 95.3 95.6 95.6 95.7 95.8 95.9 95.9 95.9 95, 9 95.9...BRANCH uI AUFTAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY ! A. EATHCR SERVICE/MAC 1 7 7 LOVER AF3 Or 70,73-81 FEE STATION STATION NAkE Ytms MONTe PAGE I nb ~iJ-CS( ~OtAS 4L...30 31(IN.H;) B AR OMET R I C P RE S S URE ( NB ) 100 150 600 650 900 950 1000 1050 (O1) II -I’ g 5 1 I I F P R E S 5 U R E A L T I T U D E (10 0 O’S FT

  2. High temperature dielectric properties of Apical, Kapton, Peek, Teflon AF, and Upilex polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Overton, E.; Myers, I. T.; Suthar, J. L.; Khachen, W.; Laghari, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Reliable lightweight systems capable of providing electrical power at the magawatt level are a requirement for future manned space exploration missions. This can be achieved by the development of high temperature insulating materials which are not only capable of surviving the hostile space environment but can contribute to reducing the mass and weight of the heat rejection system. In this work, Apical, Upilex, Kapton, Teflon AF, and Peek polymers are characterized for AC and DC dielectric breakdown in air and in silicone oil at temperatures up to 250 C. The materials are also tested in terms of their dielectric constant and dissipation factor at high temperatures with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 200 V/mil present. The effects of thermal aging on the properties of the films are determined after 15 hours of exposure to 200 and 250 C, each. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of these dielectrics for use in capacitors and cable insulations in high temperature environments.

  3. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  4. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  5. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecological cancer to prevent with ... HPV on a woman's cervix. Certain types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer. Your doctor will swab the cervix for cells. ...

  6. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  7. Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... they demand more and more of the body's nutrition. Cancer takes a person's strength, destroys organs and bones, and weakens the body's defenses against other illnesses. Cancer is uncommon in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  8. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  9. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer What Is Prostate Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  10. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  11. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are ... Thyroid Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  13. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  14. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  15. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL–AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL–AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase I (RNAP1). The pSER domain of AF4 family proteins associates with SL1 on chromatin and loads TATA-binding protein (TBP) onto the promoter to initiate RNA polymerase II (RNAP2)-dependent transcription. These results reveal a previously unknown transcription initiation mechanism involving AEP and a role for SL1 as a TBP-loading factor in RNAP2-dependent gene activation. PMID:26593443

  16. Tinian Island Nas, Mariana Islands. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-25

    unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). a technical report has be...OBSOLETE DATA PROCESSING RRANCH ETAC/USAF SURFACE WINDS 2 AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY... Service ( MAC ) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURF6CE WEATHER OBSERVATION5 TINIAN NAS MARIANA IS WBAN #41413 N 150 0 E 145 38 ELEV 250 FT WMO# PARTS A-F

  17. An Updated Version of the U.S. Air Force Multi-Attribute Task Battery (AF-MATB)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    assessing human performance in a controlled multitask environment. The most recent release of AF-MATB contains numerous improvements and additions...Strategic Behavior, MATB, Multitasking , Task Battery, Simulator, Multi-Attribute Task Battery, Automation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...performance and multitasking strategy. As a result, a specific Information Throughput (IT) Mode was designed to customize the task to fit the Human

  18. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Clear AFS Grid Tie-in and Heat Plant, Clear Air Force Station, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Alaska Administrative Code AAAQS Alaska ambient air quality standards ACM asbestos -containing material ADEC Alaska Department of Environmental...maintenance activities. While asbestos or lead based paint may be encountered during the expansion of the existing mechanical rooms and within the...AFS July 2013 13 products. All work would be done in compliance with Federal and State regulations as well as the OSHA Asbestos Standard (29 CFR

  20. Bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, H. Y.; Griffiths, T. R.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in England and Wales. The most common presenting symptom is macroscopic haematuria. The management options for superficial and invasive bladder cancer depend on the stage at presentation. Most superficial bladder cancers are managed by transurethral resection and cytoscopic follow-up. The prognosis for patients with invasive bladder cancer is less good. The role of chemical, radiotherapeutic and surgical intervention are discussed. PMID:9015464

  1. Self-assembly of amphiphilic peptide (AF)6H5K15 derivatives: roles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues.

    PubMed

    Thota, Naresh; Jiang, Jianwen

    2014-03-13

    A molecular dynamics simulation study is reported to investigate the roles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues in the self-assembly of (AF)6H5K15 peptide derivatives. The peptide, as well as water and counterions, are represented by the MARTINI coarse-grained model. The assembly is observed to follow a three-step process: formation of small clusters, large clusters, and micelles. With increasing length of hydrophilic Lys residues in (AF)6H5Kn (n = 10, 15, 20, and 25), assembly capability is found to be reduced with the formation of smaller micelles or the presence of individual peptide chains. Upon replacing Ala by more hydrophobic Phe in AmFnH5K15 (m + n = 12), larger micelles are formed. With increasing length of hydrophobic Phe residues in FnH5K15 (n = 4, 8, 12, and 16), micelle size increases and the morphology shifts from spherical to fiber-like. The simulation study provides mechanistic insight into the crucial roles of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in the assembly of (AF)6H5K15 derivatives; it reveals that assembly capability is reduced by increasing hydrophilicity, whereas increasing hydrophobicity leads to morphology transition.

  2. A spent SRB used on STS-87 is lifted in a hoisting slip in Hangar AF at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is lifted in a hoisting slip in the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  3. The SRB recovery ship Liberty Star reenters the Hangar AF area at CCAS with a spent SRB used on STS-

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Seen carrying a spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is the solid rocket booster recovery ship Liberty Star as it reenters the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  4. Comparison of international normalized ratio audit parameters in patients enrolled in GARFIELD-AF and treated with vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, David A; Accetta, Gabriele; Haas, Sylvia; Kayani, Gloria; Lucas Luciardi, Hector; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G G; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). We evaluated the agreement between two INR audit parameters, frequency in range (FIR) and proportion of time in the therapeutic range (TTR), using data from a global population of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF, the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF). Among 17 168 patients with 1-year follow-up data available at the time of the analysis, 8445 received VKA therapy (±antiplatelet therapy) at enrolment, and of these patients, 5066 with ≥3 INR readings and for whom both FIR and TTR could be calculated were included in the analysis. In total, 70 905 INRs were analysed. At the patient level, TTR showed higher values than FIR (mean, 56·0% vs 49·8%; median, 59·7% vs 50·0%). Although patient-level FIR and TTR values were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient [95% confidence interval; CI], 0·860 [0·852-0·867]), estimates from individuals showed widespread disagreement and variability (Lin's concordance coefficient [95% CI], 0·829 [0·821-0·837]). The difference between FIR and TTR explained 17·4% of the total variability of measurements. These results suggest that FIR and TTR are not equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably.

  5. PPAR Delta as a Therapeutic Target in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (C16) is a weak activator of PPARδ. Palmitic acid tu rns out to be a we ak inducer for mammary stem cell...polyunsaturated fatty acid AA. PA, Palmitic acid . Activation of PPARδ induces the proliferation of mammary cancer stem cells. Mammary tumors were isolated...ligand-induced activation function AF2 of PPARδ. Saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (C16), a weak activator of PPARδ, was found to be a weak inducer

  6. Estrogen Receptor/MAPK Crosstalk as a Mechanism of Radiation Resistance of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    cancer patients receive radiation as part of their overall management. Randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of radiation therapy in the...itially f ail at their prim ary tum or sites following therapy . A variety of strategies have been and are continuing to be actively explored to...improve local control. Tumors locally f ail af ter ra diation therapy due to biological fact ors associated with the particu lar tumor. Advances in

  7. Estrogen-Induced Depurination of DNA: A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Milchgrub, S., Minna, J.D., and Gazdar, A.F. (1999) Multiple regions of chromosome 4 demonstrating allelic losses in breast carcinomas. Cancer Res. 59...treated. Mammary tissue, uterus, ovaries and liver were isolated and frozen. Groups of 6-8 rats were treated for 20 weeks. Polymerase-β- deficient ...potency was low and multiple exposures were necessary to observe statistically significant increases in the mutant fraction (MF). We have recently

  8. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  9. SERMs have substance-specific effects on bone, and these effects are mediated via ERαAF-1 in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Engdahl, Cecilia; Antal, Maria Cristina; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Carlsten, Hans; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Sjögren, Klara; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Windahl, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    The bone-sparing effect of estrogens is mediated primarily via estrogen receptor (ER)α, which stimulates gene transcription through activation function (AF)-1 and AF-2. The role of ERαAF-1 for the estradiol (E2) effects is tissue specific. The selective ER modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (Ral), lasofoxifene (Las), and bazedoxifene (Bza) can be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. They all reduce the risk for vertebral fractures, whereas Las and partly Bza, but not Ral, reduce the risk for nonvertebral fractures. Here, we have compared the tissue specificity of Ral, Las, and Bza and evaluated the role of ERαAF-1 for the effects of these SERMs, with an emphasis on bone parameters. We treated ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) mice and OVX mice lacking ERαAF-1 (ERαAF-10) with E2, Ral, Las, or Bza. All three SERMs increased trabecular bone mass in the axial skeleton. In the appendicular skeleton, only Las increased the trabecular bone volume/tissue volume and trabecular number, whereas both Ral and Las increased the cortical bone thickness and strength. However, Ral also increased cortical porosity. The three SERMs had only a minor effect on uterine weight. Notably, all evaluated effects of these SERMs were absent in ovx ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, all SERMs had similar effects on axial bone mass. However, the SERMs had slightly different effects on the appendicular skeleton since only Las increased the trabecular bone mass and only Ral increased the cortical porosity. Importantly, all SERM effects require a functional ERαAF-1 in female mice. These results could lead to development of more specific treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:27048997

  10. Predictors for Stroke and Death in Non-Anticoagulated Asian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: The Fushimi AF Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hamatani, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Yugo; Esato, Masahiro; Chun, Yeong-Hwa; Tsuji, Hikari; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Abe, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke and death. Data on the predictors for stroke and death in ‘real-world’ AF patients are limited, especially from large prospective Asian cohorts. Methods The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey designed to enroll all AF patients who visited the participating medical institutions in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Follow-up data were available for 3,304 patients (median follow-up period 741 days). We explored the predictors for ‘death, stroke, and systemic embolism (SE)’ during follow-up in 1,541 patients not receiving oral anticoagulants (OAC) at baseline. Results The mean age was 73.1 ± 12.5 years, and 673 (44%) patients were female. The mean CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 1.76 and 3.08, respectively. Cumulative events were as follows: stroke/SE in 61 (4%) and death in 230 (15%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, advanced age (hazard ratio (HR): 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–2.29), underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) (HR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.25–2.32), previous stroke/SE/transient ischemic attack (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25–2.30), heart failure (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.15), chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16–2.02), and anemia (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.78–3.28) were independent predictors for death/stroke/SE. Cumulative numbers of these 6 risk predictors could stratify the incidence of death/stroke/SE in patients without OAC, as well as those with OAC in our registry. Conclusions Advanced age, underweight, previous stroke/SE/transient ischemic attack, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and anemia were independently associated with the risk of death/stroke/SE in non-anticoagulated Japanese AF patients. PMID:26540107

  11. Thyroid Disruption in Zebrafish Larvae by Short-Term Exposure to Bisphenol AF

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tianle; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yawen; Tang, Wenhao; Wang, Fuqiang; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is extensively used as a raw material in industry, resulting in its widespread distribution in the aqueous environment. However, the effect of BPAF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis remains unknown. For elucidating the disruptive effects of BPAF on thyroid function and expression of the representative genes along the HPT axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, whole-body total 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (TT3), total 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine (TT4), free 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (FT3) and free 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels were examined following 168 h post-fertilization exposure to different BPAF concentrations (0, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L). The results showed that whole-body TT3, TT4, FT3 and FT4 contents decreased significantly with the BPAF treatment, indicating an endocrine disruption of thyroid. The expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone-β and thyroglobulin genes increased after exposing to 50 μg/L BPAF in seven-day-old larvae. The expressions of thyronine deiodinases type 1, type 2 and transthyretin mRNAs were also significantly up-regulated, which were possibly associated with a deterioration of thyroid function. However, slc5a5 gene transcription was significantly down-regulated at 50 μg/L and 500 μg/L BPAF exposure. Furthermore, trα and trβ genes were down-regulated transcriptionally after BPAF exposure. It demonstrates that BPAF exposure triggered thyroid endocrine toxicity by altering the whole-body contents of thyroid hormones and changing the transcription of the genes involved in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. PMID:26501309

  12. Letter to the Editor: H-1, C-13 and N-15 Assignments for the Archaeglobus fulgidis Protein AF2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Robert; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Ma, LiChung; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano

    2004-09-01

    The Human genome project promises to provide an unprecedented wealth of information on cell biology, development, evolution and physiology. Translating this immense increase in genomic information into advances in medicine and human health requires a concerted effort to explore and investigate the structure and molecular activity for the vast amount of proteins in the Human proteome that lack any such explicit experimental information. Structural genomics is providing a means to determine the molecular and cellular function of these proteins by characterizing the complete range of protein folds (Montelione, 2001). By annotating sequence information with a protein structure, it is sometimes possible to decipher the biochemical activity of hypothetical proteins from structural similarity and the conservation of spatial arrangement of active site residues. Homology can often be inferred by structural similarity even in the absence of recognizable sequence similarity, and can sometimes be used to identify functional relationships between distantly related proteins. Determining an experimental structure for each protein in a proteome is currently impractical because of the significant time commitment and resources required by X-ray and NMR. Therefore, the current paradigm of structural genomics is to determine a representative structure for each cluster of homologous protein domain sequences that lack similarity to a protein domain with a known structure. In this manner, comparative modeling using a single experimental structure can provide approximate but useful 3D structural information for an entire protein domain family. The Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG; www.nesg.org) is a pilot project funded by the National Institutes of Health Protein Structure Initiative, focusing on proteins from eukaryotic model organisms including humans. The thermophillic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis AF2095 protein is an example of a protein of unknown biological function

  13. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  14. Understanding the effect of locked nucleic acid and 2'-O-methyl modification on the hybridization thermodynamics of a miRNA-mRNA pair in the presence and absence of AfPiwi protein.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2014-03-18

    miRNAs are some of the key epigenetic regulators of gene expression. They act through hybridization with their target mRNA and modulate the level of respective proteins via different mechanisms. Various cancer conditions are known to be associated with up- and downregulation of the oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs, respectively. The levels of aberrantly expressed oncogenic miRNAs can be downregulated in different ways. Similarly, restoration of tumor suppressor miRNAs to their normal levels can be achieved using miRNA mimics. However, the use of miRNA mimics is limited by their reduced biostability and function. We have studied the hybridization thermodynamics of the miRNA 26a (11-mer, including the seed sequence) guide strand with the mRNA (11-mer) target strand in the absence and presence of AfPiwi protein. We have also inserted locked nucleic acids (LNAs) and 2'-O-methyl-modified nucleotides into the guide strand, in a walk-through manner, to assess their effect on the binding efficiency between guide and target RNA. Insertion of LNA and 2'-O-methyl-modified nucleotides into the guide strand helped to strengthen the binding affinity irrespective of the position of insertion. However, in the presence of AfPiwi protein, these modifications reduced the binding affinity to different extents depending on the position of insertion. Insertion of a modification leads to an increase in the enthalpic contribution with an increased unfavorable entropic contribution, which negatively compensates for the higher favorable enthalpy.

  15. Effect of targeted ovarian cancer therapy using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein-human interleukin-2 in vivo.

    PubMed

    You, Qi; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuanlong; Fu, Songbin; Du, Mei; Zhang, Guangmei

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) in targeted ovarian cancer therapy in vivo. AF-MSCs were isolated from human second trimester AF and a plasmid, enhanced green fluorescent protein‑human interleukin‑2 (pEGFP‑hIL‑2) was formed. The plasmid was stably transfected into the AF‑MSCs and the cells were intravenously injected into ovarian cancer nude mice models. Following stable transfection of the vector, tumor formation, and the expression and activity of hIL‑2 were investigated, and microscopic pathological examinations of the tumor were performed. It was found that AF‑MSCs exhibited high motility during migration in vivo, and the vector, pEGFP‑hIL‑2 can be stably transfected into AF‑MSCs. Following stable transfection, this type of stem cell is able to successfully transport the therapeutic gene, IL-2, migrate to the ovarian cancer tumor site to secrete the functional IL-2 and treat the tumor. Thus, AF-MSCs may serve as transporters for therapeutic genes targeting ovarian tumor sites and, therefore, be involved in the treatment of tumors.

  16. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is found, the better the chance of recovery; however, esophageal cancer is often found at an ... has decreased, the tubes will be removed. Recovery Recovery As with any surgery or operation, there are ...

  17. Nasal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  18. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  19. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  20. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  1. Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  2. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  5. Throat Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... that develop in your throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. Your throat is a muscular tube ... cancer begins in the upper portion of the larynx and includes cancer that affects the epiglottis, which ...

  6. Cancer Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the side effects will disappear. Radiation , or radiotherapy, is another method of treating cancer. A person ... specializes in using radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiotherapy machines deliver powerful X-rays or high-energy ...

  7. Eyelid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO University Donate eNEWS SIGNUP f Cancer. ... of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. ...

  8. Appendix Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO University Donate eNEWS SIGNUP f Cancer. ... of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. ...

  9. Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content ASCO Conquer Cancer Foundation Journal of Clinical Oncology Journal of Oncology Practice ASCO University Donate eNEWS SIGNUP f Cancer. ... of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. ...

  10. Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  11. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. ...

  12. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Incidence rates vary within different geographic locations. In some regions, higher rates of esophageal cancer cases may be attributed to tobacco and alcohol use or particular nutritional habits and ...

  13. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  14. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and getting enough rest can help combat the stress and fatigue of cancer. There's no sure way to prevent ovarian cancer. But certain factors are associated with lower risk: Use of oral contraceptives, especially for more than 10 years Previous ...

  15. Cancer - penis

    MedlinePlus

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes Cancer of the penis is rare. Its ... penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References Heinlen JE, Culkin DJ. Cancer of the ...

  16. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers that don't respond to hormone therapy. Biological therapy Biological therapy (immunotherapy) uses your body's immune system to fight cancer cells. One type of biological therapy called sipuleucel-T (Provenge) has been developed ...

  17. In vivo time-resolved spectroscopy of the human bronchial early cancer autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehlinger, Pascal; Gabrecht, Tanja; Glanzmann, Thomas; Ballini, Jean-Pierre; Radu, Alexandre; Andrejevic, Snezana; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2009-03-01

    Time-resolved measurements of tissue autofluorescence (AF) excited at 405 nm were carried out with an optical-fiber-based spectrometer in the bronchi of 11 patients. The objectives consisted of assessing the lifetime as a new tumor/normal (T/N) tissue contrast parameter and trying to explain the origin of the contrasts observed when using AF-based cancer detection imaging systems. No significant change in the AF lifetimes was found. AF bronchoscopy performed in parallel with an imaging device revealed both intensity and spectral contrasts. Our results suggest that the spectral contrast might be due to an enhanced blood concentration just below the epithelial layers of the lesion. The intensity contrast probably results from the thickening of the epithelium in the lesions. The absence of T/N lifetime contrast indicates that the quenching is not at the origin of the fluorescence intensity and spectral contrasts. These lifetimes (6.9 ns, 2.0 ns, and 0.2 ns) were consistent for all the examined sites. The fact that these lifetimes are the same for different emission domains ranging between 430 and 680 nm indicates that there is probably only one dominant fluorophore involved. The measured lifetimes suggest that this fluorophore is elastin.

  18. Throat or larynx cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  20. Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  1. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  3. National Cancer Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  4. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  7. Dictionary of Cancer Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  8. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  9. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  10. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  11. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  12. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  13. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  14. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  15. Cancer pain

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

  16. Cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjili, Masoud H.; Payne, Kyle K.

    2012-01-01

    Cancers utilize multiple mechanisms to overcome immune responses. Emerging evidence suggest that immunotherapy of cancer should focus on inducing and re-programming cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems rather than focusing solely on T cells. Recently, we have shown that such a multifaceted approach can improve immunotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:22720242

  17. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. This helps your body get rid of cancer cells. Immunotherapy works by: Stopping or slowing the growth of ... to seek and attack certain parts of a cancer cell. Some have toxins or radioactive substances attached to them. Immunotherapy is given by a shot or IV. Hormonal ...

  18. Cancer immunology.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S A; Houghton, A N

    1993-01-01

    In this review, we address current progress in various facets of the immune response to cancer, including 1) the molecular identification of tumor antigens implicated in immune recognition, 2) experimental studies of cytokine gene transfer into cancer cells, and 3) adoptive transfer of immune effector cells. These studies provide strategies for the future development of immunotherapy for cancer.

  19. Volume 2 of 2 Appendices A-F Site-Specific Environmental Baseline Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    ingrown toenails killer), fiberglass, general housekeeping cleaners Largest quantity stored: NA Length of time stored: NA What hazardous or regulated...surgical setup instruments/x-rays kidney, cancer, fertility, surgery. Laboratory/ Treatment Room (every room [4 rooms]) X-ray machines since early 1970s...34* Processor - fixer and developer "* Radiation is within treatment room5 Iodine "* Sharps with medical waste "* Contaminated laundry Largest quantity stored

  20. Intranasal Administration of the Antisecretory Peptide AF-16 Reduces Edema and Improves Cognitive Function Following Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Fredrik; Hansson, Hans-Arne; Raud, Johan; Marklund, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    A synthetic peptide with antisecretory activity, antisecretory factor (AF)-16, improves injury-related deficits in water and ion transport and decreases intracranial pressure after experimental cold lesion injury and encephalitis although its role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. AF-16 or an inactive reference peptide was administrated intranasally 30 min following midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI; n = 52), a model of diffuse mild-moderate TBI in rats. Sham-injured (n = 14) or naïve (n = 24) animals were used as controls. The rats survived for either 48 h or 15 days post-injury. At 48 h, the animals were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) for memory function and their brains analyzed for cerebral edema. Here, mFPI-induced brain edema compared to sham or naïve controls that was significantly reduced by AF-16 treatment (p < 0.05) although MWM performance was not altered. In the 15-day survival groups, the MWM learning and memory abilities as well as histological changes were analyzed. AF-16-treated brain-injured animals shortened both MWM latency and swim path in the learning trials (p < 0.05) and improved probe trial performance compared to brain-injured controls treated with the inactive reference peptide. A modest decrease by AF-16 on TBI-induced changes in hippocampal glial acidic fibrillary protein (GFAP) staining (p = 0.11) was observed. AF-16 treatment did not alter any other immunohistochemical analyses (degenerating neurons, beta-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and Olig2). In conclusion, intranasal AF-16-attenuated brain edema and enhanced visuospatial learning and memory following diffuse TBI in the rat. Intranasal administration early post-injury of a promising neuroprotective substance offers a novel treatment approach for TBI. PMID:28261150

  1. Rivaroxaban in the Prevention of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Implications of the ROCKET AF Trial and Its Subanalyses.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ryan J; Amerena, John V

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common cause of stroke and systemic embolism. While warfarin has been the mainstay of stroke prevention in patients with AF, newer novel oral anticoagulant medications are now available. Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor with a rapid onset and offset after oral administration, offers potential advantages over warfarin, predominantly due to its predictable pharmacokinetics across wide patient populations. It requires no coagulation monitoring, and only two different doses are needed (20 mg daily for patients with normal renal function and 15 mg daily in those with reduced renal function). A large randomized trial (ROCKET AF) has shown non-inferiority to warfarin for preventing stroke or systemic embolism in the per-protocol population and superiority to warfarin in the on-treatment safety population. Several subanalyses confirm that the treatment effect of rivaroxaban is consistent across different patient subgroups, including those with reduced renal function. The tolerability of rivaroxaban appears similar to that of warfarin, with comparable overall bleeding rates in clinical trials. In ROCKET AF, significantly lower rates of fatal and intracranial bleeding were seen with rivaroxaban, while lower rates of gastrointestinal bleeding were seen with warfarin. Important contraindications to rivaroxaban include valvular AF, the presence of a prosthetic valve (mechanical or bioprosthetic) or valve repair, the need for concurrent dual antiplatelet therapy, and creatinine clearance <30 ml/min. Once-daily dosing and the lack of coagulation monitoring may increase utilization and adherence compared with warfarin, potentially decreasing the large burden of care associated with stroke secondary to AF. Overall, rivaroxaban offers a useful alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF.

  2. Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A cognitive-behavioral therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center

    PubMed Central

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for child physical abuse and family aggression/conflict that was included in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network’s initial EBT dissemination efforts in 2002. Seven practitioners participated in a year-long Learning Collaborative in AF-CBT and in similar training programs for 4 other EBTs. The agency’s routine data collection system was used to document the clinical and adjustment outcomes of 52 families presenting with a physically abused child who received their services between 2 and 5 years after the AF-CBT training had ended. Measures of the use of all 5 EBTs documented their frequency, internal consistency, and intercorrelations. Controlling for the unique content of the other four EBTs, the amount of AF-CBT Abuse-specific content delivered was related to improvements on standardized parent rating scales (i.e., child externalizing behavior, anger, anxiety, social competence) and both parent and clinician ratings of the child’s adjustment at discharge (i.e., child more safe, less scared/sad, more appropriate with peers). The amount of AF-CBT General content was related to a few discharge ratings (better child prognosis, helpfulness to parents). These novel data provide suggestive evidence for the sustainability and clinical benefits of AF-CBT in an existing community clinic serving physically abused children and their families, and are discussed in the context of key developments in the treatment model and dissemination literature. PMID:21354619

  3. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... type of anesthetic — a medication that blocks the perception of pain. Your options for anesthesia will be ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/in-depth/cancer-surgery/ART-20044171 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  4. Catalytic soman scavenging by Y337A/F338A acetylcholinesterase mutant assisted with novel site-directed aldoximes

    PubMed Central

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Hrvat, Nikolina Maček; Katalinić, Maja; Sit, Rakesh K.; Paradyse, Alexander; Žunec, Suzana; Musilek, Kamil; Fokin, Valery V.; Taylor, Palmer; Radić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the nerve agent soman is difficult to treat due to the rapid dealkylation of soman-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) conjugate known as aging. Oxime antidotes commonly used to reactivate organophosphate inhibited AChE are ineffective against soman, while the efficacy of the recommended nerve agent bioscavenger butyrylcholinesterase is limited by strictly stoichiometric scavenging. To overcome this limitation, we tested ex vivo, in human blood, and in vivo, in soman exposed mice, the capacity of aging-resistant human AChE mutant Y337A/F338A in combination with oxime HI-6 to act as a catalytic bioscavenger of soman. HI-6 was previously shown in vitro to efficiently reactivate this mutant upon soman, as well as VX, cyclosarin, sarin and paraoxon inhibition. We here demonstrate that ex vivo, in whole human blood, 1 μM soman was detoxified within 30 minutes when supplemented with 0.5 μM Y337A/F338A AChE and 100 μM HI-6. This combination was further tested in vivo. Catalytic scavenging of soman in mice improved the therapeutic outcome and resulted in the delayed onset of toxicity symptoms. Furthermore, in a preliminary in vitro screen we identified an even more efficacious oxime than HI-6, in a series of forty-two pyridinium aldoximes, and five imidazole 2-aldoxime N-propyl pyridinium derivatives. One of the later imidazole aldoximes, RS-170B, was a 2–3 –fold more effective reactivator of Y337A/F338A AChE than HI-6 due to the smaller imidazole ring, as indicated by computational molecular models, that affords a more productive angle of nucleophilic attack. PMID:25835984

  5. Adsorption/desorption phenomena on pure and Teflon AF-coated titania surfaces studied by dynamic contact angle analysis.

    PubMed

    Rupp, F; Axmann, D; Ziegler, C; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2002-12-15

    As a result of inflammatory processes, plaque formation on dental titanium implants often leads to clinically pathogenic situations. This special biofilm formation on (bio)materials in contact with saliva is initiated by ionic and protein interactions. In this interfacial process, albumin becomes a main constituent of dental pellicle. Interfacial reactions change the surface characteristics. They determine the following steps of macromolecular adsorption and bacterial adhesion. This work focuses on the dynamic contact angle analysis (DCA), which is a tool for online measurements of dynamic changes of wettability without disturbing the interface during detection. Repeatability of the DCA method has been assessed according to the Bland and Altman method. The kinetics and equilibrium data of shifts in the wetting tension hysteresis indicate ionic influences at the titanium/bovine serum albumin (BSA) interface: the Ca-mediated increase of the BSA adsorption on titanium and the adsorption maximum at the isoelectric point (IEP) of BSA. Ti was surface modified by Teflon AF polymeric coatings. The result of the assessment gives reason to consider Teflon AF as a reference material for DCA repeatability studies. This surface modification caused drastic changes in the dynamic interfacial reactions. Shifts in the wetting tensions during DCA adsorption-desorption experiments clearly demonstrated the partially irreversible adsorption of BSA on Teflon AF. In contrast, reversible adsorption behavior was detected on pure Ti surfaces. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that the analysis of dynamic changes in wetting tension and wetting tension hysteresis is a sensitive analytical method for the detection of dynamic interfacial changes at biomaterial/biosystem interfaces during the initial steps of biofilm formation.

  6. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-08

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene.

  7. The ultraviolet-bright, slowly declining transient PS1-11af as a partial tidal disruption event

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Gezari, S.; Rest, A.; Riess, A. G.; Chomiuk, L.; Huber, M. E.; Lawrence, A.; and others

    2014-01-01

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ∼0.002 M {sub ☉}, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  8. [Perioperative Management of Lung Cancer Patients with atrial fibrillation being treated by antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shinya; Kasai, Yoshitaka; Matsuura, Natsumi; Tarumi, Shintaro; Nakano, Jun; Okuda, Masaya; Goto, Masashi; Ryu, Dagu; Go, Tetsuhiko; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2015-04-01

    In an aging society, the high incidence of surgery for the patients with ischemic heart disease(IHD)or atrial fibrillation(Af) under antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy is a great problem. Interruption of antiplatelet or anticoagulant oral agents in the perioperative period may increase the risk of coronary or cerebral events. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical outcomes for lung cancer patients with IHD or Af. We reviewed 135 patients with lung cancer(41~88 years;97 men) who had preoperative oral administration of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs for IHD or Af between 2005 and 2012 at 2 centers, and analyzed retrospectively the perioperative medications and complications. IHD, Af and vasospastic angina(VSA) were complicated in 94, 33 and 8 patients, respectively. Drugeluted and bare-metal stents had been placed in 18 and 19 patients. Oral agents were aspirin in 68 patients, ticlopidine in 10 patients, clopidogrel in 15 patients and warfarin in 25 patients. These agents were stopped 2 to 60 days before surgery. Perioperative heparinization was performed in 22 patients. Oral agents were restarted after confirmation of hemostasis and no need for further invasive treatment. The surgical procedures were lobectomy in 88 patients, segmentectomy in 19 and partial resection in 25. There were no hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications in a perioperative period except 1 case of pulmonary hemorrhage and 1 case of cerebral infarction. No perioperative hospital death was documented. Short-term interruption of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs before lung cancer surgery and heparinization was acceptable from the view of perioperative outcomes.

  9. Progress Report on Activities in Support of Composite Repair Engineering Development Program Tasks AF, AH and AI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Task AF Designation Aluminium Alloy Surface Preparation GBSP 7075T76UC Bare 7075-T76 Scotchbrite abrade, solvent clean, grit-blast, 1% aqueous epoxy...silane, BR-127 prime GBSNP 7075T76UC Bare 7075-T76 Scotchbrite abrade, solvent clean, grit-blast, 1% aqueous epoxy silane GBSP 7075T6C Clad 7075-T76...Cohesive Failure (%) Specimen 1 2 3 4 5 Average GBSP 7075T76UC 100 85 90 90 95 92.0 GBSNP 7075T76UC 94 94 98 100 100 97.2 GBSP 7075T6C 30 40 50 35 20 35

  10. U-Tapao RTNAS, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-26

    to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical...Force Environmental Technical App1. Center Scott AFB IL 62225 ,bs~yfR ffoFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Air Weather Service (MAC) 3. 26 OCT... Service (MAC ) " REVISED NIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEA1HER OBSERVATIONS U-TAPAO RTNAS THAILAND WBAN* 41028 N 12 41 E 101 01 ELEV 69 FT VTLU WMO# PARTS A-F

  11. Volk FLD. Camp Douglas, Wisconsin. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-08-03

    REVISED’UNIFORWSUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER, OBSERVATION4S CAMP DOUGLAS WISCONSIN/VOLK FLO WSAN# 94930 N 43 56 W 90󈧔, ELEVi 925 FT. KVOK Wt ~O#I t PARTS A-F’ POR...Observations (RUSSW0)- Volk FLD,’ Camp Douglas , Wisconsin b PERORMINc ORG REPORT NUW ER 7. AUTHOR(o) CNTRACT OR GRANT HUMBER() 9, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...STATIONIFTI) KBAAOMEICR OAI 1 Volk Fld/Camp Douglas Wsconsin A Jur ,. Sep 66 N 43 56 W 90 16 925 Ancrold 13to19 1 No Change A Oct V Oct 68 No Change No

  12. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4–14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140–493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3’-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50–65% and 60–75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259–343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity. PMID:27736869

  13. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95°C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling

  14. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Flavonoid-Enriched Fraction AF4 in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Paul G. W.; Dunlop, Kate; Warford, Jordan; Samson, Michel L.; Jones, Quinton R. D.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha; Robertson, George S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction isolated from the peel of Northern Spy apples (AF4) in a mouse of model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. Oral administration of AF4 (50 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) prior to 50 min of HI completely prevented motor performance deficits assessed 14 days later that were associated with marked reductions in neuronal cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Pre-treatment with AF4 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily for 3 days) produced a dose-dependent reduction in HI-induced hippocampal and striatal neuron cell loss, with 25 mg/kg being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Comparison of the effects of 1, 3 or 7 doses of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) prior to HI revealed that at least 3 doses of AF4 were required before HI to reduce neuronal cell loss in both the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that the neuroprotective effects of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.; once daily for 3 days) in the dorsal hippocampus were associated with a suppression of HI-induced increases in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. AF4 pre-treatment enhanced mRNA levels for pro-survival proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and erythropoietin following HI in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum, respectively. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons incubated with AF4 (1 µg/ml), but not the same concentrations of either quercetin or quercetin-3-O-glucose or its metabolites, were resistant to cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HI-induced brain injury produced by AF4 likely involves a transcriptional mechanism resulting from the co-operative actions of various phenolics in this fraction which not only reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators but also enhance pro-survival gene signalling. PMID:23251498

  15. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of the flavonoid-enriched fraction AF4 in a mouse model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Paul G W; Dunlop, Kate; Warford, Jordan; Samson, Michel L; Jones, Quinton R D; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Robertson, George S

    2012-01-01

    We report here neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction isolated from the peel of Northern Spy apples (AF4) in a mouse of model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. Oral administration of AF4 (50 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) prior to 50 min of HI completely prevented motor performance deficits assessed 14 days later that were associated with marked reductions in neuronal cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Pre-treatment with AF4 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily for 3 days) produced a dose-dependent reduction in HI-induced hippocampal and striatal neuron cell loss, with 25 mg/kg being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Comparison of the effects of 1, 3 or 7 doses of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) prior to HI revealed that at least 3 doses of AF4 were required before HI to reduce neuronal cell loss in both the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that the neuroprotective effects of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.; once daily for 3 days) in the dorsal hippocampus were associated with a suppression of HI-induced increases in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. AF4 pre-treatment enhanced mRNA levels for pro-survival proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and erythropoietin following HI in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum, respectively. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons incubated with AF4 (1 µg/ml), but not the same concentrations of either quercetin or quercetin-3-O-glucose or its metabolites, were resistant to cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HI-induced brain injury produced by AF4 likely involves a transcriptional mechanism resulting from the co-operative actions of various phenolics in this fraction which not only reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators but also enhance pro-survival gene signalling.

  16. Estimation of decrease in cancer risk by biodegradation of PAHs content from an urban traffic soil.

    PubMed

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-03-09

    The role of preferential biodegradation in the reduction of cancer risk caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied. A consortium of microorganisms isolated from aged oil refinery exposed soil was used to degrade 13 PAHs content extracted from an urban traffic site soil. The biodegradation arranged in a batch process with a mineral salt broth, where PAHs were the sole carbon source. 70.46% biodegradation of the total PAHs occurred in an incubation period of 25 days. Sequential or preferential biodegradation took place as the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were more prone to biodegradation than that of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Microorganisms from the isolated consortia preferred the simpler carbon sources first. The relatively higher carcinogenicity of the HMW PAHs than that of the LMW PAHs leads to only 40.26% decrement in cancer risk. Initial cancer risk for children was 1.60E-05, which was decreased to 9.47E-06, whereas, for the adults, the risk decreased to 1.01E-05 from an initial value of 1.71E-05. The relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) turned out to be the most influential parameter with 54.2% contributions to variance in total cancer risk followed by the exposure duration (ED) for children. For the adults, most contributions to the variance in total cancer risk were 58.5% by ED and followed by AF.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that a pleiotropic antibiotic regulator, AfsS, modulates nutritional stress response in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Wei; Jayapal, Karthik P; Charaniya, Salim; Mehra, Sarika; Glod, Frank; Kyung, Yun-Seung; Sherman, David H; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2008-01-01

    Background A small "sigma-like" protein, AfsS, pleiotropically regulates antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. Overexpression of afsS in S. coelicolor and certain related species causes antibiotic stimulatory effects in the host organism. Although recent studies have uncovered some of the upstream events activating this gene, the mechanisms through which this signal is relayed downstream leading to the eventual induction of antibiotic pathways remain unclear. Results In this study, we employed whole-genome DNA microarrays and quantitative PCRs to examine the transcriptome of an afsS disruption mutant that is completely deficient in the production of actinorhodin, a major S. coelicolor antibiotic. The production of undecylprodigiosin, another prominent antibiotic, was, however, perturbed only marginally in the mutant. Principal component analysis of temporal gene expression profiles identified two major gene classes each exhibiting a distinct coordinate differential expression pattern. Surprisingly, nearly 70% of the >117 differentially expressed genes were conspicuously associated with nutrient starvation response, particularly those of phosphate, nitrogen and sulfate. Furthermore, expression profiles of some transcriptional regulators including at least two sigma factors were perturbed in the mutant. In almost every case, the effect of afsS disruption was not observed until the onset of stationary phase. Conclusion Our data suggests a comprehensive role for S. coelicolor AfsS as a master regulator of both antibiotic synthesis and nutritional stress response, reminiscent of alternative sigma factors found in several bacteria. PMID:18230178

  18. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  19. Comparison of the exact thermodynamics of the AF Blume-Emery-Grifiths and of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa Silva, E. V.; Thomaz, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    We study in detail the thermodynamics of the anti-ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths (AF BEG) model in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. Its thermodynamics is derived from the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the model, valid for T > 0. Numerical simulations of this model on a periodic space chain with 10 sites (N=10) yield the energy spectra of the model at K/J = 2 for D/J = 1 and D/J = 2, thus helping us compare, for a broad range of temperature, how some (per site) thermodynamic functions with the same value of K/J but distinct values of D/J behave, namely: the z-component of the magnetization, the specific heat and the entropy. These thermodynamic functions of the AF BEG model at K/|J| = 2 are compared to those of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising model with D/|J| > 1.5, for which the T=0 phase diagrams of both models are identical. This comparison is done in a large interval of temperature.

  20. Comparison of the ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model and the AF spin-1 longitudinal Ising model at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, M. T.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    We derive the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the standard and staggered one-dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We discuss in detail the thermodynamic behavior of the ferromagnetic version of the model, which exhibits magnetic field-dependent plateaux in the z-component of its magnetization at low temperatures. We also study the behavior of its specific heat and entropy, both per site, at finite temperature. The degeneracy of the ground state, at T=0, along the lines that separate distinct phases in the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic BEG model is calculated, extending the study of the phase diagram of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising model in S.M. de Souza and M.T. Thomaz, J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 354 (2014) 205 [5]. We explore the implications of the equality of phase diagrams, at T=0, of the ferromagnetic BEG model with K/|J| = - 2 and of the spin-1 AF Ising model for D/|J| > 1/2.

  1. Linear quadratic game and non-cooperative predictive methods for potential application to modelling driver-AFS interactive steering control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Xiaoxiang; Cole, David J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the modelling of strategic interactions between the human driver and the vehicle active front steering (AFS) controller in a path-following task where the two controllers hold different target paths. The work is aimed at extending the use of mathematical models in representing driver steering behaviour in complicated driving situations. Two game theoretic approaches, namely linear quadratic game and non-cooperative model predictive control (non-cooperative MPC), are used for developing the driver-AFS interactive steering control model. For each approach, the open-loop Nash steering control solution is derived; the influences of the path-following weights, preview and control horizons, driver time delay and arm neuromuscular system (NMS) dynamics are investigated, and the CPU time consumed is recorded. It is found that the two approaches give identical time histories as well as control gains, while the non-cooperative MPC method uses much less CPU time. Specifically, it is observed that the introduction of weight on the integral of vehicle lateral displacement error helps to eliminate the steady-state path-following error; the increase in preview horizon and NMS natural frequency and the decline in time delay and NMS damping ratio improve the path-following accuracy.

  2. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  4. General Information about Parathyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  5. An imaging agent to detect androgen receptor and its active splice variants in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yusuke; Tien, Amy H.; Pan, Jinhe; Leung, Jacky K.; Banuelos, Carmen A.; Jian, Kunzhong; Wang, Jun; Mawji, Nasrin R.; Fernandez, Javier Garcia; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Andersen, Raymond J.; Sadar, Marianne D.

    2016-01-01

    Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD–targeted (AR LBD–targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V–positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD–targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone. Both EPI-506 (NCT02606123) and galeterone (NCT02438007) are in clinical trials and are proposed to have efficacy against lesions that are positive for AR-Vs. AR activation function-1 (AF-1) is common to the N-terminal domains of full-length AR and AR-Vs. Here, we provide proof of concept for developing imaging compounds that directly bind AR AF-1 to detect both AR-Vs and full-length AR. 123I-EPI-002 had specific binding to AR AF-1, which enabled direct visualization of CRPC xenografts that express full-length AR and AR-Vs. Our findings highlight the potential of 123I-EPI-002 as an imaging agent for the detection of full-length AR and AR-Vs in CRPC. PMID:27525313

  6. Heterologous expression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp in Streptomyces venezuelae for the production of pikromycin.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushila; Oh, Tae-Jin; Lee, Hei Chan; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2008-09-01

    Two regulator genes, metK1-sp and afsR-sp, from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 were heterologously expressed in S. venezuelae ATCC 15439, to produce 14-membered pikromycin antibiotics. The production of pikromycin was increased by 1.6-fold and 2.6-fold by the expression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp, respectively. The overexpression of metK1-sp and afsR-sp in S. venezuelae stimulated the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory genes, pikD and ketosynthase, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. The elevated transcripts of the pikD and ketosynthase genes were consistent with the enhanced production of pikromycin.

  7. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  8. Differential ligand-dependent interactions between the AF-2 activating domain of nuclear receptors and the putative transcriptional intermediary factors mSUG1 and TIF1.

    PubMed Central

    vom Baur, E; Zechel, C; Heery, D; Heine, M J; Garnier, J M; Vivat, V; Le Douarin, B; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1996-01-01

    Using a yeast two-hybrid system we report the isolation of a novel mouse protein, mSUG1, that interacts with retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) both in yeast cells and in vitro in a ligand- and AF-2 activating domain (AF-2 AD)-dependent manner and show that it is a structural and functional homologue of the essential yeast protein SUG1. mSUG1 also efficiently interacts with other nuclear receptors, including oestrogen (ER), thyroid hormone (TR), Vitamin D3 (VDR) and retinoid X (RXR) receptors. By comparing the interaction properties of these receptors with mSUG1 and TIF1, we demonstrate that: (i) RXR alpha efficiently interacts with TIF1, but not with mSUG1, whereas TR alpha interacts much more efficiently with mSUG1 than with TIF1, and RAR alpha, VDR and ER efficiently interact with mSUG1 and TIF1; (ii) the amphipathic alpha-helix core of the AF-2 AD is differentially involved in interactions of RAR alpha with mSUG1 and TIF1; (iii) the AF-2 AD cores of RAR alpha and ER are similarly involved in their interaction with TIF1, but not with mSUG1. Thus, the interaction interfaces between the different receptors and either mSUG1 or TIF1 may vary depending on the nature of the receptor and the putative mediator of its AF-2 function. We discuss the possibility that mSUG1 and TIF1 may mediate the transcriptional activity of the AF-2 of nuclear receptors through different mechanisms. Images PMID:8598193

  9. Metastatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  10. Cancer Staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  11. Variation of B1 gene and AF146527 repeat element copy numbers according to Toxoplasma gondii strains assessed using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Using the multicopy B1 gene and AF146527 element for the amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA raises the issue of reliable quantification for clinical diagnosis. We applied relative quantification to reference strains using the single-copy P30 gene as a reference. According to the parasite type, the copy numbers for the B1 gene and AF146527 element were found to be 5 to 12 and 4 to 8 times lower than the previous estimations of 35 and 230 copies, respectively.

  12. Heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex demonstrated by the selective antagonist AF-DX 116

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Seaver, N.A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of muscarinic receptors in rabbit peripheral lung homogenates bind pirenzepine with high affinity (putative M1 subtype). In experiments of AF-DX 116 inhibiting (TH)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (TH)pirenzepine, the authors found similar inhibitory constants for AF-DX 116 binding in rat heart and rabbit peripheral lung that were 4-fold smaller (i.e. of higher affinity) than the inhibitory constant for rat cerebral cortex. This results demonstrates heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Children's cancer centers

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  14. Photodynamic therapy for cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer of the esophagus-photodynamic; Esophageal cancer-photodynamic; Lung cancer-photodynamic ... the light at the cancer cells. PDT treats cancer in the: Lungs, using a bronchoscope Esophagus, using upper endoscopy Doctors ...

  15. Cancer in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure. Learn if you can prevent childhood cancer. Finding Cancer in Children Cancers in children are often hard ... Major advances in treatment have made possible to cure many of these childhood cancers. Learn more on surviving childhood cancer. EASY READING ...

  16. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  17. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to choose ...

  18. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Liver Cancer If you have some of the signs ... Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  20. Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Dating and Intimacy Sexuality and Cancer Treatment: Men ... here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer During Pregnancy ...

  1. Application of laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection system in human colorectal cancer in-vivo screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Teck Chee; Fu, Sheng; Chia, Yee Hong; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Tang, Choong Leong

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed at applying Laser induced-autofluorescence (LIAF) diagnostics method as an in-vivo screening of colorectal polyplcancer. The spectrum algorithm based on the ratio of autofluorescence intensity was used to identify the diseased tissues from the normal tissues as it was generally performed better than an algorithm based only simply on the intensity of the spectrum. Histopathological biopsy results were compared with the detected AF spectra characteristics for different kinds of polyps. 73 patients had been examined via the LIAF spectroscopy detection system during their colonoscopy screening in Endoscopy Center, Singapore General Hospital. The autofluorescence from the surface of the colorectal tissues under 405 nm laser light excitation was detected using our detecting system. In the experimental investigation two groups of patients were involved. One group was "abnormal" group. There were 25 patients belonging to this group since polyps or carcinoma was found in their colorectal tract during colonoscopy. The histopathology reports confirm the group classification. Total 36 polyps' AF spectra and 9 carcinoma' AF spectra were detected from 25 patients of the abnormal group during their regular endoscopy examination. The intensity ratios RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 of polyps/cancerous AF spectra and intensity ratios of corresponding normal colorectal AF spectra were calculated. Two critical intensity ratios for separating the AF intensity ratios RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 of normal and abnormal colorectal tissues were defined as 0.5 and 0.6 respectively. Using the critical intensity ratio values, 48 "normal" group patients' rectums were checked via the LIAF detection system. There were 20 patients (41.7%) whose AF spectra of colorectal tract mucosa belonging to abnormal spectra. However, these 20 patients had not been found under white light via traditional endoscopy. For small diseased area like small plat polyp disease and carcinoma, it was

  2. Ontario-wide Cancer TArgeted Nucleic Acid Evaluation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Melanoma; Gynecological Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Rare Cancer; Unknown Primary Cancer

  3. Occupational cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, D.F.

    1986-09-01

    When cancer is possibly related to occupation, the family physician's task is to put the matter in perspective by educating the patient and carefully documenting the appearance of the tumor and the patient's work history. Occasionally, physicians are the first to recognize new associations between chemicals and cancer and can help to bring hazards under control.

  4. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors may increase a woman’s risk for ovarian cancer: • Being middle-aged or older. • Having close family members (such as ... than 40, with the greatest number of ovarian cancers occurring in women aged 60 years or older. Each year, approximately 21, ...

  5. COLORECTAL CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Ernst J.; Grady, William M.; Lieberman, David; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sung, Joseph J.; Boelens, Petra G.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer had a low incidence several decades ago. However, it has become a predominant cancer and now accounts for approximately 10% of cancer-related mortality in western countries. The ‘rise’ of colorectal cancer in developed countries can be attributed to the increasingly ageing population, unfavourable modern dietary habits and an increase in risk factors such as smoking, low physical exercise and obesity. New treatments for primary and metastatic colorectal cancer have emerged, providing additional options for patients; these treatments include laparoscopic surgery for primary disease, more-aggressive resection of metastatic disease (such as liver and pulmonary metastases), radiotherapy for rectal cancer and neoadjuvant and palliative chemotherapies. However, these new treatment options have had limited impact on cure rates and long-term survival. For these reasons, and the recognition that colorectal cancer is long preceded by a polypoid precursor, screening programmes have gained momentum. This Primer provides an overview of the current state of art knowledge on the epidemiology and mechanisms of colorectal cancer, as well as on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27189416

  6. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the cancer has not spread outside the prostate gland, common treatments include: Surgery ( radical prostatectomy ) Radiation therapy , including brachytherapy and proton therapy If you are older, your doctor may recommend simply monitoring the cancer with PSA tests and biopsies. Hormone therapy is ...

  7. Gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patrlj, Leonardo; Kopljar, Mario; Kliček, Robert; Kolovrat, Marijan; Loncar, Bozo; Busic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer involving gastrointestinal tract, but it is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80-95% of biliary tract cancers. This tumor is a highly lethal disease with an overall 5-year survival of less than 5% and mean survival mere than 6 months. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis. The percentage of patients diagnosed to have gallbladder cancer after simple cholecystectomy for presumed gallbladder stone disease is 0.5-1.5%. Patients with preoperative suspicion of gallbladder cancer should not be treated by laparoscopy. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities—inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Improved imaging modalities and improved radical aggressive surgical approach in the last decade has improved outcomes and helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. The overall 5-year survival for patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent R0 curative resection was from 21% to 69%. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. PMID:25392833

  8. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been a steady drop in lung cancer deaths among men, mainly because fewer men are smoking, and since the turn of the century, lung cancer deaths in women have been slowly declining. Cigarette smoking rates had been dropping steadily in the 1990s ...

  9. A novel mutation in the miR-128b gene reduces miRNA processing and leads to glucocorticoid resistance of MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-03-15

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia has a poor prognosis, and the mechanisms by which these leukemias develop are not understood despite intensive research based on well-known concepts and methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of target mRNA transcripts. We recently reported that ectopic expression of miR-128b together with miR-221, two of the miRNAs downregulated in MLL-AF4 ALL, restores glucocorticoid resistance through downregulation of the MLL-AF4 chimeric fusion proteins MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL that are generated by chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Here we report the identification of new mutations in miR-128b in RS4;11 cells, derived from MLL-AF4 ALL patient. One novel mutation significantly reduces the processing of miR-128b. Finally, this base change occurs in a primary MLL-AF4 ALL sample as an acquired mutation. These results demonstrate that the novel mutation in miR-128b in MLL-AF4 ALL alters the processing of miR-128b and that the resultant downregulation of mature miR-128b contributes to glucocorticoid resistance through the failure to downregulate the fusion oncogenes.

  10. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  11. Selenium species determination in selenium-enriched pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds by HPLC-UV-HG-AFS.

    PubMed

    Smrkolj, Polona; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Kreft, Ivan; Kapolna, Emese

    2005-12-01

    Pumpkins were treated by spraying the leaves in the flowering period with a water solution containing 1.5 mg Se per liter in the form of Na2SeO4. The average total selenium content of seeds was found to be 0.19 microg g(-1) in nontreated pumpkins and 1.1 microg g(-1) in exposed ones. For speciation analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis with different amounts of Protease XIV was carried out. Under optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis, 90% of the total selenium was found in soluble forms. Separation of species was performed using HPLC on anion and cation exchange columns and for detection UVHG-AFS was applied. In enzymatic hydrolysis extracts, the main fraction of selenium was bound as selenomethionine (SeMet), representing on average of 81 +/- 8% of the total Se content in the sample.

  12. Rubusuaviins A-F, monomeric and oligomeric ellagitannins from Chinese sweet tea and their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Haizhou; Tanaka, Takashi; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Kouno, Isao

    2007-09-01

    Six new ellagitannins herein, rubusuaviins A-F, were isolated from the aqueous acetone extract of Chinese sweet tea (Tien-cha, dried leaves of Rubus suavissimus S. LEE) together with seven known tannins. Rubusuaviin A was characterized as 1-O-galloyl-2,3-O-(S)-HHDP-4,6-O-(S)-sanguisorboyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. Rubusuaviins B, C, and E are dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric ellagitannins, respectively, in which the sanguisorboyl groups were connected ellagitannin units. Rubusuaviins D and F were desgalloyl derivatives of rubusuaviins C and E, respectively. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by rubusuaviins and related ellagitannins was compared. Ellagitannins with beta-galloyl groups at the glucose C-1 positions showed stronger inhibition compared with the alpha-galloyl and desgalloyl compounds. The molecular weight of these compounds was not important for the inhibition of alpha-amylase activity.

  13. Overtreatment and undertreatment with anticoagulation in relation to cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (the RHYTHM-AF study).

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Gitt, Anselm K; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Bash, Lori D; Morabito, Christopher J; Bernhardt, Alexandra A; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Chazelle, François; Crijns, Harry J

    2014-02-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is central to the management of atrial fibrillation. This analysis from the RHYTHM-atrial fibrillation (RHYTHM-AF) registry explored the appropriateness of antithrombotic therapy in relation to stroke risk and atrial fibrillation duration in patients with atrial fibrillation. RHYTHM-AF, a prospective multinational registry, enrolled consecutive adult patients with atrial fibrillation considered for cardioversion. We compared the type of antithrombotic therapy administered at the time of cardioversion and at discharge with stroke risk ("high stroke risk" defined by CHA2DS2-VASc >1) and duration of atrial fibrillation (≤48 vs >48 hours or unknown duration). Of 2,972 patients who were cardioverted (34.5% through pharmacologic cardioversion [PCV] and 65.5% through electrical cardioversion [ECV]), 65% were at high risk of stroke and 30% presented with atrial fibrillation of >48-hour or unknown duration. At the time of PCV and ECV, 36% (n = 242) and 84% (n = 1,075) of high-risk patients, respectively, were taking vitamin K antagonists or heparin. At discharge, these rates increased to 62% (n = 414) and 93% (n = 1,191), respectively. Of all low-stroke risk patients with short-duration atrial fibrillation undergoing PCV (n = 260) and ECV (n = 111), 7% (n = 17) and 30% (n = 33), respectively, were taking vitamin K antagonists or heparin at the time of cardioversion. At discharge, these rates increased to 19% (n = 50) and 40% (n = 44), respectively. In conclusion, ECV was frequently performed under appropriate antithrombotic therapy for most high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation, whereas PCV was frequently performed without appropriate antithrombotic therapy. To enhance pericardioversion stroke prevention, cardioversion algorithms should focus less on the type of conversion and more on stroke risk factors and atrial fibrillation duration.

  14. RHYTHM-AF: design of an international registry on cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and characteristics of participating centers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is a serious public health problem posing a considerable burden to not only patients, but the healthcare environment due to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and medical resource utilization. There are limited data on the variation in treatment practice patterns across different countries, healthcare settings and the associated health outcomes. Methods/design RHYTHM-AF was a prospective observational multinational study of management of recent onset atrial fibrillation patients considered for cardioversion designed to collect data on international treatment patterns and short term outcomes related to cardioversion. We present data collected in 10 countries between May 2010 and June 2011. Enrollment was ongoing in Italy and Brazil at the time of data analysis. Data were collected at the time of atrial fibrillation episode in all countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom), and cumulative follow-up data were collected at day 60 (±10) in all but Spain. Information on center characteristics, enrollment data, patient demographics, detail of atrial fibrillation episode, medical history, diagnostic procedures, acute treatment of atrial fibrillation, discharge information and the follow-up data on major events and rehospitalizations up to day 60 were collected. Discussion A total of 3940 patients were enrolled from 175 acute care centers. 70.5% of the centers were either academic (44%) or teaching (26%) hospitals with an overall median capacity of 510 beds. The sites were mostly specialized with anticoagulation clinics (65.9%), heart failure (75.1%) and hypertension clinics (60.1%) available. The RHYTHM-AF registry will provide insight into regional variability of antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic treatment of atrial fibrillation, the appropriateness of such treatments with respect to outcomes, and their cost-efficacy. Observations will help inform strategies to improve

  15. The N-terminal part of TIF1, a putative mediator of the ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2) of nuclear receptors, is fused to B-raf in the oncogenic protein T18.

    PubMed Central

    Le Douarin, B; Zechel, C; Garnier, J M; Lutz, Y; Tora, L; Pierrat, P; Heery, D; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) bound to response elements mediate the effects of cognate ligands on gene expression. Their ligand-dependent activation function, AF-2, presumably acts on the basal transcription machinery through intermediary proteins/mediators. We have isolated a mouse nuclear protein, TIF1, which enhances RXR and RAR AF-2 in yeast and interacts in a ligand-dependent manner with several NRs in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in vitro. Remarkably, these interactions require the amino acids constituting the AF-2 activating domain conserved in all active NRs. Moreover, the oestrogen receptor (ER) AF-2 antagonist hydroxytamoxifen cannot promote ER-TIF1 interaction. We propose that TIF1, which contains several conserved domains found in transcriptional regulatory proteins, is a mediator of ligand-dependent AF-2. Interestingly, the TIF1 N-terminal moiety is fused to B-raf in the mouse oncoprotein T18. Images PMID:7744009

  16. OmniGen-AF alters rectal temperature (RT) and leukocyte profiles in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS) following acute activation of the stress axis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 162±1 days in milk)...

  17. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  18. The Mouse Murr1 Gene Is Imprinted in the Adult Brain, Presumably Due to Transcriptional Interference by the Antisense-Oriented U2af1-rs1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youdong; Joh, Keiichiro; Masuko, Sadahiko; Yatsuki, Hitomi; Soejima, Hidenobu; Nabetani, Akira; Beechey, Colin V.; Okinami, Satoshi; Mukai, Tsunehiro

    2004-01-01

    The mouse Murr1 gene contains an imprinted gene, U2af1-rs1, in its first intron. U2af1-rs1 shows paternal allele-specific expression and is transcribed in the direction opposite to that of the Murr1 gene. In contrast to a previous report of biallelic expression of Murr1 in neonatal mice, we have found that the maternal allele is expressed predominantly in the adult brain and also preferentially in other adult tissues. This maternal-predominant expression is not observed in embryonic and neonatal brains. In situ hybridization experiments that used the adult brain indicated that Murr1 gene was maternally expressed in neuronal cells in all regions of the brain. We analyzed the developmental change in the expression levels of both Murr1 and U2af1-rs1 in the brain and liver, and we propose that the maternal-predominant expression of Murr1 results from transcriptional interference of the gene by U2af1-rs1 through the Murr1 promoter region. PMID:14673161

  19. 26 CFR 1.468A-8T - Special transfers to qualified funds pursuant to section 468A(f) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) General rule—(1) In general. Under section 468A(f), a taxpayer maintaining a qualified nuclear decommissioning fund with respect to a nuclear power plant may transfer cash or property into the fund (a special... pre-2005 nonqualifying amount of nuclear decommissioning costs with respect to the nuclear power...

  20. Inactive allele-specific methylation and chromatin structure of the imprinted gene U2af1-rs1 on mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Hideo; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kamiya, Mamoru

    1996-07-01

    The imprinted U2Af1-rs1 gene that maps to mouse chromosome 11 is predominately expressed from the paternal allele. We examined the methylation of genomic sequences in and around the U2af1-rs1 locus to establish the extent of sequence modifications that accompanied the silencing of the maternal allele. The analysis of HapII or HhaI sites showed that the silent maternal allele was hypermethylated in a block of CpG sequences that covered more than 10 kb. By comparison, the expressed paternal allele was unmethylated from a CpG island upstream of the transcribed region through 2 kb. An analysis of DNaseI hypersensitivity of a putative promoter of U2af1-rs1 showed an open chromatin conformation only on the unmethylated, expressed paternal allele. These results suggest that allele-specific hypermethylation covering the gene and its upstream CpG island plays a role in maternal allele repression of U2af1-rs1, which is reflected in altered chromatin conformation of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  3. Cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    The veterinary oncology profession is uniquely able to contribute to the many advances that are imminent in immunotherapy. However, what works in a mouse will often not reflect the outcome in human patients with cancer. Therefore, comparative immunotherapy studies using veterinary patients may be better able to bridge murine and human studies. Many cancers in dogs and cats seem to be stronger models for their counterpart human tumors than presently available murine model systems. This author looks forward to the time when immunotherapy plays a significant role in the treatment and/or prevention of cancer in human and veterinary patients.

  4. BMSC paracrine activity attenuates interleukin-1β-induced inflammation and apoptosis in rat AF cells via inhibiting relative NF-κB signaling and the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinquan; Yan, Qiang; Shi, Changgui; Tian, Ye; Cao, Peng; Yuan, Wen

    2017-01-01

    We previously showed that bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) inhibit interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) induced degenerative effects in NP cells by their paracrine activity, but the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of BMSC paracrine activity and the relative signaling pathway were not further investigated in annulus fibrosus (AF) cells. In this study, AF cells were exposed to IL-1β, which was applied to mimic intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in vitro. Indirect co-culture with BMSCs in a transwell co-culture system reduced the activity of nuclear factor-κB-p65 (NF-κB-p65) through the restoration of its inhibitor IκBa. Real time polymerase chain reaction (PT-PCR) and Western blotting revealed that the up-regulation of MMP-3 and MMP-13 induced by IL-1β were impeded by BMSC co-culture, and the decrease in aggrecan, collagen I and TIMP-1 were reversed. An ELISA showed that the increased inflammatory factors, such as nitrite, prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2), IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were decreased by the BMSC co-culture. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate of AF cells were detected by flow cytometry, and the apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3, were analyzed by Western blotting and ELISA. The changes in mitochondrial membrane potentials were also detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that IL-1β induced apoptosis of AF cells was attenuated by co-culturing, which suppressed the functions of the mitochondria function. We suggest that BMSC paracrine activity has an anti-inflammation effect and anti-apoptotic effect on IDD, and it is mediated, at least in part, via the relative NF-κF and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in AF cells. PMID:28123635

  5. Pancreatic cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, cystic pancreatic neoplasms, and other nonendocrine pancreatic tumors. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. ...

  6. Bladder cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest risk. Chemotherapy: The ... Avoid exposure to chemicals linked to bladder cancer. Alternative Names Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Urothelial ...

  7. Ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - ovaries ... diagnosed, the tumor has often spread beyond the ovaries. See your doctor if you have the following ... the only treatment. Surgery may involve removing both ovaries and fallopian tubes, the uterus, or other structures ...

  8. Childhood Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the circulatory system and the lymphatic system , two systems that are located throughout the body. This makes it hard to treat these cancers by operating on just one area. However, in children with ...

  9. Prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, D; Waxman, J

    2002-01-01

    It is a paradigm in cancer treatment that early detection and treatment improves survival. However, although screening measures lead to a higher rate of detection, for small bulk localised prostate cancer it remains unclear whether early detection and early treatment will lead to an overall decrease in mortality. The management options include surveillance, radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy but there is no evidence base to evaluate the benefits of each approach. Advanced prostate cancer is managed by hormonal therapy. There have been major changes in treatment over the last two decades with the use of more humane treatment and developments in both chemotherapy and radiation. In this article we review the natural history and management of prostate cancer. PMID:12415080

  10. Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Member Login Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate ... and is best made in consultation with your health care team. What happens after treatment for endometrial cancer? ...

  11. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pap test results are not normal. • Get the HPV vaccine. It protects against the types of HPV that ... for cervical cancer. To learn more about the HPV vaccine visit www. cdc. gov/ hpv . • D on’t ...

  12. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors for cervical cancer include: Not getting the HPV vaccine Being economically disadvantaged Having a mother who took ... be prevented by doing the following: Get the HPV vaccine . The vaccine prevents most types of HPV infection ...

  13. Parathyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to parathyroid cancer: A drug called gallium nitrate, which lowers the calcium level in the blood ... Hypercalcemia Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Parathyroid gland removal Review Date 2/11/2016 Updated by: Todd ...

  14. Esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Nimish; Affi, Aboud

    2002-07-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of esophageal cancer, 50% of patients present with incurable disease, and the overall survival after diagnosis is poor. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is rising at a rapid rate in developed countries. Recent advances in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer offer insights into preventive strategies in patients who are at risk. New developments in diagnosis may help detect the disease at an early stage. New diagnostic modalities permit more accurate staging procedures and allow appropriate selection of therapy. New studies provide more information on multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer, and new endoscopic techniques allow resection of small lesions without surgery. New stent designs provide better palliation by providing tumor ingrowth. These developments in the treatment of esophageal cancer are the focus of this review.

  15. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  16. Probing the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells in a 3D microfabricated landscape

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Pedersen, Jonas N.; Aw Yong, Koh-Meng; Getzenberg, Robert H.; Stone, Howard A.; Austin, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The metastatic invasion of cancer cells from primary tumors to distant ecological niches, rather than the primary tumors, is the cause of much cancer mortality [Zhang QB, et al. (2010) Int J Cancer 126:2534–2541; Chambers AF, Goss PE (2008) Breast Cancer Res 10:114]. Metastasis is a three-dimensional invasion process where cells spread from their site of origin and colonize distant microenvironmental niches. It is critical to be able to assess quantitatively the metastatic potential of cancer cells [Harma V, et al. (2010) PLoS ONE 5:e10431]. We have constructed a microfabricated chip with a three-dimensional topology consisting of lowlands and isolated square highlands (Tepuis), which stand hundreds of microns above the lowlands, in order to assess cancer cell metastatic potential as they invade the highlands. As a test case, the invasive ascents of the Tepui by highly metastatic PC-3 and noninvasive LNCaP prostate cancer cells were used. The vertical ascent by prostate cancer cells from the lowlands to the tops of the Tepui was imaged using confocal microscopy and used as a measure of the relative invasiveness. The less-metastatic cells (LNCaP) never populated all available tops, leaving about 15% of them unoccupied, whereas the more metastatic PC-3 cells occupied all available Tepuis. We argue that this distinct difference in invasiveness is due to contact inhibition. PMID:21474778

  17. Oxaliplatin Plus Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Metastatic Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-24

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Liver Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  18. Kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Linehan, W Marston; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2012-01-01

    Over 65,000 Americans are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year and nearly 13,000 die of this disease. Kidney cancer is not a single disease, it is made up of a number of different types of cancer, each with a different histology, a different clinical course, responding differently to therapy and caused by a different gene. Study of the 13 genes that are known to cause kidney cancer has led to the understanding that kidney cancer is a metabolic disease. Recent discoveries of chromatin remodeling/histone modifying genes, such as PBRM1 and SETD2, have opened up new areas of intense interest in the study of the fundamental genetic basis of kidney cancer. New approaches to immunotherapy with agents such as the CTLA4 inhibitor, ipilumumab, have opened up promising new directions for clinical trials. A number of new agents targeting of VEGF receptor signaling and the mTOR pathways as well as novel approaches targeting HIF2 will hopefully provide the foundation for the development of effective forms of therapy for this disease.

  19. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  20. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  2. What Is Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  3. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  4. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  5. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What Is Stomach Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  6. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... amputation. This is called limb-salvage or limb-sparing surgery . In going over treatment options, it is ... 2016 Treating Bone Cancer Surgery for Bone Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bone Cancer Chemotherapy for Bone Cancer Targeted ...

  7. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Gallbladder Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Gallbladder Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... as it grows. Looking for More of an Overview? If you would like additional introductory information, explore ...

  9. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  10. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  11. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  13. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  14. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  15. Basic Cancer Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  16. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  17. Your cancer care team

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 55. National Cancer Institute. Cancer genetics risk assessment and counseling. Updated July 28, 2016. Cancer.gov. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/genetics/risk-assessment-and-counseling/HealthProfessional/page1 . Accessed August 3, 2016. ...

  18. Stages of Colon Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history affects the risk of developing colon cancer. Anything ... colorectal cancer include the following: Having a family history of colon or rectal cancer in a first- ...

  19. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be similar to widespread ovarian cancer. Fallopian tube cancer This is another rare cancer that is ... to epithelial ovarian cancer. It begins in the tube that carries an egg from the ovary to ...

  20. Association of circulating factor seven activating protease (FSAP) and of oral Omega-3 fatty acids supplements with clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation: the OMEGA-AF study.

    PubMed

    Parahuleva, Mariana S; Kanse, Sandip; Hölschermann, Hans; Zheleva, Kirila; Zandt, Daniel; Worsch, Michael; Parviz, Behnoush; Güttler, Norbert; Tillmanns, Harald; Böning, Andreas; Erdogan, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Factor VII Activating Protease (FSAP) activates factor VII (FVII) as well as pro-urokinase (uPA). Our goal was to evaluate the relation between plasma levels of FSAP and clinical instability in atrial fibrillation (AF) and possible effects of oral omega-3 fatty acids (FA) supplements. 101 patients with persistent AF were analyzed in the OMEGA-AF Study. Plasma FSAP levels were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with omega-3 FA. The median FSAP antigen concentration, in contrast to FSAP activity, was higher in patients with persistent AF. The maintenance of SR after successful cardioversion (CV) did not lead to a normalization of FSAP concentration. Supplementation with omega-3 FA but not placebo significantly reduced elevated FSAP concentration. Furthermore, elevated FSAP levels did not indicate a significantly increased risk of recurrence of AF after electrical CV or cardiovascular clinical events during 1 year of follow-up. Plasma FSAP concentration was increased in patients with AF and may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The possible effects of omega-3 FA on clinical AF potential could be linked with modulation of circulating FSAP levels.

  1. All-trans retinoic acid combined with 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine induces C/EBP{alpha} expression and growth inhibition in MLL-AF9-positive leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiki, Atsushi; Imamura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kawashima, Sachiko; Yoshida, Hideki; Hirashima, Yoshifumi; Miyachi, Mitsuru; Yagyu, Shigeki; Nakatani, Takuya; Sugita, Kanji; Hosoi, Hajime

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested whether ATRA and 5-Aza affect AML cell differentiation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell differentiation and growth arrest were induced in MLL-AF9-expressing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1 were also observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells are less sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different MLL fusion has distinct epigenetic properties related to RA pathway. -- Abstract: The present study tested whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine (5-Aza) affect AML cell differentiation and growth in vitro by acting on the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) and c-Myc axis. After exposure to a combination of these agents, cell differentiation and growth arrest were significantly higher in human and murine MLL-AF9-expressing cells than in MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells, which were partly associated with increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1, and decreased expression of c-Myc. These findings indicate that MLL-AF9-expressing cells are more sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza, indicating that different MLL fusion proteins possess different epigenetic properties associated with retinoic acid pathway inactivation.

  2. Aflatoxin contamination in food and body fluids in relation to malnutrition and cancer status in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchana, Angele N; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  3. Afatinib in Advanced Refractory Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-06

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Cancer

  4. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  5. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  6. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  7. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is ...

  8. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  9. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  10. Enhanced removal of bisphenol-AF onto chitosan-modified zeolite by sodium cholate in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sha; Hao, Kunyan; Han, Feng; Tang, Zheng; Niu, Beibei; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Song

    2015-10-05

    The removal of bisphenol-AF (BPAF) from aqueous solutions onto chitosan-modified zeolite (Ch-Z) in the absence and presence of sodium cholate (NaC) was investigated. It was found that NaC significantly increased the adsorption capacity of Ch-Z for BPAF. At an initial concentration of 100 μmol/L, the removal of BPAF by adsorption onto Ch-Z with NaC was more than ninefold higher than without NaC, and the maximum removal was achieved at a Ch-Z dosage of 1g/L with a NaC concentration of 1.68 mmol/L. Besides, batch studies were performed to evaluate the effects of various experimental parameters on the removal of BPAF. Kinetic studies and adsorption isotherms indicated that the adsorption process of BPAF onto Ch-Z with NaC could be expressed by a pseudo second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. For the enhanced removal, an interaction mechanism was proposed involving the co-effect of BPAF and NaC adsorbed onto Ch-Z.

  11. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Draco and Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from WHT/AF2-WYFFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Lewis, J.; Hartke, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present preliminary results from our chemo-dynamical survey of two Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, Draco and Ursa Minor. The two galaxies have similar radial velocities and reside in close proximity in the outskirts of the Milky Way halo, yet exhibit noteworthy differences in their morphologies. We obtained spectroscopic data with AF2-WYFFOS on the WHT for several hundred red-giant-branch (RGB) candidates in each galaxy out to its tidal radius, from which we have identified approximately 100 velocity members in each system. Metallicities are determined for the individual RGB stars using the Ca II triplet lines. Whereas Ursa Minor shows an RGB population of well-mixed metallicities, a clear gradient is observed in Draco, in which the outer regions host stars of lower [Fe/H]. Such differences may be a reflection of their differing morphologies, with Ursa Minor having been tidally stirred to give rise to both its highly elongated shape and a more mixed [Fe/H] distribution.

  12. Grade-2 Teflon (AF1601) PCF for optical communication using 2D FDTD technique: a simplest design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muduli, N.; Achary, J. S. N.; Padhy, Hemanta ku.

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear ytterbium-doped rectangular proposed PCF structure of inner and outer cladding is used to analyze effective mode field area (Aeff), nonlinear coefficient (γ), dispersion (D), and confinement loss (CL) in a wide range of wavelength. The fabrication of PCF structure is due to different size doped air hole, pitch, and air hole diameter in a regular periodic geometrical array fashion. The various property of PCF structure such as mode field area, nonlinear coefficient, dispersion, and confinement loss are analyzed by implementing 2D FDTD technique. The above PCF property investigated using suitable parameters like Λ1, ?, ?, and ? in three different situations is discussed in simulation. The high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion property of PCF structure are tailored by setting the cladding parameter. However, highly nonlinear fibers with nonzero dispersion at the wavelength of 1.55 μm are very attractive for a range of optical communication application such as laser amplifier, pulse compression, wavelength conversion, all optical switching, and supercontinuum generation. So our newly proposed ytterbium-doped PCF seems to be most suitable exclusively for supercontinuum generation and nonlinear fiber optics. Finally, it is observed that ytterbium-doped Teflon (AF1601) PCF has more nonlinear coefficient (γ(λ) = 65.27 W-1 km-1) as compared to pure silica PCF (γ(λ) = 52 W-1 km-1) design to have same mode field area (Aeff) 1.7 μm2 at an operating wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  13. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified.

  14. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends that men have a chance to ...

  15. The PDZ Protein Canoe/AF-6 Links Ras-MAPK, Notch and Wingless/Wnt Signaling Pathways by Directly Interacting with Ras, Notch and Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Ana; Speicher, Stephan; Baylies, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that signal transduction pathways are not merely linear cascades; they are organized into complex signaling networks that require high levels of regulation to generate precise and unique cell responses. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms by which signaling pathways cross-communicate remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Ras-binding protein Canoe (Cno)/AF-6, a PDZ protein normally associated with cellular junctions, is a key modulator of Wingless (Wg)/Wnt, Ras-Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Notch (N) signaling pathways cross-communication. Our data show a repressive effect of Cno/AF-6 on these three signaling pathways through physical interactions with Ras, N and the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dsh), a key Wg effector. We propose a model in which Cno, through those interactions, actively coordinates, at the membrane level, Ras-MAPK, N and Wg signaling pathways during progenitor specification. PMID:17183697

  16. Asymmetric AB3 Miktoarm Star Polymers: Synthesis, Self-Assembly, and Study of Micelle Stability Using AF4 for Efficient Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Moquin, Alexandre; Sharma, Anjali; Cui, Yiming; Lau, Anthony; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    A simple and versatile methodology, which employs a combination of ring-opening polymerization and alkyne-azide click chemistry to synthesize amphiphilic AB3 miktoarm stars, is reported. Their aqueous self-assembly behavior was studied using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). AB3 miktoarm stars form micelles which incorporate curcumin with high efficiency, and significantly reduce the viability of glioblastoma cells in spheroids. We demonstrate that AF4 is an effective technique to determine the size distribution of self-assembled structures exposed to a biological medium. The ease, with which asymmetric AB3 miktoarm polymers are constructed, provides a platform that can be widely employed to deliver a variety of lipophilic drugs.

  17. Report on the 6th African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG) Meeting, March 12–15, 2009, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Soodyall, Himla; Wonkam, Ambroise; Ramesar, Raj; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    The African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG), founded in 2003 with its inaugural meeting in Accra, Ghana,1 has the stated missions of (1) disseminating information about human genetics research in Africa, (2) establishing a mentorship network providing educational resources, including the development of appropriate technology transfer, (3) providing advocacy for human genetic research in Africa, and (4) encouraging collaborative research. Despite its young age, the AfSHG has developed a strong cadre of active researchers, both within and outside of Africa, with more than 400 members (from 16 countries across Africa as well as 8 other countries), and has held six successful meetings, five in Africa and one in the United States. PMID:20682860

  18. Cancer Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The patient shown is undergoing cancer radiation treatment in a hospital-like atmosphere but he is not in a hospital. The treatment room is at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. It is a converted portion of the Center's cyclotron facility, originally designed for radiation studies related to nuclear propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Under an agreement between the Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the 50 million volt cyclotron is now being used to evaluate the effectiveness of "fast neutron" therapy in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

  19. Cancer immunology

    SciTech Connect

    Herberman, R.B. )

    1986-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: Immunlogy of human T-cell leukemia/lymphonma (lymphotropic) viruses (the HTLV 'family'); Tumor specific antigens induced by mutagens and DNA hypomethylating agents: implications for the immunobiology of neoplasia; Destruction of tumor cells by macrophages: mechanisms of recognition and lysis and their regulation; Mechanisms of NK-cell mediated cytotoxicity; Role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of tumor growth and metastatic spread; Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer; preclinical models and investigations in humans; and Abnormalities in interleukin 2 production and response in cancer and possible therapeutic approaches.

  20. Penile Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209