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Sample records for af soomaali spanish

  1. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Wildfires Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) PDF Healthy ...

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Amharic (amarunya) Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU) English amarunya (Amharic) PDF ...

  3. Diabetic Nerve Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Diabetic Nerve Problems - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  4. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Fluid and Electrolyte Balance - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  5. Shingles - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Shingles - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified ( ...

  6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  7. Dislocations - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Dislocations - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  8. Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Thyroid Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  9. Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  10. Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Deep Vein Thrombosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  11. Wrist Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Wrist Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  12. Wildfires - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Wildfires English (Arabic) حرائق الغابات - العربية Multimedia ...

  13. Fire Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Fire Safety at Home English (Arabic) السلامة ...

  14. Winter Weather Emergencies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Sirens and Telephone Alerts English (Arabic) صفارات ...

  15. Tornadoes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Sirens and Telephone Alerts English (Arabic) صفارات ...

  16. Arm Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, ...

  17. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Lying ( ...

  18. Spanish Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)

  19. Spanish Literacy Investigation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia

    The Spanish Literacy Investigation Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…

  20. For Spanish Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Yolanda

    1979-01-01

    Reviews eight children's books written in Spanish and one written in both Spanish and English. One is a book of riddles; the others deal with the topics of animals, minerals, plants and flowers, Indians, and pirates. (GT)

  1. Transnational Spanish Language Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavillan, Eva; And Others

    The Transnational Spanish Language Project curriculum is a set of instructional materials designed to enhance intercultural business communication between North American and Spanish American cultures. The curriculum covers three areas: office procedures; banking; and import/export business. Lessons, all in Spanish, are intended for…

  2. Secondary School Languages: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This curriculum guide outlines three programs for secondary school Spanish instruction, each program covering grades 9, 10, and 11 in British Columbian schools. Each outline specifies basic texts, supplementary readings, and teaching aids. In addition, a very basic outline of a beginner's Spanish 11 is offered, and a Spanish 12 literature course…

  3. A new AF gravitational instanton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2011-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that the Euclidean Schwarzschild and Euclidean Kerr instantons are the only non-trivial asymptotically flat (AF) gravitational instantons. In this Letter, we show that this conjecture is false by explicitly constructing a new two-parameter AF gravitational instanton with a U (1) × U (1) isometry group, using the inverse-scattering method. It has Euler number χ = 3 and Hirzebruch signature τ = 1, and its global topology is CP2 with a circle S1 removed appropriately. Various other properties of this gravitational instanton are also discussed.

  4. Edema - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/languages/edema.html Other topics A-Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Edema - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  5. Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/languages/crohnsdisease.html Other topics A-Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Crohn's Disease - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  6. Ulcerative Colitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Ulcerative Colitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  7. Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  8. Skin Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Skin Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  9. Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Topics All Hearing Disorders and Deafness - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ...

  10. Dementia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 認知症の種類 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Legal Plans: Assisting the Person with Dementia ...

  11. Burns - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 火傷のケア - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Burn Care 화상 관리 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  12. Back Pain - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 背中のための体操 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Exercises for Your Back 허리운동 - 한국어 (Korean) ...

  13. Sprains and Strains - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 足首のねんざ - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Ankle Sprain 발목 염좌 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... 脳の損傷の種類 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (한국어) Brain Scan 뇌 스캔 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual ...

  15. Colonoscopy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Languages Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng ...

  16. Throat Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Throat Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  17. Diabetes Type 1 - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Diabetes Type 1 - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  18. Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  19. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  20. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  1. Pain Relievers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Pain Relievers - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ...

  2. Diabetes Type 2 - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of All Topics All Diabetes Type 2 - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ...

  3. Shoulder Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Korean (한국어) ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Active Range of Motion Exercises: Wrists, Elbows, ...

  4. Angioplasty - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Heart Cath and Heart Angioplasty (Arabic) شرايين ...

  5. Rehabilitation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Active Hand Exercises (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF ...

  6. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Breastfeeding Basics (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  7. Vascular Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Angiogram (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  8. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Atrial Fibrillation (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  9. Floods - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) French (français) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Floods and Flash Flooding English (Arabic) السریعة ...

  10. Heat Illness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Heat Waves English (Arabic) الموجات الحارة - العربية ...

  11. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Animal Bites and Scratches (Arabic) العض والخدش ...

  12. Finger Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Active Hand Exercises (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF ...

  13. Cancer--Living with Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Changes in Taste and Smell with Cancer ...

  14. Urinary Incontinence - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Care of a Foley Catheter (Arabic) العربية ...

  15. Fractures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हि ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) How to Wear and Care for Your ...

  16. Radiation Emergencies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Decontamination (Arabic) التطهير - العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  17. Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) A Healthy Pregnancy (Arabic) الحمل الصحي - العربية ...

  18. Dialysis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Dialysis (Arabic) غسيل الكلى - العربية Bilingual PDF ...

  19. Falls - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Preventing Falls in the Hospital (Arabic) الوقاية ...

  20. Colonoscopy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Colonoscopy with Bowel Prep: Go-Lytely, Colyte, ...

  1. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) our Recovery After Cesarean Birth: Part 2 ...

  2. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Breast Biopsy (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  3. Hurricanes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosanski) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Sirens and Telephone Alerts English (Arabic) صفارات الإنذار والتحذیرات الھاتفیة - العربية PDF Healthy Roads Media Bosnian (Bosanski) Sirens and Telephone Alerts English Sirene i Telefonska Upozorenja - ...

  4. Talking With Your Doctor - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ... 되세요 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Russian (Русский) Be Our Partner for Saft Health Care ...

  5. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    registered with Defense Technical Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station ...Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 U’ B...Contract No. F08637 84 C0070. The locations of these installations are shown in Figure 1. INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION Galena AFS * Galena Air Force Station

  6. Teaching Spanish to the Spanish Speaking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes Fallis, Guadalupe, Ed.; Garcia-Moya, Rudolfo, Ed.

    This volume gathers a sampling of educators' ideas on the issue of the role of the non-standard dialect in the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers. Part one, "Rationale for the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking," deals with philosophy and theory and contains papers by Guadalupe Valdes Fallis and Nasario Garcia. Part two,…

  7. Fiesta, Spanish-S: 7509.73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyar, Olga C.

    This course is intended to teach the student about Spanish and Latin American culture in order to broaden his capacity for understanding and appreciating those cultures. The subject matter in this course is the folklore, customs, types of food, and music of a culture as seen through holidays, festivals, styles, and special occasions. Learning…

  8. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  9. Spicing up Spanish Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Cawood; Vest, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a "habanero" (extremely hot) lesson to engage first-year Spanish language students in an in-depth study of Spanish-speaking countries? This article offers an overview of how the authors used 21st-century tools to get students excited about the not-so-new assignment of reporting on the people and culture of another country. Chances are,…

  10. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  11. The Acquisition of Spanish Grammar by Native Spanish Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gustavo

    The normal sequence of development of Spanish phonology and Spanish grammatical patterns in the speech of native Spanish-speaking children, two to five years old, was studied to determine the syntactic structures and range of language variability at each chronological age level. Middle-class children, living in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of…

  12. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  13. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  14. I Can Speak Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational Spanish in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  15. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  16. Spanish-Speaking Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…

  17. Spanish Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honea, Clara Pena; And Others

    Facts about Hispanic civilization, history, and culture are compiled to provide a resource for educators and students. Overviews are presented of the history and geographical features of Spain and Latin America, major personalities of the Hispanic world, aspects of Hispanic culture and religion, features of the Spanish language, Hispanic…

  18. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  19. The Spanish Texans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., San Antonio. Inst. of Texan Cultures.

    Prepared by the staff of the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, this pamphlet is one of a series which reports contributions made by ethnic groups to the history and culture of Texas. Specifically, historical incidents involving Spanish explorers and missionaries are discussed, relating their contributions to Texas.…

  20. Spanish Vowel Sandhi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Sandra Pinkerton

    The effects of syllable timing and syllable sequence type on vowel sandhi in Spanish are investigated in this paper. It is argued that structuralist and generative treatments of vowel sandhi, which are characterized by generalizations about vowel "shortening" and dropping and glide formation, are inadequate because they focus exclusively…

  1. Spanish Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  2. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  3. Developmental assessment of Spanish grammar.

    PubMed

    Toronto, A S

    1976-05-01

    The Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar (DASG) provides a language analysis procedure for Spanish-speaking children similar to the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure in English. The DASG is not an attempted translation of the DSS but was developed independently, taking into consideration the present knowledge of Spanish language acquisition. The purpose of the DASG is to evaluate the language of children with deficient grammatical skills in Spanish and to serve as a model for structuring Spanish language therapy. Proposed syntactic hierarchies for the following six grammatical categories are presented: indefinite pronouns and noun modifiers, personal pronouns, primary verbs, secondary verbs, conjunctions, and interrogative words. Weighted scores are assigned to groups of structures within the hierarchies and are used to score Spanish sentences children use spontaneously in conversation with an adult. The DASG was standardized on 128 Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 3.0 and 6.11 years. Norms and reliability measures are presented.

  4. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  7. "Castellano" y "Espanol" (Castilian and Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the term "Castilian" should replace "Spanish" to denote the Castilian form of the language. "Spanish" may then be a more inclusive term, enbracing all the dialects of the language. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  8. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  9. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  10. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reider, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions…

  11. Conversational Spanish: Quick and Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saloom, Barbara B.

    Prepared for the adult or college student who wants to attain a speaking knowledge of Spanish spoken in Hispanic America, this book places more emphasis on communication and comprehension than on grammatical depth. It does not presuppose a knowledge of Spanish or experience with a second language. Emphasis is on repetition. Each lesson includes…

  12. AMERICAN SOURCES OF SPANISH REALIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Teachers Coll., Emporia.

    DESIGNED FOR SPANISH TEACHERS AT ALL LEVELS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED SPANISH REALIA CURRENTLY AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES CONTAINS SECTIONS OF PICTURES, SLIDES, FLIMS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES, TAPES AND PHONOGRAPH RECORDS, AND PINS AND MEDALS. EACH ITEM IS ANNOTATED FOR CONTENT, COST (WHEN APPROPRIATE), NAME AND ADDRESS OF…

  13. Acculturators for Spanish, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce Spanish language students to peninsular and Spanish-American culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his own…

  14. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  15. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  16. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  17. [The Spanish influenza pandemic].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2007-12-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, so-called Spanish influenza, spread to almost all nations worldwide. This outbreak is thought to have killed 25 million people, although some have claimed that the epidemic resulted in as many as 40 million deaths. This pandemic was a particularly dramatic event, because it occurred at the end of World War I, when both armies and the civilian population, in nations involved in the war, were exhausted. In Italy 600,000 people are estimated to have died of Spanish influenza. Together with the death of 650,000 soldiers during the war, this had a major demographic impact. We describe the course of the epidemic in Italy as a whole and in Bologna in particular. In Bologna and in its province we analysed the lists drawn up at the end of the World War I by the Central Records Office in Bologna, which coordinated research into causes of death of soldiers engaged in the conflict. We also examined the trend of burials at Certosa in Bologna in the first decades of the last century in order to establish, during the two-year period 1918-1919, the impact of the epidemic upon annual mortality. In Bologna the impact of the epidemic, albeit important in comparison to other situations, was not particularly dramatic. No special preventive measures were adopted, with the exception of isolating seriously ill patients in a former school converted by the military authorities into a hospital. Family doctors worked together actively with the city's medical authorities when the epidemiological survey was carried out.

  18. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  19. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the...

  1. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  2. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  3. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Barium Swallow (Arabic) مويرابلا علب رابتخا - العربية ...

  4. Vaginal Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Colposcopy (Arabic) فحص المهبل بالمنظار - العربية Bilingual ...

  5. Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Japanese (日本語) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Nebulizer Treatments (Arabic) العلاج بالبخاخات - العربية Bilingual ...

  6. Arrhythmia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) (Arabic) العربية Bilingual ...

  7. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Japanese (日本語) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) Advance Directives (Arabic) التوجيهات المسبقة - العربية Bilingual ...

  8. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Child Safety Checklist (Arabic) القائمة الخاصة بسلامة ...

  9. Anemia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Anemia (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  10. Mobility Aids - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Using a Cane (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF ...

  11. Disaster Preparation and Recovery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Armenian (Հայերեն) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Blackouts English (Arabic) انقطاع التیارالكھربائي - العربية Multimedia ...

  12. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Bone Scan (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health ...

  13. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Bronchitis (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  14. Appendicitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Arabic (العربية) Appendectomy (Arabic) استئصال الزائدة الدودية - العربية Bilingual ...

  15. Ankle Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  17. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Angina - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Gum Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) ... 치은염 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Russian (Русский) Gingivitis Гингивит - Русский (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  20. Wounds and Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Arabic (العربية) ... 없이 - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Russian (Русский) Diabetes and Wound Healing Диабет и заживление ...

  1. Coaxially electrospun PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats with superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2010-08-03

    This work reports the coaxial electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats yielding superhydrophobic properties. The coaxial electrospinning configuration allows for the electrospinning of Teflon AF, a nonelectrospinnable polymer, with the help of an electrospinnable PVDF polymer. PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath fibers have been found to a have mean fiber diameter ranging from 400 nm to less than 100 nm. TEM micrographs exhibit a typical core-sheath fiber structure for these fibers, where the sheath fiber coats the core fiber almost thoroughly. Water contact angle measurements by sessile drop method on these core-sheath nanofiber mats exhibited superhydrophobic characteristics with contact angles close to or higher than 150 degrees. Surprisingly, PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF nanofiber mat surface properties were dominated by the fiber dimensions and less influenced by the type of sheath polymer. This suggests that highly fluorinated polymer Teflon AF does not advance the hydrophobicity beyond what surface physics and slightly fluorinated polymer PVDF can achieve. It is concluded that PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath electrospun nanofiber mats may be used in lithium (Li)-air batteries.

  2. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  3. [Spanish flu related data].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-10-01

    Swine flu epidemic is a current topic, and data relating to Spanish flu pandemic from 1918 to 1920 were presented for your information. Monthly trend of number of deaths due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchopneumonia together with PTB, other TB and TB of all forms from 1917 to 1920 was presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Flu epidemics in early 1917 and from winter 1917 to spring 1818 were so-called common seasonal flu epidemic, however, new pandemic started from October 1918, and the number of deaths due to flu increased 14 times compared with previous month in October, 19 times in November, and the pandemic reached the summit, and started to decrease from December, however, marked decline was seen only after April 1919. The number of deaths due to flu started to increase again from November 1919, and reached its summit again in January 1920, and the pandemic ended in July. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza in 1918 was shown in Fig. 2. The rate was high among infants, 20s and 30s and elderly, and by sex, the rate of female was higher below 35 and lower above 35. The number of deaths due to acute bronchitis and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fluctuated in parallel with that of influenza, and deaths due to these conditions were very difficult to differentiate, and the impact of flu could better be evaluated by summing up all these three conditions, the sum of deaths due to three conditions was expressed as influenza related death. The proportion of deaths due to three conditions by age group was shown in Fig. 3. The proportion of acute bronchitis was high in infants and elderly, and in the other age groups, influenza occupied around 30% and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia around 70% of influenza related death. Total number of deaths due to influenza related diseases from 1918 to 1920 was 816,884, and the annual rate was 489.4 per 100,000. Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza related diseases was shown in

  4. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    1992-01-01

    Eight business Spanish texts were examined to learn about the cultural content of the business Spanish curriculum. Questions of cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques, and use of authentic materials were considered. (16 references) (LB)

  5. Lengua espanola o castellana? (Spanish or Castilian?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaro Carreter, Fernando

    1976-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the debate concerning usage of the terms "castellano" and "espanol" referring to the Spanish language. Development of the language and the question of standardization are touched on. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  7. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  8. English Loanwords in Spanish Computer Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabanillas, Isabel de la Cruz; Martinez, Cristina Tejedor; Prados, Mercedes Diez; Redondo, Esperanza Cerda

    2007-01-01

    Contact with the English language, especially from the 20th century onwards, has had as a consequence an increase in the number of words that are borrowed from English into Spanish. This process is particularly noticeable in Spanish for Specific Purposes, and, more specifically, in the case of Spanish computer language. Although sociocultural and…

  9. Spanish Language Health Materials: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Roberto G., Ed.; And Others

    This selected bibliography, compiled from recommendations by practicing librarians providing service to Spanish-speaking communities, includes Spanish and bilingual Spanish/English materials dealing with health. The topic is broadly defined to include any conditions which affect a person's well-being, and includes alcohol and drugs, consumer…

  10. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  11. CINDOC, CSIC, and Spanish R and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaviesca, Rosa

    1994-01-01

    The organizational structure and functional activities of the Spanish Center for Scientific Information and Documentation (CINDOC) are discussed. The library holds 8,500 journals, including all the Spanish scientific journals; 16,000 books and 20 CD-ROM data bases. CINDOC creates and distributes its own data bases that include all the articles published in Spanish scientific journals.

  12. "How": The Missing Interrogative in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, M. Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Describes a comparative study of interrogative words in Spanish and English, which resulted in a series of hypotheses about the way Spanish speakers convey the interrogative how plus adjective or adverb. To test the hypotheses, surveys were conducted with native Spanish speakers. Surveys and results are discussed. (AMH)

  13. Composition Courses in Spanish: Revolution or Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bou, Myrsa Landron

    Because of the pressures of modernization and other cultural factors, freshmen students at the University of the Sacred Heart in Puerto Rico lack basic communication skills in both Spanish and English. At present, there is no composition course in Spanish at the college, and the basic Spanish textbook currently in use reflects attitudes on…

  14. The Sources of Error in Spanish Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justicia, Fernando; Defior, Sylvia; Pelegrina, Santiago; Martos, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    Determines the pattern of errors in Spanish spelling. Analyzes and proposes a classification system for the errors made by children in the initial stages of the acquisition of spelling skills. Finds the diverse forms of only 20 Spanish words produces 36% of the spelling errors in Spanish; and substitution is the most frequent type of error. (RS)

  15. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  16. Spanish Guide. Kindergarten. Michigan Oral Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Jesse M.; And Others

    This guide, designed for use by kindergarten teachers, to teach Spanish to speakers of other languages and to teach standard Spanish to speakers of non-standard Spanish, contains 136 half hour lessons, covering the school year. The completely oral program presents a structured sequence of language learning experiences geared to the children's…

  17. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  18. Vocalic Variations in Spanish Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Linda Schwartz; Sanders, Gerald A.

    1977-01-01

    Roots of Spanish verbs exhibit systematic vowel alternations. In traditional accounts of these alternations, the mid simplex nuclei are assumed to be basic, with complex nuclei being derived from them by rule. This paper suggests an alternative analysis assuming that the complex nuclei are more basic than the simplex ones. (CHK)

  19. Guidance Services in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Diez, Gloria; Vieira, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 80s, higher education in Spain has undergone important modifications such as greater autonomy, expansion in the number of students and the introduction of more flexible programmes. In this context, guidance services have proliferated in an unstructured way. This paper presents a description of guidance services in Spanish universities…

  20. 1,000 Spanish Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    The idioms, rated numerically on frequency of occurrence and prevailing usage, are presented with an illustrative example and English translation. An alphabetical listing of the English translations of the Spanish idioms includes reference to page citation and frequency of usage. Appendixes contain a sample evaluation sheet used in the selection…

  1. Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

    Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

  2. Teaching Sociocultural Literacy. Spanish Fiesta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenwood, Alun

    1998-01-01

    Describes the rich, historical tradition of festivals in Spain, explaining that a multidisciplinary focus is necessary to understand the full significance of fiesta in Spain (geography, history, music, literature, and the fine arts). Students should be encouraged to study Spanish fiestas in order to develop a deep understanding of the diversity of…

  3. Spanglish: An Anglicized Spanish Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The blend between Spanish and English found in Hispanic or Latino communities in the United States is usually known as "Spanglish." It is suggested that Spanglish represents the most important contemporary linguistic phenomenon in the United States that has barely been approached from a linguistic point of view. Spanglish may be…

  4. Spanish Language Workbook (In Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Santiago (Chile).

    This guide is designed for the Spanish language training of Peace Corps workers in Chile and reflects daily communication needs in that context. The workbook contains a series of sentence completion exercises at the intermediate to advanced level, notes and exercises on metric system conversion, verb/substantive lists, specialized vocabulary lists…

  5. The Spanish-Language Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criticas: An English Speaker's Guide to the Latest Spanish Language Titles, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a meeting with a group of experts including Leylha Ahuile, Rene Alegria, Rueben Martinez, Diana Martinez Calice, Silvia Matute, Anne Messitte, and Teresa Mlawer from the Spanish language market for books. Topics include publishing; school and library markets; bookstores; the role of the Latino press and Latino authors; coverage in…

  6. Bibliography of Spanish Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharples, Hedley, Comp.

    This guide for teachers to books, tapes, instructional aids, and materials on Spain and Latin America is classified into 10 major sections. They include: (1) courses, (2) drills and exercises, (3) reference grammars, (4) prose, translation, and composition, (5) linguistic aspects of Spanish, (6) readers, (7) periodicals, (8) dictionaries and…

  7. A Spanish American War Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a database used by honors high school U.S. history students learning about the Spanish-American War. Reports that the students compiled the database. Includes some of the historical background of the war, questions for study, a database key, and a table showing U.S. senators' votes relating to the War. (SG)

  8. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  13. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  14. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  15. Compliance Testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, Coal-Fired Boiler 1 Clear AFS, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Background On 3 February 1987 Clear AFS requested a permit modification to allow limited burning of waste oil for their power plant shown in Figure 1...The Alaska DEC rescindel Permit to Operate No. 8331-AA003 and issued Permit No. 8731-AA004 (Appendix B) allowing the burning of waste oil. As a...below. 1. Visible Emissions (18 AAC 50.050(a)) Visible emissions, excluding condensed water vapor from an industrial process or fuel burning

  16. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Girart, J. M.; Hernanz, M.; Jordi, C.

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future. Link: http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-22-173725709-0&changeHeader=true

  17. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  18. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  4. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  5. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  6. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  7. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  8. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  9. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  10. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  11. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. Career Spanish at Mesa State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkenton, David

    The development and results of Career Spanish instruction at Mesa State College in Colorado from 1975 to 1991 are described. The class is an individualized, career-oriented class for students who have only 3 to 6 semester hours available for foreign language study and an interest in particular vocational applications of Spanish. With no…

  13. Bibliografia en Espanol (Bibliography in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Teachers, librarians and resource teachers are provided with a list of 110 high quality books in the Spanish language which will help the needs of limited and non-English-speaking students. The entries are annotated in English and graded "Primary,""Intermediate," and/or "Junior High." Four of the stories are classified as Spanish/English. The…

  14. Spanish. A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This pocket-sized guide is designed to enable the learner to carry on simple conversations in Spanish. It is not intended to give a complete command of the Spanish language. The first section, "Useful Words and Phrases," includes these topics: Greetings and General Phrases, Location (e.g. Where is the restaurant?), Directions (e.g. to the right),…

  15. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  16. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Spanish-speaking adolescents' interests and tastes in books vary as much as those of their English-speaking counterparts. This annotated bibliography includes brief short stories, realistic novels, an Internet guide, engrossing mysteries, passionate poems, all recently published books available for Spanish-speaking adolescents. (AEF)

  17. Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population: Selected Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.

    Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…

  18. A Spanish-Language Preschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, James

    The Carpinteria school district in California has developed a model preschool program to bring Spanish-dominant preschool children up to a level of readiness for school that compares favorably with that of English-speaking children in the same community. That goal is achieved by developing skills in four major areas: Spanish language, cognition,…

  19. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  20. Defying Analysis: Spanish-American Plural Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romens, Thomas L.

    Spanish American plural formation is discussed in relation to attempts that have been made to write a set of phonological rules that would correctly predict the Spanish plural using a combination of phonological rules and word structure constraints. A brief synopsis is resented of why previous attempts to predict the plural are in error.…

  1. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 18 titles that appeal to Spanish-speaking teens under the categories of contemporary novels, historical fiction, longtime favorites, health, and myths and legends. A sidebar lists dealers of books in Spanish for children and young adults. (LRW)

  2. Black/Indian Interaction in Spanish Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    The history of the lives of non-white peoples in the United States largely has been neglected although the Spanish bureaucrats kept meticulous records of the Spanish Mission period in Florida. These records represent an important source for the cultural history of these groups and offer new perspectives on the tri-racial nature of frontier…

  3. A Marketing Strategy for Spanish for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The development of a marketing strategy for business Spanish courses by means of situational analysis is described. The planner of marketing strategy must consider demand for a course, institutional acceptance, and financial support. A survey of 508 universities revealed a low level of demand for business Spanish which could potentially be…

  4. A Reading Study of Spanish Heritage Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hislope, Kristi

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the self-reported reading habits and levels of ability in reading of ten heritage speakers of Spanish enrolled in Spanish classes at Purdue University. Results warrant more explicit focus on form instruction and activation of background knowledge for heritage speakers. (Author/VWL)

  5. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  6. Subverting Cervantes: Language Authority in Global Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to situate Spanish as a global language by exploring both the top-down institutional processes that promote it and the bottom-up grassroots actions that are also increasingly important in the spread and maintenance of global Spanish. This article argues that one of the most important influences now in the explosion of Spanish…

  7. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Video Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The transcripts of dialogues from videotape recordings were developed, along with accompanying language laboratory material, as part of a one-semester course in Spanish for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America. Included are 48 episodes covering such topics as: working with a local Spanish-speaking counterpart,…

  8. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  9. Variation in Conversational Discourse: Spanish "Pragmatic Expressions."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    This study reports on preliminary findings of two research projects conducted during the 1988-89 and 1990-91 in Cordoba, Argentina, that examined fixed, idiomatic, Spanish-language expressions that are very common, but often ignored, in oral Spanish discourse. Study 1 subjects were 13 university-educated, adults, born in the city; study 2 subjects…

  10. How To Learn Spanish the Easy Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampe, Livia

    An approach to learning Spanish is presented in this guide that builds on the similarities of alphabet, structure, and vocabulary between Spanish and English. The first two introductory lessons deal with the similarities and differences of the alphabet and sentence structure, and the third covers important words to memorize, including…

  11. Selecting Books in Spanish To Teach Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Victoria R.; Bennett, Tom R.; Bullock, Cathy

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a resource for identifying and obtaining high-quality children's literature printed in Spanish and published worldwide. Presents some guidelines for selecting literature to teach mathematics. Provides specific examples of Spanish language books that are high-quality and have strong potential for furthering students' mathematical…

  12. The Spanish Family Guidance Center of Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center: Research Bulletin, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Two major programs of the Spanish Family Guidance Center, a facility that addresses the mental health needs of Hispanics in the Greater Miami (Florida) area, are described in this report. One program, the Spanish Drug Rehabilitation Project (completed in 1977), compared a series of activities including: (1) research on the characteristics of…

  13. Baseball--Beisbol: Spanish--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This pamphlet is an alphabetical English-Spanish listing of more than three hundred words, phrases, and sentences related to the game of baseball as it is reported in Mexico City, in border towns, and in Spanish language newspapers in the United States. At the end of this dictionary are listed the major league teams of the United States and Canada…

  14. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  15. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  16. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  17. Fictive Motion in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Ana; Valenzuela, Javier

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes fictive motion expressions in English and Spanish with the twofold aim of (a) finding out whether the differences that have been reported in the expression of motion in English and Spanish also apply to fictive motion, and (b) checking whether the similarities and differences reported by Matsumoto for English and Japanese also…

  18. THE SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    THE SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO ARE UNDERGOING GREAT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE. THEIR VILLAGE CULTURE, FORMED IN ISOLATION NEAR IRRIGATED LAND WHICH HAD REMAINED REMARKABLY STABLE FOR SEVERAL HUNDRED YEARS, IS BREAKING DOWN. THE SPANISH AMERICANS ARE LEAVING THEIR VILLAGES AND MIGRATING TO INDUSTRIAL CENTERS. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THIS…

  19. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  20. [Pioneers of Spanish dermatologic surgery].

    PubMed

    Del Río, E

    2008-06-01

    Even before dermatology was born as a specialty at the beginning of the 19th century, most skin lesions and dermatoses tended to be treated by surgeons rather than physicians. After medicine and surgery were unified into a single discipline and dermatology emerged as a modern specialty, this relationship became blurred and Spanish dermatologists leaned more towards medicine than surgery. Then improvements in surgical techniques, knowledge of antiseptic and aseptic procedures, the development and introduction of anesthesia, and the greater interest in micrographic approaches led to the rediscovery and almost complete rebirth of this old surgical tradition in the second half of the 19th century. In Spain, dermatologic surgery as such did not really exist until the first third of the 20th century, when Enrique Alvarez Sainz de Aja and Vicente Gimeno emerged as the main exponents of this discipline. Of these 2, Alvarez Sainz de Aja drawing on his previous experience as a general surgeon and obstetrician was the better practitioner of the incipient dermatologic surgery. The other, Gimeno, wrote an interesting booklet on dermatologic surgery that was published in 1923 and that formed the basis of his inaugural speech to the Spanish Royal National Academy of Medicine.

  1. Reading prosody in Spanish dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic representations of words, it is possible that their use of prosody when reading differs from that of typical readers. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the reading prosody of Spanish-speaking dyslexics differs from that of typical Spanish readers. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment involved 36 children (18 with dyslexia), and the second involved 46 adults (23 with dyslexia). Participants were asked to read aloud a text which included declarative, exclamatory and interrogative sentences. Data on pausing and reading rate (number of pauses, duration of pauses and utterances), pitch changes, intensity changes and syllable lengthening were extracted from the recordings. We found that dyslexic people read more slowly than typical readers and they also made more inappropriate and longer pauses, even as adults with considerable reading experience. We also observed that dyslexics differed from skilled readers in their use of some prosodic features, particularly pitch changes at the end of sentences. This is probably because they have trouble anticipating some structural features of prose, such as sentence ends.

  2. Spanish health information resources for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Becky

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Spanish-speakers currently constitute 1 in 10 U.S. households, and the number is expected to rise. To provide responsible and responsive care, many nurses will need to develop communication skills for working with Spanish speakers and be able to find quality, reliable health information in Spanish for their patients and patients' families. A number of efforts have been described in the literature. This article augments prior efforts by providing nurses with resources for learning key words and phrases, sources to increase awareness of and sensitivity to cultural nuances, reliable consumer Web resources for Spanish-speaking patients, and tips for evaluating Spanish language health information on other Web sites.

  3. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    OBSERVATIONS) L P- 14 H~N A A-F S .~ 73-F2 ____ JA&,. ALL WI- LAt E -- .. - - 6 7 0 11 16 17 21 22 27 28- 33 34 *0 41 A7 48 5 .7 * . .3 .4 .4 . 1 . i E...PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4LL . LAT -E- - 10 1 1 i 7 23 22 ’ 2 3 3 A 40 A 3 5 A7 A • ’ .. 5 .t",5...SCOTT A. APR 03 UNCLASSIFIED USAFETAC/DS-83/019 SBI-AD-EB50 397 F/6 4/2 NL SU 2. lii .0 EM *,*,- Ica L- 11111 1.25 s~w ,r- 1 . 11.6 I MiCRQ OPY

  4. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  5. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  6. Spanish Courses for Spanish Speakers: Partial Listing of Programs. [and] Spanish Materials Being Used in Courses for Native Spanish Speakers at the Secondary Level. CLEAR Materials Resource Series, Numbers 3 and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Dan; Willetts, Karen

    Two numbers of the CLEAR Materials Resource Series that both deal with teaching Spanish to native Spanish speakers have been combined. Number three provides a brief description of the courses and curricula developed by various school districts for the teaching of Spanish language arts to native speakers of Spanish at the elementary and secondary…

  7. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  8. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  9. Attitudes of Teachers of Spanish as a Foreign Language toward Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Students in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Rossana Ramirez

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the attitudes of teachers of Spanish as a foreign language toward teaching Spanish to Hispanic American students--students who often possess oral fluency in Spanish but lack reading and writing skills in Spanish. The research was guided by four questions about the teachers' attitudes toward the…

  10. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  11. Intonational phonology description of Porteno Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjam, John P.

    2003-10-01

    In this study the intonational patterns of Porteno Spanish (PS) are described within an Autosegmental Metrical (AM) (Ladd, 1996) approach. Porteno Spanish is the Spanish spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and because of the influence from Italian and other languages, it differs markedly from varieties of Spanish that have been previously described. Six monolingual PS speakers were recorded saying 99 sentences which include declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives, and focused declarative and interrogative sentences. A ToBI framework, based on the F0 contour, was developed for labeling the sentences intonation. Preliminary results suggest that each phrase contains a somewhat regular pattern: (1) the stressed syllables of content words carry one of five pre-nuclear pitch accents, (2) nuclear pitch accents are more restrictive and tend to vary depending on the sentence type, and (3) boundary tones, both intermediate and intonational, are regular but also vary depending on sentence type.

  12. Sabiperones A-F, new diterpenoids from Juniperus sabina.

    PubMed

    Janar, Jenis; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Wong, Chin Piow; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Six new diterpenoids, sabiperones A-F (1-6) have been isolated from the aerial part of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. Sabiperone F showed moderate cell growth inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines.

  13. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  14. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  15. The Spanish participation in the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  16. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  17. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  18. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  19. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  20. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  1. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  2. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  3. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  4. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  5. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  6. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL, Unit 6, Grade 2, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Spanish for second graders is explored in the instructional and assessment activities of the unit six Spanish as a Second Language strand. The function of the strand is to help provide the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary needed for effective communication in a bilingual environment. Focus, objective, and materials for…

  7. El espanol con gusto - Spanish with Pleasure: A Television Course in Beginning College Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semprun, Morahima de

    Sixty-four Spanish lessons for use in a televised beginning college Spanish program are presented in this text. Lessons include exercises, verb study, conversation, vocabulary development, and grammatical analysis. Fundamental to the course is the belief that mastery of grammar can only be achieved through conversation. As a consequence, lessons…

  8. Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

    2011-01-01

    This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

  9. The Acquisition of Prosodic Word Structures in Spanish by Monolingual and Spanish-German Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleo, Conxita

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the constraints on Prosodic Word production in Spanish by three monolingual and three Spanish-German bilingual children from the beginning of word production until 2;2. It also considers the relationship between Prosodic Words and Phonological Phrases, and in the case of monosyllabic words, it takes into consideration…

  10. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  11. The Spanish Lexical Base of Old St. Augustine Mahonese: A Missing Link in Florida Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasico, Philip D.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the historical background and the demographical characteristics of those residents of St. Augustine, Florida, who are descended from the city's original Spanish and Minorcan population. Included are a list and analysis of words found in the English dialect which represent the lexical vestiges of colonial Florida Spanish. (SED)

  12. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…

  13. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  14. Interaction between Subunits of Heterodimeric Splicing Factor U2AF Is Essential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Kanaar, Roland; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor), plays a critical role in 3′ splice site selection. Although the U2AF subunits associate in a tight complex, biochemical experiments designed to address the requirement for both subunits in splicing have yielded conflicting results. We have taken a genetic approach to assess the requirement for the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer in vivo. We developed a novel Escherichia coli copurification assay to map the domain on the Drosophila U2AF large subunit (dU2AF50) that interacts with the Drosophila small subunit (dU2AF38). A 28-amino-acid fragment on dU2AF50 that is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with dU2AF38 was identified. Using the copurification assay, we scanned this 28-amino-acid interaction domain for mutations that abrogate heterodimer formation. A collection of these dU2AF50 point mutants was then tested in vivo for genetic complementation of a recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. A mutation that completely abolished interaction with dU2AF38 was incapable of complementation, whereas dU2AF50 mutations that did not effect heterodimer formation rescued the recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. Analysis of heterodimer formation in embryo extracts derived from these interaction mutant lines revealed a perfect correlation between the efficiency of subunit association and the ability to complement the dU2AF50 recessive lethal allele. These data indicate that Drosophila U2AF heterodimer formation is essential for viability in vivo, consistent with a requirement for both subunits in splicing in vitro. PMID:9528748

  15. Performance of Boer-Spanish and Spanish goats in Texas I: Body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Waldron, D F; Herring, A D

    2013-10-01

    Production records from 291 Boer-Spanish and Spanish does, collected between 1994 and 2004 in the Edwards Plateau region of West Texas, were examined to compare Boer-Spanish and Spanish does for body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned. Traits were analyzed using single-trait mixed models. Boer-Spanish does were heavier at birth than Spanish does (2.79 vs. 2.67 kg, P = 0.05) but similar weight at weaning (15.2 vs. 15.0 kg, P = 0.59). Boer-Spanish does had a heavier body weight at breeding than Spanish does (46.5 vs. 43.5 kg, P < 0.01). Boer-Spanish does had similar fertility over 8 annual breeding seasons (0.87 vs. 0.84, P = .22). Boer-Spanish does had an advantage over Spanish does for fertility to a 30-d breeding season (0.53 vs. 0.48; P = .09). Boer-Spanish does produced more kids than Spanish does (1.70 vs. 1.62, P = .09). Boer-Spanish does weaned a similar number of kids (1.30 vs. 1.31, P = .76). Age of doe significantly affected (P < 0.05) both number of kids born and number of kids weaned, with older does giving birth to, and weaning, more kids. Boer-Spanish does had greater birth weight, body weight at breeding, and number of kids born than Spanish does. Boer-Spanish does had a similar number of kids weaned as Spanish does.

  16. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    to U2AF1(WT). We validated several homologous dysregulated junctions (i.e., across species) in MDS patient bone marrow samples that have mutant ...U2AF1(S34F) versus U2AF1(WT). Together, these results suggest that mutant U2AF1 expression contributes to the altered hematopoiesis and pre-mRNA...whether the U2AF1(S34F) mutation alters hematopoiesis in vivo. We will inducibly express wild-type and S34F mutant (resulting from the most common

  17. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  18. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F, cytotoxic polyacetylenes from Gymnaster koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Hwan

    2002-06-01

    Six new polyacetylenes, gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6), were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis, together with 2,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (7) and 1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8), by bioassay-guided fractionation using the L1210 tumor cell line as a model for cytotoxicity. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established spectroscopically, which included 2D NMR experiments. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6) are linear diacetylenes and are structurally related to falcarinol, panaxynol, panaxydiol, and panaxytriol. Of the compounds isolated, gymnasterkoreaynes B (2), C (3), F (6), and 1,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against L1210 tumor cells with ED(50) values of 0.12-3.3 microg/mL.

  19. Improved AF Squadron Command Structure for Leadership, Accountability, and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    of Defense respectively focus on span of control. The concept of span of control was developed in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton based on the assumption...For the AF, this means squadrons must be organized across a wing to minimize inconsistency within units as well as across them. A study by Dewar ... Dewar , Robert D., and Simet, Donald P. “A Level Specific Prediction of Spans of Control Examining the Effects of Size, Technology, and

  20. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the development of green rocket propellants . The Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) monopropellant, AF-M315E, has been selected for...art rocket fuels and propellants . A known quantity of liquid propellant is placed in a metal U-tube and held isothermally in a preheated mixture of... Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) program. As the propulsion system developed by Aerojet- Rocketdyne for this propellant advances in maturity, studies

  1. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  2. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3' splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans.

  3. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  4. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  5. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  6. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  7. An Assessment of the Carpinteria Preschool Spanish Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keatinge, H. Robert

    1984-01-01

    The Carpinteria Preschool Spanish Immersion Project was developed to bring Spanish speaking children to a level in school readiness skills that matched English dominant children upon entrance to kindergarten. A description of the program and its effectiveness is offered. (DF)

  8. Currency as an Instructional Medium in the Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Examines effective ways of utilizing foreign currency from various countries whose official language is Spanish as means to promote conversation and enrich vocabulary in Spanish classes. Use of currency has pedagogical, cultural, and historical aspects. (Author/BK)

  9. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the following translation and layout for Spanish language sales: 4 4 Use the following language for the...

  10. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the following translation and layout for Spanish language sales: 4 4 Use the following language for the...

  11. 6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO SHOWING BEAMED CEILING CONSTRUCTION. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  12. 1. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, WEST ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, WEST ELEVATION OF TWO STORY WING TO EAST OF PRINCIPAL COURTYARD. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  13. 7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF THE UNDERSIDE OF BEAM AND BATTEN CEILING, WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  14. 2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL SHOWING ARCHES OF SOUTH WALL OF WEST WING OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  15. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Lexical Reading in Spanish: Two Cases of Phonological Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iribarren, I. Carolina; Jarema, Gonia; Lecours, Andre Roch

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two monolingual Spanish-speaking patients who were able to read words but showed great difficulty reading nonwords, a pattern of behavior known as phonological dyslexia. Contradicts the hypothesis that lexical reading is not an option for Spanish readers, because Spanish orthography is highly irregular, and supports the view that…

  17. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  18. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  19. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  20. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  1. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  2. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  3. Spanish in Four Continents: Studies in Language Contact and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Corvalan, Carmen, Ed.

    Papers on Spanish bilingualism and Spanish in contact with other languages include: "The Study of Language Contact: An Overview of the Issues" (Carmen Silva-Corvalan); "Language Mixture: Ordinary Processes, Extraordinary Results" (Sarah G. Thomason); "The Impact of Quichua on Verb Forms Used in Spanish Requests in Otavalo,…

  4. Recommended Readings in Spanish Literature, Kindergarten through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A list of almost 300 titles of Spanish language reading materials represents the recommendations of the California Media and Library Educators Association for use with Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient students in kindergarten through eighth grade. It is intended as a guide for teachers of Spanish and teachers of English language arts…

  5. A Comprehensive Guide to the Subjunctive in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampe, Livia

    A guidebook, accompanied by a companion book, directed toward English-speaking students learning Spanish and Spanish teachers, presents a step-by-step approach to learning/teaching the formation and uses of all subjunctive tenses in Spanish. The author assumes that students are already familiar with some grammatical concepts and terminology such…

  6. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  7. Structural Priming in Spanish as Evidence of Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gámez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a structural priming technique with young Spanish speakers to test whether exposure to a rare syntactic form in Spanish ("fue"-passive) would increase the production and comprehension of that form. In Study 1, 14 six-year-old Spanish speakers described pictures of transitive scenes. This baseline study revealed that…

  8. On the L1 Attrition of the Spanish Present Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuza, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the potential native language (L1) attrition of the ongoing value of the Spanish present tense among long-term Spanish immigrants. Based on the assumption of second-language (L2) transfer and proposals on the permeability of interface-conditioned structures, it is hypothesized that long-term Spanish immigrants will show…

  9. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  10. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  11. New Thoughts on the Origins of Zamboangueno (Philippine Creole Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile the similarities and differences among Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) dialects by suggesting that Zamboangueno was formed gradually in a downward fashion from received Spanish, aided by two components. The first is pidginization that resulted in the Spanish garrison at Zamboanga, and the second was the arrival of Manila Bay…

  12. Teaching Reading and Writing in Spanish in the Bilingual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Yvonne S.; Freeman, David E.

    The book provides teachers, program directors, administrators, and parents involved in Spanish-English bilingual education programs with practical ideas to support the development of reading and writing programs in Spanish, using literacy approaches that are effective and empowering for Spanish-speaking children in American schools. It describes…

  13. Recent Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 19 books in Spanish for young, Spanish-speaking children or others who may wish to learn Spanish. The titles include a variety of informative books and entertaining stories on topics such as pirates, trains, giants, art, and animals of all kinds. (TJQ)

  14. Inglaterra, primitiva colonia espanola (England, Primitive Spanish Colony)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Til, Brianes

    1975-01-01

    The author fantasizes that at some point in the distant past England was a Spanish colony. He supports his thesis by revealing fantastic etymologies of some English place names showing the influence of Spanish on English, for example "Surrey" comes from "su rey." (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  15. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  16. El espanol, lengua internacional (Spanish, an International Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Flores

    1975-01-01

    Shows the importance and spread of Spanish as a world language by surveying the countries in which it is the official language and listing many instances in which Spanish has been chosen as the means of communication throughout history. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  17. Linguistic Transfer in Andean Spanish: Syntax or Pragmatics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntendam, Antje

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…

  18. THE SPANISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAUNDERS, LYLE

    THE BACKGROUND AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST ARE DISCUSSED. THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE ARE A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP COMPOSED OF SPANISH-AMERICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, AND MEXICANS INTERMIXED WITH INDIANS. THE SOUTHWEST WAS SETTLED BY THEM DURING THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES. HERE THEY WERE ISOLATED UNTIL THE 19TH…

  19. Spanish-Hispanic Culture from A to V (Actualidades to Venezuela): 72 Spanish-Language Interdisciplinary Cultural Themes with Suggested Resource Materials and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Merriam M.

    This guidebook is intended for use by teachers of Spanish (FLES through college level) and by teachers in Spanish bilingual programs. It lists all of the Spanish-speaking countries and 72 Spanish-language cultural themes, such as "Actualidades" (Current Events), "Carreras y espanol comercial" (Careers and Commercial Spanish), "Deportes" (Sports),…

  20. Stance and the Subjunctive in Isleno Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Felice A.

    2012-01-01

    Isleno Spanish speakers maintain few contexts firmly in the subjunctive (for example, adverbial clauses with the conjunctions "para que" and "antes que" and nominal clauses with "querer"), with most other semantic or syntactic categories optionally licensing the subjunctive. This study will outline the obligatory and optional uses of present and…

  1. English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the English-Spanish Verbatim Translation Exam (ESVTE) is described. The test is for use by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the selection of applicants for the positions of Language Specialist or Contract Linguist. The report is divided into eight sections. Section 1 describes the need for the test,…

  2. Moroccan Children and Arabic in Spanish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Bernabe Lopez; Molina, Laura Mijares

    This paper discusses classical Arabic as a minority language for Moroccan children in Spanish schools. It highlights programs of "education des langues et cultures d'origine" (ELCO), which specifically target these students. ELCO is the only public program in Spain recognizing Arabic as an immigrant minority language. Intercultural…

  3. Career Opportunities Instructional Guide. Spanish Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Mary W.; And Others

    This document is the Spanish language version of the student materials component designed to accompany the Career Opportunities Instructional Guide. Page numbers are consistent with numbering in that guide. Seventeen units are provided. The materials in Unit 1 concern various aspects of locating information about occupations; Unit 2 provides an…

  4. El "Que" Espanol (The "Que" in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez Alonso, Cesar

    1967-01-01

    The word "que" is used in Spanish both as a relative pronoun and as a conjunction. As a relative pronoun it can be singular, plural, masculine, feminine, neuter, indefinite, or variable and can by its use in modifying persons and objects serve as a subject or a complement. The relative "que" can precede articles and prepositions. As a conjunction,…

  5. Spanish Intensive Courses: The South Carolina Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David P.

    The Spanish Intensive Courses sequence at the University of South Carolina, first offered in fall 1982, has become well received and highly visible in the university. The sequence has grown to three courses in fall 1983, all exceeding minimum enrollment requirements despite selective admission criteria. The success of the sequence has inspired the…

  6. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  7. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  8. Phonological Production in Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…

  9. Perceptual prothesis in native Spanish speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.

    2003-04-01

    Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.

  10. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  11. Spanish Language Briefs for Parents, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains six briefs developed specifically for Spanish-speaking parents of Mexican origin, and English translations of the briefs. In plain language, these briefs state what researchers and practitioners have learned about various ways parents can help their children do well in school. Titles of the briefs are (1) "Apoyando el…

  12. Genetic Structure of the Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic admixture is a common caveat for genetic association analysis. Therefore, it is important to characterize the genetic structure of the population under study to control for this kind of potential bias. Results In this study we have sampled over 800 unrelated individuals from the population of Spain, and have genotyped them with a genome-wide coverage. We have carried out linkage disequilibrium, haplotype, population structure and copy-number variation (CNV) analyses, and have compared these estimates of the Spanish population with existing data from similar efforts. Conclusions In general, the Spanish population is similar to the Western and Northern Europeans, but has a more diverse haplotypic structure. Moreover, the Spanish population is also largely homogeneous within itself, although patterns of micro-structure may be able to predict locations of origin from distant regions. Finally, we also present the first characterization of a CNV map of the Spanish population. These results and original data are made available to the scientific community. PMID:20500880

  13. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  14. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Audio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The manual is meant to accompany and supplement the basic manual and to serve as support to the audio component of "Spanish for Agricultural Purposes," a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, consists of exercises to supplement readings presented in the course's basic manual and to…

  15. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  16. Cultural Myopia: A Challenge to Spanish Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Bryan J.; Perez-Dominguez, Servando

    1996-01-01

    Considers current thinking about intercultural attitudes in Spain to demonstrate reasons why the Spanish approach to interculturalism, particularly in schools, has not been at the forefront of societal, governmental, or educational thinking. Discusses the dangers of ignoring immigrants' needs and abilities within the community and the…

  17. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  18. Becoming a Writer of Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Irene; Hudelson, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Describes the literacy acquisition and development of Spanish-speaking children enrolled in bilingual programs of writing instruction. Focuses on the experiences of one eight-year-old student and presents various strategies used to help the student become a proficient writer in her native language. (HB)

  19. Revenue Sharing and the Spanish Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish Speaking People, Washington, DC.

    Information of interest to Spanish speaking people on revenue sharing was presented in this booklet. Major topics were the utilization of General Revenue Sharing Funds, fund distribution, community action, reports on planned and actual use of funds, assurances to the Secretary of the Treasury, and civil rights provisions. Additional information on…

  20. Business Spanish: Role Playing for Oral Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Michael Scott

    The situation card used in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview provides a kind of linguistic-topographical map of the student's foreign language ability by measuring what the student of business Spanish is able or unable to do in business situations in that…

  1. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Juan-José; Bayón, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermín San

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

  2. Singular and Plural Pronominal Reference in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelormini-Lezama, Carlos; Almor, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In two self-paced, sentence-by-sentence reading experiments, we examined the difference in the processing of Spanish discourses containing overt and null pronouns. In both experiments, antecedents appeared in a single phrase ("John met Mary") or in a conjoined phrase ("John and Mary met"). In Experiment 1, we compared reading…

  3. Phonetic Complexity and Stuttering in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Au-Yeung, James

    2007-01-01

    The current study investigated whether phonetic complexity affected stuttering rate for Spanish speakers. The speakers were assigned to three age groups (6-11, 12-17 and 18-years plus) that were similar to those used in an earlier study on English. The analysis was performed using Jakielski's Index of Phonetic Complexity (IPC) scheme in which each…

  4. Spanish Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejo, M.; Blanco, M.-T.; Sáiz-Jiménez, C.

    A Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage has been recently launched to coordinate the activities related to Cultural Heritage (CH) of several groups working in the Spanish Scientific Research Council (CSIC), the largest public research organisation in Spain. The Network involves 21 leading research groups from 16 institutes. Different aspects of CH are approached including Archaeology and Architectonic Heritage, Biology, Physics, Geology and Materials Science.

  5. Spanish Basic Course: Radio Communications Procedures, USAF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This guide to radio communication procedures is offered in Spanish and English as a means of securing a closer working relationship among United States Air Force personnel and Latin American aviators and technicians. Eight dialogues concerning routine flight procedures and aerospace technology are included. It is suggested that two rated students…

  6. Reading Levels of Spanish Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, S. T.; Hernandez, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reading Levels of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the…

  7. Editing Contemporary Spanish Literature for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalden, Janice

    1977-01-01

    A method is outlined for using works of Spanish literature at the intermediate level. This approach is illustrated, using three novels: "El Rapto" (Ayala), "El Tunel" (Sabato), and "Nada" (Laforet). A key passage is studied in depth, topics are assigned for extension of the content, and a composition is written. (CFM)

  8. A Practical Guide to Teaching Preschool Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Dianne Lynne

    A curriculum for preschool Spanish instruction, consisting of a list of objectives, a pupil evaluation system, and 26 lesson plans, is presented. The curriculum is designed as an enrichment component for the preschool classroom and is best suited for four-year-old children who have already mastered the same concepts in English. The lessons utilize…

  9. A New Pedagogical Approach for Teaching Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faingold, Eduardo D.

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an after school program designed to introduce the Spanish language to children between the ages of 5 and 9. The program consists of 8 to 10 weekly units, each lasting 50 minutes, that provide students with basic vocabulary and grammar in an interesting and motivating format. Each unit…

  10. Community Living Skills Guide: Beginning Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Martha; Kreps, Alice Roelofs, Ed.

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Beginning Spanish. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons…

  11. Spanish Words in the Jicarilla Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pono, Filomena P.; And Others

    As contact with the American Indian people increased, Indian words, expressions, and terms filtered into the English language. On the other hand, the Indians also borrowed words from those people who came to the New World. The Jicarillas, because of their early contact with the Spanish culture and civilization, tended to borrow more words from the…

  12. The Development of Locative Comprehension in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Peggy S.; Chapman, Robin S.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study of 40 monolingual Spanish-speaking Peruvian children in which comprehension of six locative phrases was tested. Results are analyzed in terms of developmental sequence, locative acquisition, the effects of intrinsic label on projective locative comprehension, the effects of linguistic form, and the effects of context. (SED)

  13. Allophonic Variation in the Spanish Sibilant Fricative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Alison

    2013-01-01

    In Spanish, the phoneme /s/ has two variants: [z] occurs in the coda when preceding a voiced consonant, and [s] occurs elsewhere. However, recent research has revealed irregular voicing patterns with regards to this phone. This dissertation examines two of these allophonic variations. It first investigates how speech rate and speech formality…

  14. Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

  15. Sequencing Stories in Spanish and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steckbeck, Pamela Meza

    The guide was designed for speech pathologists, bilingual teachers, and specialists in English as a second language who work with Spanish-speaking children. The guide contains twenty illustrated stories that facilitate the learning of auditory sequencing, auditory and visual memory, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and expressive language…

  16. Spanish Federation of Popular Universities (FEUP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria

    2006-01-01

    This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…

  17. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  18. Selecting Spanish Books in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Elia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author recommends a certain criteria for selecting Spanish-language books for elementary students such as cultural factors, setting, time, age, language and visuals. She also enumerates some authors and a listing of their many bilingual texts, which can be used to enrich a school or classroom library.

  19. Spanish Universities and the "Ranking 2005" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Miguel, Jesus M.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Jara D.

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of the Spanish higher education system, focusing mainly on the methodological challenges that the existence of public and private universities represents in the calculation of global higher education rankings. Researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of Pennsylvania calculated the first…

  20. Hiatus Resolution in Spanish: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, adjacent vowels across and within word boundaries are either in hiatus or form a diphthong. Generally, when either of the unstressed high vowels /i/ and /u/ appears next to any of the other vowels /e/, /a/, or /o/ the result is a diphthong (i.e., "puerta" "door" less than [pwer.ta], "miel" "honey" less than [mjel], and so on). All…

  1. Market Trends in Spanish Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jose-Gines

    1997-01-01

    Examines trends in the Spanish higher education system that have allowed market influences to grow in recent years. Analyzes historical framework and legal changes facilitating market trends and considers their influence on the financial and organizational structure of universities as well as on accountability and quality assessment. Concludes…

  2. Stroke Knowledge in Spanish-speaking populations

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Maximiliano A; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Willey, Joshua Z

    2015-01-01

    Background Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. Spanish-speaking populations (SSP) have heterogeneous cultural backgrounds, racial and ethnical origins, economic status, and access to health care systems. There are no published reviews about stroke knowledge in SSP. We reviewed the existing literature addressing stroke knowledge among SSP and propose future directions for research. Summary We identified 18 suitable studies by searching PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane and Scielo databases, and looking at reference lists of eligible articles. We also included 2 conference abstracts. Data related to stroke knowledge from studies of Spanish-speakers was analyzed. Key messages Little is known about stroke knowledge in SSP, especially in Latin America. Information is poor even among subjects at risk, stroke patients, stroke survivors, and health care providers. “Ictus”, the word used for stroke in Spanish, is largely unrecognized among subjects at risk. Furthermore, access to medical care and presence of neurologists are suboptimal in many regions. There are several potential issues to solve regarding stroke knowledge and stroke care in SSP. Programs to educate the general population and non-neurologists medical providers in stroke and telemedicine may be suitable options to improve the present situation. PMID:25871697

  3. Spanish for Nurses: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Elizabeth R.

    Courses in Spanish for nurses at Loretto Heights College in Colorado combine language instruction, cross-cultural studies, instruction in medical problems particular to certain groups, medical systems and philosophy, and participation in a college-wide interdisciplinary program entitled "Values in Concert." In this program, sets of three…

  4. Regionalism and Cultural Pluralism in Spanish Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1989-01-01

    Traces the trend toward increased local autonomy in Spanish education by placing this movement in historical context. Contends that public and social life in Spain may be disrupted by regional pressure for greater self-determination in education. Suggests that fundamental change will be best

  5. Curtain Up! Contemporary Children's Plays in Spanish (and) in Spanish: Folklore for Children and Health Books for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Alma Flor; Schon, Isabel

    1987-01-01

    The first of two articles presents a review of children's plays written in Spanish, including the authors' approaches and underlying themes. The second, an annotated bibliography of children's folklore and health books for adolescents in Spanish, includes a directory of eight U.S. dealers in Spanish books. (CLB)

  6. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  7. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  8. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  9. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  10. Role Reversal: The Problems of a Spanish-Speaking Anglo Teaching Spanish to english Dominant Puerto Rican Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique situation of an Anglo Spanish-speaking teacher who is assigned to teach Spanish to a group of non-Spanish-speaking youngsters of Puerto Rican descent. Successful strategies for overcoming the socio- and psycholinguistic barriers of working in this situation are listed as the teacher describes how she created a non-threatening…

  11. Opinion of Spanish Consumers on Hydrosustainable Pistachios.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Lipan, Leontina; Vázquez-Araújo, L; Barber, Xavi; Pérez-López, David; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables cultivated under controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) are called hydrosustainable (hydroSOS) products and have its own personality and are environmentally-friendly. Focus groups helped in classifying key farming, sensory, and health concepts associated with CDI-grown pistachios. Besides, focus groups also helped in stating that a logo was needed for these special foods, and that a hydroSOS index is also essential to certify that the products have been controlled by a control board. Conjoint analysis was used to check which attributes could be helpful in promoting CDI-grown pistachios among Spanish consumers in a 1st step toward the European Union (EU) market. It was clearly proved that the main silo of properties driving the attention of Spanish consumers was that related to health. The most important attributes for pistachios were "product of Spain," "rich in antioxidant," and "crunchy"; this finding was clearly related to the popularity of regional foods, the preoccupation of European consumers for their health, and the joy related to the crunchiness of toasted nuts, respectively. The use of these 3 concepts, together with the use of the hydroSOS logo, will be essential to promote hydroSOS pistachios among Spanish and EU consumers. Finally, it is important to highlight that in general Spanish consumers were willing to pay an extra amount of 1.0 euros per kg of hydroSOS pistachios. These earnings will be essential to convince Spanish farmers to implement CDI strategies and have a sustainable and environmental-friendly use of the irrigation water.

  12. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  13. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  14. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  15. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  16. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  17. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  18. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  19. Assessing morphosyntax in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Bedore, L M

    2001-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the morpho-syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children depends on the clinician's understanding of the morpho-syntactic system and on the development of tasks that obligate the use of structures of interest. In this article, the nature and acquisition of the Spanish morpho-syntactic system is outlined. The aspects of the system that are likely to be difficult for children with language impairments and those that are critical to communicative competence are emphasized, as the clinician must take these into account when planning assessment tasks. The analysis of spontaneous language samples and the use of structured probes are discussed as alternatives for assessment. The naturalness and linguistic demands of assessment tasks are also considered because they are critical to understanding children's performance on morpho-syntactic tasks.

  20. Early comprehension of the Spanish plural*

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Cantrell, Lisa M.; Smith, Linda B.; Alva Canto, Elda A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how linguistic cues map to the environment is crucial for early language comprehension and may provide a way for bootstrapping and learning words. Research has suggested that learning how plural syntax maps to the perceptual environment may show a trajectory in which children first learn surrounding cues (verbs, modifiers) before a full mastery of the noun morpheme alone. The Spanish plural system of simple codas, dominated by one allomorph -s, and with redundant agreement markers, may facilitate early understanding of how plural linguistic cues map to novel referents. Two-year-old Mexican children correctly identified multiple novel object referents when multiple verbal cues in a phrase indicated plurality as well as in instances when the noun morphology in novel nouns was the ONLY indicator of plurality. These results demonstrate Spanish-speaking children’s ability to use plural noun inflectional morphology to infer novel word referents which may have implications for their word learning. PMID:24560441

  1. Science in the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2009-07-01

    Since the beginning of the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) in 2004 science is playing a key role. In order to boost the use of the VO capabilities among the Spanish astronomical community our group is fostering an initiative based on the collaboration with research teams having science cases that could benefit from using the VO. Our role in the collaboration is to evaluate the science case from the VO point of view, to provide information and support about the existing VO tools to tackle the scientific problem and, if necessary, to develop new analysis tools. Effective liaisons have been established between the SVO and a number of funded projects and, as a result of this, several refereed VO papers have been published. In this presentation an overview of these collaborations and the results obtained so far are presented.

  2. The Spanish Civil War: An Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-31

    Témime, The Revolution and the Civil War in Spain (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1970), 34. 2 Spartacus , <http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk> (25...Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985), 8- 10. 8 Beevor, 281. 9 Spartacus . 10 Imperial War Museum, <http://www.iwm.org.uk> (25 October...2003), Spanish Civil War exhibition. 11 Beevor, 281. 12 Spartacus . 13 Beevor, 267. 14 A.K. Starinov, Behind Fascist Lines: A Firsthand

  3. Presentational Focus in Heritage and Monolingual Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, it is most commonly claimed that constituents in narrow presentational focus appear rightmost, where they also get main stress (1a), while stress in situ (1b) is infelicitous. (1) [Context: Who bought a car?]. a. Compró un carro mi [mamá][subscript F]. bought a car my mom. b. Mi [mamá ][subscript F] compró un carro. However, some…

  4. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  5. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  6. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  7. Nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Consensus from the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, L; Aranceta, J

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of the Nutritional Objectives for the Spanish Population. Preparation of draft documents contributed by different working groups was followed by a consensus meeting held in Bilbao on 5-7 October 2000, hosted by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition and sponsored by the World Health Organisation. Establishing nutritional guidelines was conducted by: (1) analysing current food and nutritional data from nutritional surveys, for intermediate objectives; and (2) reviewing current scientific knowledge for final objectives. The objectives include intermediate and ultimate figures, and comprise percentage of energy from macronutrients and fatty acids, fruit and vegetable consumption, frequency of sweets, physical activity and body mass index, folate, calcium, sodium, fluoride and iodine intake, dietary fibre, cholesterol, alcohol and duration of breast-feeding. The nutritional objectives for the Spanish population create a rational framework for the development of dietary guidelines and nutritional policies in Spain, within a Mediterranean context.

  8. Attitudes and Representations of Spanish and the Spread of the Language Industries in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugel, Talia; Santos, Helade Scutti

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the context of Spanish language teaching in Brazil. We examine the representations of and attitudes toward Rioplatense/Argentinean Spanish and Peninsular Spanish--and toward the speakers of each of these varieties--held by Brazilian learners of Spanish as a foreign language. To provide the context in which Spanish learning…

  9. Maintaining the Momentum of Students of Spanish from High School to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Comfort

    2010-01-01

    This article is part of a large-scale project on the study of Spanish in high school that reports on an investigation of the low college enrollments in Spanish courses of students who study Spanish in high school. An online survey was administered to 631 high school students studying Spanish and 19 Spanish teachers, and the results revealed that…

  10. A Conditional Role of U2AF in Splicing of Introns with Unconventional Polypyrimidine Tracts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of polypyrimidine (Py) tracts typically present between the branch point and the 3′ splice site by the large subunit of the essential splicing factor U2AF is a key early step in pre-mRNA splicing. Diverse intronic sequence arrangements exist, however, including 3′ splice sites lacking recognizable Py tracts, which raises the question of how general the requirement for U2AF is for various intron architectures. Our analysis of fission yeast introns in vivo has unexpectedly revealed that whereas introns lacking Py tracts altogether remain dependent on both subunits of U2AF, introns with long Py tracts, unconventionally positioned upstream of branch points, are unaffected by U2AF inactivation. Nevertheless, mutation of these Py tracts causes strong dependence on the large subunit U2AF59. We also find that Py tract diversity influences the requirement for the conserved C-terminal domain of U2AF59 (RNA recognition motif 3), which has been implicated in protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Py tract binding by U2AF, supplementary mechanisms of U2AF recruitment and 3′ splice site identification exist to accommodate diverse intron architectures, which have gone unappreciated in biochemical studies of model pre-mRNAs. PMID:17709389

  11. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  12. Seladoeflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella doederleinii.

    PubMed

    Zou, ZhenXing; Xu, KangPing; Xu, PingSheng; Li, XiaoMin; Cheng, Fei; Li, Jing; Yu, Xia; Cao, DongSheng; Li, Dan; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, GuoGang; Tan, GuiShan

    2017-01-01

    Six new flavonoids, seladoeflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the whole herbs of Selaginella doederleinii, together with one known flavonoid (7). Their structures including absolute configuration were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds consist of an aryl substituent at the C-3' position of naringenin or apigenin skeletons, and compounds 1 and 6 were identified as R configurations, which are uncommonly encountered in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. In addition, bioassay of the isolates revealed that 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines NCI-H460, A549, and K562 in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 8.17 to 18.66μM.

  13. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  14. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  15. The leukemogenic CALM/AF10 fusion protein alters the subcellular localization of the lymphoid regulator Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Greif, P A; Tizazu, B; Krause, A; Kremmer, E; Bohlander, S K

    2008-05-01

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation leads to the fusion of the CALM and AF10 genes. This translocation can be found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and in malignant lymphomas. The expression of CALM/AF10 in primary murine bone marrow cells results in the development of an aggressive leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the lymphoid regulator Ikaros as an AF10 interacting protein. Interestingly, Ikaros is required for normal development of lymphocytes, and aberrant expression of Ikaros has been found in leukemia. In a murine model, the expression of a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros causes leukemias and lymphomas. The Ikaros interaction domain of AF10 was mapped to the leucine zipper domain of AF10, which is required for malignant transformation both by the CALM/AF10 and the MLL/AF10 fusion proteins. The interaction between AF10 and Ikaros was confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Coexpression of CALM/AF10 but not of AF10 alters the subcellular localization of Ikaros in murine fibroblasts. The transcriptional repressor activity of Ikaros is reduced by AF10. These results suggest that CALM/AF10 might interfere with normal Ikaros function, and thereby block lymphoid differentiation in CALM/AF10 positive leukemias.

  16. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2 and the contract disclosures required by § 455.3 must be in that language. You may display on...

  17. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2 and the contract disclosures required by § 455.3 must be in that language. You may display on...

  18. Expression of MLL-AF4 or AF4-MLL fusions does not impact the efficiency of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Julio; Herrero, Ana B; Bursen, Aldeheid; González, Federico; Marschalek, Rolf; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-05-24

    The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide. Conversely, the genome-wide mutational landscape in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL has been reported silent. Thus, whether MLL fusions compromise the recognition and/or repair of DNA damage remains unanswered. Here, the fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (MA4) and AF4-MLL (A4M) were CRISPR/Cas9-genome edited in the AAVS1 locus of HEK293 cells as a model to study MLL fusion-mediated DNA-DSB formation/repair. Repair kinetics of etoposide- and ionizing radiation-induced DSBs was identical in WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells, as revealed by flow cytometry, by immunoblot for γH2AX and by comet assay. Accordingly, no differences were observed between WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells in the presence of master proteins involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ; i.e.KU86, KU70), alternative-NHEJ (Alt-NHEJ; i.e.LigIIIa, WRN and PARP1), and homologous recombination (HR, i.e.RAD51). Moreover, functional assays revealed identical NHEJ and HR efficiency irrespective of the genotype. Treatment with etoposide consistently induced cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M independent of MA4/A4M expression, revealing a proper activation of the DNA damage checkpoints. Collectively, expression of MA4 or A4M does neither influence DNA signaling nor DNA-DSB repair.

  19. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  20. The Interference of Spanish in Beginning Portuguese Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarquinio, Laura Teixeira-Leal

    1977-01-01

    Discusses interference problems from Spanish to Portuguese; phonological, morphological, syntactical and orthographic interferences and difficulties are outlined. Information may help teachers of Portuguese. (CHK)

  1. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  2. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  3. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  4. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  5. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL Strand, Unit 8, Grade 3, Supplement & Ditto Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Supplementary instructional aids and two small pupil readers for unit eight of the Spanish as a Second Language strand developed for grade three are designed for use with the teacher's guide. Illustrations and worksheets for kits 29-32 are to help the teacher carry out learning and assessment activities which will provide the English-dominant…

  6. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL Strand, Unit 10, Grade 3, Supplement & Ditto Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Support materials for the last of 40 instructional kits of the Spanish as a Second Language Strand for primary grades are contained in this supplement to Unit 10 developed for third graders. A teacher's guide for this unit, consisting of kits 37-40, gives the timetable for use of materials. These instructional aids are designed to help the teacher…

  7. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL, Unit 5, Grade 2, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    The Spanish SL strand of unit five for second graders provides the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary he will need for effective communication in a bilingual environment. This teacher's guide contains assessment activities, activities for oral language development, and activities for listening and related skills of…

  8. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL Strand, Unit 9, Grade 3, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Spanish for grade 3 is presented in this teachers' guide to the instructional and assessment activities of unit nine. The function of this strand is to help provide the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary needed for effective communication in a bilingual environment. Instructional activities are designed to help the child…

  9. I [image omitted] Spanish: K-8 Attitudes toward Learning Spanish with Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villada, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates children's attitudes and technology use for learning Spanish, and examines the type of technology-enhanced learning activities they enjoy. A survey with two versions was developed to gather attitudes and opinions of 2,220 children in grades K-2 and 3-8 in eight small rural school districts in the Midwest of the United…

  10. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL Strand, Unit 4, Grade Two, Supplement & Ditto Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Supplementary instructional aids for unit four of Spanish as a Second Language for second graders, including visual aids and ditto masters for seatwork by students, are contained in this revised supplement. A teacher's guide corresponding to this unit gives the timetable for when these materials are to be used. Illustrations and worksheets are…

  11. Developing English and Spanish Literacy in a One-Way Spanish Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Lindsay Kay

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the possible cause and effect relationship between educational programming, specifically one-way Spanish immersion and traditional English-only, and native English-speaking fifth graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension. Archival data was used to examine students' reading achievement as…

  12. Cuentos y fabulas (Stories and Fables), Spanish-S: 7509.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Maria S.

    This course offers students the opportunity to read and listen to 19th and 20th century Spanish short stories as well as moral, literary, and satirical fables of different epochs. (Several of the fables are included.) The student is thus exposed to new vocabulary and to the literary form of the short story. The authors represented here belong to…

  13. Breaking the Silence at Spanish Universities

    PubMed Central

    Valls, Rosa; Puigvert, Lídia; Melgar, Patricia; Garcia-Yeste, Carme

    2016-01-01

    The first research conducted on violence against women in the university context in Spain reveals that 62% of the students know of or have experienced situations of this kind within the university institutions, but only 13% identify these situations in the first place. Two main interrelated aspects arise from the data analysis: not identifying and acknowledging violent situations, and the lack of reporting them. Policies and actions developed by Spanish universities need to be grounded in two goals: intransigence toward any kind of violence against women, and bystander intervention, support, and solidarity with the victims and with the people supporting the victims. PMID:26825116

  14. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  15. The Linguistic Similarities of Spanish Heritage and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the situation of lower-proficiency heritage language learners of Spanish in terms of their linguistic similarities to second language learners. The analysis highlights grammatical and lexical features in the oral discourse of Spanish heritage and second language learners at intermediate and advanced levels of study,…

  16. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Acquisition in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario Ortiz

    2000-01-01

    Investigated metalinguistic awareness in learning to read Spanish, focusing on print awareness, phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. Studies of 136 preliterate Spanish children indicated a relationship between phonological awareness and reading and revealed the importance of syllabic awareness in developing other levels of…

  17. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  18. Dual Role Interpreters: Spanish Teachers in New Latino Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomer, Soria Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative study documenting how Spanish teachers, as some of the few Spanish-speaking educators in new Latino diaspora communities, bear an especially heavy burden as dual role interpreters and unofficial school representatives. Drawing from the semistructured interview data of twenty-six north Georgia educators, I…

  19. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  20. Chicano Spanish: Cross Hispanic Language Attitudes toward Specific Lexical Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giron, Robert LeRoy

    A study was undertaken to gather attitudes of Spanish-speakers toward specific types of Chicano Spanish dialect lexical items. Reactions were randomly taken from 11 Latin American students who attended Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the 1975 spring semester; 20 Mexican residents of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who attended English as…

  1. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  2. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching Spanish in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. Spanish is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  3. Dialect Contact among Spanish-Speaking Children in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Belen MacGregor

    2014-01-01

    As an immigration hub for a diverse group of Spanish speakers, Los Angeles lends itself to research on dialect contact and leveling. Studies regarding the Spanish spoken by natives of Los Angeles reveal considerable homogeneity with respect to pronunciation, vocabulary and terms of address. This uniformity is notable because two different dialect…

  4. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  5. Library Service to Spanish Speaking Patrons: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Sharon Chickering

    This book is a guide for librarians and media specialists who recognize the value of bilingual-bicultural education and are looking for ideas to develop library services for their Spanish-speaking patrons. Chapter one gives a brief history of Spanish-speaking people in the United States, as well as cultural characteristics, family role,…

  6. Decreasing Anxiety and Frustration in the Spanish Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, Joanna; Smith, Maria de Lourdes Hernandez; Racine, Margaret

    This report describes instructional strategies to decrease anxiety and frustration in the Spanish classroom. Participants were five 7th grade Spanish classes in two suburban middle schools. Student interventions included a study skills guide; partner and group presentations, skits, and activities; and group oral reading. Teacher interventions…

  7. How Fair Is College Financing that Speaks Spanish First?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kerri

    2007-01-01

    2Futuro is a new "Spanish-first" college-financing program rolled out by Sallie Mae and USA Funds. The pilot version of 2Futuro launched last summer and is, say its partnering agents, "the only fully bilingual college-financing and outreach program that enables Hispanic parents and students to apply for college loans in Spanish. By the end of the…

  8. On Translating French Occurring in English into Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores problems encountered during attempts to translate French expressions occurring in English (such as concierge) into Spanish, particularly when the English interpretation of the expression is different from the standard French usage. Spanish translations are provided for about 200 French terms and expressions commonly used in English. (61…

  9. Manual of Basic Spanish Constructions: An Advanced Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schevill, Isabel Magana

    Departing from the prescriptive approach to teaching advanced Spanish composition and stylistics, this manual is based on the analysis of constructions and style in contemporary Spanish literature--particularly the drama. The 20 sections emphasize linguistic difficulties of a conceptual nature rather than factual information. Topics include: (1)…

  10. Gifted Spanish Speaking English Learners' Participation in Advanced Placement Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Luz Adriana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to uncover the contextual factors of the schooling process that affect the enrollment of gifted Spanish speaking English Learners (ELs) in Advanced Placement (AP) courses. In addition, this study investigated the perceptions of gifted Spanish speaking ELs toward AP courses and how these perceptions might affect their…

  11. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Kara

    2015-01-01

    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  12. STANDARDIZATION OF A SPANISH LANGUAGE ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREEN, RUSSEL F.; MARTINEZ, JUAN N.

    A NEED FOR AN ADEQUATELY DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN THE WHOLE OF LATIN AMERICA RESULTED IN THE WAIS PROJECT WHOSE AIM WAS TO TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH, ADAPT TO SPANISH CULTURE, AND STANDARDIZE THE WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE IN PUERTO RICO. FOLLOWING A DISCUSSION OF THE FOUR GENERAL GOALS, THE PROJECT REPORT OUTLINES THE…

  13. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  14. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  15. Heritage Spanish Speakers' Language Learning Strategies. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Zennia

    This digest describes some of the issues involved in the Spanish language learning experiences of heritage Spanish speakers, the largest population of heritage language speakers in the United States. It describes ways in which educators can facilitate these students' language development through a better understanding of their language learning…

  16. Is Software Available for Early Childhood Spanish Speaking Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardona de Divale, Maria Victoria

    A search was conducted on the Internet for software available for bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The only programs found under this heading were 18 programs for learning Spanish. Five of the least expensive were selected for review using a standardized scale for evaluating children's software. Four of the programs were found to be…

  17. Stress-Timing, Spanish Rhythm, and Particle Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uber, Diane Ringer

    Data was collected from 45-minute conversational interviews of 20 Cubans, who arrived in the United States in 1980, to analyze vocalic processes in Cuban Spanish. Four vocalic processes found in Cuban Spanish (raising and devoicing of unstressed vowels, lengthening of stressed vowels, and diphthongization of stressed mid vowels) were examined.…

  18. Spanish-Language Assessment in a Bilingual Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    A diagnostic Spanish proficiency exam for a bilingual education teacher preparation program was pilot tested with 38 students, both native and non-native speakers. Other standardized proficiency exams were considered but judged inappropriate. The Modern Language Association Cooperative Foreign Language Proficiency Test: Spanish seemed more useful…

  19. Naming Pseudowords in Spanish: Effects of Syllable Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Three naming experiments were conducted to examine the role of the first and the second syllable during speech production in Spanish. Facilitative effects of syllable frequency with disyllabic words have been reported in Dutch and Spanish (Levelt & Wheeldon, 1994; Perea & Carreiras, 1998). In both cases, the syllable frequency effect was…

  20. Intermediate Spanish, Part 3, Foreign Language: 7505.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The third part of a five-part Spanish course serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," Units 21 and 22. The overall goals of the course are to teach students to understand, speak, read, and write at a normal speed any arrangement of lexical and structural material learned. The guide focuses on six areas of…

  1. Progressing in Spanish Part 2, Foreign Language: 7504.32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The second part of a 5-part course in Spanish serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 12 and 13. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5) culture knowledge, and (6) student analysis of attitudes toward language learning. The…

  2. Progressing in Spanish Part 2, Foreign Language: 7504.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The second part of a 5-part course in Spanish serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 13 and 14. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5) culture knowledge, and (6) student analysis of attitudes toward language learning. The…

  3. Progressing in Spanish Part 4, Foreign Language: 7504.34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The fourth part of a 5-part Spanish course serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 16 and 17. Emphasis on guided discussion and free conversation is maintained throughout the course. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5)…

  4. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  5. Spanish Stress Assignment within the Analogical Modeling of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddington, David

    2000-01-01

    Shows that for the database in this study, analogy correctly assigns Spanish stress in 94% of the instances and is able to thresh out significant sub-patterns in Spanish stress placement without resorting to rules or schemas. (Author/VWL)

  6. A Gesture Inventory for the Teaching of Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.

    Intended for the nonnative, audiolingual-oriented Spanish teacher, this guide discusses the role of nonverbal behavior in foreign language learning with major emphasis given to an inventory of peninsular Spanish gesture. Gestures are described in narrative with line drawings to provide visual cues, and are accompanied by illustrative selections…

  7. Texas Spanish: Language Use and Ethnic Identity in Bilingual Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Karen

    A study examined the use of the ethnic language as it relates to ethnic self-identification in three generations of a bilingual family of Mexican origin in San Antonio (Texas). Family members were speakers of Texas Spanish and English. Two questionnaires and follow-up discussions examined fluency in Spanish and English; language preferences;…

  8. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  9. An Overview of Medical Spanish Curricula in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2015-01-01

    The US health care system faces linguistic challenges. Disparities in language-concordant care for Spanish speakers persist due to current demographics and a paucity of bilingual providers. A proliferation of courses in Spanish for health care professions suggests that universities and post-graduate institutions are attempting to meet this need;…

  10. Instructional Materials in Spanish for Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.

    A federally funded project to develop Spanish for Agricultural Purposes, a set of instructional materials for agricultural specialists planning to work in Latin America, is reported. The materials are intended for use by individuals with at least a year's college-level study of Spanish. They include: a series of authentic readings, each with an…

  11. The Semantics of the Spanish Conditional in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts the hypothetical conditional or "modo potencial" in Spanish with the subsequence conditional. Passages from "El habla de la ciudad de Mexico" and from works by Carballido and Borges are cited as examples. Other grammatical studies of the Spanish conditional are reviewed. (LMO)

  12. The Undergraduate Spanish Major Curriculum: Realities and Faculty Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Tammy Jandrey; Dings, Abby

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the quantitative and qualitative results of a nationwide survey of Spanish department faculty on the components of their undergraduate Spanish major curriculum and their perceptions of these components, as well as their perceptions of recent Modern Language Association (MLA) reports (2007, 2009) and the reports'…

  13. Encountering Difference: Images of Otherness in Contemporary Spanish Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrea Meador; Campbell, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of films by female directors in Spanish language and culture classes, this work proposes the inclusion of two films, Chus Gutiérrez's "Retorno a Hansala" (2008) and Icíar Bollaín's "También la lluvia" (2010), in the curriculum of advanced or upper-level Spanish courses. Both films expand…

  14. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  15. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages.

  16. Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A., Ed.; Salaberry, Rafael, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides an overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, theoretical approaches used in these studies, and effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. The 10 chapters include the following: (1) "Phonology: Staking Out…

  17. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  18. Aspects of Spanish Deictic Expressions in Barcelona: A Quantitative Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    This sociolinguistic investigation analyzes an innovative usage of Spanish motion verbs, demonstratives, and locatives in Barcelona, Spain that involves crosslinguistic pragmatic transfer. Speakers in the two social networks examined (n=58) use these Spanish deictics following pragmatic rules that generally correspond to the rules for their…

  19. Teaching the Spanish-Speaking Child--A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Jo Ann; And Others

    This guide deals with the subject in two parts: (1) background materials, and (2) classroom activities for teaching English to Spanish speakers. The first part discusses the general characteristics of the Spanish-speaking population in the United States, with particular attention to the diversity among them, some group profiles, and dialects and…

  20. Teaching Reading in Spanish: A Study of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G.

    The effect of teaching behaviors on student reading achievement in Spanish was investigated. A group of 18 teachers of Spanish reading and their classes were observed across two reading lessons having similar content. Each lesson was presented in two twenty-minute segments, thus allowing for four videotaping sessions. Students were pre- and…

  1. Spanish as a Heritage Language Assessment: Successes, Failures, Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor-Mendoza, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    From its origins over three decades ago, interest in the field of Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) has grown and has produced a wealth of research. While our understanding of the sociolinguistic profile of Spanish heritage language learners has increased and we have advanced in our knowledge of the linguistic abilities and strategies Spanish…

  2. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages. PMID:24795664

  3. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  4. Spanish Comparative Education in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Santisteban, Agustin Velloso

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes main features of Spanish comparative education in the first 36 years of the twentieth century noting steady increase in publications on foreign education and use of travel as the most common research method. Concludes that studies of foreign education focused on improving the defective Spanish educational situation. (JHZ)

  5. Teaching Spanish to the Native Speaker at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Frances R.

    1983-01-01

    Problems are discussed and recommendations made for developing programs and materials for Spanish instruction of Spanish speakers. General and specific suggestions are made for material selection and class activities, including spelling, composition, self-editing, dialog writing, transcription, translation, student-teacher conferences, journals,…

  6. Validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale.

    PubMed

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2014-06-01

    In this article we address concerns raised by Brumit and Glenn (2013) regarding the validity of the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS). We respond to requests in relation to the translated version of the scale and the eigenvalue series. We also give an explanation of the differences in results between the original version and the Spanish version of the scale.

  7. Cross-Language Identification of Spanish Consonants in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marda

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that first language (L1) American English speakers discriminate the Spanish /[alveolar tap]/-/r/ and /[alveolar tap]/-/t/ contrasts significantly better than the /[alveolar tap]/-/d/ contrast, regardless of their proficiency level in Spanish (Rose, 2010a). Therefore, the current study follows the framework of the…

  8. Dictation as a Measure of Spanish Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles

    Recent research by Valette, Oller, and others has shown the utility of dictation as a measure of general language competence when correlated with achievement and proficiency batteries for French and English as a second language. No such studies have been conducted with Spanish. The investigator hypothesized that since Spanish is a phonetic…

  9. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  10. 34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of the Women's lounge (Spanish room) looking northwest. A Mural by Merlin Hardy depicts a "Spanish dance theme in a 19th century setting." (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  11. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  12. Instructional Resources and Materials for Business-Spanish Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cere, Ronald

    The program, curriculum, and materials needed to provide business Spanish training are described, and the available instructional materials are reviewed and listed. In developing a business Spanish program, decisions must be made regarding goals, content, structure, instructional format, evaluation procedures, and target population. The content of…

  13. Clitic Placement in Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Cuza, Alejandro; Thomas, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Can transfer occur in child bilingual syntax when surface overlap does not involve the syntax-pragmatics interface? Twenty-three Spanish/English bilingual children participated in an elicited imitation study of clitic placement in Spanish restructuring contexts, where variable word order is not associated with pragmatic or semantic factors.…

  14. Tracing Mexican Spanish /s/: A Cross-Section of History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines linguistic data from peripheral areas of Mexico and suggests that the contemporary resistance of the final /s/ in Spanish is characteristic only of urban regions. The study also hypothesizes that Spanish final /s/ was once more generally weakened throughout Mexico. An indirect Nahuatl contribution is also postulated. (62 references)…

  15. ADAPTING A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCNEIL, JOHN D.

    A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN IS REPORTED. A STUDY, SPONSORED BY THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL LABORATORY FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (SWRL), DEVELOPED LEARNING SEQUENCES FOR A BEGINNING READING PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS WITH SPANISH-SPEAKING CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE SOUTHWEST REGION. EACH OF 21 10-MINUTE…

  16. Learning Spanish with "Laura": The Effects of a Pedagogical Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an animated pedagogical agent on Spanish vocabulary learning. Furthermore, the study examined learners' reactions and attitudes towards the presence of the pedagogical agent in the web-based environments. A total of 47 university students enrolled in two fourth-semester Spanish classes…

  17. The Spanish Imperative and Deontic Utterances in Literary Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the Spanish imperative paradigm and Ramsey's notion that all forms of Spanish imperatives are substituted by subjunctives in the first and third person. The concept of deontic modality in demonstrating the relationships among imperative and imperativelike patterns that carry the meaning of obligation, permission, and prohibition is also…

  18. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB team

    2017-03-01

    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  19. The Spanish contribution to the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio, J. A.; CTA Consortium

    2015-05-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build the next generation ground- based Very High Energy gamma-ray instrument. It will serve as an open observatory to a wide astrophysics community and will provide a deep insight into the non-thermal high-energy universe. To achieve such goals, it will offer full-sky coverage (with Northern and Southern hemisphere sites), an improvement in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude, an enlarged span in energy (from a few tens of GeV to above 100 TeV), and enhanced angular and energy resolutions over existing VHE gamma-ray observatories. An international collaboration has formed with more than 1100 members from 28 countries all over the world. The Spanish High Energy Astrophysics community is deeply committed to CTA, with more than 70 scientists and technicians from 9 research groups currently involved in building prototypes for several CTA subsystems. This participation covers a wide list of items, both hardware- and software-related. The former includes telescope-level (camera electronics and mechanics and telescope undercarriage) and observatory- level (array optical calibration and atmospheric monitoring) elements. And the latter includes the design of the data pipelines and the scheduling for observational proposals. In this report, the status of the CTA project and the contribution of the Spanish community will be presented.

  20. Spanish hearing impairment inventory for the elderly.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Mónica; Orozco, José Antonio; Jiménez, Graciela; Berruecos, Pedro

    2002-06-01

    Self-assessment tools have proven to be useful in everyday practice in the audiology field, mostly in developed countries. There is a lack of such tests in Spanish. Our objective was to construct an inventory that could help us to identify elderly non-institutionalized patients who need an audiological assessment; we did not intend to identify or qualify emotional or social/situational reactions towards hearing handicap. As a prototype we initially translated, adapted and standardized the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly. This questionnaire was given to 60 elderly subjects. The performance on each question was compared with the audiometric results. After selecting useful and suitable questions, modifying some others and eliminating those with a poor performance, a new inventory in Spanish was developed. This final version was then tested in 63 elderly subjects. Very good scores were obtained for each question. An 'easy-to-use' rule is proposed in order to identify those patients who need to be audiologically tested. A brief meta-linguistic analysis is made on semantic and cultural factors that contributed to good translation and cultural adaptation.

  1. Light Pollution REECL Spanish SQM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Nievas, Miguel; Tapia, Carlos; Ocaña, Francisco; Izquierdo, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús; Pascual, Sergio; Colomer, Francisco; Bará, Salvador; Ribas, Salvador; Morales, Ángel; Marco, Enric; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Solano, Enrique; Alacid, José Manuel; Naves, Ramón; lluis Salto, Josep; García, Faustino; Luque, Sergi; Quejigo, Rubén; Ribas, Julio

    2015-08-01

    There are some networks of SQM photometers that provide measures of the night sky brightness every night. The analysis of the data provided by the photometers allows the researchers to monitor the nightly, monthly and yearly evolution of the NSB and the relationship with light sources of pollution in intensity and distance. The photometers that are measuring in protected areas will alarm the researchers about eventual increasing of light pollution that could affect the environment.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at different places and in which extension. Networks of fixed photometers acquiring data every night are one of the main inputs to test these models. The collaborative effort of many people provides the necessary data to derive scientific results.We present the SQM network of the Spanish Light Pollution Research collaboration (http://guaix.fis.ucm.es/splpr/SQM-REECL) that is growing with the help of amateur astronomers and interested citizens. Data are being archived in the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) using the IAU and IDA community standard data format for light pollution measurements.

  2. Stewardship of the Spanish national health system.

    PubMed

    Bankauskaite, Vaida; Novinskey, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Along with resource generation, financing, and health service delivery, stewardship is a key health system function. However, very little empirical analysis has been carried out on it. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the Ministry of Health's (MoHs) role as a steward of the Spanish National Health System (NHS) after the 2001 decentralization reform of health care management to the Autonomous Communities. We use the following stewardship framework with six sub-functions for the analysis, looking at the MoH's ability to: (1) formulate strategic policy framework; 2) ensure a fit between policy objectives and organizational structure and culture; (3) ensure tools for implementation; (4) build coalitions and partnerships; (5) generate intelligence, and (6) ensure accountability. We describe the stewardship function, identify existing challenges and issues in the Spanish case, and reflect upon methodological aspects of this exercise. We use reports, documents, articles, and official statistics to complete the analysis. Overall, we find the MoH to give an average performance in its role as the steward of the health system. The MoH has progressed particularly well in generating intelligence as well as formulating a strategic policy framework over recent years. However, it lacks the appropriate authority to efficiently coordinate the health system and to ensure that the Autonomous Communities implement policies that are in-line with overall NHS objectives.

  3. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  4. "Spanish for Medical Professionals" an interactive videodisc program.

    PubMed

    Shmarak, A D

    1991-01-01

    "Spanish for Medical Professionals" is an application authored using the IBM InfoWindow Presentation System (IWPS). It consists of a double-sided videodisc featuring four doctor/patient dialogues interrupted by comprehension quizzes, plus a large visual and audio data base for drill and practice of Spanish words and phrases in the following classifications: Medical History, Review of Systems, Anatomy Vocabulary, General Vocabulary and Pronunciation Guide. These five broad headings yield easy access to more than seventy sub-groups of material available for practice. The entire application stresses communication, not diagnostic skill or interview techniques. This is not a course in basic Spanish, but rather a needs-based language course designed to teach Spanish for a medical environment. Basic knowledge of Spanish is strongly recommended as a prerequisite.

  5. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  6. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM).

  7. How Native Do They Sound? An Acoustic Analysis of the Spanish Vowels of Elementary Spanish Immersion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menke, Mandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Language immersion students' lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic competencies are well documented, yet their phonological skill has remained relatively unexplored. This study investigates the Spanish vowel productions of a cross-sectional sample of 35 one-way Spanish immersion students. Learner productions were analyzed acoustically and compared to…

  8. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  9. Phonological Skills in Predominantly English-Speaking, Predominantly Spanish-Speaking, and Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Fabiano, Leah; Washington, Patricia Swasey

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is a paucity of information detailing the phonological skills of Spanish-English bilingual children and comparing that information to information concerning the phonological skills of predominantly English-speaking (PE) and predominantly Spanish-speaking (PS) children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship…

  10. Un Poquito de Espanol (A Little Bit of Spanish). A Guide Book for ADDitions Volunteers Teaching Spanish in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Margaret Morgan, Comp.

    This is a manual used by volunteers who teach Spanish in elementary schools in Orange County (Florida). The introductory pages of the book explain the reasons for teaching Spanish in the elementary schools of Florida, and provide suggestions on how to begin the program, where to find materials, and how to use the guidebook. There are also a list…

  11. Spanish-English or English-Spanish in California: The Dialectics of Language in a Sociocultural Historical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Sara Soledad

    2008-01-01

    This is an analysis of California history of the shifting of language policies from Spanish to English, as an Official Language The focus is English as an imposed language that from the beginning of schooling policies stifle a process of language acquisition for the majority of Spanish speakers. In 1849 the California Constitution stipulated that…

  12. The Spanish Language Book Challenge: How Librarians and Distributors Can Work Together To Better Serve Spanish-Language Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing libraries trying to order Spanish language materials. Highlights include distribution issues, including small stocks, paying in advance, size of print runs, and varying prices; the Guadalajara International Book Fair; online ordering; communication; and a list of Spanish language book distributors that specialize in…

  13. Cuentos de ayer y de hoy (Stories of Yesterday and Today), Spanish-S: 7509.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Maria

    This course is designed to help students improve their oral and written expression as well as their ability to summarize. Stories by Spanish and Spanish American writers are used. Students also have the opportunity to reinforce skills in recognizing the importance of writing as an efficient means of communication, and experience is provided in…

  14. High-resolution micropatterned Teflon AF substrates for biocompatible nanofluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hakonen, Bodil; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2012-02-14

    We describe a general photolithography-based process for the microfabrication of surface-supported Teflon AF structures. Teflon AF patterns primarily benefit from superior optical properties such as very low autofluorescence and a low refractive index. The process ensures that the Teflon AF patterns remain strongly hydrophobic in order to allow rapid lipid monolayer spreading and generates a characteristic edge morphology which assists directed cell growth along the structured surfaces. We provide application examples, demonstrating the well-controlled mixing of lipid films on Teflon AF structures and showing how the patterned surfaces can be used as biocompatible growth-directing substrates for cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells develop in a guided fashion along the sides of the microstructures, selectively avoiding to grow over the patterned areas.

  15. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    dynamic response • Waterhammer effect Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate ...Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HEHN) (HAN) [ ]-NO3 + [ ]HOCH2CH2N2H4 [ ]-+[ ]NH3OH NO3 AF-M315E

  16. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  17. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  18. Services Officer Utilization Field (AFS 62XX and Equivalent-Grade Civilians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    CHART le~ -- Sq ,.. O. pt’*. q UNITED STATES AIR FORCE cv, Lfl o D SERVICES OFFICER UTILIZATION FIELD (AFS 62XX AND EQUIVALENT-GRADE CIVILLANS) AFPT 90...Administration From January through Ma’ch 1985, job inventories were administered to all elicible AFSC 62XX nfficer: in the continental United States ... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t, , . . . .. .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . _". ... , I! . . $ IJSTRIBIJTION FOR AFS( u-)XX OSR AND SUPPORTING

  19. Neuropsychological test performance of Spanish speakers: is performance different across different Spanish-speaking subgroups?

    PubMed

    Buré-Reyes, Annelly; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Gontier, Javier; Sánchez, Laura; Pérez-García, Miguel; Puente, Antonio E

    2013-01-01

    Even though theories and research have pointed out the importance of variables such as age, gender, or education on neuropsychological assessment, much less emphasis has been placed on language and culture. With the increasing population of Spanish speakers in North America and the limited amount of clinical and scholarly information currently available, neuropsychological assessment of this group has similarly become of increasing importance. Though several studies have been published over the last two decades, an assumption exists that all Spanish speakers, holding education and age constant, would perform similarly regardless of their origin. To address this assumption, a sample of 126 participants was tested from four different countries (Chile, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Participants were compared on the following commonly used neuropsychological tests: Verbal Serial Learning Curve, Rey- Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Trail Making Test. Analyses revealed significant differences across the groups in two of the five tests administered. Significant differences were observed in the delayed recall of the Serial Learning Test and in the Verbal Fluency Test. The findings highlight the importance of within-group differences between Spanish speakers.

  20. Spanish diminutives in mother-child conversations.

    PubMed

    Melzi, Gigliana; King, Kendall A

    2003-05-01

    The present study examined gender and age patterns of diminutive use in conversations between 32 Spanish-speaking Peruvian mothers and their three- and five-year-old children. Results confirm previous findings concerning both parents' greater use of diminutives with younger children and children's early acquisition of this complex aspect of morphology. However, findings do not support previous studies on gender differences in parental use of diminutives with young children. Results also revealed that mothers' and children's imitations of their interlocutors' diminutized words promoted their interlocutors' overall diminutive use. This finding highlights the acute sensitivity of both speakers to each others' language and the potential role of imitation in older children's language development.

  1. [The Spanish influence in Colombian nursing].

    PubMed

    Velandia, A L

    1993-06-01

    Four statements inferenced from: religious traditions, gender or woman status, military heritage and ethnic inheritance, and their influence in nursing, are presented in this article. The ethnic inheritance analyses the issue based upon the cultural influences of the native-indigenous groups and the spanish and mediterranean attributes in nursing development. The religious tradition began with Pedro Claver's J.C. presence between 1610 and 1617. His presence is followed by the "Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios" in 1768, and further with the presence of the sisters of Charity in 1873. Lastly, the article compares the Barcelona's Santa Cruz hospital organization, where at that time, seems to appear a new type of nursing arrangement; with present functions and charges, currently utilized in colombian hospitals (administrator of patient rooms, "servidor", women in charge of female patients and sick children, "ecónoma", chief in charge, and senior male nurse).

  2. The concept of 'delusion' in Spanish psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, J

    1996-03-01

    The history of the concept of delusion can be used to explore the general history of psychiatry in Spain and assess the contribution of her most distinguished practitioners. As this paper shows, the latter have not been as creative as their fellow artists or writers. Nonetheless, the ideas on delusions that some of them formulated deserve attention. The history of Spanish psychiatry (qua science) can be divided into four historical periods. (1) The native origins (up to the end of the eighteenth century). (2) The introduction of European psypchiatry (nineteenth century). (3) The period of consolidation (first third of the twentieth century). (4) From the Civil War (1936-39) to the present. These four periods provide a framework within which theories about delusion can be explored. Aspects of these four stages have been dealt with in earlier papers.

  3. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    PubMed

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  4. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    PubMed

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  5. AF-M315E Propulsion System Advances and Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert K.; Allen, May; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Spores, Ronald A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.; Vasek, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Even as for the GR-1 awaits its first on-orbit demonstration on the planned 2017 launch of NASA's Green Propulsion Infusion Mission (GPIM) program, ongoing efforts continue to advance the technical state-of-the-art through improvements in the performance, life capability, and affordability of both Aerojet Rocketdyne's 1-N-class GR-1 and 20-N-class GR-22 green monopropellant thrusters. Hot-fire testing of a design upgrade of the GR-22 thruster successfully demonstrated resolution of a life-limiting thermo-structural issue encountered during prototype testing on the GPIM program, yielding both an approximately 2x increase in demonstrating life capability, as well as fundamental insights relating to how ionic liquid thrusters operate, thruster scaling, and operational factors affecting catalyst bed life. Further, a number of producibility improvements, related to both materials and processes and promising up to 50% unit cost reduction, have been identified through a comprehensive Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) assessment activity recently completed at Aerojet Rocketdyne. Focused specifically on the GR-1 but applicable to the common-core architecture of both thrusters, ongoing laboratory (heavyweight) thruster testing being conducted under a Space Act Agreement at NASA Glenn Research Center has already validated a number of these proposed manufacturability upgrades, additionally achieving a greater than 40% increase in thruster life. In parallel with technical advancements relevant to conventional large spacecraft, a joint effort between NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne is underway to prepare 1-U CubeSat AF-M315E propulsion module for first flight demonstration in 2018.

  6. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  7. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  8. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  9. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  10. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation. PMID:25941507

  11. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  12. Aflatoxin levels and exposure assessment of Spanish infant cereals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Raquel; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) are immunosuppressant, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic agents with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Since human exposure to aflatoxins occurs primarily by contaminated food intake, and given the greater susceptibility of infants to their adverse effects, the quantification of these mycotoxins in infant food based on cereals is of relevance. Aflatoxin levels were determined in 91 Spanish infant cereals classified in terms of non- and organically produced and several types from 10 different manufacturers, using a extraction procedure followed by inmunoaffinity column clean-up step and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD) and post-column derivatisation (Kobra Cell system). Daily aflatoxin intake was also assessed. Preliminary analysis showed a valuable incidence of detected infant cereal samples at an upper concentration level than the detection limit for total aflatoxin (66%), corresponding to a 46, 40, 34 and 11% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. Lower aflatoxin values (median, Q1, Q3) in conventional infant cereal (n = 74, AFB1: AF (AFtotal): 0.01 (

  13. 7 CFR 51.2730 - U.S. No. 1 Spanish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Spanish. 51.2730 Section 51.2730... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2730 U.S. No. 1 Spanish. “U.S. No. 1 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2732 - U.S. No. 2 Spanish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 2 Spanish. 51.2732 Section 51.2732... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2732 U.S. No. 2 Spanish. “U.S. No. 2 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2730 - U.S. No. 1 Spanish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Spanish. 51.2730 Section 51.2730... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2730 U.S. No. 1 Spanish. “U.S. No. 1 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2732 - U.S. No. 2 Spanish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. No. 2 Spanish. 51.2732 Section 51.2732... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2732 U.S. No. 2 Spanish. “U.S. No. 2 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  17. Tracing the Spanish Language/Determinando el Origen del Idioma Espanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Spanish language in America and notes the influence of Caribbean languages, Nahuatl, and English on Spanish. Describes the archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and grammar of the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Discusses Spanish language maintenance in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the United States. (SB)

  18. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  19. Utilizing Our Resources: Heritage and Native Speakers as Pronunciation Coaches in the Spanish Phonetics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the help that heritage speakers and other native Spanish speaking students can provide in a Spanish phonetics class. These students can improve the pronunciation of Spanish learners while enhancing their own self esteem, and can also make learners aware of different dialects of Spanish. (Author/VWL)

  20. Salta a Cantar (Jump Up to Sing). Children's Songs in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mona

    Since most children like to sing, singing Spanish songs is a learning experience that will be remembered. For Spanish speaking children, singing Spanish songs will build their self esteem and create a more comfortable environment. Children who do not speak Spanish will obtain a good feeling for the beauty of the language and will enjoy learning…

  1. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  2. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  3. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  4. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  5. Collections and Services for the Spanish-Speaking: Issues and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Solina Kasten

    2003-01-01

    Describes factors that have hindered Spanish-language collection development and suggests strategies and tools that can help the non-Spanish-speaking librarian select and acquire Spanish-language monographs, periodicals, and audiovisual media for adult and youth audiences. Provides lists of selected resources for Spanish-language and Latino book…

  6. A Non-Traditional Approach to the Teaching of Urban Spanish and Caribbean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angerosa, Nicholas F.

    Two courses in the La Salle University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) M.A. Program in Bilingual-Bicultural (Spanish) Studies are described: Urban Spanish and Caribbean Literature. The urban Spanish component consists of five courses, one of which is intensive, to provide broad exposure to the technical or practical Spanish encountered in the…

  7. The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

    This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

  8. Cuentos Faciles. Habia una vez.... (Simple Stories. There was a Time....) (Presenting Simple Stories in Spanish.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Nancy; And Others

    For Spanish-speaking children, simple stories in Spanish, told in a natural language suitable for their age, are not only entertaining, but a means of developing vocabulary and concepts. Non-Spanish-speaking children, too, need exposure to more language than they can understand word for word. However, the simple stories for the Spanish speaker…

  9. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  10. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  11. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  12. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  13. Paginas del estudiante de espanol (Pages for the Student of Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carballo Picazo, Alfredo

    1975-01-01

    The fifteenth in a series of workbook lessons, this consists of a passage in Spanish concerning the Spanish city of Avila. Following are exercises on vocabulary and passives in English and Spanish to be completed by the student. (Text is in English and Spanish.) (CK)

  14. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Rodríguez, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed.

  15. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.; RODRÍGUEZ, EVA

    2008-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed. PMID:19018293

  16. Spanish experience with German psychology prior to World War I.

    PubMed

    Mülberger, Annette

    2008-01-01

    An increase in interest for German scientific psychology followed the rise of liberalism in late nineteenth-century Spain. This paper deals with Spanish scholars' endeavors to participate in German psychology: It outlines the intellectual and institutional background of Spanish preoccupation with German philosophy and psychology, and deals with the personal experience and testimony of two Spanish philosophers, Eloy Luis André and Juan Vicente Viqueira López, who traveled to Leipzig, Berlin, and Göttingen between 1909 and 1914 to gain firsthand experience in the nascent science of psychology in Germany at that time.

  17. Spanish stop-rhotic sequences in Spanish-Basque bilinguals and second language learners: An acoustic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissglass, Christine A.

    This dissertation investigates transfer and markedness in bilingual and L2 Spanish stop-rhotic sequences (e.g., the 'br' in brisa 'breeze'). It also examines the phonetics-phonology interface in Spanish. To this end, it explores the production of these sequences in two different experiments. Experiment 1 compares the production of these sequences by 6 Spanish monolinguals and 6 Spanish-Basque bilinguals. Experiment 2 does so for 25 L2 learners and 5 native Spanish speakers. Acoustic analysis of these sequences revealed that Spanish-Basque bilinguals produced trills 5% of the time whereas Spanish monolinguals did not have any trills. Additionally, fricative rhotics and coarticulation accounted for 35% of L2 realizations, but were not present in the native Spanish speaker dataset. These findings indicate a role for transfer in both bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, although it is more prevalent in the L2 learner dataset. This is in line with the Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995), which posits a stronger role for transfer amongst late learners (i.e., L2 learners) than early learners (i.e., Spanish-Basque bilinguals). In order to examine the role of markedness in bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, this dissertation investigates the role of sonority in bilingual and L2 Spanish syllable structure. To do so, it proposes a sonority hierarchy for rhotic variants based on their specifications for voicing, intensity and continuancy. According to this hierarchy, approximant rhotics are the most sonorous, followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Therefore, approximant rhotics were expected to be the most common realization followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Although Spanish monolinguals adhered to this expectation, the other groups did not; taps were the most common realization for Spanish-Basque bilinguals, L2 learners, and native Spanish speakers and fricative rhotics were more common than trills for Spanish-Basque bilinguals and L2

  18. Recognition of the 3' splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift.

    PubMed

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C

    2016-11-15

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3' splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3' splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein-RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3' splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants.

  19. Community Colleges and Spanish Language Instruction: Peer Pedagogy in Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jenifer D.; Duval, José; Cyr, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Three authors describe a collaboration between a Massachusetts college and a nearby prison, which leveraged the volunteer efforts of a college professor by including incarcerated men who assisted in Spanish language teaching inside and outside the classroom.

  20. Let Them Talk!: Teaching High School Spanish Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konopacki, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Describes the use of conversational partnerships (CP) in high school Spanish classes. CPs seek to improve spoken proficiency by allowing students to rehearse conversational roles, plan strategies, and polish pronunciation. (CB)