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Sample records for af status og

  1. [Academician O.G. Gazenko and aviation medicine].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S; Khomenko, M N; Stepanov, V K

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes the contribution of O.G. Gazenko to the theory and practice of aviation medicine in the period of his service at the State Test and Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine under the USSR Ministry of Defense (1947-1969). O.G. Gazenko took the leadership and participated in personally in the broad investigations of the altitude effects on human organism, medical care of the staff of AF units and troops based in the Arctic, improvement of life and duty conditions for pilots and technicians in hot climate, ejection seat testing, development of methods modeling erroneous pilot's actions in order to understand their triggers. PMID:19238922

  2. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  3. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  4. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  5. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  6. The AFS Impact Study: Final Report. AFS Research Report 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansel, Bettina

    The AFS Impact Study, initiated in 1977, is an attempt to document changes in learning and personal development associated with an intercultural "homestay" program. Completed in 1985, the study identifies several areas in which students show greater learning and educational growth than that shown by a group of students who had expressed interest…

  7. Eaton AF5000+Genesis Communication Driver

    1995-05-25

    Communication driver allows the Genesis Control Series software to interact with Eaton AF5000+ frequency drives via RS-232 communications. All Eaton AF5000+ parameters that support communications are supported by the Genesis driver. Multidrop addressing to multiple units is available with the Genesis communication driver.

  8. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Tornadoes Sirens and Telephone Alerts - English Firimbiyada iyo Digniinaha telefonka - af Soomaali (Somali) PDF Healthy Roads Media Tornadoes - English Dabayl xoog badan (Ufo) - af Soomaali (Somali) ...

  9. Korean Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Network: Genetic Variants for AF Do Not Predict Ablation Success

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eue-Keun; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Nam, Chung Mo; Hwang, Min Ki; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Ko, Young-Guk; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Background Genomewide association studies have identified several loci associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have been reportedly associated with response to catheter ablation for AF in patients of European ancestry; however, associations between top susceptibility loci and AF recurrence after ablation have not been examined in Asian populations. We examined whether the top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at chromosomes 4q25 (PITX2), 16q22 (ZFHX3), and 1q21 (KCNN3) were associated with AF in a Korean population and whether these SNPs were associated with clinical outcomes after catheter ablation for AF. Methods and Results We determined the association between 4 SNPs and AF in 1068 AF patients who underwent catheter ablation (74.6% male, aged 57.5±10.9 years, 67.9% paroxysmal AF) and 1068 age- and sex-matched controls. The SNPs at the PITX2 and ZFHX3 loci, but not the KCNN3 locus, were significantly associated with AF (PITX2/rs6843082_G: odds ratio 3.41, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.55, P=1.32×10−16; PITX2/rs2200733_T: odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.53, P=2.20×10−11; ZFHX3/rs2106261_A: odds ratio 2.33, 95% CI 1.87 to 2.91, P=3.75×10−14; KCNN3/rs13376333_T: odds ratio 1.74, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.25, P=0.085). Among those patients who underwent catheter ablation for AF, none of the top AF-associated SNPs were associated with long-term clinical recurrence of AF after catheter ablation. Conclusions SNPs at the PITX2 and ZFHX3 loci were strongly associated with AF in Korean patients. In contrast to prior reports, none of the 4 top AF-susceptibility SNPs predicted clinical recurrence after catheter ablation. PMID:26272656

  10. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  11. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  12. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  13. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  14. MLL-AF6 fusion oncogene sequesters AF6 into the nucleus to trigger RAS activation in myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Manara, Elena; Baron, Emma; Tregnago, Claudia; Aveic, Sanja; Bisio, Valeria; Bresolin, Silvia; Masetti, Riccardo; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina

    2014-07-10

    A rare location, t(6;11)(q27;q23) (MLL-AF6), is associated with poor outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The described mechanism by which MLL-AF6, through constitutive self-association and in cooperation with DOT-1L, activates aberrant gene expression does not explain the biological differences existing between t(6;11)-rearranged and other MLL-positive patients nor their different clinical outcome. Here, we show that AF6 is expressed in the cytoplasm of healthy bone marrow cells and controls rat sarcoma viral oncogene (RAS)-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) levels. By contrast, in MLL-AF6-rearranged cells, AF6 is found localized in the nucleus, leading to aberrant activation of RAS and of its downstream targets. Silencing MLL-AF6, we restored AF6 localization in the cytoplasm, thus mediating significant reduction of RAS-GTP levels and of cell clonogenic potential. The rescue of RAS-GTP levels after MLL-AF6 and AF6 co-silencing confirmed that MLL-AF6 oncoprotein potentiates the activity of the RAS pathway through retention of AF6 within the nucleus. Exposure of MLL-AF6-rearranged AML blasts to tipifarnib, a RAS inhibitor, leads to cell autophagy and apoptosis, thus supporting RAS targeting as a novel potential therapeutic strategy in patients carrying t(6;11). Altogether, these data point to a novel role of the MLL-AF6 chimera and show that its gene partner, AF6, is crucial in AML development.

  15. AfsR recruits RNA polymerase to the afsS promoter: a model for transcriptional activation by SARPs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Takano, Yuji; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2007-06-01

    AfsR, a protein belonging to the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family, is a global regulator of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). AfsR consists of three major functional domains: an N-terminal SARP domain, a central ATPase domain, and a C-terminal tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) domain. Two truncated AfsR proteins, AfsRDeltaTPR containing the SARP and ATPase domains and AfsRDeltaC containing only the SARP domain, exhibited the same DNA-binding specificity as that of full-length AfsR. Two monomers bound cooperatively to a direct repeat located eight nucleotides 5' to the -10 element of the afsS promoter. Both truncated AfsR proteins, as well as full-length AfsR, were able to form ternary complexes with the afsS promoter and RNA polymerase (RNAP), although RNAP alone could not bind to the DNA. The DNA-(AfsRDeltaC)(2)-RNAP complex was capable of initiating afsS transcription in vitro, indicating that the ATPase and TPR domains are dispensable for the basic function of AfsR as a transcriptional activator. However, the ATPase domain was required to fully compensate for the defect in actinorhodin production in an afsR-disrupted mutant, suggesting that the ATPase domain exerts a regulatory function on the basic SARP domain. Deletion or addition of even a single nucleotide between the AfsR-binding site and the -10 element of the afsS promoter abolished afsS transcription both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the recruitment of RNAP by AfsR to the correct location relative to the -10 element is critical for transcriptional activation. Since SARP-binding sites with similar direct repeats are located at the same position relative to the -10 element of their target promoters as is the afsS binding site, the SARP family members presumably activate transcription of their targets by recruiting RNAP to the promoter, where a ternary DNA-SARP-RNAP complex competent for transcriptional initiation is formed.

  16. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes’ status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors’ detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability. PMID:26193280

  17. [Progress in Teflon AF LWCC/LCW applications].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhao-Hua; Zhou, Wen; Xu, Zhan-Tang; Ye, Hai-Bin; Yang, Chao-Yu; Lin, Jun-Fang; Hu, Shui-Bo; Yang, Yue-Zhong; Li, Cai; Cao, Wen-Xi

    2011-11-01

    Teflon AF is chemically very inert, quite physically and optically stable, a highly vapor-permeable polymer with optical transparency through much of the UV-Vis region and with an RI lower than that of water, so Teflon AF LWCC/LCW (Long path-length liquid waveguide capillary cell/liquid core waveguides) has been used with a range of different detection techniques, including absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and gas sensor. The present article describes the properties and the aspects of Teflon AF LWCC/LCW instrumentation and applications. And finally,the future prospect and outlook of Teflon AF LWCC/LCW is also discussed.

  18. AF4 and AF4N protein complexes: recruitment of P-TEFb kinase, their interactome and potential functions

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Bastian; Kowarz, Eric; Rössler, Tanja; Ahmad, Khalil; Steinhilber, Dieter; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are the molecular backbone to assemble “super-elongation complexes” (SECs) that have two main functions: (1) control of transcriptional elongation by recruiting the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb = CyclinT1/CDK9) that is usually stored in inhibitory 7SK RNPs; (2) binding of different histone methyltransferases, like DOT1L, NSD1 and CARM1. This way, transcribed genes obtain specific histone signatures (e.g. H3K79me2/3, H3K36me2) to generate a transcriptional memory system. Here we addressed several questions: how is P-TEFb recruited into SEC, how is the AF4 interactome composed, and what is the function of the naturally occuring AF4N protein variant which exhibits only the first 360 amino acids of the AF4 full-length protein. Noteworthy, shorter protein variants are a specific feature of all AFF protein family members. Here, we demonstrate that full-length AF4 and AF4N are both catalyzing the transition of P-TEFb from 7SK RNP to their N-terminal domain. We have also mapped the protein-protein interaction network within both complexes. In addition, we have first evidence that the AF4N protein also recruits TFIIH and the tumor suppressor MEN1. This indicate that AF4N may have additional functions in transcriptional initiation and in MEN1-dependend transcriptional processes. PMID:26171280

  19. AF-MSCs fate can be regulated by culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zagoura, D S; Trohatou, O; Bitsika, V; Makridakis, M; Pappa, K I; Vlahou, A; Roubelakis, M G; Anagnou, N P

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represent a population of multipotent adherent cells able to differentiate into many lineages. In our previous studies, we isolated and expanded fetal MSCs from second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) and characterized them based on their phenotype, pluripotency and proteomic profile. In the present study, we investigated the plasticity of these cells based on their differentiation, dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation potential in vitro. To this end, adipocyte-like cells (AL cells) derived from AF-MSCs can regain, under certain culture conditions, a more primitive phenotype through the process of dedifferentiation. Dedifferentiated AL cells derived from AF-MSCs (DAF-MSCs), gradually lost the expression of adipogenic markers and obtained similar morphology and differentiation potential to AF-MSCs, together with regaining the pluripotency marker expression. Moreover, a comparative proteomic analysis of AF-MSCs, AL cells and DAF-MSCs revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins among the three cell populations. Proteins, such as vimentin, galectin-1 and prohibitin that have a significant role in stem cell regulatory mechanisms, were expressed in higher levels in AF-MSCs and DAF-MSCs compared with AL cells. We next investigated whether AL cells could transdifferentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HL cells) directly or through a dedifferentiation step. AL cells were cultured in hepatogenic medium and 4 days later they obtained a phenotype similar to AF-MSCs, and were termed as transdifferentiated AF-MSCs (TRAF-MSCs). This finding, together with the increase in pluripotency marker expression, indicated the adaption of a more primitive phenotype before transdifferentiation. Additionally, we observed that AF-, DAF- and TRAF-MSCs displayed similar clonogenic potential, secretome and proteome profile. Considering the easy access to this fetal cell source, the plasticity of AF-MSCs and their potential to dedifferentiate and

  20. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  5. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  6. Embedding Assessment for Learning (AfL) into Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2012-01-01

    Although the National Strategies for improving English schools no longer exist, the "Pedagogy and Practice" pack provides a valuable resource for producing an Assessment for Learning (AfL) framework that describes a hierarchy of skills for AfL. Based on the hierarchy, training took place in three North Yorkshire schools. To focus attention on the…

  7. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  8. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex.

    PubMed

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of "super elongation complexes" (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  9. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs.

  10. Toward a petabyte-scale AFS service at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Moscicki, Jakub T.; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    AFS is a mature and reliable storage service at CERN, having worked for more than 20 years as the provider of Unix home directories and project areas. Recently, the AFS service has grown at unprecedented rates (200% in the past year); this growth was unlocked thanks to innovations in both the hardware and software components of our file servers. This work presents how AFS is used at CERN and how the service offering is evolving with the increasing storage needs of its local and remote user communities. In particular, we demonstrate the usage patterns for home directories, workspaces and project spaces, as well as show the daily work which is required to rebalance data and maintaining stability and performance. Finally, we highlight some recent changes and optimisations made to the AFS Service, thereby revealing how AFS can possibly operate at all while being subjected to frequent-almost DDOS-like-attacks from its users.

  11. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  12. [Individual characteristics of correction of the cosmonauts' vegetative status with a method of adaptive biofeedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Cowings, P.; Arlashchenko, N. I.; Korneev, D. Iu; Sagalovich, S. V.; Sarantseva, A. V.; Toscano, W.; Kozlovskaia, I. B.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of 4 cosmonauts to voluntarily control their physiological parameters during the standing test was evaluated following a series of the adaptive feedback (AF) training sessions. Vegetative status of the cosmonauts during voluntary "relaxation" and "straining" was different when compared with its indices determined before these sessions. In addition, there was a considerable individual variability in the intensity and direction of the AF effects, and the range of parameters responding to AF. It was GCR which was the easiest one for the AF control.

  13. Tuning the Music: Acoustic Force Spectroscopy (AFS) 2.0.

    PubMed

    Kamsma, Douwe; Creyghton, Ramon; Sitters, Gerrit; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G

    2016-08-01

    AFS is a recently introduced high-throughput single-molecule technique that allows studying structural and mechanochemical properties of many biomolecules in parallel. To further improve the method, we developed a modelling tool to optimize the layer thicknesses, and a calibration method to experimentally validate the modelled force profiles. After optimization, we are able to apply 350pN on 4.5μm polystyrene beads, without the use of an amplifier, at the coverslip side of the AFS chip. Furthermore, we present the use of a transparent piezo to generate the acoustic force and we show that AFS can be combined with high-NA oil or water-immersion objectives. With this set of developments AFS will be applicable to a broad range of single-molecule experiments. PMID:27163865

  14. Complex Transcriptional Control of the Antibiotic Regulator afsS in Streptomyces: PhoP and AfsR Are Overlapping, Competitive Activators▿

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F.

    2011-01-01

    The afsS gene of several Streptomyces species encodes a small sigma factor-like protein that acts as an activator of several pathway-specific regulatory genes (e.g., actII-ORF4 and redD in Streptomyces coelicolor). The two pleiotropic regulators AfsR and PhoP bind to overlapping sequences in the −35 region of the afsS promoter and control its expression. Using mutated afsS promoters containing specific point mutations in the AfsR and PhoP binding sequences, we proved that the overlapping recognition sequences for AfsR and PhoP are displaced by 1 nucleotide. Different nucleotide positions are important for binding of AfsR or PhoP, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by reporter studies using the luxAB gene coupled to the different promoters. Mutant promoter M5 (with a nucleotide change at position 5 of the consensus box) binds AfsR but not PhoP with high affinity (named “superAfsR”). Expression of the afsS gene from this promoter led to overproduction of actinorhodin. Mutant promoter M16 binds PhoP with extremely high affinity (“superPhoP”). Studies with ΔafsR and ΔphoP mutants (lacking AfsR and PhoP, respectively) showed that both global regulators are competitive transcriptional activators of afsS. AfsR has greater influence on expression of afsS than PhoP, as shown by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and promoter reporter (luciferase) studies. These two high-level regulators appear to integrate different nutritional signals (particularly phosphate limitation sensed by PhoR), S-adenosylmethionine, and other still unknown environmental signals (leading to AfsR phosphorylation) for the AfsS-mediated control of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:21378195

  15. Complex transcriptional control of the antibiotic regulator afsS in Streptomyces: PhoP and AfsR are overlapping, competitive activators.

    PubMed

    Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F

    2011-05-01

    The afsS gene of several Streptomyces species encodes a small sigma factor-like protein that acts as an activator of several pathway-specific regulatory genes (e.g., actII-ORF4 and redD in Streptomyces coelicolor). The two pleiotropic regulators AfsR and PhoP bind to overlapping sequences in the -35 region of the afsS promoter and control its expression. Using mutated afsS promoters containing specific point mutations in the AfsR and PhoP binding sequences, we proved that the overlapping recognition sequences for AfsR and PhoP are displaced by 1 nucleotide. Different nucleotide positions are important for binding of AfsR or PhoP, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by reporter studies using the luxAB gene coupled to the different promoters. Mutant promoter M5 (with a nucleotide change at position 5 of the consensus box) binds AfsR but not PhoP with high affinity (named "superAfsR"). Expression of the afsS gene from this promoter led to overproduction of actinorhodin. Mutant promoter M16 binds PhoP with extremely high affinity ("superPhoP"). Studies with ΔafsR and ΔphoP mutants (lacking AfsR and PhoP, respectively) showed that both global regulators are competitive transcriptional activators of afsS. AfsR has greater influence on expression of afsS than PhoP, as shown by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and promoter reporter (luciferase) studies. These two high-level regulators appear to integrate different nutritional signals (particularly phosphate limitation sensed by PhoR), S-adenosylmethionine, and other still unknown environmental signals (leading to AfsR phosphorylation) for the AfsS-mediated control of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

  16. Effects of iron depletion on CALM-AF10 leukemias.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jessica L; Weiss, Joshua M; Lavau, Catherine P; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2014-12-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient for cellular growth and proliferation, enters cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid (CALM) protein plays an essential role in the cellular import of iron by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CALM-AF10 leukemias harbor a single copy of the normal CALM gene and therefore may be more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effect of iron restriction compared with normal hematopoietic cells. We found that CALM heterozygous (CALM(HET)) murine fibroblasts exhibit signs of iron deficiency, with increased surface transferrin receptor levels and reduced growth rates. CALM(HET) hematopoietic cells are more sensitive in vitro to iron chelators than their wild type counterparts. Iron chelation also displayed toxicity toward cultured CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia cells, and this effect was additive to that of chemotherapy. In mice transplanted with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia, we found that dietary iron restriction reduced tumor burden in the spleen. However, dietary iron restriction, used alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, did not increase survival of mice with CALM(HET)CALM-AF10 leukemia. In summary, although CALM heterozygosity results in iron deficiency and increased sensitivity to iron chelation in vitro, our data in mice do not suggest that iron depletion strategies would be beneficial for the therapy of CALM-AF10 leukemia patients.

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. afsS is a target of AfsR, a transcriptional factor with ATPase activity that globally controls secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ping-Chin; Umeyama, Takashi; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2002-03-01

    AfsR is a pleiotropic, global regulator that controls the production of actinorhodin, undecylprodigiosin and calcium-dependent antibiotic in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). AfsR, with 993 amino acids, is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a protein serine/threonine kinase AfsK and contains an OmpR-like DNA-binding fold at its N-terminal portion and A- and B-type nucleotide-binding motifs in the middle of the protein. The DNA-binding domain, in-dependently of the nucleotide-binding domain, contributed the binding of AfsR to the upstream region of afsS that locates immediately 3' to afsR and encodes a 63-amino-acid protein. No transcription of afsS in the DeltaafsR background and restoration of afsS transcription by afsR on a plasmid in the same genetic background indicated that afsR served as a transcriptional activator for afsS. Interestingly, the AfsR binding site overlapped the promoter of afsS, as determined by DNase I protection assay and high-resolution S1 nuclease mapping. The nucleotide-binding domain contributed distinct ATPase and GTPase activity. The phosphorylation of AfsR by AfsK greatly enhanced the DNA-binding activity and modulated the ATPase activity. The DNA-binding ability of AfsR was independent of the ATPase activity. However, the ATPase activity was essential for transcriptional activation of afsS, probably because the energy available from ATP hydrolysis is required for the isomerization of the closed complex between AfsR and RNA polymerase to a transcriptionally competent open complex. Thus, AfsR turns out to be a unique transcriptional factor, in that it is modular, in which DNA-binding and ATPase activities are physically separable, and the two functions are modulated by phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues.

  3. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  4. Ornicorrugatin, a new siderophore from Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Sandra; Budzikiewicz, Herbert; Schäfer, Mathias; Wathelet, Bernard; Cornelis, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    From a pyoverdin-negative mutant of Pseudomonas fluorescens AF76 a new lipopeptidic siderophore (ornicorrugatin) could be isolated. It is structurally related to the siderophore of Pseudomonas corrugata differing in the replacement of one Dab unit by Orn. PMID:18386480

  5. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  6. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  7. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  8. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  9. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  10. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  11. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  12. Identification and functional characterization of grass carp IL-17A/F1: An evaluation of the immunoregulatory role of teleost IL-17A/F1.

    PubMed

    Du, Linyong; Feng, Shiyu; Yin, Licheng; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, IL-17A and IL-17F are hallmark cytokines of Th17 cells which act significant roles in eradicating extracellular pathogens. IL-17A and IL-17F homologs nominated as IL-17A/F1-3 have been revealed in fish and their functions remain largely undefined. Here we identified and characterized grass carp IL-17A/F1 (gcIL-17A/F1) in fish immune system. In this regard, both tissue distribution and inductive expression of gcIL-17A/F1 indicated its possible involvement in immune response. Moreover, recombinant gcIL-17A/F1 (rgcIL-17A/F1) was prepared and displayed an ability to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) mRNA expression in head kidney leukocytes. It is suggestive of that gcIL-17A/F1 may act as a proinflammatory cytokine in fish immunity. Besides, rgcIL-17A/F1 induced gene expression and protein release of grass carp chemokine CXCL-8 (gcCXCL-8) in head kidney cells (HKCs), probably via NF-κB, p38 and Erk1/2 pathways. In particular, culture medium from the HKCs treated by rgcIL-17A/F1 could stimulate peripheral blood leukocytes migration and immunoneutralization of endogenous gcCXCL-8 could partially attenuate this stimulation, suggesting that rgcIL-17A/F1 could recruit immune cells through producing gcCXCL-8 as mammalian IL-17 A and F. Taken together, we not only identified the pro-inflammatory role of gcIL-17A/F1 in host defense, but also provided the basis for clarifying Th17 cells in teleost. PMID:25847875

  13. Improvement and biological applications of fluorescent probes for zinc, ZnAFs.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomoya; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Urano, Yasuteru; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2002-06-12

    The development and cellular applications of novel fluorescent probes for Zn2+, ZnAF-1F, and ZnAF-2F are described. Fluorescein is used as a fluorophore of ZnAFs, because its excitation and emission wavelengths are in the visible range, which minimizes cell damage and autofluorescence by excitation light. N,N-Bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine, used as an acceptor for Zn2+, is attached directly to the benzoic acid moiety of fluorescein, resulting in very low quantum yields of 0.004 for ZnAF-1F and 0.006 for ZnAF-2F under physiological conditions (pH 7.4) due to the photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. Upon the addition of Zn2+, the fluorescence intensity is quickly increased up to 69-fold for ZnAF-1F and 60-fold for ZnAF-2F. Apparent dissociation constants (K(d)) are in the nanomolar range, which affords sufficient sensitivity for biological applications. ZnAFs do not fluoresce in the presence of other biologically important cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, and are insensitive to change of pH. The complexes with Zn2+ of previously developed ZnAFs, ZnAF-1, and ZnAF-2 decrease in fluorescence intensity below pH 7.0 owing to protonation of the phenolic hydroxyl group of fluorescein, whose pKa value is 6.2. On the other hand, the Zn2+ complexes of ZnAF-1F and ZnAF-2F emit stable fluorescence around neutral and slightly acidic conditions because the pKa values are shifted to 4.9 by substitution of electron-withdrawing fluorine at the ortho position of the phenolic hydroxyl group. For application to living cells, the diacetyl derivative of ZnAF-2F, ZnAF-2F DA, was synthesized. ZnAF-2F DA can permeate through the cell membrane, and is hydrolyzed by esterase in the cytosol to yield ZnAF-2F, which is retained in the cells. Using ZnAF-2F DA, we could measure the changes of intracellular Zn2+ in cultured cells and hippocampal slices.

  14. Binding sites for two novel phosphoproteins, 3AF5 and 3AF3, are required for rbcS-3A expression.

    PubMed Central

    Sarokin, L P; Chua, N H

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies of boxes II (-151 to -138) and III (-125 to -114), binding sites for the nuclear factor GT-1 within the -166 deleted promoter of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-3A (rbcS-3A) gene, suggested that GT-1 might act in concert with an additional protein to confer light-responsive rbcS-3A expression. In this work, S1 analysis of RNA isolated from transgenic tobacco plants carrying mutant rbcS-3A constructs led to the identification of two short sequences located at the 5' and 3' ends of box III that are required for expression. These two sequences serve as binding sites for two novel proteins, 3AF5 and 3AF3. Gel shift studies using tetramerized binding sites for both 3AF5 and 3AF3 showed that complexes with faster mobilities were formed using nuclear extracts prepared from dark-adapted plants compared with those from light-grown tobacco plants. Phosphatase treatment of extracts from light-grown plants resulted in the formation of complexes with faster mobility. Although the binding of 3AF3 to its target site is dependent upon phosphorylation, the binding of 3AF5 does not appear to be affected by its phosphorylation state. These results suggest that the phosphorylated forms of both 3AF5 and 3AF3 are required for -166 rbcS-3A expression but that the mechanisms differ by which phosphorylation regulates the activities of 3AF5 and 3AF3. PMID:1498605

  15. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  16. AF64A-induced brain damage and its relation to dementia.

    PubMed

    Hörtnagl, H

    1994-01-01

    Several data obtained in the AF64A-model are of particular relevance for our understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. The AF64A-induced withdrawal of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus was associated with reversible functional changes in other neurotransmitters, including noradrenaline, serotonin, somatostatin and glutamate, thereby mimicking changes in Alzheimer's disease. Identical changes in markers for synaptic vesicles were found in Alzheimer's disease and AF64A-model. A study on the role of gender revealed a higher susceptibility to the neurotoxic action of AF64A in female rats. The cholinergic deficit was also responsible for a disinhibition of the negative feedback regulation of glucocorticoids. Increased exposure to glucocorticoids, however, enhanced the vulnerability of hippocampal cholinergic neurons to AF64A. These data indicate that the AF64A-induced cholinergic deficit in the rat brain represents a reliable tool to study several mechanisms possibly involved in Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter from African Dark Earth (AfDE) Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Fujiu, M.; Ohno, T.; Solomon, D.; Lehmann, J.; Fraser, J. A.; Leach, M.; Fairhead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic Dark Earths are soils generated through long-term human inputs of organic and pyrogenic materials. These soils were originally discovered in the Amazon, and have since been found in Australia and in this case in Africa. While tropical soils are typically characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations, African Dark Earths (AfDE) are black, highly fertile and carbon-rich soils formed through an extant but ancient soil management system. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter accumulated in AfDE and contrast it with non-AfDE soils. Characterization of bulk soil organic matter of several (n=11) AfDE and non-AfDE pairs of surface (0-15 cm) soils using thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-EGA) resulted in substantial differences in SOM composition and the presence of pyrogenic C. Such pyrogenic organic matter is generally considered recalcitrant, but the fertility gains in AfDE are generated by labile, more rapidly cycling pools of SOM. As a result, we characterized hot water- and pyrophosphate-extractable pools of SOM using fluorescence (EEM/PARAFAC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). EEM/PARAFAC data suggests that AfDE samples had a greater fraction of their DOM that was more humic-like than the paired non-AfDE samples. Similarly, FT-ICR-MS analyses of extracts suggest that differences among the sites analyzed were larger than between the paired AfDE and non-AfDE extracts. Overall, in spite of substantial differences in the composition of bulk SOM, the extractable fractions appear to be relatively similar between the AfDE and non-AfDE soils.

  18. MicroRNA-205 downregulates mixed-lineage-AF4 oncogene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liping; Li, Jingxin; Zheng, Dehua; Li, Yonghui; Gao, Xiaoning; Xu, Chengwang; Gao, Li; Wang, Lili; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage AF4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (MLL-AF4 ALL) is a pediatric leukemia that occurs rarely in adults. MLL-AF4 ALL is typically characterized by the presence of chromosomal translocation (t(4;1l)(q21;q23)), leading to expression of MLL-AF4 fusion protein. Although MLL-AF4 fusion protein triggers a molecular pathogenesis and hematological presentations that are unique to leukemias, the precise role of this oncogene in leukemogenesis remains unclear. Previous studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRs) might modulate the expression of MLL-AF4 ALL fusion protein, thereby suggesting the involvement of miR in progression or suppression of MLL-AF4 ALL. We have previously demonstrated that miR-205 negatively regulates transcription of an MLL-AF4 luciferase reporter. Here, we report that exogenous expression of miR-205 in MLL-AF4 human cell lines (RS4;11 and MV4-11) inversely regulates the expression of MLL-AF4 at both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. Furthermore, miR-205 significantly induced apoptosis in MLL-AF4 cells as evidenced by Annex in V staining using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The proliferative capacity of leukemic cells was suppressed by miR-205. The addition of an miR-205 inhibitor was able to restore the observed effects. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-205 may have potential value as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of MLL-AF4 ALL. PMID:24009426

  19. Structure and biological activities of eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), a new mast cell degranulating peptide in the venom of the solitary wasp (Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado).

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Hisada, M; Naoki, H; Itagaki, Y; Kawai, N; Miwa, A; Yasuhara, T; Morimoto, Y; Nakata, Y

    2000-11-01

    A new mast cell degranulating peptide, eumenine mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), was isolated from the venom of the solitary wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado, the most common eumenine wasp found in Japan. The structure was analyzed by FAB-MS/MS together with Edman degradation, which was corroborated by solid-phase synthesis. The sequence of EMP-AF, Ile-Asn-Leu-Leu-Lys-Ile-Ala-Lys-Gly-Ile-Ile-Lys-Ser-Leu-NH(2), was similar to that of mastoparan, a mast cell degranulating peptide from a hornet venom; tetradecapeptide with C-terminus amidated and rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids. In fact, EMP-AF exhibited similar activity to mastoparan in stimulating degranulation from rat peritoneal mast cells and RBL-2H3 cells. It also showed significant hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Therefore, this is the first example that a mast cell degranulating peptide is found in the solitary wasp venom. Besides the degranulation and hemolytic activity, EMP-AF also affects on neuromuscular transmission in the lobster walking leg preparation. Three analogs EMP-AF-1 approximately 3 were snythesized and biologically tested together with EMP-AF, resulting in the importance of the C-terminal amide structure for biological activities.

  20. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  1. Identification and characterization of the afsR homologue regulatory gene from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Niranjan; Viet, Hung Trinh; Ishida, Kenji; Tong, Hang Thi; Lee, Hei Chan; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated an afsR homologue, called afsR-p, through genome analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. AfsR-p shares 60% sequence identity with AfsR from Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). afsR-p was expressed under the control of the ermE* promoter in its hosts S. peucetius, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, Streptomyces clavuligerus and Streptomyces griseus. We observed overproduction of doxorubicin (4-fold) in S. peucetius, gamma-actinorhodin (2.6-fold) in S. lividans, clavulanic acid (1.5-fold) in S. clavuligerus and streptomycin (slight) in S. griseus. Overproduction was due to expression of the gene in these strains as compared to the wild-type strains harboring the vector only. Comparative study of the expression of afsR-p revealed that regulatory networking in Streptomyces is not uniform. We speculate that phosphorylated AfsR-p becomes bound to the promoter region of afsS. The latter activates other regulatory genes, including pathway regulatory genes, and induces the production of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. We identified specific conserved amino acids and exploited them for the isolation of the partial sequence of the afsR homologue from S. clavuligerus and Streptomyces achromogens (rubradirin producer). Such findings provide additional evidence for the presence of a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase-dependent global regulatory network in Streptomyces.

  2. Identification and characterization of the afsR homologue regulatory gene from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Niranjan; Viet, Hung Trinh; Ishida, Kenji; Tong, Hang Thi; Lee, Hei Chan; Liou, Kwangkyoung; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated an afsR homologue, called afsR-p, through genome analysis of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952. AfsR-p shares 60% sequence identity with AfsR from Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2). afsR-p was expressed under the control of the ermE* promoter in its hosts S. peucetius, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, Streptomyces clavuligerus and Streptomyces griseus. We observed overproduction of doxorubicin (4-fold) in S. peucetius, gamma-actinorhodin (2.6-fold) in S. lividans, clavulanic acid (1.5-fold) in S. clavuligerus and streptomycin (slight) in S. griseus. Overproduction was due to expression of the gene in these strains as compared to the wild-type strains harboring the vector only. Comparative study of the expression of afsR-p revealed that regulatory networking in Streptomyces is not uniform. We speculate that phosphorylated AfsR-p becomes bound to the promoter region of afsS. The latter activates other regulatory genes, including pathway regulatory genes, and induces the production of secondary metabolites including antibiotics. We identified specific conserved amino acids and exploited them for the isolation of the partial sequence of the afsR homologue from S. clavuligerus and Streptomyces achromogens (rubradirin producer). Such findings provide additional evidence for the presence of a serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase-dependent global regulatory network in Streptomyces. PMID:15921897

  3. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  4. Samtaler i hvid kittel: En analyse af indlaeggelsessamtaler og deres institutionelle betingelser (Conversations in White Aprons: An Analysis of Hospitalization Conversations and Their Institutional Conditions). ROLIG Papir 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Jytte

    This report focuses on the communication that takes place between nurses and patients in a hospital setting. Nurses have for years been accused of talking at patients rather than talking to them. They have also been accused of using a language that patients do not know. The problem is partly a result of individual roles within the medical…

  5. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  6. Installation-restoration program. Records search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Since 1962, many hazardous and potentially hazardous wastes have been generated by industrial operations in Building 4 at Newark AFS. Dirty freon is recycled through a recovery still inside the building and reused. A beryllium dust collection system is located on the east side of Building 4. The collected dust is encapsulated in cement and sent off-station for disposal. Twelve hazardous materials storage or staging areas were identified. During interviews, it was determined that large quantities of dirty freon had been dumped along the entire perimeter fence line and in particular two specific locations. An additional spill site was located in the area at the north-east corner of Building 4 near the location of the virgin freon tanks. An unknown amount of spent battery acid and spent solvents were spilled in this area between 1962 and 1964.

  7. [HG-AFS determination of selenium in Moringa oleifera].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-qing; Xiao, Zi-jun

    2007-02-01

    The Se content in Moringa oleifera was studied by hydride generation atom fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) with wet digestion. The effects of the way of digestion, the work condition of apparatus, the reaction medium and acidity, and the reducing agent and masking agent on the determination of Se were investigated. And the operating condition of apparatus was optimized. The results showed that the detection limit of Se in this method was 0.42 ng x mL(-1) in the linear ranger of 0-120 ng x mL(-1), the relative standard deviation was 3.53% (n = 11), and the recovery of the method was 95.2%-104.6%. It was showed that the method was very sensitive, simple, rapid and accurate.

  8. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  9. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  10. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental...

  11. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental...

  12. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental...

  13. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental...

  14. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the issues to potential environmental impacts. AF Form 813 must be retained with the EA or EIS to record the focusing of environmental issues. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental...

  15. AF Therapy Now and in the Future: Drugs, Biologicals, and Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Christopher E.; Olgin, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex disease with multiple interrelating causes culminating in rapid, seemingly disorganized atrial activation. Therapy targeting AF is rapidly changing and improving. Objective The purpose of this review is to summarize current state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The review focuses on reviewing treatment as it relates to the pathophysiological basis of disease and reviews pre-clinical and clinical evidence for potential new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, including imaging, biomarkers, pharmacologic therapy as well as ablative strategies for AF. Conclusions Current ablation and drug therapy approaches to treating AF are largely based on treating the arrhythmia once the substrate occurs and is more effective in paroxysmal AF rather than persistent or permanent AF. However, there is much research aimed at prevention strategies, targeting AF substrate—so called upstream therapy. Improved diagnostics, using imaging, genetics and biomarkers are needed to better identify sub-types of AF based on underlying substrate/mechanism to allow more directed therapeutic approaches. In addition, novel anti-arrhythmics with more atrial specific effects may reduce limiting pro-arrhythmic side-effects. Advances in ablation therapy are aimed at improving technology to reduce procedure time and in mechanism targeted approaches. PMID:24763469

  16. Disrupted interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin aggravates malignant phenotypes of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting Ting; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Hong; Xiao, Hu Zhang; Xiang, Juan Juan; Zhang, Jie Ting; Yu, Siu Bun Sydney; Martin, Tracey Amanda; Ye, Lin; Tsang, Lai Ling; Jiang, Wen Guo; Xiaohua, Jiang; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2014-03-01

    How mutations or dysfunction of CFTR may increase the risk of malignancies in various tissues remains an open question. Here we report the interaction between CFTR and an adherens junction molecule, AF-6/afadin, and its involvement in the development of colon cancer. We have found that CFTR and AF-6/afadin are co-localized at the cell-cell contacts and physically interact with each other in colon cancer cell lines. Knockdown of CFTR results in reduced epithelial tightness and enhanced malignancies, with increased degradation and reduced stability of AF-6/afadin protein. The enhanced invasive phenotype of CFTR-knockdown cells can be completely reversed by either AF-6/afadin over-expression or ERK inhibitor, indicating the involvement of AF-6/MAPK pathway. More interestingly, the expression levels of CFTR and AF-6/afadin are significantly downregulated in human colon cancer tissues and lower expression of CFTR and/or AF-6/afadin is correlated with poor prognosis of colon cancer patients. The present study has revealed a previously unrecognized interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin that is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer and indicated the potential of the two as novel markers of metastasis and prognostic predictors for human colon cancer.

  17. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  18. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  19. Gender, Race, and Health Insurance Status in Patients Undergoing Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nileshkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Thakkar, Badal; Coffey, James O; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Patel, Achint; Ainani, Nitesh; Nalluri, Nikhil; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nish; Patel, Neil; Badheka, Apurva O; Kowalski, Marcin; Hendel, Robert; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan; Noseworthy, Peter A; Asirvatham, Samuel; Lo, Kaming; Myerburg, Robert J; Mitrani, Raul D

    2016-04-01

    Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has emerged as a popular procedure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there exist differences or disparities in ablation utilization across gender, socioeconomic class, insurance, or race. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2000 to 2012), we identified adults hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of AF by ICD 9 code 427.31 who had catheter ablation (ICD 9 code-37.34). We stratified patients by race, insurance status, age, gender, and hospital characteristics. A hierarchical multivariate mixed-effect model was created to identify the independent predictors of AF ablation. Among an estimated total of 3,508,122 patients (extrapolated from 20% Nationwide Inpatient Sample) hospitalized with a diagnosis of AF in the United States from the year 2000 to 2012, 102,469 patients (2.9%) underwent catheter ablations. The number of ablations was increased by 940%, from 1,439 in 2000 to 15,090 in 2012. There were significant differences according to gender, race, and health insurance status, which persisted even after adjustment for other risk factors. Female gender (0.83 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.87; p <0.001]), black (0.49 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.55; p <0.001]), and Hispanic race (0.64 [95% CI 0.56 to 0.72; p <0.001]) were associated with lower likelihoods of undergoing an AF ablation. Medicare (0.93, 0.88 to 0.98, <0.001) or Medicaid (0.67, 0.59 to 0.76, <0.001) coverage and uninsured patients (0.55, 0.49 to 0.62, <0.001) also had lower rates of AF ablation compared to patients with private insurance. In conclusion we found differences in utilization of catheter ablation for AF based on gender, race, and insurance status that persisted over time. PMID:26899494

  20. Professional Development of Teachers--A Prerequisite for AfL to Be Successfully Implemented in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for AfL to be successfully implemented in the classroom is the teachers' assessment practice. In many contexts, including the Norwegian, AfL has not been successfully dealt with during initial teacher education, and there is a need for qualified teachers to engage in professional development in AfL. This article first discusses…

  1. Critical behavior of a triangular lattice Ising AF/FM bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukovič, M.; Bobák, A.

    2016-03-01

    We study a bilayer Ising spin system consisting of antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (FM) triangular planes, coupled by ferromagnetic exchange interaction, by standard Monte Carlo and parallel tempering methods. The AF/FM bilayer is found to display the critical behavior completely different from both the single FM and AF constituents as well as the FM/FM and AF/AF bilayers. Namely, by finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis we identify at the same temperature a standard Ising transition from the paramagnetic to FM state in the FM plane that induces a ferrimagnetic state with a finite net magnetic moment in the AF plane. At lower temperatures there is another phase transition, that takes place only in the AF plane, to different ferrimagnetic state with spins on two sublattices pointing parallel and on one sublattice antiparallel to the spins on the FM plane. FSS indicates that the corresponding critical exponents are close to the two-dimensional three-state ferromagnetic Potts model values.

  2. Patterns of missplicing due to somatic U2AF1 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Jerez, Andres; Guinta, Kathryn; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Padgett, Richard; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, recurrent mutations of spliceosomal genes were frequently identified in myeloid malignancies, as well as other types of cancers. One of these spliceosomal genes, U2AF1, was affected by canonical somatic mutations in aggressive type of myeloid malignancies. We hypothesized that U2AF1 mutations causes defects of splicing (missplicing) in specific genes and that such misspliced genes might be important in leukemogenesis. We analyzed RNA deep sequencing to compare splicing patterns of 201 837 exons between the cases with U2AF1 mutations (n = 6) and wild type (n = 14). We identified different alternative splicing patterns in 35 genes comparing cells with mutant and wild-type U2AF1. U2AF1 mutations are associated with abnormal splicing of genes involved in functionally important pathways, such as cell cycle progression and RNA processing. In addition, many of these genes are somatically mutated or deleted in various cancers. Of note is that the alternative splicing patterns associated with U2AF1 mutations were associated with specific sequence signals at the affected splice sites. These novel observations support the hypothesis that U2AF1 mutations play a significant role in myeloid leukemogenesis due to selective missplicing of tumor-associated genes. PMID:23775717

  3. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  4. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  5. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM). PMID:22439591

  6. Cross-talk between two global regulators in Streptomyces: PhoP and AfsR interact in the control of afsS, pstS and phoRP transcription.

    PubMed

    Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Sola-Landa, Alberto; Martín, Juan F

    2009-04-01

    The regulatory proteins AfsR and PhoP control expression of the biosynthesis of actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin in Streptomyces coelicolor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PhoP(DBD) does not bind directly to the actII-ORF4, redD and atrA promoters, but it binds to the afsS promoter, in a region overlapping with the AfsR operator. DNase I footprinting studies revealed a PhoP protected region of 26 nt (PHO box; two direct repeats of 11 nt) that overlaps with the AfsR binding sequence. Binding experiments indicated a competition between AfsR and PhoP; increasing concentrations of PhoP(DBD) resulted in the disappearance of the AfsR-DNA complex. Expression studies using the reporter luxAB gene coupled to afsS promoter showed that PhoP downregulates afsS expression probably by a competition with the AfsR activator. Interestingly, AfsR binds to other PhoP-regulated promoters including those of pstS (a component of the phosphate transport system) and phoRP (encoding the two component system itself). Analysis of the AfsR-protected sequences in each of these promoters allowed us to distinguish the AfsR binding sequence from the overlapping PHO box. The reciprocal regulation of the phoRP promoter by AfsR and of afsS by PhoP suggests a fine interplay of these regulators on the control of secondary metabolism.

  7. Phosphorylation of AfsR by multiple serine/threonine kinases in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Sawai, Reiko; Suzuki, Ayano; Takano, Yuji; Lee, Ping-Chin; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-01

    AfsK, a protein serine/threonine kinase, autophosphorylates on serine and threonine residues and phosphorylates serine and threonine residues of AfsR, a transcriptional activator for afsS involved in secondary metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). pkaG encoding a 592-amino-acid protein and SCD10.09 (named afsL) encoding a 580-amino-acid protein, both of which encode an AfsK-like protein, were transcribed throughout growth. PkaG with a histidine-tag and the kinase catalytic domain of PkaG, produced in Escherichia coli, autophosphorylated dominantly on threonine and slightly on serine residues. In addition, these proteins phosphorylated AfsR on threonine and serine residues. The catalytic domain of AfsL also autophosphorylated and phosphorylated AfsR, on threonine and serine residues in both cases. AfsR was thus found to be phosphorylated by multiple kinases. Disruption of the chromosomal pkaG gene resulted in slightly reduced production of the pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin. These findings, together with the presence of about 40 AfsK homologues and at least five AfsR homologues in S. coelicolor A3(2), suggest that the regulatory networks via eukaryotic-type protein phosphorylation are more diverse and versatile than we have expected.

  8. Totally thorascopic surgical ablation of persistent AF and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation using the "Dallas" lesion set.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, James R; Jackman, Warren M; Mahoney, Cecile; Mack, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgery consisting of bipolar radiofrequency pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and limited ganglionated plexus ablation is effective in eliminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with paroxysmal AF but is less effective in those with persistent AF or long-standing persistent AF. The purpose of this study was examine the results of minimally invasive surgery incorporating an additional set of radiofrequency ablation lines replicating a left-sided Cox maze III procedure. Thirty patients with persistent AF (n = 10) or long-standing persistent AF (n = 20) underwent minimally invasive surgery with an extended lesion set and PV isolation for a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Linear lesions were created at the roof line, at the anterior line, and between the roof line and the left atrial appendage. All patients underwent limited ganglionated plexus ablation and left atrial appendage excision as well as PV isolation verification. Block across the roof and anterior lines was confirmed in 29 (96.6%) of the 30 patients. Follow-up included 2-week event monitoring with auto-trigger in 21 patients, pacemaker interrogation in 8, and ECG in 1 who was in AF and refused longer-term monitoring. No operative mortality or major morbidity occurred. At 6 months, 24 (80%) of the 30 patients were free of AF: 15 (75%) with long-standing persistent AF and 9 (90%) with persistent AF. Among the six failures, burden of AF was low: one had 1 episode >15 seconds, two had 4 episodes, one had 6 episodes, one had >50 episodes, and one had AF on ECG and refused further monitoring. Early results of minimally invasive surgery with a new extended linear lesion set suggest increased efficacy over PV isolation and limited ganglionated plexus ablation in patients with persistent AF or long-standing persistent AF. PMID:19959146

  9. Effects of a novel cholinergic M1 agonist, AF102B, on ambulation and water drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Togashi, H; Matsumoto, M; Yoshioka, M; Saito, Y; Saito, H

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a novel M1 agonist, AF102B (cis-2-methylspiro(1,3-oxathiolane-5,3')quinuclidine HCl), on ambulation and water drinking behavior were examined using an Ambulo-Drinkometer. AF64A-treated rats, an animal model for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), and non-treated control rats were used. AF102B was administered orally via tap water at a concentration of 0.01% and 0.1% for an experimental therapeutic dose and a supramaximal dose, respectively. Four-week administration of 0.01% AF102B did not affect either ambulatory activity or water drinking activity in non-treated rats. Successive 0.1% AF102B administration for 4 weeks produced a significant decrease in drinking activity as compared with non-treated control rats. In AF64A-treated rats, AF102B did not change the cholinotoxin AF64A-induced high activity in ambulation. However, a decrease in water drinking activity was observed after 0.1% AF102B administration, as in non-treated rats. These results suggest that therapeutic dose of AF102B do not produce any changes in the spontaneous moter activity and water drinking behavior in normal rats or the animal model for SDAT. Several investigators reported that AF102B (FSK-508; cis-2-methylspiro (1,3-oxathiolane-5,3') quinuclidine HCl) had the property of a relatively specific muscarinic agonist of the M1-type This novel M1 agonist, AF102B, also exerted and ameliorating effect on experimental amnesia; in a T-maze, radial-arm maze task and passive avoidance tasks. AF102B improves the cognitive impairment in various animal models for memory disorders including senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Based on these observations, AF102B has been proposed for the treatment of SDAT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  11. Facilitation of memory storage by the acetylcholine M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116.

    PubMed

    Baratti, C M; Opezzo, J W; Kopf, S R

    1993-07-01

    Post-training administration of the acetylcholine muscarinic M2 presynaptic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg, ip), facilitated 48 h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. AF-DX 116 did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The influence of AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to AF-DX 116 treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training AF-DX 116 on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the activation of a muscarinic cholinergic presynaptic inhibitory mechanism, probably by increasing brain acetylcholine release, may modulate the activity of post-training processes involved in memory storage. PMID:8216161

  12. Facilitation of memory storage by the acetylcholine M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116.

    PubMed

    Baratti, C M; Opezzo, J W; Kopf, S R

    1993-07-01

    Post-training administration of the acetylcholine muscarinic M2 presynaptic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg, ip), facilitated 48 h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. AF-DX 116 did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The influence of AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to AF-DX 116 treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training AF-DX 116 on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the activation of a muscarinic cholinergic presynaptic inhibitory mechanism, probably by increasing brain acetylcholine release, may modulate the activity of post-training processes involved in memory storage.

  13. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  14. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity. PMID:27372134

  15. AF-6 is a positive modulator of the PINK1/parkin pathway and is deficient in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Haskin, Joseph; Szargel, Raymonde; Shani, Vered; Mekies, Lucy N.; Rott, Ruth; Lim, Grace G. Y.; Lim, Kah-Leong; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Wolosker, Herman; Engelender, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Parkin E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity and its role in mitochondria homeostasis are thought to play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We now report that AF-6 is a novel parkin interacting protein that modulates parkin ubiquitin-ligase activity and mitochondrial roles. Parkin interacts with the AF-6 PDZ region through its C-terminus. This leads to ubiquitination of cytosolic AF-6 and its degradation by the proteasome. On the other hand, endogenous AF-6 robustly increases parkin translocation and ubiquitin-ligase activity at the mitochondria. Mitochondrial AF-6 is not a parkin substrate, but rather co-localizes with parkin and enhances mitochondria degradation through PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy. On the other hand, several parkin and PINK1 juvenile disease-mutants are insensitive to AF-6 effects. AF-6 is present in Lewy bodies and its soluble levels are strikingly decreased in the caudate/putamen and substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients, suggesting that decreased AF-6 levels may contribute to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in the disease. The identification of AF-6 as a positive modulator of parkin translocation to the mitochondria sheds light on the mechanisms involved in PD and underscores AF-6 as a novel target for future therapeutics. PMID:23393160

  16. Statin Therapy for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Trial (SToP AF trial)

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Smita; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veledar, Emir; Bloom, Heather L.; Jones, Dean P.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Statins have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We tested if atorvastatin reduced AF recurrence after DC cardioversion (CV) by modifying systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. (NCT00252967) Methods and Results In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) were randomized to receive either atorvastatin 80 mg (n=33) or placebo (n=31) before CV. Treatment was continued for 12 months or until AF recurred. Serum oxidative stress markers (ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione and cysteine, derivatives of reactive oxygen species, isoprostanes) and inflammatory markers [ high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)] were measured at baseline and on follow-up. AF recurred in 22 (66.7%) of atorvastatin and 26 (83.9%) of placebo group (p=0.2). The adjusted hazard ratio of having recurrence on atorvastatin versus on placebo was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.01, p=0.3). There was no significant difference in the time to recurrence using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates (median (IR): 29 (2-145) days vs. 22 (7-70) days, p=0.9). While no significant effect was seen on oxidative stress, 2 of 4 inflammatory markers, IL-6 (adjusted OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35-0.97, p= 0.04) and hs-CRP (adjusted OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.95, p=0.03) were significantly lowered with atorvastatin. Cholesterol levels significantly decreased with atorvastatin (p=0.03). Conclusions High dose atorvastatin did not reduce the recurrence of AF after CV. It reduced selective markers of inflammation without affecting systemic oxidative stress. Failure of atorvastatin to prevent AF recurrence may be due to its failure to affect oxidative stress. PMID:20946227

  17. Compliance status

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  18. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  19. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  20. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  1. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  2. GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:24551202

  3. Neuronal and microvascular alterations induced by the cholinergic toxin AF64A in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramos, P; Galea, E; Estrada, C

    1990-06-18

    The choline analogue ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) produces both neuronal and non-neuronal alterations in the rat retina. The possible involvement of the retinal capillaries in the origin of the apparently non-specific lesions has been investigated. Two hours after a single intraocular injection of 5 nmol AF64A, ultrastructural alterations were observed in neurons of the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer, where cholinergic cells are located. One week later, the number of cholinergic neurons, identified by choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry, was decreased to 65% of control, the neurons located in the inner nuclear layer being more sensitive than those in the ganglion cell layer. The same dose of AF64A also induced ultrastructural changes in retinal capillaries, which showed a significant increase in the number of pinocytotic vesicles and microvilli in the endothelial cells, 2-5 h after the toxin administration. One day later, arterioles and capillaries presented contracted profiles and the lumen was occasionally lost. The sensitivity of endothelial cells to the toxic effects of AF64A may be explained by the presence in the cerebral endothelium of a choline transport mechanism with an affinity close to that of cerebral synaptosomes. In vitro, both neuronal and endothelial choline uptake systems were equally sensitive to the toxin inhibitory effect. The early and severe vascular alterations induced in the retinal microvessels by AF64A may produce changes in blood perfusion and capillary permeability that could account for the apparently non-specific histological damage.

  4. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 106 to 8 × 106 control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas. PMID:21293059

  5. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR).

    PubMed

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 10(6) to 8 × 10(6) control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.

  6. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    SciTech Connect

    Thakker, A.B.; Cowles, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  7. An Evaluation of the Impacts of AF-M315E Propulsion Systems for Varied Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fittje, James; Colozza, Anthony; Packard, Tom; Gyekenyesi, John; McLean, Christopher H.; Spores, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the AF-M315E COMPASS study is to identify near-term (3-5 years) and long term (5 years +) opportunities for infusion, specifically the thruster and associated component technologies being developed as part of the GPIM project. Develop design reference missions which show the advantages of the AF-M315E green propulsion system. Utilize a combination of past COMPASS designs and selected new designs to demonstrate AF-M315E advantages. Use the COMPASS process to show the puts and takes of using AF-M315E at the integrated system level.

  8. AF1q is a novel TCF7 co-factor which activates CD44 and promotes breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jino; Schlederer, Michaela; Schreiber, Martin; Ice, Ryan; Merkel, Olaf; Bilban, Martin; Hofbauer, Sebastian; Kim, Soojin; Addison, Joseph; Zou, Jie; Ji, Chunyan; Bunting, Silvia T.; Wang, Zhengqi; Shoham, Menachem; Huang, Gang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Gibson, Laura F.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Remick, Scot; Ivanov, Alexey; Pugacheva, Elena; Bunting, Kevin D.; Moriggl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    AF1q is an MLL fusion partner that was identified from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t (1; 11) (q21; q23) chromosomal abnormality. The function of AF1q is not yet fully known, however, elevated AF1q expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Here, we show that AF1q specifically binds to T-cell-factor-7 (TCF7) in the Wnt signaling pathway and results in transcriptional activation of CD44 as well as multiple downstream targets of the TCF7/LEF1. In addition, enhanced AF1q expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, mammosphere formation, and chemo-resistance. In xenograft models, enforced AF1q expression in breast cancer cells also promotes liver metastasis and lung colonization. In a cohort of 63 breast cancer patients, higher percentages of AF1q-positive cancer cells in primary sites were associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and brain metastasis-free survival (b-MFS). Using paired primary/metastatic samples from the same patients, we demonstrate that AF1q-positive breast cancer cells become dynamically dominant in the metastatic sites compared to the primary sites. Our findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent “metastatic founder cells” which have invasive properties. PMID:26079538

  9. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  10. Nisin-Triggered Activity of Lys44, the Secreted Endolysin from Oenococcus oeni Phage fOg44▿

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, João Gil; Guerreiro-Pereira, Maria Carolina; Costa, Sérgio Fernandes; São-José, Carlos; Santos, Mário Almeida

    2008-01-01

    The intrinsic resistance of Oenococcus oeni cells to the secreted endolysin from oenophage fOg44 (Lys44) was investigated. Experiments with several antimicrobials support the hypothesis that the full activity of Lys44 requires sudden ion-nonspecific dissipation of the proton motive force, an event undertaken by the fOg44 holin in the phage infection context. PMID:17981964

  11. What Engages Students in MetaL-FrOG? A Triarchy Perspective on Meta-Cognitive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fa, Ng Sen; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the central ideas of a grounded theory research by the name of Triarchy Perspective on Metacognitive Learning in Free Online Groups, or "TriP on MetaL-FrOG" in short. The research setting was online learning community on the platform of Free Online Group web (FrOG) intended for post-graduate students. The research…

  12. Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency that is commonly encountered by the neurohospitalist. Successful treatment depends upon the recognition of prolonged seizure activity and the acute mobilization of available resources. Pharmacologic treatment regimens have been shown to decrease the time needed for successful control of seizures and have provided for the rapid administration of anticonvulsant medications. Treatment strategies have evolved so that clinicians can administer effective doses of medication by whatever routes of administration are immediately available. Traditional algorithms for the treatment of status epilepticus have used a stepwise approach to the administration of first-, second-, and third-order medications. More recent options have included aggressive anesthetic doses of medications while second-line medications are being titrated. PMID:23983834

  13. Cloning and characterization of two duplicated interleukin-17A/F2 genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Transcripts expression and bioactivity of recombinant IL-17A/F2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Yu, Juhua; Li, Jianlin; Tang, Yongkai; Yu, Fan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Wenjuan

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays an important role in inflammation and host defense in mammals. In this study, we identified two duplicated IL-17A/F2 genes in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (ccIL-17A/F2a and ccIL-17A/F2b), putative encoded proteins contain 140 amino acids (aa) with conserved IL-17 family motifs. Expression analysis revealed high constitutive expression of ccIL-17A/F2s in mucosal tissues, including gill, skin and intestine, their expression could be induced by Aeromonas hydrophila, suggesting a potential role in mucosal immunity. Recombinant ccIL-17A/F2a protein (rccIL-17A/F2a) produced in Escherichia coli could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β) and the antimicrobial peptides S100A1, S100A10a and S100A10b in the primary kidney in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Above findings suggest that ccIL-17A/F2 plays an important role in both proinflammatory and innate immunity. Two duplicated ccIL-17A/F2s showed different expression level with ccIL-17A/F2a higher than b, comparison of two 5' regulatory regions indicated the length from anticipated promoter to transcriptional start site (TSS) and putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS) were different. Promoter activity of ccIL-17A/F2a was 2.5 times of ccIL-17A/F2b which consistent with expression results of two genes. These suggest mutations in 5'regulatory region contributed to the differentiation of duplicated genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze 5'regulatory region of piscine IL-17 family genes. PMID:26921542

  14. Modeling spall in HY100, HY130, and AF1410 steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, R. K.; Rajendran, A. M.; Last, H. R.

    1996-05-01

    A comparison spall analysis between three matensitic steels: HY100, HY130, and AF1410 is presented Metallurgical observations on the fracture surfaces of uniaxial tensile specimens as well as the spalled target plates confirmed the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in these steels. The threshold stress for void nucleation in these steels were determined from the spall analysis using the EPIC finite element code. According to the model, the spall nucleation occurred at higher stress levels in AF1410 compared to HY100 and HY130. A complete set of material model constants has been determined for these three steels.

  15. 27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC15775, Drawing No. AF600915, sheet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "SITE PLAN." Specifications No. OC1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-60-09-15, sheet 1 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/20, Rev. B. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. B, Date: 11/17/59. Site plan of 20,000-foot track, including construction phasing notes. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. The splicing factor U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeonghee; Chung, In Kwon

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Identification of U2AF65 as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. •U2AF65 stabilizes TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. •U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4. •U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres. -- Abstract: The human telomeric protein TRF1 is a component of the six-subunit protein complex shelterin, which provides telomere protection by organizing the telomere into a high-order structure. TRF1 functions as a negative regulator of telomere length by controlling the access of telomerase to telomeres. Thus, the cellular abundance of TRF1 at telomeres should be maintained and tightly regulated to ensure proper telomere function. Here, we identify U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) auxiliary factor 65 (U2AF65), an essential pre-mRNA splicing factor, as a novel TRF1-interacting protein. U2AF65 interacts with TRF1 in vitro and in vivo and is capable of stabilizing TRF1 protein by inhibiting its ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. We also found that U2AF65 interferes with the interaction between TRF1 and Fbx4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase for TRF1. Depletion of endogenous U2AF65 expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced the stability of endogenous TRF1 whereas overexpression of U2AF65 significantly extended the half-life of TRF1. These findings demonstrate that U2AF65 plays a critical role in regulating the level of TRF1 through physical interaction and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Hence, U2AF65 represents a new route for modulating TRF1 function at telomeres.

  17. RHIC Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peggs, Steve

    1997-05-01

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is discussed. Those novel performance features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from hadron colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range, including collisions between protons and ions, and between ions of unequal energies. The project is in the fifth year of a seven year construction cycle. A brief review of the recent Sextant Test is given, together with progress to date on machine construction.

  18. Tevatron status

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, G.

    1989-03-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is both the world's highest energy accelerator system and first large-scale superconducting synchrotron. Since Tevatron commissioning in July 1983, the accelerator has operated in 1984, 1985 and 1987 with extracted beams of 800 GeV for three runs of fixed target physics, and in 1987, and 1988, with proton-antiproton colliding beams at 900 /times/ 900 GeV. This paper will focus on the collider operation of the Tevatron: its present status and the outlook for its longer-term future evolution. 18 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.X.; Roeske, W.R.; Gulya, K.; Wang, W.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-10-05

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25/sup 0/C but 20-40 times slower at 0-4/sup 0/C. Kinetic dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25/sup 0/C; 23.1 nM and 22.9 nM at 0-4/sup 0/C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labeled 29% of the total (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87% in the cardiac membranes, with K/sub d/ values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine > dexetimide > AF-DX 116 > PZ > levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. 19 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1.

  1. Identification and Characterization of an Antifungal Protein, AfAFPR9, Produced by Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qi; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    A fungal strain, R9, was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein, AfAFPR9, was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibited a certain extent of thermostability, and metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RTPCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus and indicated its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:25394604

  2. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04T, Isolated from the Euganean Hot Springs in Abano Terme, Italy.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Nicolaus, Barbara; Chan, Kok-Gan; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chan, Chia Sing; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-05-21

    Anoxybacillus thermarum AF/04(T) was isolated from the Euganean hot springs in Abano Terme, Italy. The present work reports a high-quality draft genome sequence of strain AF/04(T). This work also provides useful insights into glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and sugar transporters that may be involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  4. Innate immune cells express IL-17A/F in acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kakeda, M; Schlapbach, Christoph; Danelon, G; Tang, M M; Cecchinato, V; Yawalkar, N; Uguccioni, M

    2014-12-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) are rare pustular skin disorders with systemic involvement. IL-17A/F is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in various neutrophilic inflammatory disorders. Here we show that IL-17A/F is highly expressed by innate immune cells such as neutrophils and mast cells in both AGEP and GPP.

  5. AfsR as an integrator of signals that are sensed by multiple serine/threonine kinases in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2003-08-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has revealed the presence of about 40 protein serine/threonine or tyrosine kinases. AfsK, which is able to phosphorylate AfsR, a transcriptional activator with ATPase activity, represents the first instance in which a bacterial Hanks-type protein kinase phosphorylates a specific protein and exerts biologically important functions. The AfsK-AfsR system in S. coelicolor A3(2) globally controls secondary metabolism. The signal transduction pathway so far demonstrated or suggested is as follows: AfsK loosely attached to the membrane autophosphorylates threonine and serine residues, perhaps on sensing some external stimulus, and enhances its kinase activity. The kinase activity is modulated by KbpA, an AfsK-binding protein, by means of protein-protein interactions. The activated AfsK phosphorylates threonine and serine residues of AfsR in the cytoplasm, by which the DNA-binding activity of AfsR is greatly enhanced. In addition to AfsK, other kinases-including PkaG and AfsL-also phosphorylate AfsR, suggesting that AfsR serves as an integrator of multiple signals sensed by these kinases. The phosphorylated AfsR binds the promoter of afsS, which encodes a protein of 63 amino acids, and forms a closed complex with RNA polymerase. The closed complex is then converted to a transcriptionally active open complex by the energy available from ATP hydrolysis by AfsR. AfsS induced in this way activates transcription of pathway-specific transcriptional activators, such as actII-ORF4 for actinorhodin production and redD for undecylprodigiosin, in an as yet unknown manner.

  6. Unusual hydrogen bonding patterns in AF (aminofluorene) and AAF (acetylaminofluorene) modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Shapiro, R.; Norman, D.

    1989-01-01

    New structures are presented for AF and AAF modified DNAs that place the carcinogen in the minor groove of a B-DNA helix. These structures employ non-Watson-Crick base pairing schemes with syn guanine at the modification site. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  7. First report of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type Af.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Laura I T; Fernández, Rafael A; Pareja, Virtudes; Giaroli, Gabriel; Guidarelli, Sergio R; Dykes, Janet K; Lúquez, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Most infant botulism cases worldwide are due to botulinum toxin types A and B. Rarely, Clostridium botulinum strains that produce two serotypes (Ab, Ba, and Bf) have also been isolated from infant botulism cases. This is the first reported case of infant botulism due to C. botulinum type Af worldwide.

  8. K-theory of the chair tiling via AF-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Antoine; Savinien, Jean

    2016-08-01

    We compute the K-theory groups of the groupoid C∗-algebra of the chair tiling, using a new method. We use exact sequences of Putnam to compute these groups from the K-theory groups of the AF-algebras of the substitution and the induced lower dimensional substitutions on edges and vertices.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  12. Fracture Mechanics Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, J. W.; Martinez, J.; McLean, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant on orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent processing flaws will not cause failure during the design life of the tank. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking (KEAC) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched, or SE(B), specimens representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to AF-M315E at 50 C for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor for environment-assisted cracking of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material was found to be at least 22 ksivin and at least 31 ksivin for the weld material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant.

  13. Developing an Assessment for Learning (AfL) Culture in School: The Voice of the Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari; Engelsen, Knut Steinar

    2013-01-01

    This study reflects the voice of school leaders (principals) in a Norwegian school development project focusing on assessment for learning (AfL). The central role of the principal in school improvement is well documented, however, less is written about how the principals themselves see their roles. The voices presented belong to two experienced…

  14. Acutangulosides A-F, monodesmosidic saponins from the bark of Barringtonia acutangula.

    PubMed

    Mills, Clive; Carroll, Anthony R; Quinn, Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Nine triterpene saponins, acutangulosides A-F (2-7), and acutanguloside D-F methyl esters (5a-7a) and a single triterpene aglycone (1) were isolated from a water extract of the bark of Barringtonia acutangula. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:15787427

  15. 28. Site Plan: AF Station P67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Site Plan: AF Station P-67, Fort Custer, Michigan, Plot Plan (to accompany FY 1956 project planning report), USACOE, 22 July 1954. - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. POU2AF1 Functions in the Human Airway Epithelium To Regulate Expression of Host Defense Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Brekman, Angelika; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Ou, Xuemei; Shaykhiev, Renat; Agosto-Perez, Francisco J; Wang, Rui; Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    In the process of seeking novel lung host defense regulators by analyzing genome-wide RNA sequence data from normal human airway epithelium, we detected expression of POU domain class 2-associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), a known transcription cofactor previously thought to be expressed only in lymphocytes. Lymphocyte contamination of human airway epithelial samples obtained by bronchoscopy and brushing was excluded by immunohistochemistry staining, the observation of upregulation of POU2AF1 in purified airway basal stem/progenitor cells undergoing differentiation, and analysis of differentiating single basal cell clones. Lentivirus-mediated upregulation of POU2AF1 in airway basal cells induced upregulation of host defense genes, including MX1, IFIT3, IFITM, and known POU2AF1 downstream genes HLA-DRA, ID2, ID3, IL6, and BCL6. Interestingly, expression of these genes paralleled changes of POU2AF1 expression during airway epithelium differentiation in vitro, suggesting POU2AF1 helps to maintain a host defense tone even in pathogen-free condition. Cigarette smoke, a known risk factor for airway infection, suppressed POU2AF1 expression both in vivo in humans and in vitro in human airway epithelial cultures, accompanied by deregulation of POU2AF1 downstream genes. Finally, enhancing POU2AF1 expression in human airway epithelium attenuated the suppression of host defense genes by smoking. Together, these findings suggest a novel function of POU2AF1 as a potential regulator of host defense genes in the human airway epithelium. PMID:26927796

  17. POU2AF1 Functions in the Human Airway Epithelium To Regulate Expression of Host Defense Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haixia; Brekman, Angelika; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Ou, Xuemei; Shaykhiev, Renat; Agosto-Perez, Francisco J; Wang, Rui; Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-04-01

    In the process of seeking novel lung host defense regulators by analyzing genome-wide RNA sequence data from normal human airway epithelium, we detected expression of POU domain class 2-associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), a known transcription cofactor previously thought to be expressed only in lymphocytes. Lymphocyte contamination of human airway epithelial samples obtained by bronchoscopy and brushing was excluded by immunohistochemistry staining, the observation of upregulation of POU2AF1 in purified airway basal stem/progenitor cells undergoing differentiation, and analysis of differentiating single basal cell clones. Lentivirus-mediated upregulation of POU2AF1 in airway basal cells induced upregulation of host defense genes, including MX1, IFIT3, IFITM, and known POU2AF1 downstream genes HLA-DRA, ID2, ID3, IL6, and BCL6. Interestingly, expression of these genes paralleled changes of POU2AF1 expression during airway epithelium differentiation in vitro, suggesting POU2AF1 helps to maintain a host defense tone even in pathogen-free condition. Cigarette smoke, a known risk factor for airway infection, suppressed POU2AF1 expression both in vivo in humans and in vitro in human airway epithelial cultures, accompanied by deregulation of POU2AF1 downstream genes. Finally, enhancing POU2AF1 expression in human airway epithelium attenuated the suppression of host defense genes by smoking. Together, these findings suggest a novel function of POU2AF1 as a potential regulator of host defense genes in the human airway epithelium.

  18. Equalization characteristics of an upflow sludge blanket-aerated biofilter (USB-AF) system.

    PubMed

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Lee, S H

    2005-01-01

    Equalization characteristics of the upflow sludge blanket-aerated bio-filter (USB-AF) were investigated with the fluctuated raw domestic sewage. Recycle of nitrified effluent from AF to USB triggered the equalization characteristics of the sludge blanket on both soluble and particulate organic matter. Increment of EPS in sludge blanket by nitrate recycle was detected and removal of turbidity and particulates increased at higher recycle ratios by bio-flocculation. Increased TCOD removal in the USB was due to both denitrification of recycled nitrate and entrapment of the particulate organic matter in sludge blanket. Capture of both soluble and particulate organic matter increased sludge blanket layer in the USB, which improved the reactor performances and reduced the organic load on the subsequent AF. Overall TCOD and SS removal efficiencies were about 98% and 96%, respectively in the USB-AF system. Turbidity in the USB effluent was about 44, 20 and 5.5 NTU, at recycle ratios of 0, 100 and 200%, respectively. Particle counts in the range 2-4 microm in the USB effluent were higher than those in influent without nitrate recycle, while particle counts in the range of 0.5-15 microm in the USB effluent decreased 70% at recycle ratio of 200%. The major constituent of EPS extracted from anaerobic sludge was protein and total EPS increased from 109.1 to 165.7 mg/g-VSS with nitrate recycle of 100%. Removal efficiency and concentration of T-N in the UBS-AF effluent was over 70% and below 16 mg/L, respectively.

  19. TYPE AF CERTIFICATE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW ENRICHED URANIUM OXIDE (LEUO) FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Kenneth Yates, K

    2007-10-19

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SRS had the need to ship 227 drums of low enriched uranium oxide (LEUO) to a disposal site. The LEUO had been packaged nearly 25 years ago in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 17C 55-gallon drums and stored in a warehouse. Since the 235U enrichment was just above 1 percent by weight (wt%) the material did not qualify for the fissile material exceptions in 49 CFR 173.453, and therefore was categorized as 'fissile material' for shipping purposes. WSRC evaluated all existing Type AF packages and did not identify any feasible packaging. Applying for a new Type AF certificate of compliance was considered too costly for a one-time/one-way shipment for disposal. Down-blending the material with depleted uranium (to reduce enrichment below 1 wt% and enable shipment as low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material) was considered, but appropriate blending facilities do not exist at SRS. After reviewing all options, WSRC concluded that seeking a DOT Special Permit was the best option to enable shipment of the material for permanent disposal. WSRC submitted the Special Permit application to the DOT, and after one request-for-additional-information (RAI) the permit was considered acceptable. However, in an interesting development that resulted from the DOT Special Permit application process, it was determined that it was more appropriate for the DOE to issue a Type AF certificate [Ref. 1] for this shipping campaign. This paper will outline the DOT Special Permit application and Type AF considerations, and will discuss the issuance of the new DOE Type AF certificate of compliance.

  20. RHIC status

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1997-08-01

    The design and construction status of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, which is in the seventh year of a nine year construction cycle, is discussed. Those novel performance features of a heavy ion collider that are distinct from hadron colliders in general are noted. These features are derived from the experimental requirements of operation with a variety of ion species over a wide energy range, including collisions between protons and ions, and between ions of unequal energies. Section 1 gives a brief introduction to the major parameters and overall layout of RHIC. A review of the superconducting magnet program is given in Section 2. Activities during the recent Sextant Test are briefly reviewed in Section 3. Finally, Section 4 presents the plans for RHIC commissioning in 1999.

  1. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    OpenGeoSys (OGS) is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THMC) processes in porous and fractured media, continuously developed since the mid-eighties. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework for solving coupled multi-field problems. OGS is targeting mainly on applications in environmental geoscience, e.g. in the fields of contaminant hydrology, water resources management, waste deposits, or geothermal energy systems, but it has also been successfully applied to new topics in energy storage recently. OGS is actively participating several international benchmarking initiatives, e.g. DECOVALEX (waste management), CO2BENCH (CO2 storage and sequestration), SeSBENCH (reactive transport processes) and HM-Intercomp (coupled hydrosystems). Despite the broad applicability of OGS in geo-, hydro- and energy-sciences, several shortcomings became obvious concerning the computational efficiency as well as the code structure became too sophisticated for further efficient development. OGS-5 was designed for object-oriented FEM applications. However, in many multi-field problems a certain flexibility of tailored numerical schemes is essential. Therefore, a new concept was designed to overcome existing bottlenecks. The paradigms for ogs6 are: - Flexibility of numerical schemes (FEM#FVM#FDM), - Computational efficiency (PetaScale ready), - Developer- and user-friendly. ogs6 has a module-oriented architecture based on thematic libraries (e.g. MeshLib, NumLib) on the large scale and uses object-oriented approach for the small scale interfaces. Usage of a linear algebra library (Eigen3) for the mathematical operations together with the ISO C++11 standard increases the expressiveness of the code and makes it more developer-friendly. The new C++ standard also makes the template meta-programming technique code used for compile-time optimizations more compact. We have transitioned the main code development to

  2. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera treatment guidelines but with earlier, more intense fluid replacement. All women had intravenous access established at admission regardless of their hydration status, and all received antibiotic treatment. Data were collected on patient demographics, pregnancy and cholera status, and pregnancy outcome. In this analysis we calculated risk ratios for fetal death and performed logistic regression analysis to control for confounding factors. Results 263 pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized between December 2010 and July 2011. None died during hospitalization, 226 (86%) were discharged with a preserved pregnancy and 16 (6%) had live fullterm singleton births, of whom 2 died within the first 5 days postpartum. The remaining 21 pregnancies (8%) resulted in intrauterine fetal death. The risk of fetal death was associated with factors reflecting severity of the cholera episode: after adjusting for confounding factors, the strongest risk factor for fetal death was severe maternal dehydration (adjusted risk ratio for severe vs. mild dehydration was 9.4, 95% CI 2.5–35.3, p = 0.005), followed by severe vomiting (adjusted risk ratio 5.1, 95% 1.1–23.8, p = 0.041). Conclusion This is the largest cohort of pregnant women with cholera described to date. The main risk factor identified for fetal death was severity of dehydration. Our experience suggests that establishing specialized multidisciplinary units which facilitate close follow-up of both pregnancy and dehydration

  3. Jaspolides A-F, six new isomalabricane-type terpenoids from the sponge Jaspis sp.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengan; Pei, Yuehu; Fu, Hongzheng; Deng, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Proksch, Peter; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    A chemical investigation of Jaspis sp., the marine sponge collected from the South China Sea led to the isolation of six new isomalabaricane-type compounds, jaspolides A-F (1-6). The structures of those compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. The structure-types of 1 to 6 could be classified into triterpenes (1, 2), sesterterpene (6), diterpenes (3, 4), and nortriterpene (5). The biogenetic transformation of the isolated compounds was also speculated.

  4. Fracture Growth Testing of Titanium 6AL-4V in AF-M315E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Martinez, Jonathan; McLean, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will demonstrate the performance of AF-M315E monopropellant in orbit. Flight certification requires a safe-life analysis of the titanium alloy fuel tank to ensure inherent flaws will not cause failure during the design life. Material property inputs for this analysis require testing to determine the stress intensity factor for environmentally-assisted cracking (K (sub EAC)) of Ti 6Al-4V in combination with the AF-M315E monopropellant. Testing of single-edge notched specimens SE(B) representing the bulk tank membrane and weld material were performed in accordance with ASTM E1681. Specimens with fatigue pre-cracks were loaded into test fixtures so that the crack tips were exposed to the monopropellant at 50 degrees Centigrade for a duration of 1,000 hours. Specimens that did not fail during exposure were opened to inspect the crack surfaces for evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity value, KEAC, is the highest applied stress intensity that produced neither a failure of the specimen during the exposure nor showed evidence of crack growth. The threshold stress intensity factor of the Ti 6Al-4V forged tank material when exposed to AF-M315E monopropellant was found to be at least 22.0 kilopounds per square inch. The stress intensity factor of the weld material was at least 31.3 kilopounds per square inch.

  5. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  6. Meeting in Florida: Using Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) to Determine C60 Colloidal Size Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of nanomaterials in environmental systems requires robust and specific analytical methods. Analytical methods which discriminate based on particle size and molecular composition are not widely available. Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) is a separation...

  7. [3H]AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Roeske, W R; Gulya, K; Wang, W; Yamamura, H I

    1987-10-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist [3H]AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of [3H]AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25 degrees C (2.74 and 2.70 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for K+1; 0.87 and 0.93 min-1 for k-1) but 20-40 times slower at 0-4 degrees C (0.13 and 0.096 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for k+1; 0.031 and 0.022 min-1 for k-1 in cerebral cortical and cardiac membranes, respectively). Kinetic dissociation constants (Kds) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25 degrees C; 23.1 nM and 0-4 degrees C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, [3H]AF-DX 116 labeled 29 percent of the total [3H](-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87 percent in the cardiac membranes, with Kd values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine greater than dexetimide greater than AF-DX 116 greater than PZ greater than levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/[3H]AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/[3H]AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. Carbachol and oxotremorine produced shallow inhibition curves against [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in both tissues. Regional distribution studies with [3H](-)QNB, [3H]PZ and [3H]AF-DX 116 showed that most of the muscarinic receptors in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and corpus striatum are of the M1 subtype while those in the brainstem, cerebellum and other lower brain regions are of the M2 subtype. These results indicate that [3H]AF-DX 116 is a useful probe for the study of heterogeneity of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. PMID:3657382

  8. Molecular characterization of a rare MLL-AF4 (MLL-AFF1) fusion rearrangement in infant leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Susana; Cerveira, Nuno; Correia, Cecília; Lisboa, Susana; Peixoto, Ana; Norton, Lucília; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2007-10-01

    The t(4;11)(q21;q23) involving the genes MLL and AF4 (alias for AFF1) is detected in 50-70% of infant leukemia. We characterize at both the DNA and RNA level a rare MLL-AF4 fusion transcript identified in a 15-month-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Direct sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction product showed an in-frame fusion between MLL exon 9 and AF4 exon 6. We further demonstrated that the genomic breakpoints were located 1,553 bp downstream of MLL exon 9 and 1,239 bp upstream of AF4 exon 6. Four Alu repeats were detected in MLL intron 9 and two Alu repeats and one LINE1 repetitive element were identified downstream of AF4 exon 5. Finally, a 9-bp polypurine (A) tract and an 8-bp polypyrimidine (T) tract were found flanking the translocation breakpoint. In summary, we have characterized at both the RNA and the DNA level a rare MLL-AF4 fusion variant that was presumably mediated by Alu repeats or polypurine and polypyrimidine tracts located in the vicinity of genomic breakpoints. PMID:17889710

  9. Potentiation of estrogen receptor activation function 1 (AF-1) by Src/JNK through a serine 118-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, W; Webb, P; Nguyen, P; Liu, X; Li, J; Karin, M; Kushner, P J

    2001-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is activated either by ligand or by signals from tyrosine kinase-linked cell surface receptors. We investigated whether the nonreceptor Src tyrosine kinase could affect ER activity. Expression of constitutively active Src or stimulation of the endogenous Src/JNK pathway enhances transcriptional activation by the estrogen-ER complex and strongly stimulates the otherwise weak activation by the unliganded ER and the tamoxifen-ER complex. Src affects ER activation function 1 (AF-1), and not ER AF-2, and does so through its tyrosine kinase activity. This effect of Src is mediated partly through a Raf/mitogen-activated ERK kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) signaling cascade and partly through a MEKK/JNKK/JNK cascade. Although, as previously shown, Src action through activated ERK stimulates AF-1 by phosphorylation at S118, Src action through activated JNK neither leads to phosphorylation of S118 nor requires S118 for its action. We therefore suggest that the Src/JNK pathway enhances AF-1 activity by modification of ER AF-1-associated proteins. Src potentiates activation functions in CREB-binding protein (CBP) and glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), and we discuss the possibility that the Src/JNK pathway enhances the activity of these coactivators, which are known to mediate AF-1 action. PMID:11145737

  10. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  11. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Li, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jia-Bin; Fu, Yun-Liu; Ao, Meng-Fei; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2)-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata. PMID:26927090

  12. Activation of defense response pathways by OGs and Flg22 elicitors in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Denoux, Carine; Galletti, Roberta; Mammarella, Nicole; Gopalan, Suresh; Werck, Danièle; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Ferrari, Simone; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Dewdney, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We carried out transcriptional profiling analysis in 10 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with oligogalacturonides (OGs), oligosaccharides derived from the plant cell wall, or the bacterial flagellin peptide Flg22, general elicitors of the basal defense response in plants. Although detected by different receptors, both OGs and Flg22 trigger a fast and transient response that is both similar and comprehensive, and characterized by activation of early stages of multiple defense signaling pathways, particularly JA-associated processes. However, the response to Flg22 is stronger in both the number of genes differentially expressed and the amplitude of change. The magnitude of induction of individual genes is in both cases dose dependent, but even at very high concentrations, OGs do not induce a response that is as comprehensive as that seen with Flg22. While high doses of either microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) elicit a late response that includes activation of senescence processes, SA-dependent secretory pathway genes and PR1 expression are substantially induced only by Flg22. These results suggest a lower threshold for activation of early responses than for sustained or SA-mediated late defenses. Expression patterns of aminocyclopropane-carboxylate synthase genes also implicate ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of the late innate immune response. PMID:19825551

  13. Responsiveness of AF6, a new, short, validated, atrial fibrillation-specific questionnaire—symptomatic benefit of direct current cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Bengtson, Ann; Medin, Jennie; Frison, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To measure the effects on symptoms of electrical cardioversion (DC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a new, short, validated, AF-specific questionnaire, the AF6. Methods One hundred eleven patients (67 ± 12 years, 89 men) were screened before and 12 ± 3 days after DC using AF6, covering ‘breathing difficulties at rest’, ‘breathing difficulties on exertion’, ‘limitations in day-to-day life due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘feeling of discomfort due to atrial fibrillation’, ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’, and ‘worry/anxiety due to atrial fibrillation’. A single global score was calculated. The Toronto AF Symptoms and Severity Check List (AFSS) and the generic SF-36 were also administered. Patients in sinus rhythm at 12 ± 3 days (n = 56) were defined as responders and patients in AF (n = 55) as non-responders. Results The mean single global score decreased in all patients (18 ± 12.4 to 13 ± 11.6, p < 0.0001) and in responders (22 ± 14 vs. 12 ± 12, p < 0.01) but not in non-responders (14 ± 9 vs. 14 ± 11, N.S). The AFSS frequency scores decreased from 14.5 ± 7.7 to 9.5 ± 7.8 in responders, p = 0.001, but not in non-responders. There was a strong correlation between changes in the AF6 and the SF-36 regarding four of the six items. Effect sizes of AF6 ranged from 0 to 0.52 in all patients, in responders from 0.10 to 0.85 and in non-responders from −0.23 to 0.34, the highest figures consistently referring to ‘tiredness due to atrial fibrillation’. Conclusions The symptom scores measured by AF6 decreased significantly, especially in responders. AF6 demonstrated adequate responsiveness to change, and effect sizes were mostly moderate, in responders moderate to high. PMID:20461545

  14. S-adenosyl-L-methionine activates actinorhodin biosynthesis by increasing autophosphorylation of the Ser/Thr protein kinase AfsK in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying-Yu; Cheng, Jinhua; Yang, Seung Hwan; Meng, Lingzhu; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Suh, Joo-Won

    2011-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is one of the major methyl donors in all living organisms. The exogenous treatment with SAM leads to increased actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). In this study, mutants from different stages of the AfsK-AfsR signal transduction cascade were used to test the possible target of SAM. SAM had no significant effect on actinorhodin production in afsK, afsR, afsS, or actII-open reading frame 4 (ORF4) mutant. This confirms that afsK plays a critical role in delivering the signal generated by exogenous SAM. The afsK-pHJL-KN mutant did not respond to SAM, suggesting the involvement of the C-terminal of AfsK in binding with SAM. SAM increased the in vitro autophosphorylation of kinase AfsK in a dose-dependent manner, and also abolished the effect of decreased actinorhodin production by a Ser/Thr kinase inhibitor, K252a. In sum, our results suggest that SAM activates actinorhodin biosynthesis in S. coelicolor M130 by increasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase AfsK.

  15. Higher risk of death and stroke in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results from the ROCKET-AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Breithardt, Günter; Hankey, Graeme J.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Anticoagulation prophylaxis for stroke is recommended for at-risk patients with either persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). We compared outcomes in patients with persistent vs. paroxysmal AF receiving oral anticoagulation. Methods and results Patients randomized in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET-AF) trial (n = 14 264) were grouped by baseline AF category: paroxysmal or persistent. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare thrombo-embolic events, bleeding, and death between groups, in high-risk subgroups, and across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Of 14 062 patients, 11 548 (82%) had persistent AF and 2514 (18%) had paroxysmal AF. Patients with persistent AF were marginally older (73 vs. 72, P = 0.03), less likely female (39 vs. 45%, P < 0.0001), and more likely to have previously used vitamin K antagonists (64 vs. 56%, P < 0.0001) compared with patients with paroxysmal AF. In patients randomized to warfarin, time in therapeutic range was similar (58 vs. 57%, P = 0.94). Patients with persistent AF had higher adjusted rates of stroke or systemic embolism (2.18 vs. 1.73 events per 100-patient-years, P = 0.048) and all-cause mortality (4.78 vs. 3.52, P = 0.006). Rates of major bleeding were similar (3.55 vs. 3.31, P = 0.77). Rates of stroke or systemic embolism in both types of AF did not differ by treatment assignment (rivaroxaban vs. warfarin, Pinteraction = 0.6). Conclusion In patients with AF at moderate-to-high risk of stroke receiving anticoagulation, those with persistent AF have a higher risk of thrombo-embolic events and worse survival compared with paroxysmal AF. PMID:25209598

  16. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  17. Monitoring of individual human exposure to aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) by immunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, C.P.; Umbenhauer, D.; Chapot, B.; Montesano, R.

    1986-01-01

    Highly sensitive immunoassays have been used to quantitate aflatoxins (AF) and N-nitrosamines (NNO) in human body fluids and tissues, respectively. This approach was taken in order to quantitate environmental exposure to these agents at an individual level to facilitate the investigation of their role in the etiology of human cancer. In order to analyse AF in human urine, an immunopurification step has been developed by using AF-specific antibody bound to AH-Sepharose 4B gel in a small (4-ml gel volume) affinity column prior to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA can be used to quantitate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) over the range 0.01 ng/ml to 10 ng/ml and the assay system has been validated by using human urine samples spiked with AFB1 over this concentration range. In addition, 29 urine samples from the Philippines have been analyzed and found to contain a range of levels from zero to 4.25 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent with a mean of 0.875 ng/ml. This compared with a mean of 0.066 ng/ml AFB1 equivalent in samples from France. Radioimmunoassay of O6-methyldeoxyguanosine (O6-medG) has been performed on human esophageal and cardiac stomach mucosal DNA from tissue samples obtained during surgery in Linxian County, People's Republic of China, an area of high risk for both esophageal and stomach cancer. Using the methodology described and having 1 mg of hydrolyzed DNA allows the detection of approximately 25 fmol O6medG per mg DNA.

  18. Quality control in boar semen production by use of the FACSCount AF system.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Preben; Knudsen, Dorte B; Wachmann, Henrik; Madsen, Mads T

    2004-10-01

    A simple and rapid flow cytometric method has recently been developed for simultaneous determination of sperm concentration and viability in semen from domestic animals. Use of SYBR-14 trade mark in combination with propidium iodide (PI) allows estimation of the proportion of live sperm (viability). An internal standard of fluorescent microspheres (beads) makes it possible to determine the sperm concentration during the same analysis. In the first experiment, the relationship between sperm viability and litter size was investigated. The second experiment explored whether a smaller variation in the number of motile sperm per insemination dose could be obtained using the FACSCount AF flow cytometer than using a spectrophotometer. Results in the first experiment show that sperm viability is closer related to litter size than is the traditionally used motility parameter. Although the flow cytometer is precise and objective, a limited effect on litter size should be anticipated if ejaculates are selected for insemination according to the percentage of viable sperm. However, the present trial used large insemination doses (2.3 x 10(9) motile sperm/dose) which partially compensate for the differences in motility and viability between boars and ejaculates. In the second experiment it was found that variation in the number of motile sperm per insemination dose could be reduced significantly if the FACSCount AF flow cytometer rather than the Corning 254 spectrophotometer was used for determination of sperm concentration in the raw semen. It is concluded that the FACSCount AF flow cytometer is a strong tool for improvement of the quality control in artificial insemination (AI) centres. PMID:15325548

  19. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  20. The strainrange partitioning behavior of an advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G. R.; Nachtigall, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The low-cycle, creep-fatigue characteristics of the advanced gas turbine disk alloy, AF2-1DA have been determined at 1400 F and are presented in terms of the method of strainrange partitioning (SRP). The mean stresses which develop in the PC and CP type SRP cycles at the lowest inelastic strainrange were observed to influence the cyclic lives to a greater extent than the creep effects and hence interfered with a conventional interpretation of the results by SRP. A procedure is proposed for dealing with the mean stress effects on life which is compatible with SRP.

  1. A novel clinical multimodal multiphoton tomograph for AF, SHG, CARS imaging, and FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    We report on a flexible nonlinear medical tomograph with multiple miniaturized detectors for simultaneous acquisition of two-photon autofluorescence (AF), second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The simultaneous visualization of the distribution of endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, melanin and elastin, SHG-active collagen and as well as non-fluorescent lipids within human skin in vivo is possible. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) can be generated using time-correlated single photon counting.

  2. miR-128b is a potent glucocorticoid sensitizer in MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells and exerts cooperative effects with miR-221.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Hsieh, James; Rao, Prakash K; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2009-11-01

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.

  3. CD82 suppresses CD44 alternative splicing-dependent melanoma metastasis by mediating U2AF2 ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Wang, Bochu; Xu, Xingran; Bai, Huiyuan; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer due to its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8-10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, while CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expressions which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels are dramatically elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8-10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8-10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8-10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8-10 splicing is mediated by Src/FAK/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma. PMID:27041584

  4. Comparative assessment of an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT filariasis test: a study of Myanmar migrants in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, Surang; Porksakorn, Chantima; Junpee, Alisa; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Poovorawan, Yong

    2003-12-01

    Detection of circulating filarial antigen has now emerged as an alternative method for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. We compared two antigen detection assays, an Og4C3 ELISA and an ICT (immunochromatography) Filariasis test, for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in migrant Myanmar workers in Tak province, Western Thailand. A total of 337 Myanmars participated in this study. The microfilarial rate was 3.3%. The Og4C3 ELISA could detect 19.1% of bancroftian filariasis while the ICT test detected 12.7%. Both antigen assays could detect all microfilaremics. The Og4C3 ELISA detected 14.8% of amicrofilaremics while the ICT test identified 8.1%. Those who were positive for the ICT test were also positive by the Og4C3 ELISA. Those Og4C3 positive cases, that were ICT negative (ICT-ve/Og4C3+ve) had statistically significant (p < 0.05, unpaired t-test) lower Og4C3 antigen levels (409.5 units, range 117-2,389) than those that were ICT positive (ICT+ve/Og4C3+ve) (5,252.0 units, range 130-28,062). Our results emphasize the problem of bancroftian filariasis in Myanmar migrants working in Thailand. Close monitoring and control of this disease in Myanmar migrants are of public health importance. Antigen detection systems are promising tools for the surveillance of bancroftian filariasis. PMID:15198343

  5. An extended U2AF65–RNA-binding domain recognizes the 3′ splice site signal

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant A.; Salsi, Enea; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Henderson, Steven; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Green, Michael R.; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2016-01-01

    How the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65 recognizes the polypyrimidine (Py) signals of the major class of 3′ splice sites in human gene transcripts remains incompletely understood. We determined four structures of an extended U2AF65–RNA-binding domain bound to Py-tract oligonucleotides at resolutions between 2.0 and 1.5 Å. These structures together with RNA binding and splicing assays reveal unforeseen roles for U2AF65 inter-domain residues in recognizing a contiguous, nine-nucleotide Py tract. The U2AF65 linker residues between the dual RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) recognize the central nucleotide, whereas the N- and C-terminal RRM extensions recognize the 3′ terminus and third nucleotide. Single-molecule FRET experiments suggest that conformational selection and induced fit of the U2AF65 RRMs are complementary mechanisms for Py-tract association. Altogether, these results advance the mechanistic understanding of molecular recognition for a major class of splice site signals. PMID:26952537

  6. Response of Nitrosospira sp. Strain AF-Like Ammonia Oxidizers to Changes in Temperature, Soil Moisture Content, and Fertilizer Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the ecology of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, a unique group of ammonia oxidizers within the Betaproteobacteria. We studied the response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changing environmental conditions by applying molecular methods and physiological measurements to Californian grassland soil manipulated in the laboratory. This soil is naturally high in Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria relative to the much-better-studied Nitrosospira multiformis-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Increases in temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer interacted to reduce the relative abundance of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, although they remained numerically dominant. The overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased with increasing soil moisture and decreased with increasing temperature. Potential nitrification activity was altered by interactions among temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer, with activity tending to be higher when soil moisture and temperature were increased. The increase in potential nitrification activity with increased temperature was surprising, given that the overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased significantly under these conditions. This observation suggests that (i) Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria may respond to increased temperature with an increase in activity, despite a decrease in abundance, or (ii) that potential nitrification activity in these soils may be due to organisms other than bacteria (e.g., archaeal ammonia oxidizers), at least under conditions of increased temperature. PMID:17158615

  7. Relationship between Af temperature and load changes in Ni-Ti orthodontic wire under different thermomechanical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, I; Ohno, H; Sachdeva, R

    1999-12-01

    Simple three point bending tests were performed on Ni-Ti wires with three different Af points (1 degree C, 13 degrees C and 34 degrees C) to clarify the relationship between Af temperature and load changes under constant deformation. Each wire was deformed at 37 degrees C and then thermal changes were imposed by temperatures of 2 degrees C or 60 degrees C. The load changes with thermal changes from 37 degrees C to 2 degrees C or 60 degrees C showed the same tendency on the wires with different Af points: In the loading stage, the load became lower than the initial level at 37 degrees C and in the unloading stage, the load became higher than the initial load. The largest load change in the unloading stage was measured with the 13 degrees C Af point wire. Care must be taken when handling Ni-Ti wire with an Af point of less than 1 degree C in order to prevent it from reaching the limit of critical stress of slip deformation when the temperature in the mouth rises to above 40 degrees C. PMID:10786161

  8. The splicing factor U2AF65 is functionally conserved in the thermotolerant deep-sea worm Alvinella pompejana.

    PubMed

    Henscheid, Kristy L; Shin, David S; Cary, S Craig; Berglund, J Andrew

    2005-03-10

    Due to their inherent stability, thermophilic bacteria and archaea serve as important resources for biochemical and biophysical analyses of many biological processes. Unfortunately, scientists characterizing eukaryote-specific processes, such as nuclear pre-mRNA splicing, are unable to take advantage of these sources of thermostable proteins. To identify and provide a source of thermostable eukaryotic proteins, we are characterizing splicing factors in the thermotolerant deep-sea vent polychaete, Alvinella pompejana. This worm, also known as the Pompeii worm, is found in the extreme environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and is one of the most thermotolerant eukaryotic organisms known. We report on detailed analyses of U2AF65, the large subunit of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor, an essential splicing factor important for intron definition and alternative splicing. The cloning and characterization of Pompeii U2AF65 show it is highly similar to human U2AF65 in sequence and function and is more thermostable than the human protein when bound to RNA in vitro. Notably, Pompeii U2AF65 can restore splicing in a human extract depleted of human U2AF. We also determine that the general splicing mechanisms and signal sequences are conserved in the Pompeii worm, an annelid which has previously been uncharacterized in terms of splicing factors and signals.

  9. Response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changes in temperature, soil moisture content, and fertilizer concentration.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, Sharon; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2007-02-01

    Very little is known regarding the ecology of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, a unique group of ammonia oxidizers within the Betaproteobacteria. We studied the response of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like ammonia oxidizers to changing environmental conditions by applying molecular methods and physiological measurements to Californian grassland soil manipulated in the laboratory. This soil is naturally high in Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria relative to the much-better-studied Nitrosospira multiformis-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Increases in temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer interacted to reduce the relative abundance of Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria, although they remained numerically dominant. The overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased with increasing soil moisture and decreased with increasing temperature. Potential nitrification activity was altered by interactions among temperature, soil moisture, and fertilizer, with activity tending to be higher when soil moisture and temperature were increased. The increase in potential nitrification activity with increased temperature was surprising, given that the overall abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria decreased significantly under these conditions. This observation suggests that (i) Nitrosospira sp. strain AF-like bacteria may respond to increased temperature with an increase in activity, despite a decrease in abundance, or (ii) that potential nitrification activity in these soils may be due to organisms other than bacteria (e.g., archaeal ammonia oxidizers), at least under conditions of increased temperature.

  10. Mental status testing

    MedlinePlus

    Mental status exam; Neurocognitive testing; Dementia-mental status testing ... A health care provider will ask a number of questions. The test can be ... cognitive assessment (MoCA). The following may be tested: ...

  11. Intracardiac impedance response during acute AF internal cardioversion using novel rectilinear and capacitor-discharge waveforms.

    PubMed

    Rababah, A S; Walsh, S J; Manoharan, G; Walsh, P R; Escalona, O J

    2016-07-01

    Intracardiac impedance (ICI) is a major determinant of success during internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there have been few studies that have examined the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during internal cardioversion in relation to clinical outcome. In this study, voltage and current waveforms captured during internal cardioversion of acute AF in ovine models using novel radiofrequency (RF) generated low-tilt rectilinear and conventional capacitor-discharge based shock waveforms were retrospectively analysed using a digital signal processing algorithm to investigate the dynamic behaviour of atrial impedance during cardioversion. The algorithm was specifically designed to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple impedance parameters, including: mean intracardiac impedance (Z M), intracardiac impedance variance (ICIV) and impedance amplitude spectrum area (IAMSA) for each cardioversion event. A significant reduction in ICI was observed when comparing two successive shocks of increasing energy where cardioversion outcome was successful. In addition, ICIV and IAMSA variables were found to inversely correlate to the magnitude of energy delivered; with a stronger correlation found to the former parameter. In conclusion, ICIV and IAMSA have been evidenced as two key dynamic intracardiac impedance variables that may prove useful in better understanding of the cardioversion process and that could potentially act as prognostic markers with respect to clinical outcome. PMID:27328164

  12. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  13. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  14. The planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Diversin translocates to the nucleus to interact with the transcription factor AF9

    SciTech Connect

    Haribaskar, Ramachandran; Puetz, Michael; Schupp, Birte; Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Walz, Gerd; Schaefer, Tobias

    2009-09-11

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a {beta}-catenin-independent branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, orients cells and their appendages with respect to the body axes. Diversin, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein Diego, acts as a molecular switch that blocks {beta}-catenin-dependent and promotes {beta}-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. We report now that Diversin, containing several nuclear localization signals, translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the transcription factor AF9. Both Diversin and AF9 block canonical Wnt signaling; however, this occurs independently of each other, and does not require nuclear Diversin. In contrast, AF9 strongly augments the Diversin-driven activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent gene expression in the nucleus, and this augmentation largely depends on the presence of nuclear Diversin. Thus, our findings reveal that components of the PCP cascade translocate to the nucleus to participate in transcriptional regulation and PCP signaling.

  15. Anticoagulation for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular AF in general practice: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Adam; Metaxa, Sofia; Kassianos, George; Missouris, Constantinos G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to assess whether the recommendations and guidelines for thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been adopted in general practice (GP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the GP computer database (Hatfield, UK) on all 9400 patients to assess the quality of anticoagulation in patients with a recorded diagnosis of AF. Results: Of the 180 patients with a diagnosis of AF, 107 (59.4%) were treated with warfarin, 19 (10.6%) with a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC), 31 (17.2%) with aspirin or clopidogrel, and 23 (12.8%) received none. Thirty-seven patients (34.6%) who were taking warfarin had a time in the therapeutic range (TTR) of less than 65%. Forty-five (27.6%) of the 163 patients who had a CHA2DS2VASc score of two or more were not prescribed a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or a NOAC. None had a HAS-BLED greater than the CHA2DS2VASc score. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that one in four patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a stroke, is not being adequately treated with an oral anticoagulant in primary care. The majority were treated with warfarin, a third of which had a low TTR. A high proportion of patients are prescribed antiplatelet therapy instead. This is despite overwhelming evidence that VKAs and NOACs, and not aspirin or clopidogrel, improve outcome in patients with non-valvular AF. We suggest that a review of GP practice databases should be considered to identify patients with non-valvular AF, at risk of a disabling or fatal event, and measures taken to initiate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:27403193

  16. Escherichia coli Strain RDEC-1 AF/R1 Endogenous Fimbrial Glycoconjugate Receptor Molecules in Rabbit Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyoik; Kim, Young S.; Grange, Philippe A.; Cassels, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain RDEC-1 causes a diarrheagenic infection in rabbits with AF/R1 fimbriae, which have been identified as an important colonization factor in RDEC-1 adherence leading to disease. The AF/R1-mediated RDEC-1 adherence model has been used as a model systems for E. coli diarrheal diseases. In this study, RDEC-1 adhered specifically to small intestinal brush borders, with both sialic acid and β-galactosyl residues apparently involved. The AF/R1-mediated adherence activity of [14C]-labeled RDEC-1 was analyzed quantitatively by using 24-well plates coated with purified brush borders and purified microvilli. Two microvillus membrane proteins (130 and 140 kDa) were individually isolated, and chicken antibody raised to each protein inhibited bacterial adherence. These same two proteins, previously shown to be recognized by AF/R1, were individually digested with trypsin, and the amino acid sequences of peptides were determined by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This LC-MS analysis indicated that these proteins are subunits of the rabbit sucrase-isomaltase protein (SI) complex. Guinea pig serum raised to purified rabbit SI complex inhibited bacterial adherence to microvilli. Additionally, as determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography, RDEC-1 adhered selectively, via AF/R1 fimbriae, to a glycolipid tentatively identified as galactosylceramide (Galβ1-1Cer) in the lipid extract of rabbit small intestinal brush borders. RDEC-1 adherence to Galβ1-1Cer was partially inhibited in the presence of galactose. These combined results indicate that the endogenous receptor molecule for AF/R1 fimbriae of RDEC-1 is each individual component of the SI complex, although binding to glycolipid may be responsible for an additional adherence mechanism. PMID:11159950

  17. A Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring Strategies After Cryptogenic Stroke (from the Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying AF Trial).

    PubMed

    Choe, William C; Passman, Rod S; Brachmann, Johannes; Morillo, Carlos A; Sanna, Tommaso; Bernstein, Richard A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Rymer, Marilyn M; Beckers, Frank; Koehler, Jodi; Ziegler, Paul D

    2015-09-15

    Ischemic stroke cause remains undetermined in 30% of cases, leading to a diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of ischemic stroke but may go undetected with short periods of ECG monitoring. The Cryptogenic Stroke and Underlying Atrial Fibrillation trial (CRYSTAL AF) demonstrated that long-term electrocardiographic monitoring with insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) is superior to conventional follow-up in detecting AF in the population with cryptogenic stroke. We evaluated the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of various external monitoring techniques within a cryptogenic stroke cohort. Simulated intermittent monitoring strategies were compared to continuous rhythm monitoring in 168 ICM patients of the CRYSTAL AF trial. Short-term monitoring included a single 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holter and 21-day and 30-day event recorders. Periodic monitoring consisted of quarterly monitoring through 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day Holters and monthly 24-hour Holters. For a single monitoring period, the sensitivity for AF diagnosis was lowest with a 24-hour Holter (1.3%) and highest with a 30-day event recorder (22.8%). The NPV ranged from 82.3% to 85.6% for all single external monitoring strategies. Quarterly monitoring with 24-hour Holters had a sensitivity of 3.1%, whereas quarterly 7-day monitors increased the sensitivity to 20.8%. The NPVs for repetitive periodic monitoring strategies were similar at 82.6% to 85.3%. Long-term continuous monitoring was superior in detecting AF compared to all intermittent monitoring strategies evaluated (p <0.001). Long-term continuous electrocardiographic monitoring with ICMs is significantly more effective than any of the simulated intermittent monitoring strategies for identifying AF in patients with previous cryptogenic stroke. PMID:26183793

  18. Heuristic status polling

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2011-06-07

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for heuristic status polling of a component in a computing system. Embodiments include receiving, by a polling module from a requesting application, a status request requesting status of a component; determining, by the polling module, whether an activity history for the component satisfies heuristic polling criteria; polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component satisfies the heuristic polling criteria; and not polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component does not satisfy the heuristic criteria.

  19. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text analysis in…

  20. Validation of the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF Risk Scores for Atrial Fibrillation in Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Eric; Kargoli, Faraj; Aagaard, Philip; Hoch, Ethan; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Krumerman, Andrew; Ferrick, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    A risk score for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE)-AF consortium. However, validation of these risk scores in an inner-city population is uncertain. Thus, a validation model was built using the Framingham Risk Score for AF and CHARGE-AF covariates. An in and outpatient electrocardiographic database was interrogated from 2000 to 2013 for the development of AF. Patients were included if their age was >45 and <95 years, had <10-year follow-up, if their initial electrocardiogram was without AF, had ≥ 2 electrocardiograms, and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, African-American, or Hispanic. For the Framingham Heart Study, 49,599 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,860 developed AF. Discrimination analysis using area under the curve (AUC) for original risk equations: non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.712 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.694 to 0.731), African-American AUC = 0.733 (95% CI 0.716 to 0.751), and Hispanic AUC = 0.740 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.757). For the CHARGE-AF, 45,571 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,512 developed AF. Non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.694), African-American AUC = 0.706 (95% CI 0.685 to 0.727), and Hispanic AUC = 0.711 (95% CI 0.691 to 0.732). Calibration analysis showed qualitative similarities between cohorts. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate both the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF risk scores in both a Hispanic and African-American cohort. All models predicted AF well across all race and ethnic cohorts. PMID:26589820

  1. Validation of the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF Risk Scores for Atrial Fibrillation in Hispanics, African-Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Eric; Kargoli, Faraj; Aagaard, Philip; Hoch, Ethan; Di Biase, Luigi; Fisher, John; Gross, Jay; Kim, Soo; Krumerman, Andrew; Ferrick, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    A risk score for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study and Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE)-AF consortium. However, validation of these risk scores in an inner-city population is uncertain. Thus, a validation model was built using the Framingham Risk Score for AF and CHARGE-AF covariates. An in and outpatient electrocardiographic database was interrogated from 2000 to 2013 for the development of AF. Patients were included if their age was >45 and <95 years, had <10-year follow-up, if their initial electrocardiogram was without AF, had ≥ 2 electrocardiograms, and declared a race and/or ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, African-American, or Hispanic. For the Framingham Heart Study, 49,599 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,860 developed AF. Discrimination analysis using area under the curve (AUC) for original risk equations: non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.712 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.694 to 0.731), African-American AUC = 0.733 (95% CI 0.716 to 0.751), and Hispanic AUC = 0.740 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.757). For the CHARGE-AF, 45,571 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 4,512 developed AF. Non-Hispanic white AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.652 to 0.694), African-American AUC = 0.706 (95% CI 0.685 to 0.727), and Hispanic AUC = 0.711 (95% CI 0.691 to 0.732). Calibration analysis showed qualitative similarities between cohorts. In conclusion, this is the first study to validate both the Framingham Heart Study and CHARGE-AF risk scores in both a Hispanic and African-American cohort. All models predicted AF well across all race and ethnic cohorts.

  2. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 can act both as an agonist and an inverse agonist when estrogen receptor α AF-2 is modified

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Börjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H.; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Andersson, Annica; Stubelius, Alexandra; Carlsten, Hans; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The bone-sparing effect of estrogen is primarily mediated via estrogen receptor (ER) α, which stimulates target gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 in the N-terminal and AF-2 in the ligand-binding domain. It was recently demonstrated that the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) acts as an ER agonist in uterus of mice with mutations in the ERα AF-2. To evaluate the estrogen-like effects of ICI in different tissues, ovariectomized wild-type mice and mice with mutations in the ERα AF-2 (ERαAF-20) were treated with ICI, estradiol, or vehicle for 3 wk. Estradiol increased the trabecular and cortical bone mass as well as the uterine weight, whereas it reduced fat mass, thymus weight, and the growth plate height in wild-type but not in ERαAF-20 mice. Although ICI had no effect in wild-type mice, it exerted tissue-specific effects in ERαAF-20 mice. It acted as an ERα agonist on trabecular bone mass and uterine weight, whereas no effect was seen on cortical bone mass, fat mass, or thymus weight. Surprisingly, a pronounced inverse agonistic activity was seen on the growth plate height, resulting in enhanced longitudinal bone growth. In conclusion, ICI uses ERα AF-1 in a tissue-dependent manner in mice lacking ERαAF-2, resulting in no effect, agonistic activity, or inverse agonistic activity. We propose that ERα lacking AF-2 is constitutively active in the absence of ligand in the growth plate, enabling ICI to act as an inverse agonist. PMID:24395795

  3. Fluorous polymeric membranes for ionophore-based ion-selective potentiometry: how inert is Teflon AF?

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun-Ze; Koseoglu, Secil S; Lugert, Elizabeth C; Boswell, Paul G; Rábai, József; Lodge, Timothy P; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Fluorous media are the least polar and polarizable condensed phases known. Their use as membrane materials considerably increases the selectivity and robustness of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). In this research, a fluorous amorphous perfluoropolymer was used for the first time as a matrix for an ISE membrane. Electrodes for pH measurements with membranes composed of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole]-co-poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (87% dioxole monomer content; known as Teflon AF2400) as polymer matrix, a linear perfluorooligoether as plasticizer, sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate providing for ionic sites, and bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine as H+ ionophore were investigated. All electrodes had excellent potentiometric selectivities, showed Nernstian responses to H+ over a wide pH range, exhibited enhanced mechanical stability, and maintained their selectivity over at least 4 weeks. For membranes of low ionophore concentration, the polymer affected the sensor selectivity noticeably at polymer concentrations exceeding 15%. Also, the membrane resistance increased quite strongly at high polymer concentrations, which cannot be explained by the Mackie-Meares obstruction model. The selectivities and resistances depend on the polymer concentration because of a functional group associated with Teflon AF2400, with a concentration of one functional group per 854 monomer units of the polymer. In the fluorous environment of these membranes, this functional group binds to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and the unprotonated ionophore with binding constants of 10(3.5), 10(1.8), 10(6.8), and 10(4.4) M(-1), respectively. Potentiometric and spectroscopic evidence indicates that these functional groups are COOH groups formed by the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid fluoride (COF) groups originally present in Teflon AF2400. The use of higher ionophore concentrations removes the undesirable effect of these COOH groups almost completely

  4. Analyse de l'interface cuivre/Teflon AF1600 par spectroscopie des photoelectrons rayons x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Dan

    The speed of electrical signals through the microelectronic multilevel interconnects depends of the delay time R x C. In order to improve the transmission speed of future microdevices, the microelectronics industry requires the use of metals having lower resistivities and insulators having lower permittivities. Copper and fluoropolymers are interesting candidates for the replacement of the presently used Al/polyimide technology. This thesis presents an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the Cu/Teflon AF1600 interface, in order to have a better understanding of those interfacial interactions leading to improved adhesion. Several deposition methods, such as evaporation, sputtering and laser-induced chemical deposition were analyzed and compared. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used as the primary characterization technique of the different surfaces and interfaces. In the case of evaporation and sputtering, the loss of fluorine and oxygen atoms leads to graphitization and the crosslinking of carbon chains. The extent of damage caused by copper deposition is higher for sputter deposition because of the higher energies of the incidents atoms. This energy (two orders of magnitude higher than the energy involved in the evaporation) is also responsible for the total reaction of Cu with F and C. For the physical depositions (sputtering and evaporation), an angle-resolved XPS diffusion study showed the copper distribution as a function of depth. (i) For sputter deposition, this distribution is uniform. (ii) In the case of evaporation, we computed the concentration profile using the inverse Laplace transform. Several samples, annealed at different temperatures, were used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for the Cu/Teflon AF1600 interface. The study of interactions at the interface between Teflon AF1600 and copper deposited by different metallization techniques permitted us to elucidate some aspects related to the chemistry and structure of

  5. Effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue on indicators of thermal status and growth in Hereford and Senepol steers.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    2004-02-01

    Poor growth often occurs in cattle consuming ergot alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue. Hyperthermia may contribute significantly to poor growth resulting from fescue toxicosis. This study examined indicators of thermal status and growth in Hereford (n = 30; heat-sensitive Bos taurus; H) and Senepol (n = 28; heat-tolerant Bos taurus; S) steers fed EI tall fescue (TF) or orchardgrass (OG) in 2 x 2 factorial experiments. Respiration rates, daytime shade use, tail skin temperatures, and body weights were measured during the summer and fall of 2000 (Exp. 1) and 2001 (Exp. 2). Experimental diets consisted of hay and seed for 12 wk in 2000, hay for 6 wk during the summer of 2001, and hay plus seed for 6 wk during the fall of 2001. In Exp. 1, EI tall fescue increased (P < 0.01) respiration rates, shade use, and skin temperatures in both breeds. Breed x diet affected (P < 0.01) 12-wk ADG in Exp. 1. Growth rate was lower for H-TF (262 g/d) than for S-TF, S-OG, and H-OG (475, 497, and 524 g/d, respectively). In Exp. 2, Senepol had lower (P < 0.01) respiration rates, shade use, and skin temperatures compared with Hereford, but diet did not alter (P > 0.14) these indicator traits in either breed. Breed x diet affected (P < 0.01) summer growth rates. Growth rate was lower for H-TF (88 g/d) than for H-OG, S-TF, and S-OG (508, 555, and 566 g/d, respectively). Adding seed to the diets in Exp. 2 decreased (P < 0.01) ADG for both breeds on TF during the fall. Thermal status indicator traits in Senepol and Hereford steers were similarly altered by TF; however, only Hereford showed consistently poor growth. Senepol showed resilience in their capacity for growth under conditions of fescue toxicosis. Senepol influence may enhance cattle performance in production systems that use EI tall fescue as the base forage. PMID:14974565

  6. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman SF; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide. PMID:26617459

  7. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0: Space Environment Software Products for 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Ginet, G. P.; Hall, T.; Holeman, E.; Tautz, M.

    2002-05-01

    AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 (release 2002 on WindowsNT/2000/XP) is a graphics-intensive software program developed by AFRL with space environment models and applications. It has grown steadily to become a development tool for automated space weather visualization products and helps with a variety of tasks: orbit specification for radiation hazard avoidance; satellite design assessment and post-event analysis; solar disturbance effects forecasting; frequency and antenna management for radar and HF communications; determination of link outage regions for active ionospheric conditions; and physics research and education. The object-oriented C++ code is divided into five module classes. Science Modules control science models to give output data on user-specified grids. Application Modules manipulate these data and provide orbit generation and magnetic field line tracing capabilities. Data Modules read and assist with the analysis of user-generated data sets. Graphics Modules enable the display of features such as plane slices, magnetic field lines, line plots, axes, the Earth, stars, and satellites. Worksheet Modules provide commonly requested coordinate transformations and calendar conversion tools. Common input data archive sets, application modules, and 1-, 2-, and 3-D visualization tools are provided to all models. The code documentation includes detailed examples with click-by-click instructions for investigating phenomena that have well known effects on communications and spacecraft systems. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.0 builds on the success of its predecessors. The first release (Version 1.21, 1996/IRIX on SGI) contained radiation belt particle flux and dose models derived from CRRES satellite data, an aurora model, an ionosphere model, and ionospheric HF ray tracing capabilities. Next (Version 1.4, 1999/IRIX on SGI) science modules were added related to cosmic rays and solar protons, low-Earth orbit radiation dosages, single event effects probability maps, ionospheric

  8. Structures, reactivities, and antibiotic properties of the marinopyrroles A-F.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Chambers C; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William

    2010-05-21

    Cultivation of actinomycete strain CNQ-418, retrieved from a deep ocean sediment sample off the coast of La Jolla, CA, has provided marinopyrroles A-F. Sharing just 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with S. sannurensis, the strain likely represents a new Streptomyces species. The metabolites contain an unusual 1,3'-bipyrrole core decorated with several chlorine and bromine substituents and possess marked antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The congested N,C-biaryl bond establishes an axis of chirality that, for marinopyrroles A-E, is configurationally stable at room temperature. Moreover, the natural products are fashioned strictly in the M-configuration. The Paal-Knorr condensation was adapted for the synthesis of the 1,3'-bipyrrole core. Halogenation of this material with N-bromosuccinimide cleanly furnished the 4,4',5,5'-tetrahalogenated core that characterizes this class of marine-derived metabolites.

  9. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J.; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J.; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes. PMID:26566657

  10. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  11. Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Bing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Xu, Hui-Min; He, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 μM, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 μM. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 μM.

  12. Fatigue life estimation program for Part 23 airplanes, `AFS.FOR`

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the general aviation industry a computer program which estimates the safe fatigue life of any Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 23 airplane. The algorithm uses the methodology (Miner`s Linear Cumulative Damage Theory) and the various data presented in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Report No. AFS-120-73-2, dated May 1973. The program is written in FORTRAN 77 language and is executable on a desk top personal computer. The program prompts the user for the input data needed and provides a variety of options for its intended use. The program is envisaged to be released through issuance of a FAA report, which will contain the appropriate comments, instructions, warnings and limitations.

  13. Verbesinosides A-F, 15,27-cyclooleanane saponins from the American native plant Verbesina virginica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Jacob, Melissa R; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Clark, Alice M; Liang, Zong-Suo; Li, Xing-Cong

    2009-06-01

    Verbesinosides A-F (1-6), six new 15,27-cyclooleanane-type triterpenoid saponins carrying different aromatic acyl moieties on the aglycon, were isolated from the leaves and flowers of Verbesina virginica. Their structures were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The representative major saponin, verbesinoside A (1), has the structure 21-trimethoxybenzoyl 15alpha,27-cycloolean-12-en-3beta,21beta-diol-28-oic acid 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. This is the first report of triterpenoid saponins possessing the unique 15,27-cyclooleanane skeleton. The anisotropic effects of the aromatic acyl moieties on the triterpenoid skeleton are discussed.

  14. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  15. Evaluation of the Sustainability and Clinical Outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a Child Protection Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for…

  16. Two-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation: results from GARFIELD-AF

    PubMed Central

    Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Accetta, Gabriele; Camm, Alan John; Cools, Frank; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Haas, Sylvia; Hacke, Werner; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G.G.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The relationship between outcomes and time after diagnosis for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is poorly defined, especially beyond the first year. Methods and results GARFIELD-AF is an ongoing, global observational study of adults with newly diagnosed NVAF. Two-year outcomes of 17 162 patients prospectively enrolled in GARFIELD-AF were analysed in light of baseline characteristics, risk profiles for stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and antithrombotic therapy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.8 (11.4) years, 43.8% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.3 (1.6); 60.8% of patients were prescribed anticoagulant therapy with/without antiplatelet (AP) therapy, 27.4% AP monotherapy, and 11.8% no antithrombotic therapy. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding had occurred at a rate (95% confidence interval) of 3.83 (3.62; 4.05), 1.25 (1.13; 1.38), and 0.70 (0.62; 0.81) per 100 person-years, respectively. Rates for all three major events were highest during the first 4 months. Congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sudden/unwitnessed death, malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis accounted for 65% of all known causes of death and strokes for <10%. Anticoagulant treatment was associated with a 35% lower risk of death. Conclusion The most frequent of the three major outcome measures was death, whose most common causes are not known to be significantly influenced by anticoagulation. This suggests that a more comprehensive approach to the management of NVAF may be needed to improve outcome. This could include, in addition to anticoagulation, interventions targeting modifiable, cause-specific risk factors for death. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362. PMID:27357359

  17. AF printability check with a full-chip 3D resist profile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-En R.; Chang, Jason; Song, Hua; Shiely, James

    2013-09-01

    A single compact resist model capable of predicting 3D resist profile is strongly demanded for the advanced technology nodes to avoid the potential hotspots due to imperfect resist pattern shape and its lack of resistance in the subsequent etch process. In this work, we propose a resist 3D (R3D) compact model that takes acidz-diffusion effect into account. The chemical reaction between acid and base along z-direction is treated as second order effect that is absorbed into the anisotropic diffusion length as a fitting parameter. Meanwhile, the resist model in the x-y wafer plane is still kept in general by applying the compact solution of 2D reaction-diffusion equation. In order to have the 2D contour predictability at arbitrary resist height, calibration from entire 3D data (CDs at several heights) areconducted simultaneously witha single cost function so that the R3D compact model is described by a common set of resist free parameters and threshold for all resist heights. With the low energy approximation, the acid z-diffusion effect is equivalent to a z-diffused TCC that takes the form of linear combination of pure optical TCCs sampled at discrete image-depth which can be pre-calculated. With this benefit, the R3D compact model offers a more physical approach but adds no runtime concern on the OPC and verification applications. The predicted resist cross-section profiles from our test patterns are compared those computed with rigorous lithography simulator SLITHO and show very good matching results between them. The demonstration of the AF printability check from the predicted cross-section profile at AF indicates the success of our R3D compact model.

  18. Characterization of extractable soil organic matter pools from African Dark Earths (AfDE): A case study in historical biochar and organic waste amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Manna; Plante, Alain; Ohno, Tsutomu; Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Fraser, James; Leach, Melissa; Fairhead, James

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic Dark Earths are soils generated through long-term human inputs of organic and pyrogenic materials. These soils were originally discovered in the Amazon, and have since been found in Australia and in this case in Africa. African Dark Earths (AfDE) are black, highly fertile and carbon-rich soils that were formed from the original highly-weathered infertile yellowish to red Oxisols and Ultisols through an extant but hitherto overlooked climate-smart sustainable soil management system that has long been an important feature of the indigenous West African agricultural repertoire. Studies have demonstrated that ADE soils in general have significantly different organic matter properties compared to adjacent non-DE soils, largely attributable to the presence of high concentrations of ash-derived carbon. Quantification and characterization of bulk soil organic matter of several (n=11) AfDE and non-AfDE pairs of surface (0-15 cm) soils using thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-EGA) confirmed substantial differences in SOM composition and the presence of pyrogenic C. Such pyrogenic organic matter is generally considered recalcitrant or relatively stable, but the goal of the current study was to characterize the presumably labile, more rapidly cycling, pools of C in AfDEs through the characterization of hot water- and pyrophosphate-extractable fractions, referred to as HWEOC and PyroC respectively. Extracts were analyzed for carbon content, as well as composition using fluorescence (EEM/PARAFAC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The amount of extractable C as a proportion of total soil C was relatively low: less than ~0.8% for HWEOC and 2.8% for PyroC. The proportion of HWEOC did not differ (P = 0.18, paired t-test) between the AfDE and the non-AfDE soils, while the proportions of PyroC were significantly larger (P = 0.001) in the AfDE soils compared to the non-AfDE soils. Preliminary analysis of the EEM/PARAFAC data suggests that AfDE samples had

  19. Students' Decision Steps in Meta-Cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG): A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen Fa, Kinsley Ng; Hussin, Firuz Hussin

    2011-01-01

    What prompts the students to respond in online dialogic discussion? Why some students chose to fall out? This case study through the lens of phenomenography observation attempts to explain the five decision steps of students to respond in Meta-cognitive Learning in Free Online Groups (MetaL-FrOG) discussion. It presents a part of a research…

  20. 26 CFR 1.419A(f)(6)-1 - Exception for 10 or more employer plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by the recipient. (c) Characteristics indicating a plan is not a 10 or more employer plan—(1) In general. The presence of any of the characteristics described in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(6) of this... requirements of section 419A(f)(6) and this section, a plan having any of the following characteristics is...

  1. Determining Aqueous Fullerene Particle Size Distributions by Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) without Surfactants

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the behavior of nanoparticles in environmental systems, methods must be developed to measure nanoparticle size. Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) is an aqueous compatible size separation technique which is able to separate particles from 1 nm to 10 µm in...

  2. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from ROCKET AF.

    PubMed

    Girgis, I G; Patel, M R; Peters, G R; Moore, K T; Mahaffey, K W; Nessel, C C; Halperin, J L; Califf, R M; Fox, K A A; Becker, R C

    2014-08-01

    Two once-daily rivaroxaban dosing regimens were compared with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in ROCKET AF: 20 mg for patients with normal/mildly impaired renal function and 15 mg for patients with moderate renal impairment. Rivaroxaban population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling data from ROCKET AF patients (n = 161) are reported and are used to confirm established rivaroxaban PK and PK/PD models and to re-estimate values of the models' parameters for the current AF population. An oral one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described rivaroxaban PK. Age, renal function, and lean body mass influenced the PK model. Prothrombin time and prothrombinase-induced clotting time exhibited a near-linear relationship with rivaroxaban plasma concentration; inhibitory effects were observed through to 24 hours post-dose. Rivaroxaban plasma concentration and factor Xa activity had an inhibitory maximum-effect (Emax ) relationship. Renal function (on prothrombin time; prothrombinase-induced clotting time) and age (on factor Xa activity) had moderate effects on PK/PD models. PK and PK/PD models were shown to be adequate for describing the current dataset. These findings confirm the modeling and empirical results that led to the selection of doses tested against warfarin in ROCKET AF.

  3. Reworking Practice through an AfL Project: An Analysis of Teachers' Collaborative Engagement with New Assessment Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermansen, Hege; Nerland, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Assessment for Learning (AfL) has travelled across countries, giving rise to a range of educational policy initiatives and school development projects. While researchers have focused on issues such as how formative assessment can support student learning and lead to more efficient classroom practices, less attention…

  4. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations. PMID:27698462

  5. The Implementation of Collaborative Learning Using AfL through Giving Feedback Strategy for Improving Students’ Attention to Mathematics Lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniasih, R.; Sujadi, I.; Pramesti, G.

    2016-02-01

    This research aims to describe the process of implementation collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy for improving students’ attention to mathematics lesson. Data which is collected in this research are students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement. The result of this research showed that the learning steps by using collaborative learning with AfL through giving feedback strategy which can improve students’ attention are: 1) pre activity: the teacher delivers the purpose of the learning, successful criteria, apperception, and motivation. 2) main activity: the teacher gives the background of learning activity, explains learning materials at a glance, divides students discuss, the teacher observes and guides students to the problem solving, present their discussion result, gives feedback, the students do AfL problem and the answer is collected and result will be given before next meeting. 3) post activity: the teacher with students concludes the material. Test result, the percentage of students who complete the examination in the second cycle is 77.27%. Based on those results can be concluded that the implementation of collaborative learning using AfL through giving feedback can improve students’ attention towards learning and students’ achievement of XI IPA Students MA Al-Islam Jamsaren Surakarta academic year 2013/2014.

  6. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in feedlot steers supplemented with OmniGen-AF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with OmniGen-AF on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 270 ± 5 kilograms body weight) were separated into two treatment groups (n=9/treatment): one group was fed a standard ...

  7. CALIPSO Mission Status Update: Payload Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhappen, Ron; Borchardt, Robert; MacDonnell, David; Cisewski, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The CALIPSO mission payload status update is presented. The contents include: 1) Wide Field Camera Overview; 2) WFC Temperatures; 3) WFC Voltages; 4) Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) Health; 5) IIR Voltages; 6) Payload Control (PLC) Voltages; 7) PLC Temperatures; 8) Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) (CALOPS0025N); 9) PLC Radiation Effects; 10) SDS Status (CALOPS0020N); 11) CALIOP LIDAR; 12) Laser Energy Trends; 13) Laser Energy Zoom; 14) Laser Management Approach; 15) Green / Red Ratio; 16) Pedestal @ SHG Temperature Trends; 17) LOM Heater Duty Cycle Trends; 18) LOM Pressure Trends; 19) Boresight Trend; 20) 1064 Dark Noise Trend; 21) 532 SNR Trend; 22) Spike Trends; 23) LIDAR Highlights; 24) Backup Laser Status; and 25) Future Plans.

  8. afsR is a pleiotropic but conditionally required regulatory gene for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Floriano, B; Bibb, M

    1996-07-01

    The N-terminal region of AfsR, a putative pleiotropic regulatory protein for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), is homologous to RedD and Actil-ORF4, pathway-specific regulatory proteins required for the production of the antibiotics undecylprodigiosin (Red) and actinorhodin (Act), respectively. The recent identification of afsS, which lies immediately 3' of afsR and which stimulates antibiotic production when cloned at high copy number, questioned whether afsR was a pleiotropic regulatory gene. In this study we demonstrate that multiple copies of afsR can stimulate both Act and Red production and that, despite its homology, it cannot substitute for the pathway-specific regulatory genes. Moreover, an in-frame deletion that removed most of the afsR coding sequence resulted in loss of Act and Red production, and a marked reduction in the synthesis of the calcium-dependent antibiotic (CDA), but only under some (non-permissive) nutritional conditions. Although additional copies of afsR resulted in elevated levels of the actII-ORF4 and redD transcripts, transcription of the pathway-specific regulatory genes under non-permissive conditions was unaffected by deletion of afsR. While afsR may operate independently of the pathway-specific regulatory proteins to influence antibiotic production, the activity of ActII-ORF4 and of RedD under non-permissive conditions could depend on interaction with, or modification by, AfsR.

  9. Implementation of AF-CBT by community practitioners serving child welfare and mental health: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Herschell, Amy D; Hart, Jonathan A; Holden, Elizabeth A; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    The Partnerships for Families project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the implementation of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT), an evidence-based treatment for family conflict, coercion, and aggression, including child physical abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program in this model, 182 community practitioners from 10 agencies were randomized to receive AF-CBT training (n = 90) using a learning community model (workshops, consultation visits) or Training as Usual (TAU; n = 92) which provided trainings per agency routine. Practitioners completed self-report measures at four time points (0, 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline). Of those assigned to AF-CBT, 89% participated in at least one training activity and 68% met a "training completion" definition. A total of 80 (44%) practitioners were still active clinicians in the study by 18-month assessment in that they had not met our staff turnover or study withdrawal criteria. Using an intent-to-train design, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significantly greater initial improvements for those in the AF-CBT training condition (vs. TAU condition) in CBT-related knowledge and use of AF-CBT teaching processes, abuse-specific skills, and general psychological skills. In addition, practitioners in both groups reported significantly more negative perceptions of organizational climate through the intervention phase. These significant, albeit modest, findings are discussed in the context of treatment training, research, and work force issues as they relate to the diverse backgrounds, settings, and populations served by community practitioners.

  10. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  11. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  12. Reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Beyer, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; Shao, H.; Wang, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  13. Reactive transport modeling in the subsurface environment with OGS-IPhreeqc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenkui; Beyer, Christof; Fleckenstein, Jan; Jang, Eunseon; Kalbacher, Thomas; Naumov, Dimitri; Shao, Haibing; Wang, Wenqing; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, sustainable water resource management becomes an increasingly challenging task due to the growth of population and extensive applications of fertilizer in agriculture. Moreover, climate change causes further stresses to both water quantity and quality. Reactive transport modeling in the coupled soil-aquifer system is a viable approach to assess the impacts of different land use and groundwater exploitation scenarios on the water resources. However, the application of this approach is usually limited in spatial scale and to simplified geochemical systems due to the huge computational expense involved. Such computational expense is not only caused by solving the high non-linearity of the initial boundary value problems of water flow in the unsaturated zone numerically with rather fine spatial and temporal discretization for the correct mass balance and numerical stability, but also by the intensive computational task of quantifying geochemical reactions. In the present study, a flexible and efficient tool for large scale reactive transport modeling in variably saturated porous media and its applications are presented. The open source scientific software OpenGeoSys (OGS) is coupled with the IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The new coupling approach makes full use of advantages from both codes: OGS provides a flexible choice of different numerical approaches for simulation of water flow in the vadose zone such as the pressure-based or mixed forms of Richards equation; whereas the IPhreeqc module leads to a simplification of data storage and its communication with OGS, which greatly facilitates the coupling and code updating. Moreover, a parallelization scheme with MPI (Message Passing Interface) is applied, in which the computational task of water flow and mass transport is partitioned through domain decomposition, whereas the efficient parallelization of geochemical reactions is achieved by smart allocation of computational workload over

  14. Nuclear proliferation status report. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear proliferation status of the following countries: (1) Russia, (2) Ukraine, (3) Belarus, (4) Kazakhstan, (5) Israel, (6) India, (7) Pakistan, (8) South Africa, (9) North Korea, (10) Iraq, (11) Iran, (12) Lybia, (13) Algeria, (14) Syria, (15) Brazil, (16) Argentina, and (17) Taiwan.

  15. X-33 Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Charlie C.; Austin, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The presentation briefly presents the current status of the program. The program's objectives and near term plans are stated. A brief description of the vehicle configuration, the technologies to be demonstrated and the missions to be flown are presented. Finally, a status of the vehicle assembly, the launch control center development and the significant test programs' accomplishments are presented.

  16. Status epilepticus in adults.

    PubMed

    Betjemann, John P; Lowenstein, Daniel H

    2015-06-01

    Status epilepticus is a common neurological emergency with considerable associated health-care costs, morbidity, and mortality. The definition of status epilepticus as a prolonged seizure or a series of seizures with incomplete return to baseline is under reconsideration in an effort to establish a more practical definition to guide management. Clinical research has focused on early seizure termination in the prehospital setting. The approach of early escalation to anaesthetic agents for refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus, rather than additional trials of second-line anti-epileptic drugs, to avoid neuronal injury and pharmaco-resistance associated with prolonged seizures is gaining momentum. Status epilepticus is also increasingly identified in the inpatient setting as the use of extended electroencephalography monitoring becomes more commonplace. Substantial further research to enable early identification of status epilepticus and efficacy of anti-epileptic drugs will be important to improve outcomes.

  17. A Cluster of Genes Involved in Polysaccharide Biosynthesis from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Murray, Barbara E.; Weinstock, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Our previous work identified a cosmid clone containing a 43-kb insert from Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF that produced a nonprotein antigen in Escherichia coli. In the present work, we studied this clone in detail. Periodate treatment of lysates of the clone confirmed that the antigen was carbohydrate in nature. Analysis of DNA sequences and transposon insertion mutants suggested that the insert contained a multicistronic gene cluster. Database comparison showed that the cluster contained genes similar to genes involved in the biosynthesis of dTDP-rhamnose, glycosyltransferases, and ABC transporters involved in the export of sugar polymers from both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Insertions in several genes within the cluster abolished the immunoreactivity of the clone. This is the first report on a gene cluster of E. faecalis involved in the biosynthesis of an antigenic polysaccharide. PMID:9712783

  18. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25256427

  19. Overlapping binding of PhoP and AfsR to the promoter region of glnR in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Santos-Beneit, Fernando; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F

    2012-10-12

    Growth of soil bacteria is often limited by the availability of essential nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphate. The reaction to a specific nutrient starvation triggers interconnected responses to equilibrate the metabolism. It is known that PhoP (response regulator involved in phosphate control) specifically binds to several promoters of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism which are also regulated by GlnR (regulator involved in nitrogen control). In this article we report a novel cross-talk between GlnR and the SARP-like regulator, AfsR. AfsR binds to some PhoP-regulated promoters including those of afsS (a small regulatory protein of secondary metabolism), pstS (a component of the phosphate transport system) and phoRP (encoding the two component system itself). We have characterized the regulation exerted upon the nitrogen regulator glnR gene by AfsR, using EMSA and DNase I footprinting assays as well as in vivo expression studies with ΔphoP, ΔafsR and ΔafsR-ΔphoP mutants. Both PhoP and AfsR proteins are able to bind to overlapping regions within the glnR promoter producing different effects. This work demonstrates a cross-talk of three different regulators of both primary and secondary metabolism.

  20. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of stroke prevention through community screening for atrial fibrillation using iPhone ECG in pharmacies. The SEARCH-AF study.

    PubMed

    Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Salkeld, Glenn; Krass, Ines; McLachlan, Andrew J; Redfern, Julie; Bennett, Alexandra A; Briffa, Tom; Bauman, Adrian; Martinez, Carlos; Wallenhorst, Christopher; Lau, Jerrett K; Brieger, David B; Sy, Raymond W; Freedman, S Ben

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a third of all strokes, but often goes undetected before stroke. Identification of unknown AF in the community and subsequent anti-thrombotic treatment could reduce stroke burden. We investigated community screening for unknown AF using an iPhone electrocardiogram (iECG) in pharmacies, and determined the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Pharmacists performedpulse palpation and iECG recordings, with cardiologist iECG over-reading. General practitioner review/12-lead ECG was facilitated for suspected new AF. An automated AF algorithm was retrospectively applied to collected iECGs. Cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated costs of iECG screening, and treatment/outcome data from a United Kingdom cohort of 5,555 patients with incidentally detected asymptomatic AF. A total of 1,000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years (mean 76 ± 7 years; 44% male) were screened. Newly identified AF was found in 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8-2.5%); mean age 79 ± 6 years; all had CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2. AF prevalence was 6.7% (67/1,000). The automated iECG algorithm showed 98.5% (CI, 92-100%) sensitivity for AF detection and 91.4% (CI, 89-93%) specificity. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending iECG screening into the community, based on 55% warfarin prescription adherence, would be $AUD5,988 (€3,142; $USD4,066) per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained and $AUD30,481 (€15,993; $USD20,695) for preventing one stroke. Sensitivity analysis indicated cost-effectiveness improved with increased treatment adherence.Screening with iECG in pharmacies with an automated algorithm is both feasible and cost-effective. The high and largely preventable stroke/thromboembolism risk of those with newly identified AF highlights the likely benefits of community AF screening. Guideline recommendation of community iECG AF screening should be considered.

  1. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of stroke prevention through community screening for atrial fibrillation using iPhone ECG in pharmacies. The SEARCH-AF study.

    PubMed

    Lowres, Nicole; Neubeck, Lis; Salkeld, Glenn; Krass, Ines; McLachlan, Andrew J; Redfern, Julie; Bennett, Alexandra A; Briffa, Tom; Bauman, Adrian; Martinez, Carlos; Wallenhorst, Christopher; Lau, Jerrett K; Brieger, David B; Sy, Raymond W; Freedman, S Ben

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a third of all strokes, but often goes undetected before stroke. Identification of unknown AF in the community and subsequent anti-thrombotic treatment could reduce stroke burden. We investigated community screening for unknown AF using an iPhone electrocardiogram (iECG) in pharmacies, and determined the cost-effectiveness of this strategy.Pharmacists performedpulse palpation and iECG recordings, with cardiologist iECG over-reading. General practitioner review/12-lead ECG was facilitated for suspected new AF. An automated AF algorithm was retrospectively applied to collected iECGs. Cost-effectiveness analysis incorporated costs of iECG screening, and treatment/outcome data from a United Kingdom cohort of 5,555 patients with incidentally detected asymptomatic AF. A total of 1,000 pharmacy customers aged ≥65 years (mean 76 ± 7 years; 44% male) were screened. Newly identified AF was found in 1.5% (95% CI, 0.8-2.5%); mean age 79 ± 6 years; all had CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2. AF prevalence was 6.7% (67/1,000). The automated iECG algorithm showed 98.5% (CI, 92-100%) sensitivity for AF detection and 91.4% (CI, 89-93%) specificity. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending iECG screening into the community, based on 55% warfarin prescription adherence, would be $AUD5,988 (€3,142; $USD4,066) per Quality Adjusted Life Year gained and $AUD30,481 (€15,993; $USD20,695) for preventing one stroke. Sensitivity analysis indicated cost-effectiveness improved with increased treatment adherence.Screening with iECG in pharmacies with an automated algorithm is both feasible and cost-effective. The high and largely preventable stroke/thromboembolism risk of those with newly identified AF highlights the likely benefits of community AF screening. Guideline recommendation of community iECG AF screening should be considered. PMID:24687081

  2. Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus Management

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Bearden, David; Helbig, Ingo; McGuire, Jennifer; Narula, Sona; Panzer, Jessica A.; Topjian, Alexis; Dlugos, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) describes persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status, and is a common neurologic emergency. SE can occur in the context of epilepsy or may be symptomatic of a wide range of underlying etiologies. The clinician’s aim is to rapidly institute care that simultaneously stabilizes the patient medically, identifies and manages any precipitant conditions, and terminates seizures. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines followed by “urgent” therapy with other anti-seizure medications. If seizures persist then refractory SE is diagnosed and management options include additional anti-seizure medications or infusions of midazolam or pentobarbital. This paper reviews the management of pediatric SE and RSE. PMID:25727508

  3. Penarines A-F, (nor-)sesquiterpene carboxylic acids from Hygrophorus penarius (Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Otto, Alexander; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wessjohann, Ludger; Arnold, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    Five sesquiterpene carboxylic acids (1-5) and one nor-sesquiterpene carboxylic acid (6) of the very rare ventricosane type, named penarines A-F, were isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus penarius (Hygrophoraceae). This is the first report of (nor)-sesquiterpenes isolated from basidiocarps of the family Hygrophoraceae. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D ((1)H, (13)C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, ROESY) NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry studies. Additionally, the only known member of this rare type of sesquiterpenes, ventricos-7(13)-ene (7), could be identified via headspace GC-MS analysis in a fruiting body of H. penarius. Compounds 1-6 were devoid of remarkable antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against the human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and the colon cancer cell line HT-29 showing no significant cytotoxic activity.

  4. Perturbative magnetoresistance technique used to investigate FM/AF coupled bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Alexandre; da Costa, Ricardo; Melo, Abner; Chesman, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    In this study we introduced modifications to a collinear four probe magnetoresistance set-up in order to measure magnetic properties that can only be sensed by techniques based on magnetization perturbation. In addition to the applied DC magnetic field (Hdc) , in magnetoresistance experiments, a small and quasi-static alternating magnetic field (hac, less than 10 Oe and around 800 Hz) is applied perpendicularly, both parallel to the sample plane. Due to Zeeman interaction, hac drives sample magnetization to oscillate slightly around its equilibrium position. Although we apply only DC current (few mA), the detected voltage carries DC and AC components. The DC voltage component provides information on magnetoresistance (MR) and the AC component is called perturbative magnetoresistance (PMR). We successfully demonstrated that the PMR signal is proportional to the first derivative of resistance with respect to hac. Using this technique and a phenomenological model that takes into account the relevant free energy terms of FM/AF coupled bilayers, we were able to study reversible and irreversible magnetization rotation processes in these magnetic systems. With respect to magnetic anisotropy, we investigated rotatable anisotropy, proposed by McMichael et al and Geshev et al. Financial support: CNPq, FAPERN and CAPES (Brazilian agencies).

  5. The Detection of a Light Echo from Type Ia SN 2007af in NGC 5584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Dina; Leising, M. D.; Milne, P.; Riess, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery of a light echo (LE) at t ~1000 days past maximum from the normal Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) SN 2007af in the spiral galaxy NGC 5584. The presence of a LE is supported by photometric data and analysis of the images acquired during the Cepheid campaign using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (Riess et al. 2011). The F350 and F555 images show a distinct ring-like structure with an additional central source. The images, taken months apart, show an evolution of the ring structure, which is consistent with a growing light echo in time. We find an angular radius of the outer echo to be ~0.29'' - 0.36''. Using the Cepheid distance to NGC 5584 of 24 Mpc, we find the dust illuminated by the light echo to be at a distance ~800 pc from the supernova. This rare discovery adds to the select few light echoes found in Type Ia SNe: SN 1572, SN 1991T, SN 1995E, SN 1998bu, and SN 2006X. Light echoes are powerful tools that probe the environment around supernovae, determine dust properties and characteristics, and could provide constraints on the progenitors, which are not fully understood for SN Ia.

  6. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  7. High temperature dielectric properties of Apical, Kapton, Peek, Teflon AF, and Upilex polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, A. N.; Baumann, E. D.; Overton, E.; Myers, I. T.; Suthar, J. L.; Khachen, W.; Laghari, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Reliable lightweight systems capable of providing electrical power at the magawatt level are a requirement for future manned space exploration missions. This can be achieved by the development of high temperature insulating materials which are not only capable of surviving the hostile space environment but can contribute to reducing the mass and weight of the heat rejection system. In this work, Apical, Upilex, Kapton, Teflon AF, and Peek polymers are characterized for AC and DC dielectric breakdown in air and in silicone oil at temperatures up to 250 C. The materials are also tested in terms of their dielectric constant and dissipation factor at high temperatures with an electrical stress of 60 Hz, 200 V/mil present. The effects of thermal aging on the properties of the films are determined after 15 hours of exposure to 200 and 250 C, each. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of these dielectrics for use in capacitors and cable insulations in high temperature environments.

  8. Detection of a Light Echo from the Otherwise Normal SN 2007af

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, D.; Leising, M. D.; Milne, P. A.; Pearcy, J.; Riess, A. G.; Macri, L. M.; Bryngelson, G. L.; Garnavich, P. M.

    2015-05-01

    We present the discovery of a light echo from SN 2007af, a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in NGC 5584. Hubble Space Telescope images taken three years post explosion reveal two separate echoes: an outer echo and an extended central region, which we propose to be an inner echo for which details are unresolved. Multiple images were obtained in the F160W, F350LP, F555W, and F814W using the Wide Field Camera 3. If the outer echo is produced by an interstellar dust sheet perpendicular to the line of sight, it is located ∼800 pc in front of the SN. The dust for the inner echo is 0.45 pc \\lt d\\lt 90 pc away from the SN. The inner echo color is consistent with typical interstellar dust wavelength-dependent scattering cross-sections, while the outer echo is redder than predicted. Both dust sheets, if in the foreground, are optically thin for scattering, and the outer echo sheet thickness is consistent with the inferred extinction from peak brightness. Whether the inner echo is from interstellar or circumstellar dust is ambiguous. Overall, the echo characteristics are quite similar to previously observed SN Ia echoes.

  9. Activation function 2 (AF-2) of retinoic acid receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor: presence of a conserved autonomous constitutive activating domain and influence of the nature of the response element on AF-2 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, B; Saunders, M; Gaudon, C; Roy, B; Losson, R; Chambon, P

    1994-01-01

    A motif essential for the transcriptional activation function 2 (AF-2) present in the E region of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) alpha has been characterized as an amphipathic alpha-helix whose main features are conserved between transcriptionally active members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This conserved motif, which can activate autonomously in the absence of ligand in animal and yeast cells, can be swapped between nuclear receptors without affecting the ligand dependency for activation of transcription, thus indicating that a ligand-dependent conformational change is necessary to reveal the AF-2 activation potential within the E region of the nuclear receptor. Interestingly, we show that the precise nature of the direct repeat response element to which RAR/RXR heterodimers are bound can affect the activity of the AF-2s of the heterodimeric partners, as well as the relative efficiency with which all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acids activate the RAR partner. Images PMID:7957103

  10. Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources—current status and development towards a lab on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Anders; Berglund, Martin; Khaji, Zahra; Sturesson, Peter; Söderberg, Johan; Thornell, Greger

    2016-10-01

    Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects for becoming a highly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status report on the current development of microwave-induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented, together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-pass absorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators, with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6 mm and operation frequencies around 2.6 GHz. A linear response (R 2  =  0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstrated when using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturation effects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of the plasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz are studied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector is discussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor to allow for studies of solid samples.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the non-Pfam protein AF1514 from Archeoglobus fulgidus DSM 4304

    SciTech Connect

    Bahti, Pazilat; Chen, Shunmei; Li, Yang; Shaw, Neil; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Min; Cheng, Chongyun; Song, Gaojie; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Hua; Che, Dongsheng; Abbas, Abdulla; Xu, Hao; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2008-02-01

    A non-Pfam protein, AF1514, from A. fulgidus has been crystallized. A 10.5 kDa non-Pfam hypothetical protein, AF1514, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archeoglobus fulgidus has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.09 Å resolution and a data set was collected at 100 K using Cu Kα radiation from a rotating-anode X-ray source. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.27, c = 106.61 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient was 3.16 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, suggesting the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  12. Human PSENEN and U2AF1L4 genes are concertedly regulated by a genuine bidirectional promoter.

    PubMed

    Didych, D A; Shamsutdinov, M F; Smirnov, N A; Akopov, S B; Monastyrskaya, G S; Uspenskaya, N Y; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-02-15

    Head-to-head genes with a short distance between their transcription start sites may constitute up to 10% of all genes in the genomes of various species. It was hypothesized that this intergenic space may represent bidirectional promoters which are able to initiate transcription of both genes, but the true bidirectionality was proved only for a few of them. We present experimental evidence that, according to several criteria, a 269 bp region located between the PSENEN and U2AF1L4 human genes is a genuine bidirectional promoter regulating a concerted divergent transcription of these genes. Concerted transcription of PSENEN and U2AF1L4 can be necessary for regulation of T-cell activity. PMID:23246698

  13. AF4 uses the SL1 components of RNAP1 machinery to initiate MLL fusion- and AEP-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hiroshi; Kanai, Akinori; Ito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirotaka; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    2015-11-23

    Gene rearrangements generate MLL fusion genes, which can lead to aggressive leukemia. In most cases, MLL fuses with a gene encoding a component of the AEP (AF4 family/ENL family/P-TEFb) coactivator complex. MLL-AEP fusion proteins constitutively activate their target genes to immortalize haematopoietic progenitors. Here we show that AEP and MLL-AEP fusion proteins activate transcription through selectivity factor 1 (SL1), a core component of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) of RNA polymerase I (RNAP1). The pSER domain of AF4 family proteins associates with SL1 on chromatin and loads TATA-binding protein (TBP) onto the promoter to initiate RNA polymerase II (RNAP2)-dependent transcription. These results reveal a previously unknown transcription initiation mechanism involving AEP and a role for SL1 as a TBP-loading factor in RNAP2-dependent gene activation.

  14. Dianthosaponins A-F, triterpene saponins, flavonoid glycoside, aromatic amide glucoside and γ-pyrone glucoside from Dianthus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    From aerial parts of Dianthus japonicus, six new and seven known oleanane-type triterpene saponins were isolated. The structures of the new saponins, named dianthosaponins A-F, were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, and extensive inspection of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. A new C-glycosyl flavone, a glycosidic derivative of anthranilic acid amide and a maltol glucoside were also isolated.

  15. Rac1 signaling protects monocytic AML cells expressing the MLL-AF9 oncogene from caspase-mediated apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Hinterleitner, C; Huelsenbeck, J; Henninger, C; Wartlick, F; Schorr, A; Kaina, B; Fritz, G

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the relevance of signaling mechanisms regulated by the Ras-homologous GTPase Rac1 for survival of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene due to t(9;11)(p21;q23) translocation. Monocytic MLL-AF9 expressing cells (MM6, THP-1) were hypersensitive to both small-molecule inhibitors targeting Rac1 (EHT 1864, NSC 23766) (IC50EHT ~12.5 μM) and lipid lowering drugs (lovastatin, atorvastatin) (IC50Lova ~7.5 μM) as compared to acute myelocytic leukemia (NOMO-1, HL60) and T cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells (IC50EHT >30 μM; IC50Lova >25 μM). Hypersensitivity of monocytic cells following Rac1 inhibition resulted from caspase-driven apoptosis as shown by profound activation of caspase-8,-9,-7,-3 and substantial (~90 %) decrease in protein expression of pro-survival factors (survivin, XIAP, p-Akt). Apoptotic death was preceded by S139-posphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a prototypical surrogate marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, abrogation of Rac1 signaling causes DSBs in acute monocytic leukemia cells harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene, which, together with downregulation of survivin, XIAP and p-Akt, results in massive induction of caspase-driven apoptotic death. Apparently, Rac1 signaling is required for maintaining genetic stability and maintaining survival in specific subtypes of AML. Hence, targeting of Rac1 is considered a promising novel strategy to induce lethality in MLL-AF9 expressing AML. PMID:23624644

  16. Alternative Calculations of Individual Patient Time in Therapeutic Range While Taking Warfarin: Results From the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Daniel E.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Yuan, Zhong; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Günter; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Becker, Richard C.; Hacke, Werner; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban–Once‐daily, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibition Compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation) trial, marked regional differences in control of warfarin anticoagulation, measured as the average individual patient time in the therapeutic range (iTTR) of the international normalized ratio (INR), were associated with longer inter‐INR test intervals. The standard Rosendaal approach can produce biased low estimates of TTR after an appropriate dose change if the follow‐up INR test interval is prolonged. We explored the effect of alternative calculations of TTR that more immediately account for dose changes on regional differences in mean iTTR in the ROCKET AF trial. Methods and Results We used an INR imputation method that accounts for dose change. We compared group mean iTTR values between our dose change–based method with the standard Rosendaal method and determined that the differences between approaches depended on the balance of dose changes that produced in‐range INRs (“corrections”) versus INRs that were out of range in the opposite direction (“overshoots”). In ROCKET AF, the overall mean iTTR of 55.2% (Rosendaal) increased up to 3.1% by using the dose change–based approach, depending on assumptions. However, large inter‐regional differences in anticoagulation control persisted. Conclusions TTR, the standard measure of control of warfarin anticoagulation, depends on imputing daily INR values for the vast majority of follow‐up days. Our TTR calculation method may better reflect the impact of warfarin dose changes than the Rosendaal approach. In the ROCKET AF trial, this dose change–based approach led to a modest increase in overall mean iTTR but did not materially affect the large inter‐regional differences previously reported. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00403767. PMID:25736441

  17. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in relation to hypertension: a subgroup analysis of the J-ROCKET AF trial.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masayasu; Hori, Masatsugu; Tanahashi, Norio; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Goto, Shinya; Izumi, Tohru; Koretsune, Yukihiro; Kajikawa, Mariko; Kato, Masaharu; Ueda, Hitoshi; Iekushi, Kazuma; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Tajiri, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    The majority of the patients enrolled in the rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation (J-ROCKET AF) trial had hypertension. In this subgroup analysis, we investigated differences in the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and warfarin in subjects with and without hypertension. The baseline blood pressure (BP) measurements of patients with hypertension in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups were 130/77 mm Hg and 131/77 mm Hg, respectively, whereas those of patients without hypertension were 123/74 mm Hg and 124/73 mm Hg, respectively. The incidence rates of the principal safety outcomes in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups were 18.39% per year and 16.81% per year, respectively, among patients with baseline hypertension (hazard ratio (HR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-1.45) and 16.71% per year and 15.00% per year, respectively, among patients without hypertension at baseline (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.66-1.97), indicating no significant interaction (P=0.933). The incidence rates of the primary efficacy endpoints in the rivaroxaban group and the warfarin group were 0.54% per year and 2.24% per year, respectively, in patients without baseline hypertension (HR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.03-2.25), and 1.45% per year and 2.71% per year, respectively, in patients with baseline hypertension (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.25-1.16), indicating no significant interaction (P=0.509). In conclusion, the safety and efficacy profile of rivaroxaban was similar to that of warfarin, independent of baseline hypertensive status.

  18. Comparison of international normalized ratio audit parameters in patients enrolled in GARFIELD-AF and treated with vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, David A; Accetta, Gabriele; Haas, Sylvia; Kayani, Gloria; Lucas Luciardi, Hector; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G G; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). We evaluated the agreement between two INR audit parameters, frequency in range (FIR) and proportion of time in the therapeutic range (TTR), using data from a global population of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF, the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF). Among 17 168 patients with 1-year follow-up data available at the time of the analysis, 8445 received VKA therapy (±antiplatelet therapy) at enrolment, and of these patients, 5066 with ≥3 INR readings and for whom both FIR and TTR could be calculated were included in the analysis. In total, 70 905 INRs were analysed. At the patient level, TTR showed higher values than FIR (mean, 56·0% vs 49·8%; median, 59·7% vs 50·0%). Although patient-level FIR and TTR values were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient [95% confidence interval; CI], 0·860 [0·852-0·867]), estimates from individuals showed widespread disagreement and variability (Lin's concordance coefficient [95% CI], 0·829 [0·821-0·837]). The difference between FIR and TTR explained 17·4% of the total variability of measurements. These results suggest that FIR and TTR are not equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:27071942

  19. Comparison of international normalized ratio audit parameters in patients enrolled in GARFIELD-AF and treated with vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fitzmaurice, David A; Accetta, Gabriele; Haas, Sylvia; Kayani, Gloria; Lucas Luciardi, Hector; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Ten Cate, Hugo; Turpie, Alexander G G; Kakkar, Ajay K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) requires monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). We evaluated the agreement between two INR audit parameters, frequency in range (FIR) and proportion of time in the therapeutic range (TTR), using data from a global population of patients with newly diagnosed non-valvular AF, the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF). Among 17 168 patients with 1-year follow-up data available at the time of the analysis, 8445 received VKA therapy (±antiplatelet therapy) at enrolment, and of these patients, 5066 with ≥3 INR readings and for whom both FIR and TTR could be calculated were included in the analysis. In total, 70 905 INRs were analysed. At the patient level, TTR showed higher values than FIR (mean, 56·0% vs 49·8%; median, 59·7% vs 50·0%). Although patient-level FIR and TTR values were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient [95% confidence interval; CI], 0·860 [0·852-0·867]), estimates from individuals showed widespread disagreement and variability (Lin's concordance coefficient [95% CI], 0·829 [0·821-0·837]). The difference between FIR and TTR explained 17·4% of the total variability of measurements. These results suggest that FIR and TTR are not equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably.

  20. The M2 selective antagonist AF-DX 116 shows high affinity for muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal membranes.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; in't Hout, W G; de Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1987-05-01

    We have characterized the muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal and left ventricular membranes using 3H-dexetimide/pirenzepine and 3H-dexetimide/AF-DX 116 competition studies. Pirenzepine exhibited low (M2) affinity binding to both preparations; Kd was 590 nM in left ventricle and 463 nM in trachea. AF-DX 116 exhibited high (M2) affinity binding to left ventricle (Kd = 95.6 nM); in tracheal membranes it bound with high (M2) affinity (Kd = 40.7 nM) to 74% of the receptors and with low (M3) affinity (Kd = 2.26 microM) to 26% of the receptors. It is concluded that bovine tracheal muscle membranes contain a heterogeneous population of muscarine binding sites, the majority having M2 (heart) subtype characteristics and being located on the smooth muscle membranes; a minority having M3 (exocrine gland) subtype characteristics and presumed to be located in submucosal glands. This is the first report of high affinity binding of AF-DX 116 to non-cardiac peripheral muscarine receptors. PMID:3614390

  1. The SRB recovery ship Liberty Star reenters the Hangar AF area at CCAS with a spent SRB used on STS-

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Seen carrying a spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is the solid rocket booster recovery ship Liberty Star as it reenters the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  2. A spent SRB used on STS-87 is lifted in a hoisting slip in Hangar AF at CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A spent solid rocket booster (SRB) from the STS-87 launch on Nov. 19 is lifted in a hoisting slip in the Hangar AF area at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Hangar AF is a building originally used for Project Mercury, the first U.S. manned space program. The SRBs are the largest solid propellant motors ever flown and the first designed for reuse. After a Shuttle is launched, the SRBs are jettisoned at two minutes, seven seconds into the flight. At six minutes and 44 seconds after liftoff, the spent SRBs, weighing about 165,000 lb., have slowed their descent speed to about 62 mph and splashdown takes place in a predetermined area. They are retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by special recovery vessels and returned for refurbishment and eventual reuse on future Shuttle flights. Once at Hangar AF, the SRBs are unloaded onto a hoisting slip and mobile gantry cranes lift them onto tracked dollies where they are safed and undergo their first washing.

  3. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  4. PET2OGS: Algorithms to link the static model of Petrel with the dynamic model of OpenGeoSys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.-H.; Shinn, Y. J.; Park, Y.-C.; Huh, D.-G.; Lee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    A set of three algorithms named PET2OGS is developed to integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys). PET2OGS consists of three sub-algorithms that convert finite difference methods (FDMs) grids to finite element methods (FEMs) grids. The algorithms and the workflow of the integration procedures are described in detail. After the proposed algorithms are tested on a variety of grids both in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, the integrated platform of the static and dynamic models is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. A successful demonstration of the proposed algorithms proved a robust integration of the platform. With some minor modifications of the algorithms in the part of input and output, the proposed algorithms can be extended to integrate different combinations of FDM-based static models and FEM-based dynamic models beyond the example combination in the paper.

  5. Web Operational Status Boards

    2004-04-16

    Web Operational Status Boards (WebOSB)is a web-based application designed to acquire, display, and update highly dynamic status information between multiple users and jurisdictions. WebOSB is able to disseminate real-time status information—support the timely sharing of information—with constant, dynamic updates via personal computers and the Internet between emergency operations centers (EOCs), incident command centers, and to users outside the EOC who need to know the information (hospitals, shelters, schools). The WebOSB application far exceeds outdated information-sharingmore » methods used by emergency workers: whiteboards, Word and Excel documents, or even locality-specific Web sites. WebOSB’s capabilities include the following elements: - Secure access. Multiple users can access information on WebOSB from any personal computer with Internet access and a secure ID. Privileges are use to control access and distribution of status information and to identify users who are authorized to add or edit information. - Simultaneous update. WebOSB provides options for users to add, display, and update dynamic information simultaneously at all locations involved in the emergency management effort, A single status board can be updated from multiple locations enabling shelters and hospitals to post bed availability or list decontamination capability. - On-the-fly modification. Allowing the definition of an existing status board to be modified on-the-fly can be an asset during an emergency, where information requirements can change quickly. The status board designer feature allows an administrator to quickly define, modi,, add to, and implement new status boards in minutes without needing the help of Web designers and computer programmers. - Publisher/subscriber notification. As a subscriber, each user automatically receives notification of any new information relating to specific status boards. The publisher/subscriber feature automatically notified each user of any

  6. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  7. SERMs have substance-specific effects on bone, and these effects are mediated via ERαAF-1 in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Börjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Engdahl, Cecilia; Antal, Maria Cristina; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Carlsten, Hans; Krust, Andrée; Chambon, Pierre; Sjögren, Klara; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Windahl, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    The bone-sparing effect of estrogens is mediated primarily via estrogen receptor (ER)α, which stimulates gene transcription through activation function (AF)-1 and AF-2. The role of ERαAF-1 for the estradiol (E2) effects is tissue specific. The selective ER modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (Ral), lasofoxifene (Las), and bazedoxifene (Bza) can be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. They all reduce the risk for vertebral fractures, whereas Las and partly Bza, but not Ral, reduce the risk for nonvertebral fractures. Here, we have compared the tissue specificity of Ral, Las, and Bza and evaluated the role of ERαAF-1 for the effects of these SERMs, with an emphasis on bone parameters. We treated ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) mice and OVX mice lacking ERαAF-1 (ERαAF-10) with E2, Ral, Las, or Bza. All three SERMs increased trabecular bone mass in the axial skeleton. In the appendicular skeleton, only Las increased the trabecular bone volume/tissue volume and trabecular number, whereas both Ral and Las increased the cortical bone thickness and strength. However, Ral also increased cortical porosity. The three SERMs had only a minor effect on uterine weight. Notably, all evaluated effects of these SERMs were absent in ovx ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, all SERMs had similar effects on axial bone mass. However, the SERMs had slightly different effects on the appendicular skeleton since only Las increased the trabecular bone mass and only Ral increased the cortical porosity. Importantly, all SERM effects require a functional ERαAF-1 in female mice. These results could lead to development of more specific treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:27048997

  8. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  9. Predictors for Stroke and Death in Non-Anticoagulated Asian Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: The Fushimi AF Registry

    PubMed Central

    Hamatani, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Yugo; Esato, Masahiro; Chun, Yeong-Hwa; Tsuji, Hikari; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Abe, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke and death. Data on the predictors for stroke and death in ‘real-world’ AF patients are limited, especially from large prospective Asian cohorts. Methods The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey designed to enroll all AF patients who visited the participating medical institutions in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Follow-up data were available for 3,304 patients (median follow-up period 741 days). We explored the predictors for ‘death, stroke, and systemic embolism (SE)’ during follow-up in 1,541 patients not receiving oral anticoagulants (OAC) at baseline. Results The mean age was 73.1 ± 12.5 years, and 673 (44%) patients were female. The mean CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 1.76 and 3.08, respectively. Cumulative events were as follows: stroke/SE in 61 (4%) and death in 230 (15%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, advanced age (hazard ratio (HR): 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–2.29), underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2) (HR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.25–2.32), previous stroke/SE/transient ischemic attack (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25–2.30), heart failure (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.17–2.15), chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16–2.02), and anemia (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.78–3.28) were independent predictors for death/stroke/SE. Cumulative numbers of these 6 risk predictors could stratify the incidence of death/stroke/SE in patients without OAC, as well as those with OAC in our registry. Conclusions Advanced age, underweight, previous stroke/SE/transient ischemic attack, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and anemia were independently associated with the risk of death/stroke/SE in non-anticoagulated Japanese AF patients. PMID:26540107

  10. Thyroid Disruption in Zebrafish Larvae by Short-Term Exposure to Bisphenol AF.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tianle; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yawen; Tang, Wenhao; Wang, Fuqiang; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is extensively used as a raw material in industry, resulting in its widespread distribution in the aqueous environment. However, the effect of BPAF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis remains unknown. For elucidating the disruptive effects of BPAF on thyroid function and expression of the representative genes along the HPT axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, whole-body total 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (TT3), total 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (TT4), free 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (FT3) and free 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels were examined following 168 h post-fertilization exposure to different BPAF concentrations (0, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L). The results showed that whole-body TT3, TT4, FT3 and FT4 contents decreased significantly with the BPAF treatment, indicating an endocrine disruption of thyroid. The expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone-β and thyroglobulin genes increased after exposing to 50 μg/L BPAF in seven-day-old larvae. The expressions of thyronine deiodinases type 1, type 2 and transthyretin mRNAs were also significantly up-regulated, which were possibly associated with a deterioration of thyroid function. However, slc5a5 gene transcription was significantly down-regulated at 50 μg/L and 500 μg/L BPAF exposure. Furthermore, trα and trβ genes were down-regulated transcriptionally after BPAF exposure. It demonstrates that BPAF exposure triggered thyroid endocrine toxicity by altering the whole-body contents of thyroid hormones and changing the transcription of the genes involved in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. PMID:26501309

  11. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota.

  12. Thyroid Disruption in Zebrafish Larvae by Short-Term Exposure to Bisphenol AF

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tianle; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yawen; Tang, Wenhao; Wang, Fuqiang; Diao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is extensively used as a raw material in industry, resulting in its widespread distribution in the aqueous environment. However, the effect of BPAF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis remains unknown. For elucidating the disruptive effects of BPAF on thyroid function and expression of the representative genes along the HPT axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, whole-body total 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (TT3), total 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine (TT4), free 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (FT3) and free 3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine (FT4) levels were examined following 168 h post-fertilization exposure to different BPAF concentrations (0, 5, 50 and 500 μg/L). The results showed that whole-body TT3, TT4, FT3 and FT4 contents decreased significantly with the BPAF treatment, indicating an endocrine disruption of thyroid. The expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone-β and thyroglobulin genes increased after exposing to 50 μg/L BPAF in seven-day-old larvae. The expressions of thyronine deiodinases type 1, type 2 and transthyretin mRNAs were also significantly up-regulated, which were possibly associated with a deterioration of thyroid function. However, slc5a5 gene transcription was significantly down-regulated at 50 μg/L and 500 μg/L BPAF exposure. Furthermore, trα and trβ genes were down-regulated transcriptionally after BPAF exposure. It demonstrates that BPAF exposure triggered thyroid endocrine toxicity by altering the whole-body contents of thyroid hormones and changing the transcription of the genes involved in the HPT axis in zebrafish larvae. PMID:26501309

  13. Biotransformation of bisphenol AF to its major glucuronide metabolite reduces estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yang, Yunjia; Yang, Yi; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  14. Neuropeptide AF induces anxiety-like and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Telegdy, Gyula; Tanaka, Masaru; Bagosi, Zsolt; Jászberényi, Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the action of neuropeptide AF (NPAF) on anxiety and depression. Only our previous study provides evidence that NPAF induces anxiety-like behavior in rats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the action of NPAF on depression-like behavior and the underlying neurotransmissions in mice. In order to determine whether there are species differences between rats and mice, we have investigated the action of NPAF on anxiety-like behavior in mice as well. A modified forced swimming test (mFST) and an elevated plus maze test (EPMT) were used to investigate the depression and anxiety-related behaviors, respectively. Mice were treated with NPAF 30min prior to the tests. In the mFST, the animals were pretreated with a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a non-selective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine, a mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist, methysergide, a D2/D3/D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin or a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol 30min before the NPAF administration. In the mFST, NPAF decreased the immobility time and increased the climbing and swimming times. This action was reversed completely by methysergide and partially by atropine, whereas cyproheptadine, haloperidol, prazosin and propranolol were ineffective. In the EPMT, NPAF decreased the time spent in the arms (open/open+closed). Our results demonstrate that NPAF induces anti-depressant-like behavior in mice, which is mediated, at least in part, through 5HT2-serotonergic and muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmissions. In addition, the NPAF-induced anxiety is species-independent, since it develops also in mice.

  15. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota. PMID:26957022

  16. Quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using amplicon-fusion-site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The amplification of putative oncogenes is a common finding within the genome of various cancer types. Identification and further targeting of specific junction sites within the sequence of genomic amplicons (amplicon fusion sites, AFS) by PCR (AFS-PCR) is suitable for quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). This approach has recently been developed and described for MYCN amplified neuroblastomas. To compare AFS-PCR directly to routinely used MRD diagnostic strategies, we mapped the amplified genomic regions (ampGR) of an iAMP21-amplicon in high resolution of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Successfully, we established AFS-PCR covering junction sites between ampGR within the iAMP21-amplicon. Quantification of MRD by AFS-PCR was directly comparable to IgH/TCR based real time quantitative PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis in consecutive bone marrow (BM) specimens. Our data give an additional proof of concept of AFS-PCR for quantification of MRD. The method could be taken into account for ALL patients with genomic amplifications as alternative MRD diagnostic, if no or qualitatively poor Ig/TCR-PCRs are available. PMID:23210797

  17. Letter to the Editor: H-1, C-13 and N-15 Assignments for the Archaeglobus fulgidis Protein AF2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Robert; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Ma, LiChung; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano

    2004-09-01

    The Human genome project promises to provide an unprecedented wealth of information on cell biology, development, evolution and physiology. Translating this immense increase in genomic information into advances in medicine and human health requires a concerted effort to explore and investigate the structure and molecular activity for the vast amount of proteins in the Human proteome that lack any such explicit experimental information. Structural genomics is providing a means to determine the molecular and cellular function of these proteins by characterizing the complete range of protein folds (Montelione, 2001). By annotating sequence information with a protein structure, it is sometimes possible to decipher the biochemical activity of hypothetical proteins from structural similarity and the conservation of spatial arrangement of active site residues. Homology can often be inferred by structural similarity even in the absence of recognizable sequence similarity, and can sometimes be used to identify functional relationships between distantly related proteins. Determining an experimental structure for each protein in a proteome is currently impractical because of the significant time commitment and resources required by X-ray and NMR. Therefore, the current paradigm of structural genomics is to determine a representative structure for each cluster of homologous protein domain sequences that lack similarity to a protein domain with a known structure. In this manner, comparative modeling using a single experimental structure can provide approximate but useful 3D structural information for an entire protein domain family. The Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG; www.nesg.org) is a pilot project funded by the National Institutes of Health Protein Structure Initiative, focusing on proteins from eukaryotic model organisms including humans. The thermophillic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis AF2095 protein is an example of a protein of unknown biological function

  18. Refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay P; Agarwal, Shubhi; Faulkner, M

    2014-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED), i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits. PMID:24791086

  19. Physiological cardiac pacing: Current status.

    PubMed

    Das, Asit; Kahali, Dhiman

    2016-01-01

    Adverse hemodynamics of right ventricular (RV) pacing is a well-known fact. It was believed to be the result of atrio-ventricular (AV) dyssynchrony and sequential pacing of the atrium and ventricle may solve these problems. However, despite maintenance of AV synchrony, the dual chamber pacemakers in different trials have failed to show its superiority over single chamber RV apical pacing in terms of death, progression of heart failure, and atrial fibrillation (AF). As a consequence, investigators searched for alternate pacing sites with a more physiological activation pattern and better hemodynamics. Direct His bundle pacing and Para-Hisian pacing are the most physiological ventricular pacing sites. But, this is technically difficult. Ventricular septal pacing compared to apical pacing results in a shorter electrical activation delay and consequently less mechanical dyssynchrony. But, the study results are heterogeneous. Selective site atria pacing (atrial septal) is useful for patients with atrial conduction disorders in prevention of AF. PMID:27543481

  20. Status of the HITRAN and HITEMP databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, L. S.; Gordon, I. E.

    2014-06-01

    HITRAN20121 is the current official release of the database. In HITRAN2012, the line-by-line lists for almost all of the 42 HITRAN molecules were updated with respect to the previous compilation (HITRAN20082). The scope of the updates ranges from corrections to the representations of quantum assignments to complete replacements of the lists and introduction of new isotopologues. Five new molecules and their isotopologues were added to the database, namely: HC3N, C4H2, H2, CS and SO3. Some of the most important updates, relevant to the studies of the terrestrial atmosphere such as for water vapor, CO2, molecular oxygen, etc, will be presented in more detail. Examples of definite improvements of the quality and extent of the spectral parameters will be demonstrated with respect to applications. Some remaining problems will also be shown. In addition, new as well as improved sets of cross-section data have been added. Finally, collision-induced absorption (CIA) parameters were introduced into the database for the first time, and this initiative already has received very positive feedback from the community. The immediate plans for updates to the existing spectral parameters will be presented. The status and future plans for the HITEMP database3 will also be discussed. The project for adapting a relational structure of the database with a dynamic and user-friendly web interface will be described. The new structure will enable introduction of a generalized line-shape formalism and parameters as well as many other advantages. The HITRAN database is supported by the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) under the grant NNX11AF91G, and by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres program under grant NNX13AI59G.

  1. Status of the Node 3 Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Cloud, Dale; Bedard, Jake

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is providing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for flight on the International Space Station's (ISS) Node 3 element. The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), while the UPA and PSM are being designed and manufactured in-house by MSFC. The assemblies are completing the manufacturing phase and are in various stages of ORU and system level testing, to be followed by integration into the flight racks. This paper gives a current status, along with technical challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  2. Status of the International Space Station Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Cloud, Dale

    2005-01-01

    NASA is developing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS). The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc., while the UPA and PSM are developed in- house by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The assemblies have completed the manufacturing phase and are in various stages of testing and integration into the flight racks. This paper summarizes the status as of April 2005 and describes some of the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  3. Status of the Node 3 Regenerative Environmental Cpntrol& Life Support System Water Recovery & Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is providing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for flight on the lnternational Space Station s (ISS) Node 3 element. The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems lnternational (HSSSI), while the UPA and PSM are being designed and manufactured in-house by MSFC. The assemblies are currently in the manufacturing and test phase and are to be completed and integrated into flight racks this year. This paper gives an overview of the technologies and system designs, technical challenges encountered and solved, and the current status.

  4. Communication about social status.

    PubMed

    Fernald, Russell D

    2014-10-01

    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species and serve to organize social systems. Social and sexual status is communicated directly among animals via sensory systems evolved in the particular species. Such signals may be chemical, visual, auditory, postural or a combination of signals. In most species, status is initially established through physical conflict between individuals that leads to ritualized conflict or threats, reducing possibly dangerous results of fighting. Many of the status signals contain other information, as in some bird species that communicate both the size of their group and their individual rank vocally. Recent studies have shown that scent signaling among hyenas of east Africa is unique, being produced by fermentative, odor producing bacteria residing in the scent glands. PMID:24793315

  5. System status display evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1988-01-01

    The System Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the crew with an enhanced capability for monitoring and managing the aircraft systems. A flight simulation in a fixed base cockpit simulator was used to evaluate alternative design concepts for this display system. The alternative concepts included pictorial versus alphanumeric text formats, multifunction versus dedicated controls, and integration of the procedures with the system status information versus paper checklists. Twelve pilots manually flew approach patterns with the different concepts. System malfunctions occurred which required the pilots to respond to the alert by reconfiguring the system. The pictorial display, the multifunction control interfaces collocated with the system display, and the procedures integrated with the status information all had shorter event processing times and lower subjective workloads.

  6. COMMUNICATION ABOUT SOCIAL STATUS

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species and serve to organize social systems. Social and sexual status is communicated directly among animals via sensory systems evolved in the particular species. Such signals may be chemical, visual, auditory, postural or a combination of signals. In most species, status is initially established through physical conflict between individuals that leads to ritualized conflict or threats, reducing possibly dangerous results of fighting. Many of the status signals contain other information, as in some bird species that communicate both the size of their group and their individual rank vocally. Recent studies have shown that scent signaling among hyenas of east Africa is unique, being produced by fermentative, odor producing bacteria residing in the scent glands. PMID:24793315

  7. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  9. Iron status of vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Craig, W J

    1994-05-01

    An appropriately planned well-balanced vegetarian diet is compatible with an adequate iron status. Although the iron stores of vegetarians may be reduced, the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia in vegetarians is not significantly different from that in omnivores. Restrictive vegetarian diets (eg, macrobiotic) are associated with more widespread iron-deficiency anemia. Western vegetarians who consume a variety of foods have a better iron status than do those in developing countries who consume a limited diet based on unleavened, unrefined cereals. Whereas phytates, polyphenolics, and other plant constituents found in vegetarian diets inhibit nonheme-iron absorption, vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids facilitate nonheme-iron absorption.

  10. Physical Characteristics of Asteroid-like Comet Nucleus C/2001 OG108 (LONEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Pravec, P.; French, L. M.; Farnham, T. L.; Gaffey, M. J.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kusnirak, P.; Sarounova, L.; Sheppard, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    For many years several investigators have suggested that some portion of the near-Earth asteroid population may actually be extinct cometary nuclei. Evidence used to support these hypotheses was based on: observations of asteroid orbits and associated meteor showers (e.g. 3200 Phaethon and the Geminid meteor shower); low activity of short period comet nuclei, which implied nonvolatile surface crusts (e.g. Neujmin 1, Arend-Rigaux); and detections of transient cometary activity in some near-Earth asteroids (e.g. 4015 Wilson-Harrington). Recent investigations have suggested that approximately 5-10% of the near- Earth asteroid population may be extinct comets. However if members of the near-Earth asteroid population are extinct cometary nuclei, then there should be some objects within this population that are near their final stages of evolution and so should demonstrate only low levels of activity. The recent detections of coma from near-Earth object 2001 OG108 have renewed interest in this possible comet-asteroid connection. This paper presents the first high quality ground-based near-infrared reflectance spectrum of a comet nucleus combined with detailed lightcurve and albedo measurements.

  11. Mexico: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Mexico begins with an overview of language distribution among the population, mono- and multilingualism, changes in patterns of usage between the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and linguistic issues related to assimilation of the Indian population and the role and philosophy of the Instituto Nacional…

  12. Glueballs: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Scharre, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is expected from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) that glueballs, bound states which contain gluons but no valence quarks, should exist. To date, no conclusive evidence for glueballs has been presented. After a brief review of the expected properties and experimental signatures of glueballs the status of some glueball candidate states are discussed.

  13. Status of TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Yorikiyo

    1988-02-01

    Present status of the TRISTAN accelerator1) and its three major detectors2), TOPAZ, AMY and VENUS is described. The colliding e+e- beam started operation in November 1986. During the period from Jan. 28-Feb. 19. VENUS and AMY have accumulated integrated lumunosity of 93 nb-1 and 52 nb-1 respectively. Some of their analysis results are given.

  14. Status of HRD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on the status of human resource development (HRD) research moderated by Barry Johansen at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "An Exploration of the Type of Research Appearing in the AHRD Conference Proceedings" (David E. Arnold) reviews and classifies the…

  15. Angola: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in Angola begins with an overview of the usage and distribution of Portuguese as the official language, and the four most significant native languages and dialects spoken there: Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo, and Lunda-Chokwe. The introduction of Spanish through Cuban trainers, teachers, and military advisors…

  16. Status, Numbers and Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model of social influence in n-person groups. We argue that disagreement between group members introduces uncertainty into the social situation, and this uncertainty motivates people to use status characteristics to evaluate the merits of a particular opinion. Our model takes the numerical distribution of opinions and the…

  17. Chad: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Chad begins with an overview of the usage patterns of four languages. They include: French, designated the official language as a practical necessity; Chadian Arabic and Sara, important popularly spoken languages in their respective regions; and Toubou, a less prevalent language but one that is spoken by…

  18. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  19. TRU relocation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, R.M.

    1997-01-20

    To meet an internal milestone, 257 containers identified as contact- handled transuranic waste are being relocated from uncovered drum modules in the Low-Level Burial Grounds into covered facilities. The project is not yet complete. This report discusses the project and its status as of December 31, 1996.

  20. Somalia: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Somalia begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Somali, the official language, and three languages previously used officially: English, Italian, and Arabic. The cultural context that for many years has supported the usage of a single native language for communication and administration is also…

  1. NASA Armstrong Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Armstrong (formerly Dryden) Flight Research Center continues it's legacy of exciting work in the area of dynamics and control of advanced vehicle concepts. This status presentation highlights the research and technology development that Armstrong's Control and Dynamics branch is performing in the areas of Control of Flexible Structures and Automated Cooperative Trajectories.

  2. Health Is a Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, George F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the terms "personal health" and "medical care" are used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Health is a personal responsibility, medicine is a drug given as a form of treatment. A new definition of health is suggested that treats health as a dynamic status. (DF)

  3. Somali. Materials Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language/Area Reference Center.

    The materials status report for Somali, the official language of Somalia, is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching various languages to English speakers. The report consists of: (1) a brief narrative description of Somali, the areas where it is spoken, its major…

  4. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the status of several Dryden projects. They are: the Ikhana Project, development of the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System, the development of a C-20A Precision Autopilot for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR), the development of the X-48B Blended Wing Body aircraft, and development of Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA).

  5. Malawi: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Malawi begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of English (the official language) and the native Bantu languages: Chichewa or Nyanja (Chinyanja), the language used by half the population; and three other Bantu languages also used there--Lomwe, Yao, and Tumbuka. The social situation favoring…

  6. VERITAS: status c.2005

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, T. C.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I. H.; Boyle, P. J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bryum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Calle Perez, I. de la; Dowdall, C.; Dowkontt, P.; Duke, C.; Ergin, T.

    2006-07-11

    VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System), is one of a new generation of TeV gamma-ray observatories. The current status of its construction is described here. The first two telescopes and cameras have been completed and meet the design specifications; the full array of four telescopes could be operational by the end of 2006.

  7. The Status of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Various factors related to the decline in social status by teachers are examined, with special consideration given to reasons for this decline in India. It is suggested that the community, government, and educational administrators must bring about changes in attitudes and relationships that affect public opinion of teachers. (LBH)

  8. Tanzania: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Tanzania begins with an overview of the three levels of language use: (1) Swahili, the national and official language, used in public life; (2) English, used in international affairs and in technical and intellectual matters; and (3) the over 120 vernacular languages used in family and religious life,…

  9. The status of GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Wink, R.; The GALLEX Collaboration

    1991-12-31

    We describe the status of G A L L E X solar neutrino experiment until the end of June 1991. Since June 1990 31 desorptions with the full equipment have been done. The results of the first 27 desorptions are presented. We also describe our low level proportional counters including the counting system.

  10. The status of GALLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Wink, R. )

    1991-01-01

    We describe the status of G A L L E X solar neutrino experiment until the end of June 1991. Since June 1990 31 desorptions with the full equipment have been done. The results of the first 27 desorptions are presented. We also describe our low level proportional counters including the counting system.

  11. Status and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Utevsky, Amanda V.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Social hierarchy is a fact of life for many animals. Navigating social hierarchy requires understanding one's own status relative to others and behaving accordingly, while achieving higher status may call upon cunning and strategic thinking. The neural mechanisms mediating social status have become increasingly well understood in invertebrates and model organisms like fish and mice but until recently have remained more opaque in humans and other primates. In a new study in this issue, Noonan and colleagues explore the neural correlates of social rank in macaques. Using both structural and functional brain imaging, they found neural changes associated with individual monkeys' social status, including alterations in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and brainstem—areas previously implicated in dominance-related behavior in other vertebrates. A separate but related network in the temporal and prefrontal cortex appears to mediate more cognitive aspects of strategic social behavior. These findings begin to delineate the neural circuits that enable us to navigate our own social worlds. A major remaining challenge is identifying how these networks contribute functionally to our social lives, which may open new avenues for developing innovative treatments for social disorders. PMID:25181006

  12. Rivaroxaban in the Prevention of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Implications of the ROCKET AF Trial and Its Subanalyses.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ryan J; Amerena, John V

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly common cause of stroke and systemic embolism. While warfarin has been the mainstay of stroke prevention in patients with AF, newer novel oral anticoagulant medications are now available. Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor with a rapid onset and offset after oral administration, offers potential advantages over warfarin, predominantly due to its predictable pharmacokinetics across wide patient populations. It requires no coagulation monitoring, and only two different doses are needed (20 mg daily for patients with normal renal function and 15 mg daily in those with reduced renal function). A large randomized trial (ROCKET AF) has shown non-inferiority to warfarin for preventing stroke or systemic embolism in the per-protocol population and superiority to warfarin in the on-treatment safety population. Several subanalyses confirm that the treatment effect of rivaroxaban is consistent across different patient subgroups, including those with reduced renal function. The tolerability of rivaroxaban appears similar to that of warfarin, with comparable overall bleeding rates in clinical trials. In ROCKET AF, significantly lower rates of fatal and intracranial bleeding were seen with rivaroxaban, while lower rates of gastrointestinal bleeding were seen with warfarin. Important contraindications to rivaroxaban include valvular AF, the presence of a prosthetic valve (mechanical or bioprosthetic) or valve repair, the need for concurrent dual antiplatelet therapy, and creatinine clearance <30 ml/min. Once-daily dosing and the lack of coagulation monitoring may increase utilization and adherence compared with warfarin, potentially decreasing the large burden of care associated with stroke secondary to AF. Overall, rivaroxaban offers a useful alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF.

  13. Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center.

    PubMed

    Kolko, David J; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Gully, Kevin J

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for child physical abuse and family aggression/conflict that was included in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's initial EBT dissemination efforts in 2002. Seven practitioners participated in a year-long learning collaborative in AF-CBT and in similar training programs for 4 other EBTs. The agency's routine data collection system was used to document the clinical and adjustment outcomes of 52 families presenting with a physically abused child who received their services between 2 and 5 years after the AF-CBT training had ended. Measures of the use of all 5 EBTs documented their frequency, internal consistency, and intercorrelations. Controlling for the unique content of the other four EBTs, the amount of AF-CBT Abuse-specific content delivered was related to improvements on standardized parent rating scales (i.e., child externalizing behavior, anger, anxiety, social competence) and both parent and clinician ratings of the child's adjustment at discharge (i.e., child more safe, less scared/sad, more appropriate with peers). The amount of AF-CBT General content was related to a few discharge ratings (better child prognosis, helpfulness to parents). These novel data provide suggestive evidence for the sustainability and clinical benefits of AF-CBT in an existing community clinic serving physically abused children and their families, and are discussed in the context of key developments in the treatment model and dissemination literature.

  14. Evaluation of the sustainability and clinical outcome of alternatives for families: A cognitive-behavioral therapy (AF-CBT) in a child protection center

    PubMed Central

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; Gully, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the sustainability and outcome of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT) as delivered by practitioners in a community-based child protection program who had received training in the model several years earlier. Formerly described as Abuse-Focused CBT, AF-CBT is an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for child physical abuse and family aggression/conflict that was included in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network’s initial EBT dissemination efforts in 2002. Seven practitioners participated in a year-long Learning Collaborative in AF-CBT and in similar training programs for 4 other EBTs. The agency’s routine data collection system was used to document the clinical and adjustment outcomes of 52 families presenting with a physically abused child who received their services between 2 and 5 years after the AF-CBT training had ended. Measures of the use of all 5 EBTs documented their frequency, internal consistency, and intercorrelations. Controlling for the unique content of the other four EBTs, the amount of AF-CBT Abuse-specific content delivered was related to improvements on standardized parent rating scales (i.e., child externalizing behavior, anger, anxiety, social competence) and both parent and clinician ratings of the child’s adjustment at discharge (i.e., child more safe, less scared/sad, more appropriate with peers). The amount of AF-CBT General content was related to a few discharge ratings (better child prognosis, helpfulness to parents). These novel data provide suggestive evidence for the sustainability and clinical benefits of AF-CBT in an existing community clinic serving physically abused children and their families, and are discussed in the context of key developments in the treatment model and dissemination literature. PMID:21354619

  15. Single-Unit Activity during Natural Vision: Diversity, Consistency, and Spatial Sensitivity among AF Face Patch Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Brian E.; Elnaiem, Heba D.; Kurnikova, Anastasia I.; Leopold, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene. PMID:25855170

  16. The ultraviolet-bright, slowly declining transient PS1-11af as a partial tidal disruption event

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Gezari, S.; Rest, A.; Riess, A. G.; Chomiuk, L.; Huber, M. E.; Lawrence, A.; and others

    2014-01-01

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ∼0.002 M {sub ☉}, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  17. Photometric Properties for Selected Algol-type Binaries. VIII. The Triple Systems DI Peg and AF Gem Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Yang, Ying; Li, Shu-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are fp = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and fp = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O-C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P 3 = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P 4 = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M in = 0.095 M ⊙ and M out = 0.170 M ⊙, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary.

  18. The Ultraviolet-bright, Slowly Declining Transient PS1-11af as a Partial Tidal Disruption Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Gezari, S.; Zauderer, B. A.; Rest, A.; Chomiuk, L.; Kamble, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Czekala, I.; Dittmann, J.; Drout, M.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.; Huber, M. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lawrence, A.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Riess, A. G.; Roth, K. C.; Sanders, N. E.; Scolnic, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Martin, D. C.; Neill, J. D.; Price, P. A.; Wainscoat, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Pan-STARRS1 discovery of the long-lived and blue transient PS1-11af, which was also detected by Galaxy Evolution Explorer with coordinated observations in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) band. PS1-11af is associated with the nucleus of an early type galaxy at redshift z = 0.4046 that exhibits no evidence for star formation or active galactic nucleus activity. Four epochs of spectroscopy reveal a pair of transient broad absorption features in the UV on otherwise featureless spectra. Despite the superficial similarity of these features to P-Cygni absorptions of supernovae (SNe), we conclude that PS1-11af is not consistent with the properties of known types of SNe. Blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution are inconsistent with the cooling, expanding ejecta of a SN, and the velocities of the absorption features are too high to represent material in homologous expansion near a SN photosphere. However, the constant blue colors and slow evolution of the luminosity are similar to previous optically selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The shape of the optical light curve is consistent with models for TDEs, but the minimum accreted mass necessary to power the observed luminosity is only ~0.002 M ⊙, which points to a partial disruption model. A full disruption model predicts higher bolometric luminosities, which would require most of the radiation to be emitted in a separate component at high energies where we lack observations. In addition, the observed temperature is lower than that predicted by pure accretion disk models for TDEs and requires reprocessing to a constant, lower temperature. Three deep non-detections in the radio with the Very Large Array over the first two years after the event set strict limits on the production of any relativistic outflow comparable to Swift J1644+57, even if off-axis.

  19. Photometric properties for selected algol-type binaries. VIII. The triple systems DI Peg and AF Gem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Shu-Zheng; Yang, Ying E-mail: yangyg@chnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are f{sub p} = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and f{sub p} = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O–C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P {sub 3} = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P {sub 4} = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M {sub in} = 0.095 M {sub ☉} and M {sub out} = 0.170 M {sub ☉}, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary.

  20. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-01

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene.

  1. Catalytic soman scavenging by Y337A/F338A acetylcholinesterase mutant assisted with novel site-directed aldoximes

    PubMed Central

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Hrvat, Nikolina Maček; Katalinić, Maja; Sit, Rakesh K.; Paradyse, Alexander; Žunec, Suzana; Musilek, Kamil; Fokin, Valery V.; Taylor, Palmer; Radić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to the nerve agent soman is difficult to treat due to the rapid dealkylation of soman-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) conjugate known as aging. Oxime antidotes commonly used to reactivate organophosphate inhibited AChE are ineffective against soman, while the efficacy of the recommended nerve agent bioscavenger butyrylcholinesterase is limited by strictly stoichiometric scavenging. To overcome this limitation, we tested ex vivo, in human blood, and in vivo, in soman exposed mice, the capacity of aging-resistant human AChE mutant Y337A/F338A in combination with oxime HI-6 to act as a catalytic bioscavenger of soman. HI-6 was previously shown in vitro to efficiently reactivate this mutant upon soman, as well as VX, cyclosarin, sarin and paraoxon inhibition. We here demonstrate that ex vivo, in whole human blood, 1 μM soman was detoxified within 30 minutes when supplemented with 0.5 μM Y337A/F338A AChE and 100 μM HI-6. This combination was further tested in vivo. Catalytic scavenging of soman in mice improved the therapeutic outcome and resulted in the delayed onset of toxicity symptoms. Furthermore, in a preliminary in vitro screen we identified an even more efficacious oxime than HI-6, in a series of forty-two pyridinium aldoximes, and five imidazole 2-aldoxime N-propyl pyridinium derivatives. One of the later imidazole aldoximes, RS-170B, was a 2–3 –fold more effective reactivator of Y337A/F338A AChE than HI-6 due to the smaller imidazole ring, as indicated by computational molecular models, that affords a more productive angle of nucleophilic attack. PMID:25835984

  2. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-01

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene. PMID:25855170

  3. Three enzymatically active neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum strain Af84: BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Baudys, Jakub; Smith, Theresa J; Smith, Leonard A; Barr, John R

    2014-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by various species of clostridia and are potent neurotoxins which cause the disease botulism, by cleaving proteins needed for successful nerve transmission. There are currently seven confirmed serotypes of BoNTs, labeled A-G, and toxin-producing clostridia typically only produce one serotype of BoNT. There are a few strains (bivalent strains) which are known to produce more than one serotype of BoNT, producing either both BoNT/A and /B, BoNT/A and /F, or BoNT/B and /F, designated as Ab, Ba, Af, or Bf. Recently, it was reported that Clostridium botulinum strain Af84 has three neurotoxin gene clusters: bont/A2, bont/F4, and bont/F5. This was the first report of a clostridial organism containing more than two neurotoxin gene clusters. Using a mass spectrometry based proteomics approach, we report here that all three neurotoxins, BoNT/A2, /F4, and /F5, are produced by C. botulinum Af84. Label free MS(E) quantification of the three toxins indicated that toxin composition is 88% BoNT/A2, 1% BoNT/F4, and 11% BoNT/F5. The enzymatic activity of all three neurotoxins was assessed by examining the enzymatic activity of the neurotoxins upon peptide substrates, which mimic the toxins' natural targets, and monitoring cleavage of the substrates by mass spectrometry. We determined that all three neurotoxins are enzymatically active. This is the first report of three enzymatically active neurotoxins produced in a single strain of Clostridium botulinum.

  4. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4–14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140–493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3’-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50–65% and 60–75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259–343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity. PMID:27736869

  5. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95°C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling

  6. The PZP Domain of AF10 Senses Unmodified H3K27 to Regulate DOT1L-Mediated Methylation of H3K79.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoudeng; Yang, Ze; Wilkinson, Alex W; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Sidoli, Simone; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D; Garcia, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Scott A; Patel, Dinshaw J; Gozani, Or

    2015-10-15

    AF10, a DOT1L cofactor, is required for H3K79 methylation and cooperates with DOT1L in leukemogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which AF10 regulates DOT1L-mediated H3K79 methylation is not clear. Here we report that AF10 contains a "reader" domain that couples unmodified H3K27 recognition to H3K79 methylation. An AF10 region consisting of a PHD finger-Zn knuckle-PHD finger (PZP) folds into a single module that recognizes amino acids 22-27 of H3, and this interaction is abrogated by H3K27 modification. Structural studies reveal that H3 binding triggers rearrangement of the PZP module to form an H3(22-27)-accommodating channel and that the unmodified H3K27 side chain is encased in a compact hydrogen-bond acceptor-lined cage. In cells, PZP recognition of H3 is required for H3K79 dimethylation, expression of DOT1L-target genes, and proliferation of DOT1L-addicted leukemic cells. Together, our results uncover a pivotal role for H3K27-via readout by the AF10 PZP domain-in regulating the cancer-associated enzyme DOT1L.

  7. Atg5-dependent autophagy contributes to the development of acute myeloid leukemia in an MLL-AF9-driven mouse model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Longgui; Atkinson, Jennifer M; Claxton, David F; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hierarchical hematopoietic malignancy originating from leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of AML as well as contribute to chemotherapy response. Here we employ a mouse model of AML expressing the fusion oncogene MLL-AF9 and explore the effects of Atg5 deletion, a key autophagy protein, on the malignant transformation and progression of AML. Consistent with a transient decrease in colony-forming potential in vitro, the in vivo deletion of Atg5 in MLL-AF9-transduced bone marrow cells during primary transplantation prolonged the survival of recipient mice, suggesting that autophagy has a role in MLL-AF9-driven leukemia initiation. In contrast, deletion of Atg5 in malignant AML cells during secondary transplantation did not influence the survival or chemotherapeutic response of leukemic mice. Interestingly, autophagy was found to be involved in the survival of differentiated myeloid cells originating from MLL-AF9-driven LSCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Atg5-dependent autophagy may contribute to the development but not chemotherapy sensitivity of murine AML induced by MLL-AF9. PMID:27607576

  8. Atg5-dependent autophagy contributes to the development of acute myeloid leukemia in an MLL-AF9-driven mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Longgui; Atkinson, Jennifer M; Claxton, David F; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hierarchical hematopoietic malignancy originating from leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of AML as well as contribute to chemotherapy response. Here we employ a mouse model of AML expressing the fusion oncogene MLL-AF9 and explore the effects of Atg5 deletion, a key autophagy protein, on the malignant transformation and progression of AML. Consistent with a transient decrease in colony-forming potential in vitro, the in vivo deletion of Atg5 in MLL-AF9-transduced bone marrow cells during primary transplantation prolonged the survival of recipient mice, suggesting that autophagy has a role in MLL-AF9-driven leukemia initiation. In contrast, deletion of Atg5 in malignant AML cells during secondary transplantation did not influence the survival or chemotherapeutic response of leukemic mice. Interestingly, autophagy was found to be involved in the survival of differentiated myeloid cells originating from MLL-AF9-driven LSCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Atg5-dependent autophagy may contribute to the development but not chemotherapy sensitivity of murine AML induced by MLL-AF9. PMID:27607576

  9. Health status of newcomers.

    PubMed

    Matuk, L C

    1996-01-01

    This article presents and discusses findings on the health status of newcomers residing in Windsor, Ontario. The data are part of a larger study, which was based on the Ontario Health Survey's questionnaire. Data were collected from 548 newcomers through home visits, focus groups, mail surveys, and telephone interviews. Descriptive multivariate analyses focused on main areas in newcomers' physical and mental health status and their access to health services. The findings identified that most newcomers do not have acute, life-threatening physical problems or chronic illness. They do not experience major problems with access to health care or activity limitations. Men are happier, more satisfied with their health, and less stressed than women. This study has implications for adoption of sensitive transcultural approaches to promote newcomers' health. Special challenges lie in women's health and mental health.

  10. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  11. Present Status of Venusvenus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Shojiro

    The TRISTAN e+e- collider came into operation in the last October. The first beam collision was confirmed with the VENUS detector on November 19, '86. Then we have observed 56 Bhabha events and 16 hadronic events for the integrated luminosity of 93 nb-1 at √ {s} = 50 GeV. R-value obtained by a preliminary quick analysis is 5.7±1.6. Here we report the present status and the results of the VENUS experiment.

  12. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  13. Electronic Status Board

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Clinton; Thatcher, Kyle Bryan; Andrew, Terence; Edward, William

    2004-06-02

    This software was developed to post real-time process status and building conditions to operators, system engineers, system managers, and all support personnel. Data input is via operator console, strategically located throughout the facility, or by electronic rounds tablet. The system requires a person to log in with a unique user id and password to edit data. Viewing system status does not require log in and can be done from any desktop location running FileMaker. Once logged into the system, all new records saved are stamped with date, time and user name, and a historical copy is created that can be brought up to review status. There is no limitation to the amount of records that can be saved in the historical databases. The system will flag all out of limit conditions on the screen and enter that record on a turnover summery page which displays only flagged items. System conditions are displayed on a plasma display which scrolls through the various system condition screens. The system also shows floor plans that reflect specific building radiological conditions which aides in pre job briefings to show all hazards to personnel entering specific locations. The input screen is displayed on a second standard computer monitor connected to the input PC. There are several popup screens that require user intervention to ensure that the user wants to edit the data, is editing the appropriate sytem, and if they want to continue to stay logged into the system. Each workstation is connected to a Uninterrupted Power Supply which will shut each system down safely in a power failure. The server is configured to print out current status upon notification from the UPS that power has failed. The system also has a video input card which is connected to a DVD/VCR which shows safety meetings, and images taken from a digital camera used to show specific locations/items for pre-job briefings.

  14. NASA Dryden Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    NASA Dryden has been engaged in exciting work that will enable lighter weight and more fuel efficient vehicles through advanced control and dynamics technologies. The main areas of emphasis are Enabling Light-weight Flexible Structures, real time control surface optimization for fuel efficiency and autonomous formation flight. This presentation provides a description of the current and upcoming work in these areas. Additionally, status is provided Dryden's work on HTV-2.

  15. Status of the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1986-05-01

    The goals of the SLAC Linear Collider, SLC, are to develop the techniques of linear colliders and to do physics at and slightly above the energy necessary to produce the Z/sup 0/. A short review is given of the physics goals of the SLC, followed by the status of the SLC and its detectors. Plans for accelerating polarized electrons at SLC are also discussed. 6 figs. (LEW)

  16. Status of fusion maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission.

  17. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  18. Electronic Status Board

    2004-06-02

    This software was developed to post real-time process status and building conditions to operators, system engineers, system managers, and all support personnel. Data input is via operator console, strategically located throughout the facility, or by electronic rounds tablet. The system requires a person to log in with a unique user id and password to edit data. Viewing system status does not require log in and can be done from any desktop location running FileMaker. Oncemore » logged into the system, all new records saved are stamped with date, time and user name, and a historical copy is created that can be brought up to review status. There is no limitation to the amount of records that can be saved in the historical databases. The system will flag all out of limit conditions on the screen and enter that record on a turnover summery page which displays only flagged items. System conditions are displayed on a plasma display which scrolls through the various system condition screens. The system also shows floor plans that reflect specific building radiological conditions which aides in pre job briefings to show all hazards to personnel entering specific locations. The input screen is displayed on a second standard computer monitor connected to the input PC. There are several popup screens that require user intervention to ensure that the user wants to edit the data, is editing the appropriate sytem, and if they want to continue to stay logged into the system. Each workstation is connected to a Uninterrupted Power Supply which will shut each system down safely in a power failure. The server is configured to print out current status upon notification from the UPS that power has failed. The system also has a video input card which is connected to a DVD/VCR which shows safety meetings, and images taken from a digital camera used to show specific locations/items for pre-job briefings.« less

  19. System status display information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, L. G.; Erickson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The system Status Display is an electronic display system which provides the flight crew with enhanced capabilities for monitoring and managing aircraft systems. Guidelines for the design of the electronic system displays were established. The technical approach involved the application of a system engineering approach to the design of candidate displays and the evaluation of a Hernative concepts by part-task simulation. The system engineering and selection of candidate displays are covered.

  20. Comparing the Disinfecting Efficacies of Micro 10, Deconex, Alprocid and Microzid AF on the Microorganisms on Radiographic Equipments

    PubMed Central

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Zandi, Hengameh; Mohammadi, Zahed; Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh; Behniafar, Behnaz

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims The exposure and processing of dental radiographs are not routinely associated with the spatter of blood or saliva; however, infection control is still an issue resulting from contaminated equipment, supplies, film packets or cassettes. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of four commercially available disinfectants on microorganisms present on the equipment of radiology department. Materials and methods Samples from twelve sites of the radiology department were collected using a sterile swab smeared with normal saline, which was then dipped in a test tube. Experimental surfaces were then disinfected by the spray-wipe-spray method using one of Micro 10, Deconex, Alprocid or Microzid AF disinfectants, followed by resampling. The samples were subsequently cultured on blood agar and EMB plates and the colonies were counted. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests. For statistical analysis, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. Results Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci had the highest and Lactobacillus spp. had the lowest prevalence before disinfection. There were significant differences between the cfu/mL of bacteria before and after disinfection with any of the four disinfectant solutions. There was a significant difference between efficacy of Deconex and Alprocid (P = 0.014), Deconex and Microzid AF (P = 0.001), and Deconex and Micro 10 (P = 0.001). Conclusion According to the results, Deconex has the highest disinfectant efficacy compared to other solutions. PMID:23289058

  1. Comparison of the exact thermodynamics of the AF Blume-Emery-Grifiths and of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa Silva, E. V.; Thomaz, M. T.

    2016-11-01

    We study in detail the thermodynamics of the anti-ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths (AF BEG) model in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. Its thermodynamics is derived from the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the model, valid for T > 0. Numerical simulations of this model on a periodic space chain with 10 sites (N=10) yield the energy spectra of the model at K/J = 2 for D/J = 1 and D/J = 2, thus helping us compare, for a broad range of temperature, how some (per site) thermodynamic functions with the same value of K/J but distinct values of D/J behave, namely: the z-component of the magnetization, the specific heat and the entropy. These thermodynamic functions of the AF BEG model at K/|J| = 2 are compared to those of the spin-1 ferromagnetic Ising model with D/|J| > 1.5, for which the T=0 phase diagrams of both models are identical. This comparison is done in a large interval of temperature.

  2. Linear quadratic game and non-cooperative predictive methods for potential application to modelling driver-AFS interactive steering control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Xiaoxiang; Cole, David J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the modelling of strategic interactions between the human driver and the vehicle active front steering (AFS) controller in a path-following task where the two controllers hold different target paths. The work is aimed at extending the use of mathematical models in representing driver steering behaviour in complicated driving situations. Two game theoretic approaches, namely linear quadratic game and non-cooperative model predictive control (non-cooperative MPC), are used for developing the driver-AFS interactive steering control model. For each approach, the open-loop Nash steering control solution is derived; the influences of the path-following weights, preview and control horizons, driver time delay and arm neuromuscular system (NMS) dynamics are investigated, and the CPU time consumed is recorded. It is found that the two approaches give identical time histories as well as control gains, while the non-cooperative MPC method uses much less CPU time. Specifically, it is observed that the introduction of weight on the integral of vehicle lateral displacement error helps to eliminate the steady-state path-following error; the increase in preview horizon and NMS natural frequency and the decline in time delay and NMS damping ratio improve the path-following accuracy.

  3. L17A/F19A Substitutions Augment the α-Helicity of β-Amyloid Peptide Discordant Segment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ru; Chang, Chi-Fon; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Ta-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregation has been thought to be associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, we showed that L17A/F19A substitutions may increase the structural stability of wild-type and Arctic-type Aβ40 and decrease the rates of structural conversion and fibril formation. However, the underlying mechanism for the increase of structural stability as a result of the alanine substitutions remained elusive. In this study, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopies to characterize the Aβ40 structure, demonstrating that L17A/F19A substitutions can augment the α-helicity of the residues located in the α/β-discordant segment (resides 15 to 23) of both wild-type and Arctic-type Aβ40. These results provide a structural basis to link the α-helicity of the α/β-discordant segment with the conformational conversion propensity of Aβ. PMID:27104649

  4. Comparison of the ferromagnetic Blume-Emery-Griffiths model and the AF spin-1 longitudinal Ising model at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, M. T.; Corrêa Silva, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    We derive the exact Helmholtz free energy (HFE) of the standard and staggered one-dimensional Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We discuss in detail the thermodynamic behavior of the ferromagnetic version of the model, which exhibits magnetic field-dependent plateaux in the z-component of its magnetization at low temperatures. We also study the behavior of its specific heat and entropy, both per site, at finite temperature. The degeneracy of the ground state, at T=0, along the lines that separate distinct phases in the phase diagram of the ferromagnetic BEG model is calculated, extending the study of the phase diagram of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising model in S.M. de Souza and M.T. Thomaz, J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 354 (2014) 205 [5]. We explore the implications of the equality of phase diagrams, at T=0, of the ferromagnetic BEG model with K/|J| = - 2 and of the spin-1 AF Ising model for D/|J| > 1/2.

  5. Security-reliability performance of cognitive AF relay-based wireless communication system with channel estimation error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Gongpu; Gao, Li; Peng, Mugen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, both the security and the reliability performance of the cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system are analyzed in the presence of the channel estimation error. The security and the reliability performance are represented by the outage probability and the intercept probability, respectively. Instead of perfect channel state information (CSI) predominantly assumed in the literature, a certain channel estimation algorithm and the influence of the corresponding channel estimation error are considered in this study. Specifically, linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE) is utilized by the destination node and the eavesdropper node to obtain the CSI, and the closed form for the outage probability and that for the intercept probability are derived with the channel estimation error. It is shown that the transmission security (reliability) can be improved by loosening the reliability (security) requirement. Moreover, we compare the security and reliability performance of this relay-based cognitive radio system with those of the direct communication system without relay. Interestingly, it is found that the AF relay-based system has less reliability performance than the direct cognitive radio system; however, it can lower the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability than the direct communication system. It is also found that there exists an optimal training number to minimize the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability.

  6. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  7. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  8. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of Lu AF64280, a novel, brain penetrant phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A inhibitor: potential relevance to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Redrobe, John P; Jørgensen, Morten; Christoffersen, Claus T; Montezinho, Liliana P; Bastlund, Jesper F; Carnerup, Martin; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Lerdrup, Linda; Plath, Niels

    2014-08-01

    Here, we present the pharmacological characterisation of Lu AF64280, a novel, selective, brain penetrant phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A inhibitor, in in vitro/in vivo assays indicative of PDE2A inhibition, and in vivo models/assays relevant to cognitive processing or antipsychotic-like activity. The in vitro selectivity of Lu AF64280 was determined against a panel of PDE enzymes and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the hippocampus were determined using in vivo microdialysis. Lu AF64280 potently inhibited hPDE2A (Ki = 20 nM), 50-fold above moderate inhibition of both hPDE9A (Ki = 1,000 nM) and hPDE10A (Ki = 1,800 nM), and displayed a >250-fold selectivity over all other full-length human recombinant PDE family members (Ki above 5,000 nM). Lu AF64280 (20 mg/kg) significantly increased cGMP levels in the hippocampus (p < 0.01 versus vehicle-treated mice), attenuated sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object exploration in rats (10 mg/kg, p < 0.001 versus vehicle-treated), blocked early postnatal phencyclidine-induced deficits in the intradimensional/extradimensional shift task in rats (1 and 10 mg/kg, p < 0.001 versus vehicle-treated) and attenuated spontaneous P20-N40 auditory gating deficits in DBA/2 mice (20 mg/kg, p < 0.05 versus vehicle-treated). In contrast, Lu AF64280 failed to attenuate phencyclidine-induced hyperactivity in mice, and was devoid of antipsychotic-like activity in the conditioned avoidance response paradigm in rats, at any dose tested. Lu AF64280 represents a novel tool compound for selective PDE2A inhibition that substantiates a critical role of this enzyme in cognitive processes under normal and pathological conditions.

  9. Characterisation of Lu AF33241: A novel, brain-penetrant, dual inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A and PDE10A.

    PubMed

    Redrobe, John P; Rasmussen, Lars K; Christoffersen, Claus T; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-08-15

    Here, we present a preliminary pharmacological characterisation of Lu AF33241, a novel, brain penetrant phosphodiesterase inhibitor of (PDE) 2A and 10A tool compound, in in vitro/in vivo assays indicative of PDE2A and/or PDE10A inhibition, and in vivo models/assays relevant to cognitive processing and antipsychotic-like activity. An assay was also included to investigate potential effects on motor activity. The in vitro selectivity of Lu AF33241 was determined against a panel of PDE enzymes. Lu AF33241 potently inhibited both full-length recombinant hPDE2A (Ki=4.2nM) and hPDE10A (Ki=42nM). The compound moderately inhibited both hPDE1C (Ki=1200nM), hPDE7B (Ki=890nM), and hPDE11A (Ki=1800nM). Lu AF33241 displayed a Ki above 5000nM against all other tested members of the PDE family. Albeit within a narrow dose range, Lu AF33241 attenuated sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition (3 and 10mg/kg), displayed antipsychotic-like activity in the conditioned avoidance response paradigm (10mg/kg), and did not induce catalepsy within a dose-range of 2-6mg/kg. Further catalepsy studies are needed to investigate a predictive safety window. Lu AF33241 represents a novel PDE2A/PDE10A inhibitor tool compound that may serve to further the understanding of the roles played by these enzymes in various CNS disorders.

  10. Heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex demonstrated by the selective antagonist AF-DX 116

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Seaver, N.A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of muscarinic receptors in rabbit peripheral lung homogenates bind pirenzepine with high affinity (putative M1 subtype). In experiments of AF-DX 116 inhibiting (TH)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (TH)pirenzepine, the authors found similar inhibitory constants for AF-DX 116 binding in rat heart and rabbit peripheral lung that were 4-fold smaller (i.e. of higher affinity) than the inhibitory constant for rat cerebral cortex. This results demonstrates heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. DNA Methylation Is Linked to Deacetylation of Histone H3, but Not H4, on the Imprinted Genes Snrpn and U2af1-rs1

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Richard I.; Randall, Tamzin E.; Johnson, Colin A.; Khosla, Sanjeev; Hatada, Izuho; O'Neill, Laura P.; Turner, Bryan M.; Feil, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between DNA methylation and histone acetylation at the imprinted mouse genes U2af1-rs1 and Snrpn is explored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and resolution of parental alleles using single-strand conformational polymorphisms. The U2af1-rs1 gene lies within a differentially methylated region (DMR), while Snrpn has a 5′ DMR (DMR1) with sequences homologous to the imprinting control center of the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. For both DMR1 of Snrpn and the 5′ untranslated region (5′-UTR) and 3′-UTR of U2af1-rs1, the methylated and nonexpressed maternal allele was underacetylated, relative to the paternal allele, at all H3 lysines tested (K14, K9, and K18). For H4, underacetylation of the maternal allele was exclusively (U2af1-rs1) or predominantly (Snrpn) at lysine 5. Essentially the same patterns of differential acetylation were found in embryonic stem (ES) cells, embryo fibroblasts, and adult liver from F1 mice and in ES cells from mice that were dipaternal or dimaternal for U2af1-rs1. In contrast, in a region within Snrpn that has biallelic methylation in the cells and tissues analyzed, the paternal (expressed) allele showed relatively increased acetylation of H4 but not of H3. The methyl-CpG-binding-domain (MBD) protein MeCP2 was found, by ChIP, to be associated exclusively with the maternal U2af1-rs1 allele. To ask whether DNA methylation is associated with histone deacetylation, we produced mice with transgene-induced methylation at the paternal allele of U2af1-rs1. In these mice, H3 was underacetylated across both the parental U2af1-rs1 alleles whereas H4 acetylation was unaltered. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that CpG methylation leads to deacetylation of histone H3, but not H4, through a process that involves selective binding of MBD proteins. PMID:11463825

  12. Magnesium, Potassium and Phosphorus in Available Forms in Luvisols in the Vicinity of Głogów Copper Smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, H.; Dąbkowska-Naskręt, H.; Różański, S.

    2016-02-01

    Region near Głogów is characterized as industrial—agricultural area, intensively used. Presented study was undertaken to estimate the impact of agricultural land use and the vicinity of Głogów copper smelter on the contents of available forms of magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in selected profiles of Luvisols. The following analysis were performed: soil particle-size distribution, pH, organic carbon contents, CaCO3 contents. The contents of available forms of phosphorus and potassium were determined by Egner- Riehm method and that of magnesium using Schachtschabel's method. The results of the study showed that the contents of available P is medium (III class of abundance), very low in K (V class) and for available Mg very low (V class) to medium for surface horizons and very high (I class of abundance) in other soil horizons. The soils, in spite of the elevated copper content in humus horizons, according to IUNG, were classified as uncontaminated soils, therefore, can be used in plant production for all types of crops.

  13. Current Status of Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragile, P. Chris

    2014-09-01

    As the title suggests, the purpose of this chapter is to review the current status of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks. This chapter focuses exclusively on global simulations of the accretion process within a few tens of gravitational radii of the black hole. Most of the simulations discussed are performed using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) schemes, although some mention is made of Newtonian radiation MHD simulations and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The goal is to convey some of the exciting work that has been going on in the past few years and provide some speculation on future directions.

  14. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  15. NASP - A status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John P., Jr.; Powell, William E.

    1992-03-01

    The current status of the NASP program, a joint DoD-NASA effort in advancing the technologies needed for the X-30 research flight vehicle is described. The X-30 single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicle utilizes an air-breathing primary propulsion system and takes off and lands horizontally on a conventional runaway. The technologies under development include high specific strength, high temperature capable materials and structures, ramjet/scramjet propulsion systems, hypersonic aerodynamics and computational fluid dynamics, and cryogenics. A concept for a follow-on NASP-derived operational vehicle and its potential use as a space transportation vehicle are also discussed.

  16. CHEF: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostiguy, J.-F.; Michelotti, L.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    CHEF refers both to a framework and to an interactive application emphasizing accelerator optics calculations. The framework supports multiple domains of applications: e.g. nonlinear analysis, perturbation theory, and tracking. Its underlying philosophy is to provide an infrastructure with minimum hidden implicit assumptions, general enough to facilitate both routine and specialized computational tasks, and to minimize the duplication of necessary, complex bookkeeping tasks. CHEF was already described in recent conferences. This paper is a status report on recent developments, including issues related to applications to high energy linacs.

  17. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  18. SLC - status and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    The status of a three year construction program, begun October 1, 1983, of the SLAC Linear Collider is reviewed and evolutions of the original conceptual design are discussed. Subsystems of the project, that are described with emphasis on new or unusual technology, include: Electron Source and Injector, Damping Rings, Linear Accelerator Development, Energy (Klystron and Modulator) Upgrades, Positron Production and Reinjection, Arc Transport, Final Focus System, Control System and Conventional Facilities. Results from the commissioning program, which began in early 1986, and plans for the operation of the machine are presented.

  19. [Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a type of status epilepticus (SE) lacking a predominant motor manifestation. The annual prevalence of NCSE is estimated to reach 10 to 20 cases in every 100,000 people. While almost half of all SE cases are nonconvulsive, there are several different types of NCSE: 1) epileptic absence SE, 2) epileptic focal seizure SE with consciousness disturbance (complex partial SE), 3) de novo NCSE of late onset, 4) NCSE due to acute brain injury or prolonged consciousness disturbance after convulsive SE. An electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation is necessary to diagnose NCSE. However, continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring over at least 24 hours is preferable to detect NCSE, as cognitive disturbances due to this condition may fluctuate over time. In addition, neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI with arterial spin labeled sequences or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can demonstrate hyperperfused areas in cases of focal onset. Thus, patients presenting with alternative cognitive disturbance with or without mild confusion should be evaluated using cEEG monitoring or blood flow imaging so as not to overlook treatable NCSE. PMID:27056863

  20. DC-8-based observations of aircraft CO, CH4, N2O, and H2O(g) emission indices during SUCCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, S. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Podolske, J. R.; Twohy, C. H.; Gandrud, B.; Chan, K. R.; Baughcum, S. L.; Wallio, H. A.

    We report the first measurements of CO, CH4, N2O, CO2, and H2O(g) in the exhaust trails of T-39, B-757, and DC-8 aircraft at cruise conditions. Emission indices (EI) derived from these in-situ measurements are presented. Results are in agreement with ground-based tests indicating aircraft act as a net sink for CH4 and recent airborne in-situ measurements that N2O is not an important exhaust constituent. Condensation of H2O(g) on exhaust particles resulted in EI(H2O(g)) values less than those expected from the combustion of fuel alone. Observed apparent negative EI(H2O(g)) values suggest that aircraft aerosol emissions, under unique atmospheric conditions, seed cloud formation and lead to dehydration of the exhaust-influenced air parcel. Such conditions may induce the formation of cirrus clouds from persistent contrails. Comparisons with the Boeing EMIT Code show measurement-derived CO emission index values consistent with model evaluations.

  1. Ceylonamides A-F, Nitrogenous Spongian Diterpenes That Inhibit RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis, from the Marine Sponge Spongia ceylonensis.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Kato, Hikaru; Angkouw, Esther D; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2016-08-26

    Seven new spongian diterpenes, ceylonamides A-F (1-6) and 15α,16-dimethoxyspongi-13-en-19-oic acid (7), were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Spongia ceylonensis along with eight known spongian diterpenes, 8-15. Compounds 1-6 were determined to be nitrogenous spongian diterpenes. The isolated compounds were examined for the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264 macrophages. Ceylonamide A (1) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 13 μM, followed by ceylonamide B (2) (IC50, 18 μM). An examination of the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds revealed that the position of the carbonyl group of the γ-lactam ring and bulkiness of the substituent at its nitrogen atom were important for inhibitory activity. PMID:27526327

  2. Proteasome Inhibitors Evoke Latent Tumor Suppression Programs in Pro-B MLL Leukemias Through MLL-AF4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Westergard, Todd D.; Cashen, Amanda; Piwnica-Worms, David R.; Kunkle, Lori; Vij, Ravi; Pham, Can G.; DiPersio, John; Cheng, Emily H.; Hsieh, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromosomal translocations disrupting MLL generate MLL-fusion proteins that induce aggressive leukemias. Unexpectedly, MLL-fusion proteins are rarely observed at high levels, suggesting excessive MLL-fusions may be incompatible with a malignant phenotype. Here, we used clinical proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib, to reduce the turnover of endogenous MLL-fusions and discovered that accumulated MLL-fusions induce latent, context-dependent tumor suppression programs. Specifically, in MLL pro-B lymphoid, but not myeloid, leukemias, proteasome inhibition triggers apoptosis and cell cycle arrest involving activation cleavage of BID by Caspase-8 and upregulation of p27, respectively. Furthermore, proteasome inhibition conferred preliminary benefit to MLL-AF4 leukemia patients. Hence, feasible strategies to treat cancer-type and oncogene specific cancers can be improvised through harnessing inherent tumor suppression properties of individual oncogenic fusions. PMID:24735925

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Rotation in A-F stars (Ammler-von Eiff+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Reiners, A.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of projected rotational velocities and the rotational profile of stars with spectral types A-F are presented. This work completes previous measurements by line profile analysis. New spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio were taken with the high-resolution CES and FEROS spectrographs operated by ESO at La Silla, Chile. Stellar rotation is studied in inverse wavelength space analysing the first two zeros of the Fourier transform of the overall broadening profile. Rigid and differential rotation can be distinguished in the case of rapid rotation. New and previous measurements are compiled and made available. The data are supplemented by a homogeneous compilation of basic stellar data from photometry. Data are flagged when there are indications of multiplicity. (2 data files).

  4. Environmental Aging of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M Structural Adhesive in Composite to Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Miner, Gilda A.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Baughman, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites have found increased usage in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance is not well established. In this study, adhesive bonds were prepared by the secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminate. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of single-lap-shear (SLS) specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The aging results of strength retention and failure modes to date are reported.

  5. Plate description of active deformation in the Africa (AF)-Arabia (AR)-Eurasia (EU) zone of plate interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernant, P.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of 17 years of GPS monitoring in this zone of plate interaction and show that to the resolution of our observations (i.e., ~1-2 mm/yr; ~ ±10 % of relative plate motions), deformation is consistent with plate-block models with relative motion between adjacent plates/blocks accommodated by elastic strain accumulation. Relative plate motions are consistent with geologically recent (~ 3 Ma) plate motions where geologic estimates of relative plate motion have been determined (AR- Nubia: Red Sea; AR-Somalia: Gulf of Aden; AF-EU; AR-EU). Furthermore, fault slip rates derived from the GPS block motions are mostly equal to geologic slip rates determined for long enough time intervals to average out earthquake cycle effects. We conclude that a plate description (i.e., relative Euler vectors) is appropriate to describe the kinematics of continental deformation during the past few Myr in this zone of plate interaction.

  6. Relay-and-antenna selection and digital transceiver design for two-way AF-MIMO multiple-relay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia-Chang; Su, Hao-Hsian; Tang, Kang-Tsao

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers a two-way multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relaying system with multiple relays between two terminals nodes. The relay antenna selection scheme based on channel singular valued decomposition (SVD) is used to reduce energy consumption. To enhance the system performance, we apply a SVD-based algorithm with MSE criterion which calculates optimal linear transceivers precoding jointly at the source nodes and relay nodes for amplify-and-forward (AF) protocols. In computer simulations, we use an iteration method to compute the non-convex function of joint source and relays power allocation. The simulation results show the SVD-based precoding design with SVD-based relay and antenna selection scheme can achieve a superior system bit error rate (BER) performance and reduce the power consume of relay antennas.

  7. Versixanthones A-F, Cytotoxic Xanthone-Chromanone Dimers from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangwei; Yu, Guihong; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Peng, Jixing; Mo, Xiaomei; Liu, Ming; Li, Hui; Sun, Xinhua; Li, Jing; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2015-11-25

    Six unusual xanthone-chromanone dimers, versixanthones A-F (1-6), featuring different formal linkages of tetrahydroxanthone and 2,2-disubstituted chroman-4-one monomers, were isolated from a culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor HDN1009. The absolute configurations of 1-6, representing the central and axial chirality elements or preferred helicities, were established by a combination of X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical conversions, and TDDFT-ECD calculations. The interconversion of different biaryl linkages between 1 and 4 and between 2 and 3 in DMSO by a retro-oxa-Michael mechanism provided insight into the formation of the xanthone-chromanone dimers and supported the assignments of their absolute configurations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited cytotoxicities against the seven tested cancer cell lines, with the best IC50 value of 0.7 μM. Compound 5 showed further inhibitory activity against topoisomerase I. PMID:26506221

  8. A novel mutation in the miR-128b gene reduces miRNA processing and leads to glucocorticoid resistance of MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Ai; Ha, Daon; Schotte, Diana; den Boer, Monique L; Armstrong, Scott A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-03-15

    MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia has a poor prognosis, and the mechanisms by which these leukemias develop are not understood despite intensive research based on well-known concepts and methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of target mRNA transcripts. We recently reported that ectopic expression of miR-128b together with miR-221, two of the miRNAs downregulated in MLL-AF4 ALL, restores glucocorticoid resistance through downregulation of the MLL-AF4 chimeric fusion proteins MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL that are generated by chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Here we report the identification of new mutations in miR-128b in RS4;11 cells, derived from MLL-AF4 ALL patient. One novel mutation significantly reduces the processing of miR-128b. Finally, this base change occurs in a primary MLL-AF4 ALL sample as an acquired mutation. These results demonstrate that the novel mutation in miR-128b in MLL-AF4 ALL alters the processing of miR-128b and that the resultant downregulation of mature miR-128b contributes to glucocorticoid resistance through the failure to downregulate the fusion oncogenes.

  9. Production of an extracellular alkaline metalloprotease from a newly isolated, moderately halophile, Salinivibrio sp. strain AF-2004.

    PubMed

    Ali Amoozegar, Mohammad; Zahra Fatemi, Azadeh; Reza Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid; Reza Razavi, Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    An extracellular protease was produced under stress conditions of high temperature and high salinity by a newly isolated moderate halophile, Salinivibrio sp. strain AF-2004 in a basal medium containing peptone, beef extract, glucose and NaCl. A modification of Kunitz method was used for protease assay. The isolate was capable of producing protease in the presence of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium chloride, sodium acetate and sodium citrate. The maximum protease was secreted in the presence of 7.5 to 10% (w/v) sodium sulfate or 3% (w/v) sodium acetate (4.6 U ml(-1)). Various carbon sources including glucose, lactose, casein and peptone were capable of inducing enzyme production. The optimum pH, temperature and aeration for enzyme production were 9.0, 32 degrees C and 220 rpm, respectively. The enzyme production corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level during the mid-stationary phase. Maximum protease activity was exhibited in the medium containing 1% (w/v) NaCl at 60 degrees C, with 18% and 41% activity reductions at temperature 50 and 70 degrees C, respectively. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was 8.5, with 86% and 75% residual activities at pH 10 and 6, respectively. The activity of enzyme was inhibited by EDTA. These results suggest that the protease secreted by Salinivibrio sp. strain AF-2004 is industrially important from the perspectives of its activity at a broad pH ranges (5.0-10.0), its moderate thermoactivity in addition to its high tolerance to a wide range of salt concentration (0-10% NaCl).

  10. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lee, Seungho; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM) on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability) of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA). In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating) of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC) showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4nm) than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters. PMID:26575993

  11. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4).

    PubMed

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lee, Seungho; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM) on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability) of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA). In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating) of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC) showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4 nm) than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters. PMID:26575993

  12. The N-terminal part of TIF1, a putative mediator of the ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2) of nuclear receptors, is fused to B-raf in the oncogenic protein T18.

    PubMed Central

    Le Douarin, B; Zechel, C; Garnier, J M; Lutz, Y; Tora, L; Pierrat, P; Heery, D; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) bound to response elements mediate the effects of cognate ligands on gene expression. Their ligand-dependent activation function, AF-2, presumably acts on the basal transcription machinery through intermediary proteins/mediators. We have isolated a mouse nuclear protein, TIF1, which enhances RXR and RAR AF-2 in yeast and interacts in a ligand-dependent manner with several NRs in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in vitro. Remarkably, these interactions require the amino acids constituting the AF-2 activating domain conserved in all active NRs. Moreover, the oestrogen receptor (ER) AF-2 antagonist hydroxytamoxifen cannot promote ER-TIF1 interaction. We propose that TIF1, which contains several conserved domains found in transcriptional regulatory proteins, is a mediator of ligand-dependent AF-2. Interestingly, the TIF1 N-terminal moiety is fused to B-raf in the mouse oncoprotein T18. Images PMID:7744009

  13. 75 FR 9596 - Notice of Filing of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of a Aspergillus flavus AF36 on Corn Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... potential costs or burdens, explain how you arrived at your estimate in sufficient detail to allow for it to... enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. To help address potential environmental justice... residues of the antifungal ] agent, Aspergillus flavus AF36, in or on corn food and feed commodities....

  14. Effect of long-term dietary arginyl-fructose (AF) on hyperglycemia and HbA1c in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hyoung; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Chong M; Kim, Young-Cheul; Chung, Kwang-Hoe; Kwon, Young-In

    2014-05-12

    We have previously reported that Amadori compounds exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present study we extended our recent findings to evaluate whether α-glucosidase inhibitor arginyl-fructose (AF) lowers blood glucose level in diabetic db/db mice, a genetic model for type 2 diabetes. The db/db mice were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate diets (66.1% corn starch) with and without AF (4% in the diet) for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, blood glucose level, and food intake were measured daily for 42 days. Dietary supplementation of AF resulted in a significant decrease of blood glucose level (p < 0.001) and body weight (p < 0.001). The level of HbA1c, a better indicator of plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time, was also significantly decreased for 6-week period (p < 0.001). Dietary treatment of acarbose® (0.04% in diet), a positive control, also significantly alleviated the level of blood glucose, HbA1c, and body weight. These results indicate that AF Maillard reaction product improves postprandial hyperglycemia by suppressing glucose absorption as well as decreasing HbA1c level.

  15. Flow synthesis using gaseous ammonia in a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube reactor: Paal-Knorr pyrrole formation and gas concentration measurement by inline flow titration.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Philippa B; O'Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L; Koos, Peter; Polyzos, Anastasios; Peña-López, Miguel; Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-14

    Using a simple and accessible Teflon AF-2400 based tube-in-tube reactor, a series of pyrroles were synthesised in flow using the Paal-Knorr reaction of 1,4-diketones with gaseous ammonia. An inline flow titration technique allowed measurement of the ammonia concentration and its relationship to residence time and temperature.

  16. Inactive allele-specific methylation and chromatin structure of the imprinted gene U2af1-rs1 on mouse chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Hideo; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kamiya, Mamoru

    1996-07-01

    The imprinted U2Af1-rs1 gene that maps to mouse chromosome 11 is predominately expressed from the paternal allele. We examined the methylation of genomic sequences in and around the U2af1-rs1 locus to establish the extent of sequence modifications that accompanied the silencing of the maternal allele. The analysis of HapII or HhaI sites showed that the silent maternal allele was hypermethylated in a block of CpG sequences that covered more than 10 kb. By comparison, the expressed paternal allele was unmethylated from a CpG island upstream of the transcribed region through 2 kb. An analysis of DNaseI hypersensitivity of a putative promoter of U2af1-rs1 showed an open chromatin conformation only on the unmethylated, expressed paternal allele. These results suggest that allele-specific hypermethylation covering the gene and its upstream CpG island plays a role in maternal allele repression of U2af1-rs1, which is reflected in altered chromatin conformation of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Alteration of the SETBP1 Gene and Splicing Pathway Genes SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Hye-Ran; Baek, Hee-Jo; Kook, Hoon; Cho, Duck; Shin, Jong-Hee; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Recurrent somatic SET-binding protein 1 (SETBP1) and splicing pathway gene mutations have recently been found in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. These mutations have been comprehensively analyzed in adult AML, but not in childhood AML. We investigated possible alteration of the SETBP1, splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1 (U2AF1), and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) genes in childhood AML. Methods Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to reveal chromosomal and genetic alterations. Sequence alterations in the SETBP1, SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes were examined by using direct sequencing in a cohort of 53 childhood AML patients. Results Childhood AML patients did not harbor any recurrent SETBP1 gene mutations, although our study did identify a synonymous mutation in one patient. None of the previously reported aberrations in the mutational hotspot of SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 were identified in any of the 53 patients. Conclusions Alterations of the SETBP1 gene or SF3B1, U2AF1, and SRSF2 genes are not common genetic events in childhood AML, implying that the mutations are unlikely to exert a driver effect in myeloid leukemogenesis during childhood. PMID:25553291

  18. Inhibition of Rac GTPase signaling and downstream prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins as combination targeted therapy in MLL-AF9 leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Benjamin; Wei, Junping; Shrestha, Mahesh; Wunderlich, Mark; Chou, Fu-Sheng; Griesinger, Andrea; Harris, Chad E; Kumar, Ashish R; Zheng, Yi; Williams, David A; Mulloy, James C

    2011-11-10

    The Rac family of small Rho GTPases coordinates diverse cellular functions in hematopoietic cells including adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton rearrangements, gene transcription, proliferation, and survival. The integrity of Rac signaling has also been found to critically regulate cellular functions in the initiation and maintenance of hematopoietic malignancies. Using an in vivo gene targeting approach, we demonstrate that Rac2, but not Rac1, is critical to the initiation of acute myeloid leukemia in a retroviral expression model of MLL-AF9 leukemogenesis. However, loss of either Rac1 or Rac2 is sufficient to impair survival and growth of the transformed MLL-AF9 leukemia. Rac2 is known to positively regulate expression of Bcl-2 family proteins toward a prosurvival balance. We demonstrate that disruption of downstream survival signaling through antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is implicated in mediating the effects of Rac2 deficiency in MLL-AF9 leukemia. Indeed, overexpression of Bcl-xL is able to rescue the effects of Rac2 deficiency and MLL-AF9 cells are exquisitely sensitive to direct inhibition of Bcl-2 family proteins by the BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to NSC23766, a small-molecule inhibitor of Rac activation, increases the apoptotic effect of ABT-737, indicating the Rac/Bcl-2 survival pathway may be targeted synergistically.

  19. NASA GRC MBSE Implementation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Edith; Trase, Katie; Green, Randi; Varga, Denise; Powell, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview on GRCs Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) implementation status. This overview covers: history, project usage and implementation, challenges and future work.

  20. Status of RENO Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jee-Seung

    2011-10-01

    The RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) experiment is under construction to measure the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 using anti-neutrinos emitted from the Yonggwang nuclear power plant in Korea. The experiment is planning to start data-taking in early 2011 with two identical 16-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the center of the reactor array. The estimated systematic uncertainty associated with the measurement is less than 0.6%. Based on three years of data, the expected statistical error is about 0.3% and it would be sensitive to measure the neutrino mixing angle in the range, sin2(2θ13)> 0.02. In this talk, the overview and status of RENO experiment are described.

  1. EBIS preinjector construction status

    SciTech Connect

    Alessi,J.; Barton, D.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lessard, E.; Lockey, R.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McCafferty, D.; McNerney, A.; Okamura, M.; Pendzick, A.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Scaduto, J.; Snydstrup, L.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; et al.

    2008-09-29

    A new heavy ion preinjector is presently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This preinjector uses an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), and an WQ and IH Linac, both operating at 100.625 MHz, to produce 2 MeV/u ions of any species for use, after further acceleration, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Among the increased capabilities provided by this preinjector are the ability to produce ions of any species, and the ability to switch between multiple species in 1 second, to simultaneously meet the needs of both physics programs. Fabrication of all major components for this preinjector is in process, with testing of the EBIS and WQ starting this year. The status of this construction is presented.

  2. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  3. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  4. B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in the prediction of atrial fibrillation risk: the CHARGE-AF Consortium of community-based cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinner, Moritz F.; Stepas, Katherine A.; Moser, Carlee B.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Aspelund, Thor; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Fontes, João D.; Janssens, A. Cecile J.W.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; McManus, David D.; Franco, Oscar H.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G.; Burke, Gregory L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Levy, Daniel; Gottdiener, John S.; Kääb, Stefan; Couper, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Astor, Brad C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Arai, Andrew E.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Stricker, Bruno H.C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Heckbert, Susan R.; Pencina, Michael J.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Aims B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information. Methods and results We ascertained AF incidence in 18 556 Whites and African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC, n=10 675), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, n = 5043), and Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n = 2838), followed for 5 years (prediction horizon). We added BNP (ARIC/CHS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; FHS: BNP), CRP, or both to a previously reported AF risk score, and assessed model calibration and predictive ability [C-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI)]. We replicated models in two independent European cohorts: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (AGES), n = 4467; Rotterdam Study (RS), n = 3203. B-type natriuretic peptide and CRP were significantly associated with AF incidence (n = 1186): hazard ratio per 1-SD ln-transformed biomarker 1.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56–1.76], P < 0.0001 and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.11–1.25), P < 0.0001, respectively. Model calibration was sufficient (BNP, χ2 = 17.0; CRP, χ2 = 10.5; BNP and CRP, χ2 = 13.1). B-type natriuretic peptide improved the C-statistic from 0.765 to 0.790, yielded an IDI of 0.027 (95% CI, 0.022–0.032), a relative IDI of 41.5%, and a continuous NRI of 0.389 (95% CI, 0.322–0.455). The predictive ability of CRP was limited (C-statistic increment 0.003). B-type natriuretic peptide consistently improved prediction in AGES and RS. Conclusion B-type natriuretic peptide, not CRP, substantially improved AF risk prediction beyond clinical factors in an independently replicated, heterogeneous population. B-type natriuretic peptide may serve as a benchmark to evaluate novel putative AF risk biomarkers. PMID:25037055

  5. ALSSAT Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. Y. Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly; Ewert, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft(Registered TradeMark) Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS for different combinations of the Exploration Life support (ELS) regenerative system technologies. This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically. The latest ALSSAT related publication in ICES 2004 detailed ALSSAT s development status including the completion of all six ELS Subsystems (ELSS), namely, the Air Management Subsystem, the Biomass Subsystem, the Food Management Subsystem, the Solid Waste Management Subsystem, the Water Management Subsystem, and the Thermal Control Subsystem and two external interfaces, including the Extravehicular Activity and the Human Accommodations. Since 2004, many more regenerative technologies in the ELSS were implemented into ALSSAT. ALSSAT has also been used for the ELS Research and Technology Development Metric Calculation for FY02 thru FY06. It was also used to conduct the Lunar Outpost Metric calculation for FY08 and was integrated as part of a Habitat Model developed at Langley Research Center to support the Constellation program. This paper will give an update on the analysis tool s current development status as well as present the analytical results of one of the trade studies that was performed.

  6. Stigma, status, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Lucas, Jeffrey W.; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Taylor, Catherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma and status are the major concepts in two important sociological traditions that describe related processes but that have developed in isolation. Although both approaches have great promise for understanding and improving population health, this promise has not been realized. In this paper, we consider the applicability of status characteristics theory (SCT) to the problem of stigma with the goal of better understanding social systemic aspects of stigma and their health consequences. To this end, we identify common and divergent features of status and stigma processes. In both, labels that are differentially valued produce unequal outcomes in resources via culturally shared expectations associated with the labels; macro-level inequalities are enacted in micro-level interactions, which in turn reinforce macro-level inequalities; and status is a key variable. Status and stigma processes also differ: Higher- and lower-status states (e.g., male and female) are both considered normal, whereas stigmatized characteristics (e.g., mental illness) are not; interactions between status groups are guided by “social ordering schemas” that provide mutually agreed-upon hierarchies and interaction patterns (e.g., men assert themselves while women defer), whereas interactions between “normals” and stigmatized individuals are not so guided and consequently involve uncertainty and strain; and social rejection is key to stigma but not status processes. Our juxtaposition of status and stigma processes reveals close parallels between stigmatization and status processes that contribute to systematic stratification by major social groupings, such as race, gender, and SES. These parallels make salient that stigma is not only an interpersonal or intrapersonal process but also a macro-level process and raise the possibility of considering stigma as a dimension of social stratification. As such, stigma’s impact on health should be scrutinized with the same intensity as that of

  7. Marital Status, Happiness, and Anomia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    1981-01-01

    Survey data indicates that neither marital status nor marital happiness is related to anomia. Suggests a moderately strong negative relationship exists between education and anomia with a weak negative relationship between overall life satisfaction and anomia. Results indicate socioeconomic status remains the primary determinant of anomia for most…

  8. “AQMEII Status Update”

    EPA Science Inventory

    “AQMEII Status Update”This presentation provided an overview and status update of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initative (AQMEII) to participants of a workshop of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP) . In addition, the p...

  9. Status Offenders and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in North Carolina law and policy affecting compulsory school attendance and status offenders. Status offenders are children who commit offenses that are unique to children--such as being truant, running away from home, or being beyond the disciplinary control of their parents. (Author/IRT)

  10. Status as a Valued Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Bernardo A.; Loch, Christoph H.; Onculer, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    The striving for status has long been recognized in sociology and economics. Extensive theoretical arguments and empirical evidence propose that people view status as a sign of competence and pursue it as a means to achieve power and resources. A small literature, however, based on arguments from biology and evolutionary psychology, proposes that…

  11. Impact of Lymph Node Status on Clinical Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shaitelman, Simona; Grills, Inga S.; Chen, Peter Y.; Dekhne, Nayana; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina K.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To compare outcomes after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) between node-negative and node-positive patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 534 patients with early-stage breast cancer received APBI including 39 node-positive (N+) cases. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors were compared between node-negative (N-) and N+ cohorts. Local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), axillary failure (AF), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: N+ patients were younger (p = 0.04), had larger tumors (p < 0.001), and were more likely to receive chemotherapy (p < 0.001). Mean follow-up was 7.8 years for N+ patients and 6.3 years for N- patients (p = 0.06). No differences were seen in 5-year actuarial rates of LR (2.2% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.86), AF (0% vs. 0%, p = 0.69), DFS (90.0% vs. 88.0%, p = 0.79), or OS (91.0 vs. 84.0%, p = 0.65) between the two groups, whereas higher rates of RR (0% vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) and DM (2.2% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.005) were noted in N+ patients. A trend for improved CSS (p = 0.06), was seen in N- patients. Age, tumor size, receptor status, T-stage, chemotherapy, APBI technique, and nodal status (p = 0.86) were not associated with LR, while a trend for an association with LR was noted with close/positive margins, (p = 0.07), and failure to receive adjuvant hormonal therapy (p = 0.06). Conclusions: No differences were seen in the rates of LR or AF between N- and N+ patients after APBI. These results support the continued enrollment of node-positive patients in Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of APBI including the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project-B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413.

  12. Status of NESTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, A.; Lebedev, A.; Androsov, V.; Bulyak, E.; Dovbnya, A.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.; Grevtsev, V.; Grigor'ev, Y.; Gvozd, A.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.; Kovalyova, N.; Kozin, V.; Lapshin, V.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Neklyudov, I.; Peev, F.

    2007-01-19

    NSC KIPT proposed to construct a new X-ray and soft ultraviolet source NESTOR with a 40 - 225 MeV electron storage ring in Kharkov. NESTOR is a new type radiation source on the base of Compton scattering and a storage ring. Electrons are injected in the storage ring at 100 MeV and ramped up to final energy of 225 MeV. So, using interaction angle 10 deg. and 150 deg., the facility covers operation energy range of radiation from soft ultraviolet trough synchrotron radiation from bending magnets up to hard X-ray radiation through Compton scattering ({approx}1 eV {approx}1 MeV). It is supposed that stored electron beam current will be of about 200 mA. Along with use of Nd:Yag laser of 10 W average power which was developed by High-Q laser firm and optical resonator with accumulation gain of about 1000 it allows to provide X-ray radiation flux up to 1011 phot/s. NESTOR is the cooperative facility and its development is supported by Ukrainian government and NATO SfP project number 977982. It is supposed that NESTOR will be in operation by mid-2007 year. The status of the project and main facility systems are described in the report.

  13. ANAIS: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-07-01

    ANAIS experiment will look for dark matter annual modulation with large mass of ultra-pure NaI(Tl) scintillators at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), aiming to confirm the DAMA/LIBRA positive signal in a model-independent way. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra are currently taking data at the LSC. Present status of ANAIS detectors background and general performance is summarized; in particular, thanks to the high light collection efficiency prospects of lowering the threshold down to 1 keVee are reachable. Crystal radiopurity goals are fulfilled for 232Th and 238U chains and 40K activity, although higher than original goal, could be accepted; however, high 210Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium has been identified. More radiopure detectors are being built by Alpha Spectra. The ongoing high quantum efficiency PMT tests and muon veto characterization are also presented. Finally, the sensitivity of the experiment for the annual modulation in the WIMP signal, assuming the already achieved threshold and background in ANAIS-25 is shown. Further improvement should be achieved by reducing both threshold and background, as expected.

  14. Status of NICA project

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, I. N.

    2012-05-15

    The project of Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility NICA/MPD (+MultiPurpose Detector) under development at JINR (Dubna) is presented. The general goals of the project are providing of colliding beams for experimental studies of both hot and dense strongly interacting baryonicmatter and search for the mixed phase and critical endpoint and spin physics in collisions of polarized protons (deuterons). The first program requires providing of heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of {radical}s{sub NN} = 4 - 11 GeV at average luminosity of L = 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 27} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for {sup 197}Au{sup 79+}. The polarized beams mode is proposed to be used in energy range of {radical}s = 12 - 27 GeV (protons) at luminosity of L {>=} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The report contains description of the facility scheme and characteristics in heavy-ion operation mode, status and plans of the project development.

  15. Status of MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2010-03-30

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment currently under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The aim of the experiment is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling for a beam of muons, crucial for the requirements of a Neutrino Factory and a Muon Collider. Muon cooling is achieved by measuring the reduction of the four dimensional transverse emittance for a beam of muons passing through low density absorbers and then accelerating the longitudinal component of the momentum using RF cavities. The absorbers are maintained in a focusing magnetic field to reduce the beta function of the beam and the RF cavities are kept inside coupling coils. The main goal of MICE is to measure a fractional drop in emittance, of order -10% for large emittance beams, with an accuracy of 1%(which imposes a requirement that the absolute emittance be measured with an accuracy of 0.1%). This paper will discuss the status of MICE, including the progress in commissioning the muon beam line at the ISIS accelerator at RAL, the construction of the different detector elements in MICE and the prospects for the future.

  16. All-trans retinoic acid combined with 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine induces C/EBP{alpha} expression and growth inhibition in MLL-AF9-positive leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiki, Atsushi; Imamura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Kawashima, Sachiko; Yoshida, Hideki; Hirashima, Yoshifumi; Miyachi, Mitsuru; Yagyu, Shigeki; Nakatani, Takuya; Sugita, Kanji; Hosoi, Hajime

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested whether ATRA and 5-Aza affect AML cell differentiation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell differentiation and growth arrest were induced in MLL-AF9-expressing cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1 were also observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells are less sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different MLL fusion has distinct epigenetic properties related to RA pathway. -- Abstract: The present study tested whether all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 5-Aza-2 Prime -deoxycitidine (5-Aza) affect AML cell differentiation and growth in vitro by acting on the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) and c-Myc axis. After exposure to a combination of these agents, cell differentiation and growth arrest were significantly higher in human and murine MLL-AF9-expressing cells than in MLL-AF4/AF5q31-expressing cells, which were partly associated with increased expression of C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{epsilon}, and PU.1, and decreased expression of c-Myc. These findings indicate that MLL-AF9-expressing cells are more sensitive to ATRA and 5-Aza, indicating that different MLL fusion proteins possess different epigenetic properties associated with retinoic acid pathway inactivation.

  17. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  18. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  19. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

  20. Indian aerosols: present status.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

    2002-12-01

    This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

  1. Status of solar neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, E.W.; Davis, R. Jr.; Kim, S.B. . Dept. of Physics); Elliott, S.R. ); Jelley, N. )

    1990-01-01

    A summary of the status of four solar neutrino experiments is presented. The Homestake {sup 37}Cl data are presented and the possible time dependence of the data is addressed. Data from 1040 days of operation of the Kamiokande II detector are presented next. The status of the {sup 71}Ga experiment in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, which has operated for a short time, is discussed. The summary concludes with a discussion of the status of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, which has been under construction since the beginning of 1990. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Large block test status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved.

  3. Gestational and lactational exposure to bisphenol AF in maternal rats increases testosterone levels in 23-day-old male offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Cui, Ruina; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhang, Hongxia; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-11-01

    During prenatal and postnatal development, exposure to environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol AF (BPAF), may result in reproductive disorders. Currently, the mechanisms behind such disorders in male offspring induced by gestational and lactational exposure to BPAF remain poorly understood. Here, female rats from gestational day (GD) 3-19 were exposed to 100 mg BPAF/kg/day by oral gavage. On the day of birth (postnatal day (PD) 0), cross-fostering took place between treated and control litters, and cross-fostered mother rats were given BPAF 100 mg/kg/day during the postnatal period (PD 3 to PD 19). HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that BPAF was transferred via cord blood and lactation, finally bio-accumulating in the offspring testes. Pups exposed to BPAF both prenatally and postnatally showed a significant increase in testis testosterone levels compared with that of the control, while all pups exposed to BPAF showed a significant decrease in testis inhibin B (INHB) levels. Compared with the control, RNA-seq revealed that 279 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the testes of pups exposed to BPAF both prenatally and postnatally, including genes involved in cell differentiation and meiosis. These results indicate that gestational and lactational exposure to BPAF in the mother can impair reproductive function in male offspring. PMID:27567155

  4. Rhizovarins A-F, Indole-Diterpenes from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Mucor irregularis QEN-189.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Williams, Katherine; Proksch, Peter; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-08-26

    Genome mining of the fungus Mucor irregularis (formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis) revealed the presence of various gene clusters for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including several terpene-based clusters. Investigation into the chemical diversity of M. irregularis QEN-189, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fresh inner tissue of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the discovery of 20 structurally diverse indole-diterpenes including six new compounds, namely, rhizovarins A-F (1-6). Among them, compounds 1-3 represent the most complex members of the reported indole-diterpenes. The presence of an unusual acetal linked to a hemiketal (1) or a ketal (2 and 3) in an unprecedented 4,6,6,8,5,6,6,6,6-fused indole-diterpene ring system makes them chemically unique. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and chemical calculations. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for antitumor activity against HL-60 and A-549 cell lines. PMID:27462726

  5. Grade-2 Teflon (AF1601) PCF for optical communication using 2D FDTD technique: a simplest design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muduli, N.; Achary, J. S. N.; Padhy, Hemanta ku.

    2016-04-01

    A nonlinear ytterbium-doped rectangular proposed PCF structure of inner and outer cladding is used to analyze effective mode field area (Aeff), nonlinear coefficient (γ), dispersion (D), and confinement loss (CL) in a wide range of wavelength. The fabrication of PCF structure is due to different size doped air hole, pitch, and air hole diameter in a regular periodic geometrical array fashion. The various property of PCF structure such as mode field area, nonlinear coefficient, dispersion, and confinement loss are analyzed by implementing 2D FDTD technique. The above PCF property investigated using suitable parameters like Λ1, ?, ?, and ? in three different situations is discussed in simulation. The high nonlinear coefficient and dispersion property of PCF structure are tailored by setting the cladding parameter. However, highly nonlinear fibers with nonzero dispersion at the wavelength of 1.55 μm are very attractive for a range of optical communication application such as laser amplifier, pulse compression, wavelength conversion, all optical switching, and supercontinuum generation. So our newly proposed ytterbium-doped PCF seems to be most suitable exclusively for supercontinuum generation and nonlinear fiber optics. Finally, it is observed that ytterbium-doped Teflon (AF1601) PCF has more nonlinear coefficient (γ(λ) = 65.27 W-1 km-1) as compared to pure silica PCF (γ(λ) = 52 W-1 km-1) design to have same mode field area (Aeff) 1.7 μm2 at an operating wavelength of 1.55 μm.

  6. Evidence for impaired retinoic acid receptor-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2 cofactor activity in human lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Moghal, N; Neel, B G

    1995-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is required for normal airway epithelial cell growth and differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. One of the earliest events following the exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to RA is the strong induction of RA receptor beta (RAR beta) mRNA. Previous work established that many lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors display abnormal RAR beta mRNA expression, most often absence or weak expression of the RAR beta 2 isoform, even after RA treatment. Restoration of RAR beta 2 into RAR beta-negative lung cancer cell lines has been reported to inhibit tumorigenicity. Since RAR beta 2 inactivation may contribute to lung cancer, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of defective RAR beta 2 expression. Nuclear run-on assays and transient transfections with RAR beta 2 promoter constructs indicate the presence of trans-acting transcriptional defects in most lung cancer cell lines, which map to the RA response element (RARE). These defects cannot be complemented by RAR-retinoid X receptor cotransfection and can be separated into two types: (i) one affecting transcription from direct repeat RAREs, but not palindromic RAREs, and (ii) another affecting transcription from both types of RARE. Studies using chimeras between RAR alpha, TR alpha, and other transcription factors suggest the existence of novel RAR-thyroid hormone receptor AF-2-specific cofactors, which are necessary for high levels of transcription. Furthermore, these factors may be frequently inactivated in human lung cancer. PMID:7791800

  7. Uptake, depuration and bioconcentration of bisphenol AF (BPAF) in whole-body and tissues of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachen; Yang, Yunjia; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is an analog of Bisphenol A (BPA) and is widely used as a raw material in the plastics industry. However, an understanding of the potential risks posed by BPAF in the aquatic environment is lacking. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is a measure used to assess the secondary poisoning potential as well as risks to human health. In this work we measured the accumulation and elimination of BPAF in the whole-body and in liver, muscle and gonad tissues of zebrafish. BPAF uptake was relatively rapid with equilibrium concentrations reached after 24-72h of exposure. We observed gender differences both in whole-body and in tissue accumulation. Muscle was the primary BPAF storage tissue during the uptake phase in this study. In the elimination phase, BPAF concentrations declined rapidly during depuration, especially during the initial 2h, and the rate of elimination in males was faster than females from the whole-body and from tissues. The appearance of BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G) at the start of the uptake phase indicated the rapid biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G in vivo. The high lipid content of female gonad could act to delay the diffusion of the xenobiotic within the body in a contaminated environment, but it also acts to delay xenobiotic elimination from the body. PMID:27362491

  8. Gestational and lactational exposure to bisphenol AF in maternal rats increases testosterone levels in 23-day-old male offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sheng, Nan; Cui, Ruina; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhang, Hongxia; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-11-01

    During prenatal and postnatal development, exposure to environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol AF (BPAF), may result in reproductive disorders. Currently, the mechanisms behind such disorders in male offspring induced by gestational and lactational exposure to BPAF remain poorly understood. Here, female rats from gestational day (GD) 3-19 were exposed to 100 mg BPAF/kg/day by oral gavage. On the day of birth (postnatal day (PD) 0), cross-fostering took place between treated and control litters, and cross-fostered mother rats were given BPAF 100 mg/kg/day during the postnatal period (PD 3 to PD 19). HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that BPAF was transferred via cord blood and lactation, finally bio-accumulating in the offspring testes. Pups exposed to BPAF both prenatally and postnatally showed a significant increase in testis testosterone levels compared with that of the control, while all pups exposed to BPAF showed a significant decrease in testis inhibin B (INHB) levels. Compared with the control, RNA-seq revealed that 279 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the testes of pups exposed to BPAF both prenatally and postnatally, including genes involved in cell differentiation and meiosis. These results indicate that gestational and lactational exposure to BPAF in the mother can impair reproductive function in male offspring.

  9. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Draco and Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from WHT/AF2-WYFFOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Lewis, J.; Hartke, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present preliminary results from our chemo-dynamical survey of two Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, Draco and Ursa Minor. The two galaxies have similar radial velocities and reside in close proximity in the outskirts of the Milky Way halo, yet exhibit noteworthy differences in their morphologies. We obtained spectroscopic data with AF2-WYFFOS on the WHT for several hundred red-giant-branch (RGB) candidates in each galaxy out to its tidal radius, from which we have identified approximately 100 velocity members in each system. Metallicities are determined for the individual RGB stars using the Ca II triplet lines. Whereas Ursa Minor shows an RGB population of well-mixed metallicities, a clear gradient is observed in Draco, in which the outer regions host stars of lower [Fe/H]. Such differences may be a reflection of their differing morphologies, with Ursa Minor having been tidally stirred to give rise to both its highly elongated shape and a more mixed [Fe/H] distribution.

  10. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified.

  11. Studies on electrochemical oxidation of estrogenic disrupting compound bisphenol AF and its interaction with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Jichun; Wang, Yuejiao; Li, Yanhui; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Lei

    2014-07-15

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is an environmental pollutant to disrupt endocrine system or cause cancer, thus the detection of trace BPAF is very important. In this study, a simple and highly sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of BPAF was developed. In pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solutions, carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) modified glassy carbon electrode exhibits an enhanced effectiveness for the oxidation of BPAF. This electrode exhibited two linear relationships with BPAF concentration range of 0.02μmolL(-1) to 8.0μmolL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.0077μmolL(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPAF in real samples and the results were satisfactory. The MWCNT-COOH/GCE electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and anti-interference. The electrochemistry and spectroscopy methods are also described for the evaluation of BPAF-HSA interaction. In the presence of HSA, the peak currents of BPAF decreased linearly due to the formation of a super-molecular complex. The binding constant between BPAF and HSA, obtained by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), was consistent with the fluorescence analysis. The molecular modeling studies were carried out to clearly describe the interaction between BPAF and HSA.

  12. Cloning, overexpression and biocatalytic exploration of a novel Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Aspergillus fumigatus Af293

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The presence of several putative Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) encoding genes in Aspergillus fumigatus Af293 was demonstrated for the first time. One of the identified BVMO-encoding genes was cloned and successfully overexpressed fused to the cofactor regenerating enzyme phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The enzyme named BVMOAf1 was extensively characterized in terms of its substrate scope and essential kinetic features. It showed high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity not only in the oxidation of asymmetric sulfides, (S)-sulfoxides were obtained with 99% ee, but also in the kinetic resolution of bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one. This kinetic resolution process led to the production of (1S,5R) normal lactone and (1R,5S) abnormal lactone with a regioisomeric ratio of 1:1 and 99% ee each. Besides, different reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature and the presence of organic solvents, have been tested, revealing that BVMOAf1 is a relatively robust biocatalyst. PMID:23767684

  13. Determination of arsenic speciation in sulfidic waters by Ion Chromatography Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (IC-HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicole S; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    A method for the analysis of arsenic species in aqueous sulfide samples is presented. The method uses an ion chromatography system connected with a Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (IC-HG-AFS). With this method inorganic As(III) and As(V) species in water samples can be analyzed, including arsenite (HnAs(III)O3(n-3)), thioarsenite (HnAs(III)S3(n-3)), arsenate (HnAs(V)O4(n-3)), monothioarsenate (HnAs(V)SO3(n-3)), dithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S2O2(n-3)), trithioarsenate (HnAs(V)S3O(n-3)) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAs(V)S4(n-3)). The peak identification and retention times were determined based on standard analysis of the various arsenic compounds. The analytical detection limit was ~1-3 µg L(-1) (LOD), depending on the quality of the baseline. This low detection limit makes this method also applicable to discriminate between waters meeting the drinking water standard of max. 10 µg L(-1) As, and waters that do not meet this standard. The new method was successfully applied for on-site determination of arsenic species in natural sulfidic waters, in which seven species were unambiguously identified. PMID:25059187

  14. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  15. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  16. [Differential diagnosis of status epilepticus].

    PubMed

    Navarro, V; Fischer, C; Convers, P

    2009-04-01

    The diagnosis of status epilepticus can be retained, wrongly, in several circumstances. Nonepileptic pseudoseizures from a psychiatric origin and some movement disorders can mimic convulsive status epilepticus. Encephalopathy of various causes (post-anoxic, metabolic, toxic, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) can be wrongly taken for non-convulsive status epilepticus, mainly due to inadequate interpretation of the electroencephalogram (EEG). In these encephalopathies, the existence of (non-epileptic) myoclonus and the abolition of the EEG abnormalities with the use of a benzodiazepine (without correction of the clinical symptoms) are additional confounding factors, leading to false diagnosis. Nevertheless, in general, the diagnosis of status epilepticus can be confirmed or rejected base on a combined analysis of the clinical data and the EEG. PMID:19217635

  17. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  18. [Status epilepticus and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Katalin, Tóth; Futó, Judit

    2002-06-01

    Status epilepticus is an emergency situation that can often lead to death or neurocognitive deficits despite adequate therapy is conducted. Etiology and prognosis can be widely heterogeneous. Knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms has altered the definition of status epilepticus and the emphasis of therapy has also changed according to that. Today, with neuroprotective approach and recognition of the importance of time-window the management of generalised tonic clonic status became an emergency or critical care task, because intratracheal narcosis is more often and earlier the therapy of choice and even the sufficient treatment can convey serious side effects. In the article, the authors describe the systemic and cerebral pathophysiologic factors during seizure. The authors offer flow-charts illustrating the treatment of patients with generalised tonic clonic status to make the daily work of physicians easier. Early on critical care treatment and multidisciplinary approach is the pledge of reduction in mortality and morbidity. PMID:12073544

  19. The PDZ Protein Canoe/AF-6 Links Ras-MAPK, Notch and Wingless/Wnt Signaling Pathways by Directly Interacting with Ras, Notch and Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Ana; Speicher, Stephan; Baylies, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that signal transduction pathways are not merely linear cascades; they are organized into complex signaling networks that require high levels of regulation to generate precise and unique cell responses. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms by which signaling pathways cross-communicate remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Ras-binding protein Canoe (Cno)/AF-6, a PDZ protein normally associated with cellular junctions, is a key modulator of Wingless (Wg)/Wnt, Ras-Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Notch (N) signaling pathways cross-communication. Our data show a repressive effect of Cno/AF-6 on these three signaling pathways through physical interactions with Ras, N and the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dsh), a key Wg effector. We propose a model in which Cno, through those interactions, actively coordinates, at the membrane level, Ras-MAPK, N and Wg signaling pathways during progenitor specification. PMID:17183697

  20. MLL-AF9 Expression in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Drives a Highly Invasive AML Expressing EMT-Related Genes Linked to Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulou, Vaia; Kaspar, Susanne; Brault, Laurent; Sanders, Mathijs A; Juge, Sabine; Morettini, Stefano; Tzankov, Alexandar; Iacovino, Michelina; Lau, I-Jun; Milne, Thomas A; Royo, Hélène; Kyba, Michael; Valk, Peter J M; Peters, Antoine H F M; Schwaller, Juerg

    2016-07-11

    To address the impact of cellular origin on acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model for MLL-AF9-driven leukemia. MLL-AF9 expression in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC) in vitro resulted in dispersed clonogenic growth and expression of genes involved in migration and invasion. In vivo, 20% LT-HSC-derived AML were particularly aggressive with extensive tissue infiltration, chemoresistance, and expressed genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in solid cancers. Knockdown of the EMT regulator ZEB1 significantly reduced leukemic blast invasion. By classifying mouse and human leukemias according to Evi1/EVI1 and Erg/ERG expression, reflecting aggressiveness and cell of origin, and performing comparative transcriptomics, we identified several EMT-related genes that were significantly associated with poor overall survival of AML patients. PMID:27344946

  1. RUNX1 Is a Key Target in t(4;11) Leukemias that Contributes to Gene Activation through an AF4-MLL Complex Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Adam C.; Ballabio, Erica; Geng, Huimin; North, Phillip; Tapia, Marta; Kerry, Jon; Biswas, Debabrata; Roeder, Robert G.; Allis, C. David; Melnick, Ari; de Bruijn, Marella F.T.R.; Milne, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) protein is an important epigenetic regulator required for the maintenance of gene activation during development. MLL chromosomal translocations produce novel fusion proteins that cause aggressive leukemias in humans. Individual MLL fusion proteins have distinct leukemic phenotypes even when expressed in the same cell type, but how this distinction is delineated on a molecular level is poorly understood. Here, we highlight a unique molecular mechanism whereby the RUNX1 gene is directly activated by MLL-AF4 and the RUNX1 protein interacts with the product of the reciprocal AF4-MLL translocation. These results support a mechanism of transformation whereby two oncogenic fusion proteins cooperate by activating a target gene and then modulating the function of its downstream product. PMID:23352661

  2. Pathogenetic, Clinical, and Prognostic Features of Adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AF4 Positive B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, F.; Girardi, K.; Avvisati, G.

    2011-01-01

    Translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23) leading to formation of MLL-AF4 fusion gene is found in about 10% of newly diagnosed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adult patients. Patients expressing this chromosomal aberration present typical biological, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. This form of leukemia is universally recognized as high-risk leukemia and treatment intensification with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first complete remission (CR) could be a valid option to improve prognosis, but data obtained from the literature are controversial. In this review, we briefly describe pathogenetic, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AF4 positive ALL and provide a review of the clinical outcome reported by the most important cooperative groups worldwide. PMID:22190943

  3. Report on the 6th African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG) Meeting, March 12–15, 2009, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Soodyall, Himla; Wonkam, Ambroise; Ramesar, Raj; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    The African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG), founded in 2003 with its inaugural meeting in Accra, Ghana,1 has the stated missions of (1) disseminating information about human genetics research in Africa, (2) establishing a mentorship network providing educational resources, including the development of appropriate technology transfer, (3) providing advocacy for human genetic research in Africa, and (4) encouraging collaborative research. Despite its young age, the AfSHG has developed a strong cadre of active researchers, both within and outside of Africa, with more than 400 members (from 16 countries across Africa as well as 8 other countries), and has held six successful meetings, five in Africa and one in the United States. PMID:20682860

  4. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  5. Anti-leukemic activity of Newcastle disease virus strains AF2240 and V4-UPM in murine myelomonocytic leukemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alabsi, Aied M; Ali, Rola; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Yusoff, Khatijah; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2012-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae that has caused severe economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Several strains of NDV were reported to induce cytolysis to cancerous cell lines. It has prompted much interest as anticancer agent because it can replicate up to 10,000 times better in human cancer cells than in most normal cells. In this study, two NDV strains, viserotropic-velogenic strain AF2240 and lentogenic strain V4-UPM, showed cytolytic activity and apoptosis induction against Mouse myelomoncytic leukemia (WEHI 3B). The cytolytic effects of NDV strains were determined using microtetrazolium (MTT) assay. The cytolytic dose - fifty percent (CD(50)) were 2 and 8HAU for AF2240 and V4-UPM strains, respectively. Cells treated with NDV strains showed apoptotic features compared to the untreated cells under fluorescence microscope. NDV induced activation of caspase-3 and DNA laddering in agarose gel electrophoresis which confirmed the apoptosis. The anti-leukemic activity of both strains was evaluated on myelomoncytic leukemia BALB/c mice. The results indicated that both NDV strains significantly decreased liver and spleen weights. It also decreased blasts cell percentage in blood, bone marrow and spleen smears of treated mice (p<0.05). Histopathological studies for spleen and liver confirmed the hematological results of blood and bone marrow. From the results obtained, the exposure to both NDV stains AF2240 and V4-UPM showed similar results for Ara-c. In conclusion NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM can affect WEHI 3B leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Ligand- and coactivator-mediated transactivation function (AF2) of the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain is inhibited by the cognate hinge region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Lu, J; Yong, E L

    2001-03-01

    Transactivation functions (AF2) in the ligand-binding domains (LBD) of many steroid receptors are well characterized, but there is little evidence to support such a function for the LBD of the androgen receptor (AR). We report a mutant AR, with residues 628-646 in the hinge region deleted, which exhibited transactivation activity that was more than double that of the wild type (WT) AR. Although no androgen-dependent AF2 activity could be observed for the WT ARLBD fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, the mutant ARLBD(Delta628-646) was 30-40 times more active than the WT ARLBD. In the presence of the p160 coactivator TIF2, AR(Delta628-646) was significantly more active than similarly treated WT AR. Deletion of residues 628-646 also enhanced TIF2-ARLBD activity 8-fold, an effect not present when the LBD-interacting LXXLL motifs of TIF2 were mutated, suggesting that the negative modulatory activity of residues 628-646 were exerted via coactivator pathways. Although the AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) system and NcoR have been reported to interact with and repress the activity of some steroid receptors, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Jun/c-Fos, nor NcoR function was consistently affected by the absence or presence of residues 628-646, implying that the AR hinge region exerts its silencing effects in a manner independent of these corepressors. Our data provide evidence for the novel finding that strong androgen-dependent AF2 exists in the ARLBD and is the first report of a negative regulatory domain in the AR. Because mutations in this region are commonly associated with prostate cancer, it is important to characterize the mechanisms by which the hinge region exerts its repressor effect on ligand-activated and coactivator-mediated AF2 activity of the ARLBD.

  7. Chemical Soil Degradation n the Area of the Głogów Copper Smelter Protective Forest/ Degradacja Ziemi Na Terenach Byłej Strefy Ochronnej Huty Miedzi Głogów

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Drab, Michał; Wasylewicz, Róża; Walczak, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Earth surface is under the continous influence of the environmental factors - both natural and anthropogenic. The significant impact on the environment can be noted in areas adjacent to the metal industry plants, in a consequence of pollutants emission, especially dusts containing the heavy metals, into the atmosphere,. In the surroundings of Głogów Copper Smelter (GCS) elevated amounts of copper and lead has been noted. In the soils of the test sites were found up to 5250 mg kg-1 Cu and 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. The forest litter contained 3.3-5.1 more Cu and 3.9-8.6 Pb than the humic horizon of the soil. Analyse of the different soils covering the GCS protective forest area let specify the stabilising role of particle size distribution, TOC content and the soil reaction to Cu and Pb migration in the environment. Powierzchnia ziemi jest nieustannnie narażona na oddziaływania o charakterze naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Znaczące oddziaływanie jest łatwo zauważalne na terenach przemysłowych. Szczególnie na obszarach objętych wydobyciem i przeróbką metali. Na terenach przyległych do Huty Miedzi Głogów stwierdzono wysoką koncentrację miedzi i ołowiu sięgającą 5250 mg kg-1 Cu i 1290 mg kg-1 Pb. Poziom ściółki leśnej zawierał 3,3-5,1 raza więcej Cu i 3,9-8,6 Pb niż poziom próchniczny analizowanych gleb. Analiza różnych gleb pokrywających las ochronny HMG pozwoliła wskazać na znaczącą rolę składu granulometrycznego, zawartości węgla organicznego oraz odczynu na stabilizację migracji Cu i Pb w środowisku.

  8. AF-DX 116, a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, potentiates the effects of glucose and reverses the effects of insulin on memory.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    1998-11-01

    Male Swiss mice were tested 24 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Low subeffective doses of d-(+)-glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), but not its stereoisomer l-(-)-glucose (30 mg/kg,ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.3 mg/kg,ip), a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, given 10 min after training, interact to improve retention. Insulin (8 IU/kg, ip) impaired retention when injected immediately after training, and the effects were reversed, in a dose-related manner, by AF-DX 116 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, ip) administered 10 min following insulin. Since AF-DX 116 possibly blocks autoreceptors mediating the inhibition of acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerve terminals, the present data support the view that changes in the central nervous system glucose availability, subsequent to modification of circulating glucose levels, influence the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory storage of an inhibitory avoidance response in mice. PMID:9774523

  9. MLL-AF9– and HOXA9-mediated acute myeloid leukemia stem cell self-renewal requires JMJD1C

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nan; Chen, Mo; Eng, Rowena; DeJong, Joshua; Sinha, Amit U.; Rahnamay, Noushin F.; Koche, Richard; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Minehart, Janna C.; Chen, Chun-Wei; Deshpande, Aniruddha J.; Xu, Haiming; Chu, S. Haihua; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Roeder, Robert G.; Armstrong, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewal is a hallmark of both hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemia stem cells (LSCs); therefore, the identification of mechanisms that are required for LSC, but not HSC, function could provide therapeutic opportunities that are more effective and less toxic than current treatments. Here, we employed an in vivo shRNA screen and identified jumonji domain–containing protein JMJD1C as an important driver of MLL-AF9 leukemia. Using a conditional mouse model, we showed that loss of JMJD1C substantially decreased LSC frequency and caused differentiation of MLL-AF9– and homeobox A9–driven (HOXA9-driven) leukemias. We determined that JMJD1C directly interacts with HOXA9 and modulates a HOXA9-controlled gene-expression program. In contrast, loss of JMJD1C led to only minor defects in blood homeostasis and modest effects on HSC self-renewal. Together, these data establish JMJD1C as an important mediator of MLL-AF9– and HOXA9-driven LSC function that is largely dispensable for HSC function. PMID:26878175

  10. Acute mixed-lineage leukemia t(4;11)(q21;q23) generates an MLL-AF4 fusion product.

    PubMed Central

    Domer, P H; Fakharzadeh, S S; Chen, C S; Jockel, J; Johansen, L; Silverman, G A; Kersey, J H; Korsmeyer, S J

    1993-01-01

    A chromosomal translocation, t(4;11)-(q21;q23), is associated with an aggressive mixed-lineage leukemia. A yeast artificial chromosome was used to clone the chromosomal breakpoint of this translocation in the RS4;11 cell line. The breakpoint sequences revealed an inverted repeat bordered by a consensus site for topoisomerase II binding and cleavage as well as chi-like elements. The der(11) chromosome encodes a fusion RNA and predicted chimeric protein between the 11q23 gene MLL and a 4q21 gene designated AF4. The sequence of the complete open reading frame for this fusion transcript reveals the MLL protein to have homology with DNA methyltransferase, the Drosophila trithorax gene product, and the "AT-hook" motif of high-mobility-group proteins. An alternative splice that deletes the AT-hook region of MLL was identified. AF4 is a serine- and proline-rich putative transcription factor with a glutamine-rich carboxyl terminus. The composition of the complete MLL-AF4 fusion product argues that it may act through either a gain-of-function or a dominant negative mechanism in leukemogenesis. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7689231

  11. AF-DX 116, a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, potentiates the effects of glucose and reverses the effects of insulin on memory.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    1998-11-01

    Male Swiss mice were tested 24 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Low subeffective doses of d-(+)-glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), but not its stereoisomer l-(-)-glucose (30 mg/kg,ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.3 mg/kg,ip), a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, given 10 min after training, interact to improve retention. Insulin (8 IU/kg, ip) impaired retention when injected immediately after training, and the effects were reversed, in a dose-related manner, by AF-DX 116 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, ip) administered 10 min following insulin. Since AF-DX 116 possibly blocks autoreceptors mediating the inhibition of acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerve terminals, the present data support the view that changes in the central nervous system glucose availability, subsequent to modification of circulating glucose levels, influence the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory storage of an inhibitory avoidance response in mice.

  12. The application of ICP-SMS, GF-AAS and HG-AFS to the analysis of water and sediment samples from a temperate stratified estuary.

    PubMed

    Townsend, A T; O'Sullivan, J; Featherstone, A M; Butler, E C; Mackey, D J

    2001-02-01

    Three atomic spectrometry techniques, namely sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (ICP-SMS, GF-AAS and HG-AFS, respectively), housed at separate independent laboratories, were used to analyse water and sediment samples collected from the Huon River Estuary, SE Tasmania (Australia) in the Austral spring 1998. A dithiocarbamate-chelation/back-extraction technique was used to separate and preconcentrate Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb from eight collected water samples prior to analysis by ICP-SMS and GF-AAS. A number of other elements in the waters were analysed directly (Mn, Fe and Zn by GF-AAS; As by HG-AFS), or following sample dilution (1 + 19: V, Mn, Fe, As, Mo, Ba and U by ICP-SMS). Where possible, previously corroborated GF-AAS and HG-AFS techniques were used to verify obtained ICP-SMS results. From the analysis of four reference waters (SLEW-1 and -2, SLRS-3 and NASS-5), good agreement, to within +/- 10-20%, was typically found between certified (or information only values) and measured results (irrespective of analytical technique). Exceptions included Zn (and sometimes Fe) that could not be quantified by ICP-SMS due to elevated blank signals, and As which was found to lie below ICP-SMS detection limits. For Huon Estuary water samples, inter-method agreement was within +/- 10-20% (for those elements amenable to analysis by more than one technique). Nitric acid extracts of two certified reference materials (Buffalo River Sediment and BCSS-1) and six Huon Estuary sediments were analysed by ICP-SMS (for Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and HG-AFS (for As). Results from the certified reference materials indicated extraction efficiencies of 60 70% (for most elements). A close correlation between ICP-SMS and HG-AFS was obtained for leachable As in the sediments. In terms of potential inorganic contaminants, the Huon Estuary

  13. [Determination of Total Selenium and Arsenic in Coal by Wet Digestion Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)].

    PubMed

    Ni, Run-xiang; Luo, Kun-li

    2015-05-01

    In the present work we presented a new method for determination of total Se and As in coal by electric hot plate-mixed acids-hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS), the wet digestion method. The detailed operation procedures of the new method are as follows: About 0. 05~0. 10 g of powdered (200 mesh) coal sample was placed in a glass beaker, 10 mL of nitric acid (HNO3) and 2 mL of perchloric acid (HClO4) were added to the beaker in sequence, then the beaker was covered with a watching glass and placed in a fume cupboard standing overnight. The beaker was placed on an electric hot plate (180 °C) for sample decomposition the next day. The beaker was moved away from the electric hot plate when white smoke arose in the beaker, the sample color turned white or grey and the solution turned clear. Three milliliter of hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (6 mol . L-1) was added to the beaker after the temperature of the beaker returned to room temperature. The beaker was heated on the electric hot plate again, and then moved away when white smoke started arising again. One milliliter of HCI was added in the beaker after the temperature of the beaker returned to room temperature. After that, the digested sample was transferred to a 25 mL test tube which was filled with ultrapure water to the tube's full volume. This solution was used for Se determination directly. Three milliliter of the Se test solution prepared above was transferred to a 15 mL glass test tube, 1 mL of thiourea/ascorbic acid solution (2. 5 g . mL-1) and 1 mL of the concentrated HCl was added to the 15 mL test tube. The test tube was then filled with ultrapure water to its full volume. The solution was used for As determination after shaking well and 40 min standing. Finally, Se and As concentrations in these prepared solutions were measured by using the AFS-9780 instrument (Beijing Haiguang Instrument Co. , LTD, Beijing, China). Two Chinese Coal Certified Reference Materials (GBW11115

  14. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample…

  15. Social Carrying Capacity as Status Group Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patrick C.

    A sociological study investigating the relationship between perception of crowding and social status was conducted in a rural camping setting. Results indicate that higher social status groups and groups aspiring to higher social status are more likely to perceive crowding than are lower status groups, but more research is suggested prior to the…

  16. [Comparison of soil heavy metals determined by AAS/AFS and portable X-ray fluorescence analysis].

    PubMed

    Ran, Jing; Wang, De-Jian; Wang, Can; Bo, Lu-Ji; Zheng, Ji-Cheng; Yao, Li-Peng

    2014-11-01

    Total concentrations of Cu, Pb, As, Cr, Ni and Zn were determined for 53 soil samples using portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) system in in-situ and ex-situ (Lab.) conditions. PXRF metal concentrations were statistically compared with analytical results from traditional AAS/AFS analysis. The ability of PXRF instrument to produce comparable analytical results to the reference method was assessed by linear regression. To investgate the effects of soil moisture on PXRF, the in-situ moisture content of all soil samples was quantified and the metal concentrations of selected samples with known moisture contents were measured too. The results showed that the detection limits of PXRF for Cu, Pb, As, Cr, Ni and Zn were 10.6, 8.1, 5.7, 22.5, 21.6 and 10.4 mg kg(-1) respectively. A good degree of linearity was found for Pb, Cr, Ni and Zn in in-situ condition. While in ex-situ condition, quantitative level data were achieved across the entire range of samples tested for Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Zn. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was shown to be an effective tool for quantification and rapid assessment of heavy metals in soils. Soil moisture content did affected the performance of PXRF, the mean percent difference for soil samples in-situ with moisture content less than 15% and higher than 25% was -17% and -31% respectively. In ex-situ condition, as the soil moisture content increased from air dried level to 30%, the mean percent difference decreased from 10% to -24%. The dilution effect of moisture in soils may cause discrepancies with conventional analytical results and induce worse data quality, and it should be controlled within 0-25% in in-situ condition.

  17. Revisiting the biology of infant t(4;11)/MLL-AF4+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Bueno, Clara; Prieto, Cristina; Acha, Pamela; Stam, Ronald W; Marschalek, Rolf; Menéndez, Pablo

    2015-12-17

    Infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) accounts for 10% of childhood ALL. The genetic hallmark of most infant B-ALL is chromosomal rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. Despite improvement in the clinical management and survival (∼85-90%) of childhood B-ALL, the outcome of infants with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) B-ALL remains dismal, with overall survival <35%. Among MLL-r infant B-ALL, t(4;11)+ patients harboring the fusion MLL-AF4 (MA4) display a particularly poor prognosis and a pro-B/mixed phenotype. Studies in monozygotic twins and archived blood spots have provided compelling evidence of a single cell of prenatal origin as the target for MA4 fusion, explaining the brief leukemia latency. Despite its aggressiveness and short latency, current progress on its etiology, pathogenesis, and cellular origin is limited as evidenced by the lack of mouse/human models recapitulating the disease phenotype/latency. We propose this is because infant cancer is from an etiologic and pathogenesis standpoint distinct from adult cancer and should be seen as a developmental disease. This is supported by whole-genome sequencing studies suggesting that opposite to the view of cancer as a "multiple-and-sequential-hit" model, t(4;11) alone might be sufficient to spawn leukemia. The stable genome of these patients suggests that, in infant developmental cancer, one "big-hit" might be sufficient for overt disease and supports a key contribution of epigenetics and a prenatal cell of origin during a critical developmental window of stem cell vulnerability in the leukemia pathogenesis. Here, we revisit the biology of t(4;11)+ infant B-ALL with an emphasis on its origin, genetics, and disease models. PMID:26463423

  18. Type I Interferon signaling constrains IL-17A/F secretion by γδ T cells during bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Thomas; Kirimanjeswara, Girish S.; Ruby, Thomas; Jones, Jonathan W.; Peng, Kaitian; Perret, Magali; Ho, Lena; Sauer, John-Demian; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Metzger, Dennis W.; Monack, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of intracellular bacteria by macrophages leads to secretion of type I Interferons. However, the role of type I IFN during bacterial infection is still poorly understood. Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a pathogenic bacterium that replicates in the cytosol of macrophages leading to secretion of type I IFN. Here, we investigated the role of type I IFN in a mouse model of tularemia. Mice deficient for type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1−/−) are more resistant to intradermal infection with F. tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida). Increased resistance to infection was associated with a specific increase in IL-17A/F and a corresponding expansion of an IL-17A+ γδ T cell population, indicating that type I IFN negatively regulate the number of IL-17A+ γδ T cells during infection. Furthermore, IL-17A-deficient mice contained fewer neutrophils compared to WT mice upon infection, indicating that IL-17A contributes to neutrophil expansion during F. novicida infection. Accordingly, an increase in IL-17A in IFNAR1−/− mice correlated with an increase in splenic neutrophil numbers. Similar results were obtained in a mouse model of pneumonic tularemia using the highly virulent Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis SchuS4 strain and in a mouse model of systemic Listeria monocytogenes infection. Our results indicate that the type I IFN-mediated negative regulation of IL-17A+ γδ T cell expansion is conserved during bacterial infections. We propose that this newly described activity of type I IFN signaling might participate in the resistance of the IFNAR1−/− mice to infection with F. novicida and other intracellular bacteria. PMID:20176744

  19. Revisiting the biology of infant t(4;11)/MLL-AF4+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Bueno, Clara; Prieto, Cristina; Acha, Pamela; Stam, Ronald W; Marschalek, Rolf; Menéndez, Pablo

    2015-12-17

    Infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) accounts for 10% of childhood ALL. The genetic hallmark of most infant B-ALL is chromosomal rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. Despite improvement in the clinical management and survival (∼85-90%) of childhood B-ALL, the outcome of infants with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) B-ALL remains dismal, with overall survival <35%. Among MLL-r infant B-ALL, t(4;11)+ patients harboring the fusion MLL-AF4 (MA4) display a particularly poor prognosis and a pro-B/mixed phenotype. Studies in monozygotic twins and archived blood spots have provided compelling evidence of a single cell of prenatal origin as the target for MA4 fusion, explaining the brief leukemia latency. Despite its aggressiveness and short latency, current progress on its etiology, pathogenesis, and cellular origin is limited as evidenced by the lack of mouse/human models recapitulating the disease phenotype/latency. We propose this is because infant cancer is from an etiologic and pathogenesis standpoint distinct from adult cancer and should be seen as a developmental disease. This is supported by whole-genome sequencing studies suggesting that opposite to the view of cancer as a "multiple-and-sequential-hit" model, t(4;11) alone might be sufficient to spawn leukemia. The stable genome of these patients suggests that, in infant developmental cancer, one "big-hit" might be sufficient for overt disease and supports a key contribution of epigenetics and a prenatal cell of origin during a critical developmental window of stem cell vulnerability in the leukemia pathogenesis. Here, we revisit the biology of t(4;11)+ infant B-ALL with an emphasis on its origin, genetics, and disease models.

  20. Revisiting the biology of infant t(4;11)/MLL-AF4+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Clara; Prieto, Cristina; Acha, Pamela; Stam, Ronald W.; Marschalek, Rolf; Menéndez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) accounts for 10% of childhood ALL. The genetic hallmark of most infant B-ALL is chromosomal rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. Despite improvement in the clinical management and survival (∼85-90%) of childhood B-ALL, the outcome of infants with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) B-ALL remains dismal, with overall survival <35%. Among MLL-r infant B-ALL, t(4;11)+ patients harboring the fusion MLL-AF4 (MA4) display a particularly poor prognosis and a pro-B/mixed phenotype. Studies in monozygotic twins and archived blood spots have provided compelling evidence of a single cell of prenatal origin as the target for MA4 fusion, explaining the brief leukemia latency. Despite its aggressiveness and short latency, current progress on its etiology, pathogenesis, and cellular origin is limited as evidenced by the lack of mouse/human models recapitulating the disease phenotype/latency. We propose this is because infant cancer is from an etiologic and pathogenesis standpoint distinct from adult cancer and should be seen as a developmental disease. This is supported by whole-genome sequencing studies suggesting that opposite to the view of cancer as a “multiple-and-sequential-hit” model, t(4;11) alone might be sufficient to spawn leukemia. The stable genome of these patients suggests that, in infant developmental cancer, one “big-hit” might be sufficient for overt disease and supports a key contribution of epigenetics and a prenatal cell of origin during a critical developmental window of stem cell vulnerability in the leukemia pathogenesis. Here, we revisit the biology of t(4;11)+ infant B-ALL with an emphasis on its origin, genetics, and disease models. PMID:26463423

  1. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  2. Application of PET2OGS to CO2 storage in a saline aquifer of the CO2CRC Otway project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Shinn, Young Jae

    2014-05-01

    PET2OGS, a set of algorithms that integrate the static model (Petrel) with the dynamic model (OpenGeoSys), is applied to model CO2 storage in a saline aquifer. The Otway Basin is the first demonstration site of the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Australia. During Stage 2 of the CO2CRC Otway project, CO2 was injected into a saline aquifer along the injection interval of 1435 - 1450 m in a well. Upon conversion and adaption of the geological model into the dynamic model, the simulation of CO2 injection at 159 tone/day for 5 months is carried out for a hypothetical scenario. CO2 storage in each facies are analyzed for storage capacities. The discrete nature of CO2 plume behaviors known in multiphase flow in heterogeneous media is observed in the numerical simulation of CO2 storage. Sensitivity analysis of the storage capacity with respect to facies, porosity, and permeability is provided.

  3. The Status of Faculty Status in Ohio Academic Libraries, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmick, Judith A.

    A questionnaire survey sent to 75 of the 134 Ohio academic library directors elicited 59 respondents in a study of faculty status for academic librarians. Results show that only 42% of libraries assign librarians faculty rank, even though 61% of directors favor it, and 64% think librarians themselves favor it. Some Association of College and…

  4. NIE Planning Status, July 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    This paper summarizes the current status of the National Institute of Education (NIE) plans for programs and organization as of the beginning of the 1973 fiscal year. The author considers the purpose of NIE as outlined in the NIE enabling legislation, lists the goals of education, and examines the problems that arise in trying to achieve those…

  5. 2010 Chemical Working Group Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2010-01-01

    The Steering Group for the Interagency Advanced Power Group (IAPG) held their business meeting on November 30-December 1st in McLean, Virginia. Status reports were presented from each of the IAPG's Working Groups. These charts contain a brief summary of the IAPG Chemical Working Group's activities during 2010 and its plans for 2011.

  6. French PREPHA program - Status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debout, Bruno; Mathieu, Christophe

    1992-12-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for France's Program of Research and Technology for Airbreathing Hypersonic Aircraft, 'PREPHA', which is focusing on scramjet propulsion for future SSTO airbreathing launch vehicles. Also under investigation are such enabling technologies as actively cooled structures and lightweight/high service temperature structural and propulsion-system materials. Development facilities are noted.

  7. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  8. Magnesium deficiency: what's our status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  9. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  10. Economic Status of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Robert; Young, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines some of the factors affecting the current economic status of academic librarians, as well as the history of changes in that economic picture. Issues discussed include the ranking of beginning academic librarian salaries in comparison to others in the profession, historical differences between academic librarian salaries and…

  11. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  12. The Status of Children 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapper, Kurt J.; And Others

    This report includes information conerning demographic trends affecting children over the past few years, the status of children as determined by critical normative data pertaining to their health, education, welfare and the identification and targeting of programs and services to meet the needs of children. Section I covers demographic trends in…

  13. Status of the VEGA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondtatyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Jacobs, N.; Malaza, V.

    2015-06-01

    Motivation and status of the VEGA (Velocity-Energy Guide based Array) project is presented. One armed fission fragments spectrometer with an electrostatic guide system is proposed for installation at the vertical experimental channel of the IBR-2 reactor. Scientific program aimed at investigation of new multi-body decays of actinides, shapeisomeric states in fission fragments and fission modes is reported.

  14. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    PubMed

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory.

  15. Status of the MEG Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Aki

    2008-02-21

    The MEG experiment which searches for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} decays at the sensitivity level of 10{sup -13} is now in its final stage of the preparation. Some data run is expected by the end of the year 2007. The statuses of each detector components are described.

  16. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  17. Environmental Research, A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC. Committee for Air and Water Conservation.

    Summarized in this report are all environmental research projects sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Included are: (1) status reports on all current projects, (2) published reports on completed projects, together with abstracts of findings, and (3) an organization chart of the Committee for Air and Water Conservation and its…

  18. The Medicina Station Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  19. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  20. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  1. Ischaemic cardiac outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonism or factor Xa inhibition: results from the ROCKET AF trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Stevens, Susanna R.; White, Harvey D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Goodman, Shaun G.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Califf, Robert M.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Breithardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated the prevalence of prior myocardial infarction (MI) and incidence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) events among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and results In ROCKET AF, 14 264 patients with nonvalvular AF were randomized to rivaroxaban or warfarin. The key efficacy outcome for these analyses was CV death, MI, and unstable angina (UA). This pre-specified analysis was performed on patients while on treatment. Rates are per 100 patient-years. Overall, 2468 (17%) patients had prior MI at enrollment. Compared with patients without prior MI, these patients were more likely to be male (75 vs. 57%), on aspirin at baseline (47 vs. 34%), have prior congestive heart failure (78 vs. 59%), diabetes (47 vs. 39%), hypertension (94 vs. 90%), higher mean CHADS2 score (3.64 vs. 3.43), and fewer prior strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (46 vs. 54%). CV death, MI, or UA rates tended to be lower in patients assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin [2.70 vs. 3.15; hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.00; P = 0.0509]. CV death, MI, or UA rates were higher in those with prior MI compared with no prior MI (6.68 vs. 2.19; HR 3.04, 95% CI 2.59–3.56) with consistent results for CV death, MI, or UA for rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in prior MI compared with no prior MI (P interaction = 0.10). Conclusion Prior MI was common and associated with substantial risk for subsequent cardiac events. Patients with prior MI assigned rivaroxaban compared with warfarin had a non-significant 14% reduction of ischaemic cardiac events. PMID:24132190

  2. Pseudoxylallemycins A-F, Cyclic Tetrapeptides with Rare Allenyl Modifications Isolated from Pseudoxylaria sp. X802: A Competitor of Fungus-Growing Termite Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Kreuzenbeck, Nina B; Otani, Saria; Garcia-Altares, Maria; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Weigel, Christiane; Aanen, Duur K; Hertweck, Christian; Poulsen, Michael; Beemelmanns, Christine

    2016-07-15

    Based on fungus-fungus pairing assays and HRMS-based dereplication strategy, six new cyclic tetrapeptides, pseudoxylallemycins A-F (1-6), were isolated from the termite-associated fungus Pseudoxylaria sp. X802. Structures were characterized using NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, and Marfey's reaction. Pseudoxylallemycins B-D (2-4) possess a rare and chemically accessible allene moiety amenable for synthetic modifications, and derivatives A-D showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative human-pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antiproliferative activity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells and K-562 cell lines. PMID:27341414

  3. Quality of Vitamin K Antagonist Control and 1-Year Outcomes in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Global Perspective from the GARFIELD-AF Registry

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Sylvia; ten Cate, Hugo; Accetta, Gabriele; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Camm, A. John; Corbalan, Ramon; Darius, Harald; Fitzmaurice, David A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Goto, Shinya; Jacobson, Barry; Kayani, Gloria; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Misselwitz, Frank; Pieper, Karen; Schellong, Sebastian M.; Stepinska, Janina; Turpie, Alexander G. G.; van Eickels, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) need to be individually dosed. International guidelines recommend a target range of international normalised ratio (INR) of 2.0–3.0 for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). We analysed the time in this therapeutic range (TTR) of VKA-treated patients with newly diagnosed AF in the ongoing, global, observational registry GARFIELD-AF. Taking TTR as a measure of the quality of patient management, we analysed its relationship with 1-year outcomes, including stroke/systemic embolism (SE), major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Methods and Results TTR was calculated for 9934 patients using 136,082 INR measurements during 1-year follow-up. The mean TTR was 55.0%; values were similar for different VKAs. 5851 (58.9%) patients had TTR<65%; 4083 (41.1%) TTR≥65%. The proportion of patients with TTR≥65% varied from 16.7% in Asia to 49.4% in Europe. There was a 2.6-fold increase in the risk of stroke/SE, 1.5-fold increase in the risk of major bleeding, and 2.4-fold increase in the risk of all-cause mortality with TTR<65% versus ≥65% after adjusting for potential confounders. The population attributable fraction, i.e. the proportion of events attributable to suboptimal anticoagulation among VKA users, was 47.7% for stroke/SE, 16.7% for major bleeding, and 45.4% for all-cause mortality. In patients with TTR<65%, the risk of first stroke/SE was highest in the first 4 months and decreased thereafter (test for trend, p = 0.021). In these patients, the risk of first major bleed declined during follow-up (p = 0.005), whereas in patients with TTR≥65%, the risk increased over time (p = 0.027). Conclusion A large proportion of patients with AF had poor VKA control and these patients had higher risks of stroke/SE, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Our data suggest that there is room for improvement of VKA control in routine clinical practice and that this could substantially reduce adverse outcomes. Trial Registration Clinical

  4. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratory motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.

  5. Population and status of women.

    PubMed

    Selvaratnam, S

    1988-06-01

    It is difficult to determine the social status or rank of women, since no uniform indicators of status have been approved. Currently, in most Asian and Pacific countries, women make up the majority of illiterates (75% in South Asia; 70% in China), even in areas that have expanded their educational facilities. East and Southeast Asia have succeeded so far in their attempts to increase the enrollment ratios for women (90% female enrollment ratio as opposed to less than 50% in South Asia). Male-female roles seem to be entrenched in the society of all the countries. Women have benefited from an improvement in health care in East and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, female mortality is still very high. In most of the Asian and Pacific countries, female participation in the labor force is relatively low. However, this may be a misnomer, since the estimates do not include domestic workers that produce familial income. Women in the labor force seem to group into 4 major areas: professional and technical, clerical, service, and production work--all of which are usually low paying, low status jobs. Population growth in developing countries seems to have slowed the advancement of women toward greater gender equality by increasing the dependency burden and limiting social and material resources. High fertility rates among women correlate with an increase in illiteracy and a decrease in status improvement through education. Child bearing and home-making place heavy burdens on those women who marry young because of social pressures. Males are normally educated first in these larger families. The correlation of mortality conditions and female status is not currently clear. Rural-to-urban migration of the husband causes a weakening of the wife's status. Migration of some women to urban areas relieves social pressures and allows them to seek employment, but isolates others from a life with which they are familiar. Higher education of women seems to postpone marriage and child

  6. OGS#PETSc approach for robust and efficient simulations of strongly coupled hydrothermal processes in EGS reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.

  7. UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

  8. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus disguising as hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A

    2015-04-28

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.

  9. Status and Subscribing: A Response to Schwitzgebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Peter W.; Lemberger, John

    1999-01-01

    Outlines an account of conceptual learning in terms of the conceptions that people hold, the status they award to their conceptions, and the conceptual ecology containing the criteria they use in determining status. (Author/CCM)

  10. Present status of the SORTEC SR Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Atoda, N.; Awaji, N.; Kodaira, M.; Kishimoto, T.; Nishino, J.; Koga, K.; Maejima, Y.; Higashigawa, I.; Yanagida, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The status and performance of the SORTEC SR facility is described. Emphasis is placed on the reliable operation and the high performance of the SR source and the status of major systems for x-ray lithography.

  11. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  12. Status of TRANSP/PTRANSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCune, Douglas; Andre, Rob; Feibush, Eliot; Gorelenkova, Marina; Ludescher-Furth, Christiane; Yuan, Xingqiu

    2011-10-01

    This poster summarizes the status of TRANSP/PTRANSP code development and run production operations. Production system utilization rates, particularly for MPI jobs, continue to climb. The poster will show production system utilization history and describe status and plans for production facilities and supporting software, as well as the major areas of physics code development. The major physics areas are: simulation using free boundary MHD equilibrium (ISOLVER); neutral beam and fusion product fast ion heating and current drive (NUBEAM); RF heating and current drive (TORIC, GENRAY, and other codes); and predictive transport modeling (PTRANSP and associated modular solvers). In addition, there have been promising advances in capabilities for post-processing and analysis of TRANSP results, based on the SWIM Plasma State software; these too will be described.

  13. Distributed systems status and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  14. Localization of tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-/sup 1/H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ((/sup 3/H) AF 1890) in rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hilderbrandt-Stark, H.E.; Mills, J.W.; Fawcett, D.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-/sup 1/H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ((/sup 3/H)AF 1890) was localized within rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiographic techniques. Ligated seminiferous tubule preparations were exposed in vitro to 80 microCi of (/sup 3/H)AF 1890 in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled AF 1890 for 30 min at 31 degrees C. Autoradiographs showed a generalized distribution of silver grains over the seminiferous epithelium, in the tubular lumen, and in the interstitial spaces. In addition, clusters of grains were concentrated over the seminiferous epithelium in regions of spermatid heads and tails and in the basal portion of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, and over Leydig cells in the interstitial space. The generalized distribution was reduced and the grain clusters eliminated by incubation in an excess of unlabeled AF 1890. (/sup 3/H)inulin was used to assess the effectiveness of the tubular ligation because inulin does not normally penetrate the blood-testis barrier. This extracellular marker was not localized in the tubular lumen or in the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, the labeling observed with (/sup 3/H)AF 1890 indicates that this compound crosses the blood-testis barrier.

  15. The gene for human U2 snRNP auxiliary factor small 35-kDa subunit (U2AF1) maps to the progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) critical region on chromosome 21q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lalioti, M.D.; Rossier, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1996-04-15

    We used targeted exon trapping to clone portions of genes from human chromosome 21q22.3. One trapped sequence showed complete homology with the cDNA of human U2AF{sup 35} (M96982; HGM-approved nomenclature U2AF1), which encodes for the small 35-kDa subunit of the U2 snRNP auxiliary factor. Using the U2AF1 cDNA as a probe, we mapped this gene to cosmid Q15D2, a P1, and YAC 350F7 of the Chumakov et al. contig, close to the cystathionine-{beta}-synthase gene (CBS) on 21q22.3. This localization was confirmed by PCR using oligonucleotides from the 3{prime} UTR and by FISH. As U2AF1 associated with a number of different factors during mRNA splicing, overexpression in trisomy 21 individuals could contribute to some Down syndrome phenotypes by interfering with the splicing process. Furthermore, because this gene maps in the critical region for the progressive myoclonus epilepsy I locus (EPM1), mutation analysis will be carried out in patients to evaluate the potential role of U2AF1 as a candidate for EPM1. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  16. ISO camera array development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, F.; Cesarsky, C.; Agnese, P.; Rouan, D.

    1989-01-01

    A short outline is given of the Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM), one of the 4 instruments onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), with the current status of its two 32x32 arrays, an InSb charge injection device (CID) and a Si:Ga direct read-out (DRO), and the results of the in orbit radiation simulation with gamma ray sources. A tentative technique for the evaluation of the flat fielding accuracy is also proposed.

  17. Complex partial status and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Gómez, J

    1988-04-01

    Three cases of complex partial status which were diagnosed as psychotic episodes are presented. The scans of two of these cases show structural abnormalities in the left temporal lobe. It is proposed that there are similar neurophysiological mechanisms in primary schizophrenia and in the perceptual, affective and cognitive phenomena apparent is some complex and psychic partial seizures. The hippocampal-amygdaline system plays a central role in both cases.

  18. The experimental status of |Vub|

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Eunil

    2009-12-01

    In this presentation, we review the current experimental status in the measurements of |Vcb| from semileptonic B??? decays to DX ℓv???. Over 10 years of impressive progress in both theoretical and experimental approaches, now less than 2% precision is achieved. In order to further improve these measurements to test standard model, one expects to have better understanding of theoretical uncertainties and to have much more data from future higher luminosity B-factories and LHCb experiment.

  19. Drug-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Cock, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    Drug-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a relatively uncommon phenomenon, probably accounting for less than 5% of all SE cases, although limitations in case ascertainment and establishing causation substantially weaken epidemiological estimates. Some antiepileptic drugs, particularly those with sodium channel or GABA(γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic properties, frequently exacerbate seizures and may lead to SE if used inadvertently in generalized epilepsies or less frequently in other epilepsies. Tiagabine seems to have a particular propensity for triggering nonconvulsive SE sometimes in patients with no prior history of seizures. In therapeutic practice, SE is most commonly seen in association with antibiotics (cephalosporins, quinolones, and some others) and immunotherapies/chemotherapies, the latter often in the context of a reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Status epilepticus following accidental or intentional overdoses, particularly of antidepressants or other psychotropic medications, has also featured prominently in the literature: whilst there are sometimes fatal consequences, this is more commonly because of cardiorespiratory or metabolic complications than as a result of seizure activity. A high index of suspicion is required in identifying those at risk and in recognizing potential clues from the presentation, but even with a careful analysis of patient and drug factors, establishing causation can be difficult. In addition to eliminating the potential trigger, management should be as for SE in any other circumstances, with the exception that phenobarbitone is recommended as a second-line treatment for suspected toxicity-related SE where the risk of cardiovascular complications is higher anyways and may be exacerbated by phenytoin. There are also specific recommendations/antidotes in some situations. The outcome of drug-induced status epilepticus is mostly good when promptly identified and treated, though less so in the context of overdoses. This article is

  20. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  1. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  2. Status of the SOFIA Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    The SOFIA observatory has been in routine science operations since returning in January from a 6 month-long heavy maintenance period for the aircraft and the telescope assembly. These operations include a successful 6 week deployment to the Southern hemisphere. This presentation will provide an update to the current operational status of the SOFIA observatory, concentrating on the improvements and upgrades that have been implemented since the heavy maintenance period.

  3. The status of perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1988-10-01

    The advances in perturbative QCD are reviewed. The status of determinations of the coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub S/ and the parton distribution functions is presented. New theoretical results on the spin dependent structure functions of the proton are also reviewed. The theoretical description of the production of vector bosons, jets and heavy quarks is outlined with special emphasis on new results. Expected rates for top quark production at hadronic colliders are presented. 111 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Status of the VERITAS Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.; Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K. L.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.

    2008-12-24

    VERITAS, an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) system for gammma-ray astronomy in the GeV-TeV range, has recently completed its first season of observations with a full array of four telescopes. A number of astrophysical gamma-ray sources have been detected, both galactic and extragalactic, including sources previously unknown at TeV energies. We describe the status of the array and some highlight results, and assess the technical performance, sensitivity and shower reconstruction capabilities.

  5. Status of the PAPPA experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The Primordial Anisotropy Polarization Pathfinder Array (PAPPA) is a balloonborne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and search for the signature of primordial gravity waves. PAPPA uses a novel marriage of RF phase modulation and millimeter-wave bolometric detectors to produce a "polarimeter-on-a-chip" capable of simultaneously measuring the Stokes I, Q, and U parameters on the sky. I will discuss the current status and future plans for PAPPA.

  6. Status of LDEF radiation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

  7. Open XAL Status Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2013-01-01

    XAL is the well established, accelerator physics application programming framework developed for and used at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab. Due to interest from other accelerator labs, the Open XAL project was formed in 2010 to port XAL to be more suitable for collaboration. The Open XAL architecture along with the objectives, status and roadmap of this effort are presented in this paper.

  8. Light on population health status.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, K.; Brauer, G. W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Greiner, C.; Reischl, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  9. Status and the evaluation of workplace deviance.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Gelfand, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Bias in the evaluation of workplace misbehavior is hotly debated in courts and corporations, but it has received little empirical attention. Classic sociological literature suggests that deviance by lower-status actors will be evaluated more harshly than deviance by higher-status actors. However, more recent psychological literature suggests that discrimination in the evaluation of misbehavior may be moderated by the relative status of the evaluator because status influences both rule observance and attitudes toward social hierarchy. In Study 1, the psychological experience of higher status decreased rule observance and increased preferences for social hierarchy, as we theorized. In three subsequent experiments, we tested the hypothesis that higher-status evaluators would be more discriminating in their evaluations of workplace misbehavior, evaluating fellow higher-status deviants more leniently than lower-status deviants. Results supported the hypothesized interactive effect of evaluator status and target status on the evaluation of workplace deviance, when both achieved status characteristics (Studies 2a and 2b) and ascribed status characteristics (i.e., race and gender in Study 3) were manipulated.

  10. Status and the evaluation of workplace deviance.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Gelfand, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Bias in the evaluation of workplace misbehavior is hotly debated in courts and corporations, but it has received little empirical attention. Classic sociological literature suggests that deviance by lower-status actors will be evaluated more harshly than deviance by higher-status actors. However, more recent psychological literature suggests that discrimination in the evaluation of misbehavior may be moderated by the relative status of the evaluator because status influences both rule observance and attitudes toward social hierarchy. In Study 1, the psychological experience of higher status decreased rule observance and increased preferences for social hierarchy, as we theorized. In three subsequent experiments, we tested the hypothesis that higher-status evaluators would be more discriminating in their evaluations of workplace misbehavior, evaluating fellow higher-status deviants more leniently than lower-status deviants. Results supported the hypothesized interactive effect of evaluator status and target status on the evaluation of workplace deviance, when both achieved status characteristics (Studies 2a and 2b) and ascribed status characteristics (i.e., race and gender in Study 3) were manipulated. PMID:20424022

  11. Management of Status Epilepticus in Children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas M.; McGinnis, Emily L.; Walleigh, Diana J.; Abend, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is a common pediatric neurological emergency. Management includes prompt administration of appropriately selected anti-seizure medications, identification and treatment of seizure precipitant(s), as well as identification and management of associated systemic complications. This review discusses the definitions, classification, epidemiology and management of status epilepticus and refractory status epilepticus in children. PMID:27089373

  12. Social Status and the Married Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Marcus; Knoke, David

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of married women upon men for their achievement of social status is examined. Results indicate that both husbands and wives appear to pay rather little attention to the attainments of wives when evaluating their own social status. However, a status-sharing model is not totally ruled out. (Author)

  13. Lifting the Status of Learning Support Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusuma-Powell, Ochan; Powell, William

    2016-01-01

    Status, the perception of one's standing in relation to others in a group, negatively influence learning. Status issue have implications for educating students with special learning needs: Both these students and the learning support or special education teachers who serve them often hold low status in a school community. Like adults, children…

  14. Does Status Inconsistency Matter for Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Min

    2007-01-01

    This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…

  15. 40 CFR 52.422 - Approval status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval status. 52.422 Section 52.422... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Delaware § 52.422 Approval status. Link to an amendment published at 78 FR... Approval status. (a) With the exceptions set forth in this subpart, the Administrator approves...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Idle status period. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 5 Idle status period. (a) The General Agent shall place a vessel in idle status during the period of reactivation...

  1. Global conservation status of sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Cárdenas, César A; Bennett, Holly

    2015-02-01

    Sponges are important for maintaining ecosystem function and integrity of marine and freshwater benthic communities worldwide. Despite this, there has been no assessment of their current global conservation status. We assessed their status, accounting for the distribution of research effort; patterns of temporal variation in sponge populations and assemblages; the number of sponges on threatened species lists; and the impact of environmental pressures. Sponge research effort has been variable; marine sponges in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and freshwater sponges in Europe and North America have received the most attention. Although sponge abundance has increased in some locations since 1990, these were typically on coral reefs, in response to declines in other benthic organisms, and restricted to a few species. Few data were available on temporal trends in freshwater sponge abundance. Despite over 8500 described sponge species, only 20 are on threatened species lists, and all are marine species from the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Of the 202 studies identified, the effects of temperature, suspended sediment, substratum loss, and microbial pathogens have been studied the most intensively for marine sponges, although responses appear to be variable. There were 20 studies examining environmental impacts on freshwater sponges, and most of these were on temperature and heavy metal contamination. We found that most sponges do not appear to be threatened globally. However, little information is available for most species and more data are needed on the impacts of anthropogenic-related pressures. This is a critical information gap in understanding sponge conservation status.

  2. Global conservation status of sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Cárdenas, César A; Bennett, Holly

    2015-02-01

    Sponges are important for maintaining ecosystem function and integrity of marine and freshwater benthic communities worldwide. Despite this, there has been no assessment of their current global conservation status. We assessed their status, accounting for the distribution of research effort; patterns of temporal variation in sponge populations and assemblages; the number of sponges on threatened species lists; and the impact of environmental pressures. Sponge research effort has been variable; marine sponges in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and freshwater sponges in Europe and North America have received the most attention. Although sponge abundance has increased in some locations since 1990, these were typically on coral reefs, in response to declines in other benthic organisms, and restricted to a few species. Few data were available on temporal trends in freshwater sponge abundance. Despite over 8500 described sponge species, only 20 are on threatened species lists, and all are marine species from the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Of the 202 studies identified, the effects of temperature, suspended sediment, substratum loss, and microbial pathogens have been studied the most intensively for marine sponges, although responses appear to be variable. There were 20 studies examining environmental impacts on freshwater sponges, and most of these were on temperature and heavy metal contamination. We found that most sponges do not appear to be threatened globally. However, little information is available for most species and more data are needed on the impacts of anthropogenic-related pressures. This is a critical information gap in understanding sponge conservation status. PMID:25599574

  3. Tourette syndrome and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Mark; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-09-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics. Co-morbid behavioural problems are common and include obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Both tics and behavioural symptoms tend to have a chronic course and can affect patients' health-related quality of life; however, little is known about the relationship between TS, social status and occupation. We conducted an exploratory study on a clinical sample of 137 adult patients with TS to investigate the association between the core features of TS (both tic severity ratings and behavioural co-morbidities) and socioeconomic class. Both clinician- and patient-reported tic severity ratings were significantly higher amongst unemployed patients, compared to patients in the highest socioeconomic class (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in socioeconomic class distribution between patients with TS and co-morbid behavioural problems ('TS plus', n = 88) and patients with uncomplicated TS ('pure TS', n = 49) (P = 0.205). Our findings suggest that higher tic severity can have far-reaching consequences on patients' life, as it appears to be selectively associated with unemployment and lower socioeconomic status. These observations prompt further research into the complex relationship between TS and social status.

  4. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophage, Ab31, a Chimera Formed from Temperate Phage PAJU2 and P. putida Lytic Phage AF: Characteristics and Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung. PMID:24699529

  5. Supporting Treatment decision making to Optimise the Prevention of STROKE in Atrial Fibrillation: The STOP STROKE in AF study. Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Suboptimal uptake of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has persisted for over 20 years, despite high-level evidence demonstrating its effectiveness in reducing the risk of fatal and disabling stroke. Methods The STOP STROKE in AF study is a national, cluster randomised controlled trial designed to improve the uptake of anticoagulation in primary care. General practitioners from around Australia enrolling in this ‘distance education’ program are mailed written educational materials, followed by an academic detailing session delivered via telephone by a medical peer, during which participants discuss patient de-identified cases. General practitioners are then randomised to receive written specialist feedback about the patient de-identified cases either before or after completing a three-month posttest audit. Specialist feedback is designed to provide participants with support and confidence to prescribe anticoagulation. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation at the time of the posttest audit. Discussion The STOP STROKE in AF study aims to evaluate a feasible intervention via distance education to prevent avoidable stroke due to atrial fibrillation. It provides a systematic test of augmenting academic detailing with expert feedback about patient management. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry Registration Number: ACTRN12611000076976. PMID:22770423

  6. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage, Ab31, a chimera formed from temperate phage PAJU2 and P. putida lytic phage AF: characteristics and mechanism of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung.

  7. Antimony speciation in soils: improving the detection limits using post-column pre-reduction hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (HPLC/pre-reduction/HG-AFS).

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Waldo; Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea

    2011-04-15

    HG-AFS is highly sensitive and low cost detection system and its use for antimony chemical speciation coupled to HPLC is gaining popularity. However speciation analysis in soils is strongly hampered because the most efficient extractant reported in the literature (oxalic acid) strongly inhibits the generation of SbH(3) by Sb(V), the major species in this kind of matrix, severely affecting its detection limits. The purpose of this research is to reduce the detection limit of Sb(V), by using a post column on-line reduction system with l-cysteine reagent (HPLC/pre-reduction/HG-AFS). The system was optimized by experimental design, optimum conditions found were 2% (w/v) and 10°C temperature coil. Detection limits of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in oxalic acid (0.25 mol L(-1)) were improved from 0.3 and 0.1 μg L(-1) to 0.07 and 0.07 μg L(-1), respectively. The methodology developed was applied to Chilean soils, where Sb(V) was the predominant species.

  8. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Damien; Lopes Pereira, Patricia; Duchon, Arnaud; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  9. Plastic flow and failure in HY100, HY130 and AF1410 alloy steels under high strain rate and impact loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, A. M.; Last, H. R.; Garrett, R. K., Jr.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results from impact experiments, constitutive/failure modeling, and metallurgical failure analyses for three steels: HY100, HY130, and AF1410. The main objectives of this effort are: (1) to obtain fundamental engineering data in terms of stress-strain curves up to failure at different temperatures and strain rates, (2) to evaluate the observed differences in the macroscopic behaviors through microscopic metallurgical studies, and (3) to describe the flow and failure behaviors using already available material strength and spall models. The high strain rate and impact experiments considered are the split Hopkinson bar (SHB) and the planar plate impact tests, respectively. In addition, the baseline data include quasi-static (QS) tests at low strain rates. The QS and SHB data provide stress-strain curves at different strain rates and temperatures. The experimental data illustrate the effects of two important loading parameters (strain rate and temperature) on the flow and failure behaviors of HY100, HY130, and AF1410 steels.

  10. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  11. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias among Children from Low-Status Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…

  12. Solution conformation of [AF]dG opposite a -1 deletion site in a DNA duplex: intercalation of the covalently attached aminofluorene ring into the helix with base displacement of the C8-modified Syn guanine into the major groove.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Cosman, M; Hingerty, B E; Broyde, S; Patel, D J

    1995-05-01

    This paper reports on the solution structure of the [AF]dG adduct positioned opposite a deletion site in a DNA oligomer duplex that defines the alignment of the covalent aminofluorene--C8-guanine adduct relative to the deletion site. The combined NMR molecular mechanics computational studies were undertaken on the [AF]dG adduct embedded in the d(C5-[AF]G6-C7).d(G16-G17) sequence context in a duplex containing 11 residues on the modified strand and 10 on the partner, with no base opposite the modification. The exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons of the aminofluorene moiety and the nucleic acid were assigned following analysis of two-dimensional NMR data sets in H2O and D2O solution. The solution conformation of the [AF]G.del 11-mer duplex has been determined by incorporating intramolecular and intermolecular proton-proton distances defined by lower and upper bounds deduced from NOESY spectra as restraints in molecular mechanics computations in torsion angle space. The aminofluorene ring of [AF]dG6 is intercalated between intact Watson-Crick dC5.dG17 and dC7.dG16 base pairs with the guanine base of [AF]dG6 in a syn alignment displaced into the major groove. The syn glycosidic torsion angle at [AF]dG6 is supported by both carbon and proton chemical shift data for the sugar resonances of the modified guanine residue. The long axis of the aminofluorene ring is parallel to the long axis of the flanking dG.dC base pairs with the AF ring undergoing rapid 180 degrees flips on the NMR time scale. The intercalation site is wedge shaped with a pronounced propeller-twisting and buckling of the dC5.dG17 base pair. The guanine base of [AF]dG6, which is positioned in the major groove, is inclined relative to the helix axis and stacks over the 5'-flanking dC5 residue in the solution structure. The intercalative-base displacement structure of the [AF]dG.del 11-mer duplex exhibits several unusually shifted proton resonances that can be readily accounted for by the ring current

  13. Searching iron sensors in plants by exploring the link among 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases, the iron deficiency response and metabolic adjustments occurring under iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Morandini, Piero; Murgia, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge accumulated on the regulation of iron (Fe) homeostasis, its intracellular trafficking and transport across various cellular compartments and organs in plants; storage proteins, transporters and transcription factors involved in Fe metabolism have been analyzed in detail in recent years. However, the key sensor(s) of cellular plant “Fe status” triggering the long-distance shoot–root signaling and leading to the root Fe deficiency responses is (are) still unknown. Local Fe sensing is also a major task for roots, for adjusting the internal Fe requirements to external Fe availability: how such sensing is achieved and how it leads to metabolic adjustments in case of nutrient shortage, is mostly unknown. Two proteins belonging to the 2′-OG-dependent dioxygenases family accumulate several folds in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis roots. Such proteins require Fe(II) as enzymatic cofactor; one of their subgroups, the HIF-P4H (hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl 4-hydroxylase), is an effective oxygen sensor in animal cells. We envisage here the possibility that some members of the 2′-OG dioxygenase family may be involved in the Fe deficiency response and in the metabolic adjustments to Fe deficiency or even in sensing Fe, in plant cells. PMID:23755060

  14. Health status of older immigrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Newbold, K Bruce; Filice, John K

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to the Canadian-born in terms of age and gender using multiple measures of health status including self-assessed health. Second, we identify the factors associated with health status using the determinants of health framework. In both cases, the key questions are whether differences in health status exist and whether they are explained primarily by socio-economic, socio-demographic, or lifestyle factors that may point to problems with the Canadian health care system. Findings indicate that there is a relative comparability in the health status of older immigrants, even after controlling for age.

  15. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    PubMed

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs. PMID:24390093

  16. Status Configurations, Military Service and Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161

  17. Lack of Concordance between Empirical Scores and Physician Assessments of Stroke and Bleeding Risk in Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Hylek, Elaine; Ansell, Jack; Go, Alan S.; Chang, Paul; Kowey, Peter; Gersh, Bernard J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Singer, Daniel E; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) must weigh the benefits of anticoagulation in preventing stroke versus the risk of bleeding. While empirical models have been developed to predict such risks, the degree to which these coincide with clinicians’ estimates is unclear. Methods and Results We examined 10,094 AF patients enrolled in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF) registry between June, 2010 and August, 2011. Empirical stroke and bleeding risks were assessed using the CHADS2 and ATRIA scores, respectively. Separately, physicians were asked to categorize their patients’ stroke and bleeding risks: low- (<3%); intermediate- (3-6%); and high-risk (>6%). Overall, 72% (n=7251) in ORBIT-AF had high-risk CHADS2 scores (≥2). However, only 16% were assessed as high stroke risk by physicians. While 17% (n=1749) had high ATRIA bleeding risk (score ≥5), only 7% (n=719) were considered so by physicians. The associations between empirical and physician-estimated stroke and bleeding risks were low (weighted Kappa 0.1 and 0.11, respectively). Physicians weighed hypertension, heart failure, and diabetes less significantly than empirical models in estimating stroke risk; physicians weighted anemia and dialysis less significantly than empirical models when estimating bleeding risks. Anticoagulation use was highest among patients with high stroke risk, assessed by either empirical model or physician estimates. In contrast, physician and empirical estimates of bleeding had limited impact on treatment choice. Conclusions There is little agreement between provider-assessed risk and empirical scores in AF. These differences may explain, in part, current divergence of anticoagulation treatment decisions from guideline recommendations. PMID:24682387

  18. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) : Exploring the changes in anticoagulant practice in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, V; Ten Cate, H; Verheugt, F W A

    2016-10-01

    There are over 385,000 cases of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Netherlands, with over 45,000 new cases each year. Among other things, AF patients are at high risk of stroke. Patients are often prescribed oral anticoagulation, such as vitamin K antagonists (VKA), to mitigate these risks. A recently introduced class of oral anticoagulants, non-vitamin K antagonists (NOAC), is quickly gaining currency in global clinical practice. This study provides insight into the changes these new drugs will bring about in Dutch clinical practice.GARFIELD-AF is a large-scale observational AF patient registry initiated in 2009 to track the evolution of global anticoagulation practice, and to study the impact of NOAC therapy in AF in particular. The registry includes a wide array of baseline characteristics and has a particular focus on: (1) bleeding and thromboembolic events; (2) international normalised ratio fluctuations; and (3) therapy compliance and persistence patterns. The results in this paper provide the baseline characteristics of the first cohorts of Dutch participants in this registry and discuss some of the consequences of the changes in anticoagulation practice.Although VKA therapy remains overwhelmingly favoured by Dutch practitioners, NOACs are clearly gaining in popularity. Between 2011 and 2014, NOACs constituted an increasingly large proportion of prescriptions for oral anticoagulants.The insights provided by the GARFIELD-AF registry can be used by healthcare systems to inform better budgetary strategies, by practitioners to better tailor treatment pathways to patients, and finally to promote awareness of the various available treatment options and their associated risks and benefits for patients. PMID:27561277

  19. Antithrombotic therapy use in patients with atrial fibrillation before the era of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: the Global Registry on Long-Term Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (GLORIA-AF) Phase I cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Menno V.; Ma, Chang Sheng; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dubner, Sergio J.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Teutsch, Christine; Schoof, Nils; Kleine, Eva; Bartels, Dorothee B.; Lip, Gregory Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The introduction of non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which differ from the earlier vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatments, has changed the approach to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). GLORIA-AF is a prospective, global registry programme describing the selection of antithrombotic treatment in newly diagnosed AF patients at risk of stroke. It comprises three phases: Phase I, before the introduction of NOACs; Phase II, during the time of the introduction of dabigatran, the first NOAC; and Phase III, once NOACs have been established in clinical practice. Methods and results In Phase I, 1063 patients were eligible from the 1100 enrolled (54.3% male; median age 70 years); patients were from China (67.1%), Europe (EU; 27.4%), and the Middle East (ME; 5.6%). The majority of patients using VKAs had high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2; 86.5%); 13.5% had moderate risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 1). Vitamin K antagonist use was higher for persistent/permanent AF (47.7%) than that for paroxysmal (23.9%). Most patients in China were treated with antiplatelet agents (53.7%) vs. 27.1% in EU and 28.8% in ME. In China, 25.9% of patients had no antithrombotic therapy, vs. 8.6% in EU and 8.5% in ME. Conclusion Phase I of GLORIA-AF shows that VKAs were mostly used in patients with persistent/permanent (vs. paroxysmal) AF and in those with high stroke risk. Furthermore, there were meaningful geographical differences in the use of VKA therapy in the era before the availability of NOACs, including a much lower use of VKAs in China, where most patients either received antiplatelet agents or no antithrombotic treatment. PMID:27335063

  20. Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we