Science.gov

Sample records for af zone boundary

  1. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones. (a... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  2. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  3. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  4. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  5. Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, J.

    1997-04-22

    Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

  6. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  7. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary line between central and mountain zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.7 Boundary line between central and mountain zones. (a) Montana-North Dakota. Beginning at... upon the zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone,...

  8. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  9. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... zone boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  10. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  11. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  12. 49 CFR 71.9 - Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.9 Boundary line between mountain and Pacific zones. (a) Montana-Idaho-Oregon. From the... boundary line described in this section are in the mountain standard time zone....

  13. A new type of migrating zone boundary in electrophoresis: 2. Transient sample zone shapes.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2006-02-01

    A new type of migrating zone boundary in electrophoresis is presented theoretically and evidenced experimentally. This type of the boundary (called hybrid boundary) shows simultaneously a steady-state part with self-sharpening properties and an unsteady-state part with time-dependent electromigration dispersion. It is shown that a sample zone may possess a hybrid boundary both as its front and rear one simultaneously. In such a case, the evolution of a sample zone injected originally as a rectangular pulse exhibits very complex transient shapes before it reaches the well-known fronting or tailing triangular shape. Depending on the stage at which detection of such a sample zone occurs, variable and peculiar-shape peaks may appear in the electropherogram. Based on theoretical predictions, experimental examples of the above-mentioned phenomena are presented in this contribution for direct and indirect UV absorbance detection of sample zones. Excellent agreement of theoretical predictions with the experiments has been found. The knowledge of hybrid boundaries is of key significance for correct interpretation of records of CE analyses in practice.

  14. Measuring Transient Signals in Plate Boundary Faults Zones with Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, Dave; Phillips, David; Henderson, Brent; Gottlieb, Mike; Gallaher, Warren; Johnson, Wade; Pyatt, Chad; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Fox, Otina; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Chuck

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental goals the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Earthscope program was to provide a high-quality, continuous geodetic data set that would allow the scientific community to study the evolution of plate boundary zones. Of particular importance was enabling investigation of the role aseismic transient deformation plays in the release of accumulated stress. For example, to allow the comparison of the amount of strain released through Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events to that released in subduction zone earthquakes or, provide the ability to geodetically illuminate the kinematics of fault creep in strike-slip fault zones. The ability to easily integrate these measurements with compatible geophysical data sets was also an essential objective. With goals such as these in mind NSF funded the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to record the continuous deformation field across the western US Plate Boundary. PBO, built and operated by UNAVCO, now consists of over 1100 GPS stations, 76 co-located borehole strain and seismic sites, 6 long baseline strainmeters, Depending on the scientific questions being addressed sites may also have tiltmeter, meteorological, pore pressure and meteorological instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the transient deformation signals recorded by the PBO strainmeter network. PBO strainmeters, which excel in recording signals on the order of nanostrain over hours, have provided unprecedented temporal resolution of aseismic transients such as ETS events in the Cascadia subduction zone, creep signals along the central section of the San Andreas fault system and tsunami generated strain waves. UNAVCO is responsible not only for the ongoing operation of PBO but also the generation of data products associated with each instrument type. In this presentation we will highlight some of the transient signals these instruments have captured, outline the processing steps required to extract these signals data and

  15. MOLA Topography of the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.; E. H., Susan; H., James

    1998-01-01

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles frequently cross the crustal dichotomy boundary where the transition zone (TZ) between cratered highland terrain (CT) and lowland smooth plains (SP) is marked by mesas and knobby terrain. The detailed topographic character of the boundary zone is longitudinally variable, as is the geomorphology of the TZ. Some portions of the boundary are associated with an outer ring of the Utopia impact basin; MOLA topography is consistent with this. The regional character of the boundary topography is a 2-4 km step function from nearly flat SP to almost as flat CT. This rise has a regional slope of 1-2 degrees, 50-100 times that of the Cr and SP away from TZ, which suggests a significant change in crustal properties (thickness, composition or both) across the TZ. The overall topography is very similar to that at some passive continent-oceanic crustal margins on the Earth, with the seafloor allowed to adjust upward after removal of the overlying water. A possible temporal constraint on the CT/SP elevation difference comes from two MOLA profiles which pass through two large (150 km diameter) craters located at the boundary in Aeolis. The N and S rims of the more degraded crater are at the same elevation; north of the N rim the topography drops by greater than 2 km to the floor of the TZ. This crater predates the elevation offset between CT and TZ floor. The better preserved crater (Gale) has a N rim 2 km lower than its S rim, and appears to have been emplaced on a pre-existing regional slope of about I degree. Gale probably post- dates the elevation difference between CT and TZ floor. Based on the stratigraphy of the units in which these craters are found, the elevation difference appears to have been in place in the Mid to Late Noachian.

  16. Swash zone boundary conditions derived from optical remote sensing of swash zone flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, H. E.; Holman, R. A.; Baldock, T. E.

    2011-06-01

    Optical remote sensing is used to measure flow patterns in the swash zone. Timestack images are analyzed to measure the asymmetry and the relative duration of the inflow into the swash zone. This varies significantly between individual swashes, contrary to the classical analytical swash model for runup induced by bores, which predicts a similar flow pattern for all events. For swash forced by breaking bores, the gradient of the x-t locus of flow reversal varies over a wide range and flow reversal can occur simultaneously across the whole swash zone. This variation of the gradient of the locus of flow reversal in x-t space can be parameterized in terms of a single free variable in recent solutions to the nonlinear shallow water equations, which fully defines the swash boundary inflow condition. Consistent with the theory, the horizontal runup, the swash period, and the swash similarity parameter were observed to be independent of the swash inflow conditions but the flow asymmetry is not. Only a weak correlation was observed between the swash boundary condition and the Iribarren number and beach slope. Conversely, the analysis suggests that the degree of swash-swash interaction does influence the swash boundary condition and the resulting internal flow kinematics. The variation in inflow conditions is expected to influence the magnitudes of the velocity moments within the swash zone and therefore sediment transport rates.

  17. Grey zone simulations of the morning convective boundary layer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G. A.; Beare, R. J.; Osborne, S.; Lock, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Numerical simulations of two cases of morning boundary layer development are conducted to investigate the impact of grid resolution on mean profiles and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) partitioning from the large eddy simulation (LES) to the mesoscale limit. Idealized LES, using the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme, is shown to be capable of reproducing the boundary layer evolution when compared against measurements. However, increasing grid spacing results in the damping of resolved TKE and the production of superadiabatic temperature profiles in the boundary layer. Turbulence initiation is significantly delayed, exhibiting an abrupt onset at intermediate resolutions. Two approaches, the bounding of vertical diffusion coefficient and the blending of the 3-D Smagorinsky with a nonlocal 1D scheme, are used to model subgrid diffusion at grey zone resolutions. Simulations are compared against the coarse-grained fields from the validated LES results for each case. Both methods exhibit particular strengths and weaknesses, indicating the compromise that needs to be made currently in high-resolution numerical weather prediction. The blending scheme is able to reproduce the adiabatic profiles although turbulence is underestimated in favor of the parametrized heat flux, and the spin-up of TKE remains delayed. In contrast, the bounding approach gives an evolution of TKE that follows the coarse-grained LES very well, relying on the resolved motions for the nonlocal heat flux. However, bounding gives unrealistic static instability in the early morning temperature profiles (similar to the 3-D Smagorinsky scheme) because model dynamics are unable to resolve TKE when the boundary layer is too shallow compared to the grid spacing.

  18. Sea ice drift and deformation in the coastal boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikkonen, Annu; Haapala, Jari; Lensu, Mikko; Karvonen, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Small-scale sea ice deformation was studied in the coastal boundary zone (CBZ). Sequences of coastal radar images from the northern Baltic Sea (13 February to 13 May 2011) were used and trajectories of identifiable objects calculated. Average drift velocities in CBZ are small (<0.01 m/s), and events of high drift speeds are short and local. Deformations follow power law scaling but with an exponent of greater magnitude than in the Arctic. We discovered a connection between air temperature and sea ice deformation on a short time scale. During warm days, the mean deformation rate was significantly higher in all length scales than during cold days. This cannot be explained by changes in ice thickness or concentration, which suggests that the ice pack strength responds to air temperature faster than previously assumed. However, we cannot quantify how much this response is enhanced by lower ice thickness compared to the Arctic.

  19. Grain Boundary Plane Orientation Fundamental Zones and Structure-Property Relationships.

    PubMed

    Homer, Eric R; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  20. Grain Boundary Plane Orientation Fundamental Zones and Structure-Property Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries. PMID:26498715

  1. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  2. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE PAGES

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  3. Joining the Great Plains in Space, Place, and Time: Questioning a Time Zone Boundary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuper, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Standard time zone boundaries are invisible in the landscape, yet they abruptly delineate a temporal difference of one hour between two large areas located relative to one another on Earth. In most cases, standard time zone boundaries follow political ones and define areas within which daylight saving time (DST)--the seasonal advancement of…

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Grain-Boundary Fracture: Cohesive Zone Models Parameterized From Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Phillips, Dawn R.; Yamakov, Vesselin

    2006-01-01

    A multiscale modeling strategy is developed to study grain boundary fracture in polycrystalline aluminum. Atomistic simulation is used to model fundamental nanoscale deformation and fracture mechanisms and to develop a constitutive relationship for separation along a grain boundary interface. The nanoscale constitutive relationship is then parameterized within a cohesive zone model to represent variations in grain boundary properties. These variations arise from the presence of vacancies, intersticies, and other defects in addition to deviations in grain boundary angle from the baseline configuration considered in the molecular dynamics simulation. The parameterized cohesive zone models are then used to model grain boundaries within finite element analyses of aluminum polycrystals.

  5. Habitable Zone Boundaries: Implications for our Solar System and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Kopparapu, R.; Harman, C.; Batalha, N. E.; Haqq-Misra, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The successful completion of NASA's Kepler Mission has led to renewed interest in the definition and boundaries of the circumstellar habitable zone (HZ), where liquid water can be stable on a planet's surface. Goldblatt et al. [1] showed that the runaway greenhouse effect, which defines the inner edge of the HZ, depends critically on absorption coefficients of H2O obtained from the new HITEMP database. Kopparapu et al. [2,3] followed up on this observation by recalculating HZ boundaries using HITEMP coefficients. This caused the inner edge to move out to 0.99 AU in their (fully saturated, cloud-free) 1-D climate model. Leconte et al. [4] then used a 3-D climate model to show that the inner edge moves back in to 0.95 AU when relative humidity and clouds are taken into account. In their model, however, the upper stratosphere remained cold and dry, making it difficult to explain how Venus lost its water. But Leconte et al. only looked at surface temperatures up to ~330 K. At somewhat higher surface temperatures (350 K), our own 1-D model predicts that the stratosphere should indeed become wet [5]. Towards the outer edge of the HZ, it now appears that planets should undergo limit cycles involving global glaciation, CO2 buildup from volcanism, and CO2 drawdown from weathering [6,7]. If supplemented with volcanic H2 [8], such cycles could explain how early Mars could have been cold much of the time and yet have experienced enough warm periods to carve the observed fluvial features. Results from a new model of this process will be discussed. Refs: 1. Goldblatt, C., Robinson, T. D., Zahnle, K. J., & Crisp, D. 2013, Nature Geoscience, 6, 661 2. Kopparapu, R. K., et al. 2013, Astrophysical Journal, 765 3. ---. 2013, Astrophysical Journal, 770 4. Leconte, J., Forget, F., Charnay, B., Wordsworth, R., & Pottier, A. 2013, Nature, 504, 268 5. Kasting, J. F., Chen, H., & Kopparapu, R. K. in prep., Ap J Lett 6. Kadoya, S., & Tajika, E. 2014, Astrophysical Journal, 790 7. Menou, K

  6. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary (Methane filter, 732 nm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other and show Jupiter's appearance at 732 nanometers (nm). Sunlight at 732 nm is weakly absorbed by atmospheric methane. This absorption lowers the total amount of scattered light detected by the Galileo spacecraft while enhancing the fraction that comes from higher in Jupiter's atmosphere where less methane is present. The features of the lower ammonia cloud deck that are seen at 756 nm remain visible, but features in the higher, diffuse cloud are made more apparent.

    The bowed shape of the clouds in the center of the image is created by a combination of stretching in the eastward direction by strong winds and stretching in the north-south direction by weaker winds. The precise shape of the bow and the eastward wind speeds can be measured. The north-south wind speeds, too small to be directly measured, then can be calculated. These images may provide the first indirect measurement of Jupiter's north-south winds.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  8. The Role of the Zone of Dependence Concept in Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Calculations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    solution which simulates the essential features of the boundary layer on such a body is used as a test case. The zone of dependence concept places a...various wall speeds and mesh aspect ratios. Error growth occurs when the zone of dependence rule is not satisfied. The sensitivity and manner of error...zone of dependence are not the same. Our numerical experiments partly contradict the stability analyses.

  9. Surface plasmons at the Brillouin zone boundary of an oblique lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Thomas J. Vukusic, Pete; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy

    2015-03-02

    In periodic systems of low-symmetry, the Bragg condition for the complete interference of waves along the contour of the Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary is not generally satisfied. As a result, band-gaps do not necessarily occur at this boundary. This letter demonstrates this experimentally by recording the iso-frequency contours for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) supported on a diffraction grating with an underlying 2D oblique Bravias lattice. It is shown that these contours do not intersect the BZ boundary perpendicularly, as the symmetry operations of the lattice place no conditions on the surface wave interference at this boundary.

  10. The control of float zone interfaces by the use of selected boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. M.; Mcintosh, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main goal of the float zone crystal growth project of NASA's Materials Processing in Space Program is to thoroughly understand the molten zone/freezing crystal system and all the mechanisms that govern this system. The surface boundary conditions required to give flat float zone solid melt interfaces were studied and computed. The results provide float zone furnace designers with better methods for controlling solid melt interface shapes and for computing thermal profiles and gradients. Documentation and a user's guide were provided for the computer software.

  11. A numerical model of the atmospheric boundary layer over a marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantha, Lakshmi H.; Mellor, George L.

    1989-04-01

    A two-dimensional, multilevel model for simulating changes in the atmospheric boundary layer across a marginal ice zone is described and applied to off-ice, on-ice, and along-ice edge wind conditions. The model incorporates a second-moment closure for parameterizing the intensification and suppression of turbulent mixing in the boundary layer due to stratification effects. For off-ice winds, as the atmospheric boundary layer passes from cold smooth ice onto warm open water, the onset of intense convection raises the inversion. Over the transition zone of rough rafted ice with open leads, the shear stress on the ice cover increases significantly before dropping down to the downstream values over water. Such nonmonotonic surface stress could be the cause of divergence of sea ice near the ice edge in a marginal ice zone. These results are in agreement with the one-layer model simulations of off-ice winds by Overland et al. (1983). For on-ice wind conditions, as the warm flow in the boundary layer encounters the cold ice conditions, the resulting stable stratification could rapidly suppress the turbulence in the boundary layer, leading to the development of a shallow inversion and an associated jet. When the wind is predominantly along the ice edge, the temperature contrast between the open water and the ice could produce a thermal front at the ice edge in the boundary layer with strong associated turbulence. More observations are needed to verify these model predictions. Nevertheless, these model results suggest that it is important to account for the changes in the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer across the marginal ice zone in our attempts to understand the behavior of the ice cover in these regions.

  12. Time-evolution of uniform momentum zones in a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskari, Angeliki; Hearst, R. Jason; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2016-11-01

    Time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyse the organisation and evolution of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) in a turbulent boundary layer. Experiments were performed in a recirculating water tunnel on a streamwise-wall-normal plane extending approximately 0 . 5 δ × 1 . 8 δ , in x and y, respectively. In total 400,000 images were captured and for each of the resulting velocity fields, local peaks in the probability density distribution of the streamwise velocity were detected, indicating the instantaneous presence of UMZs throughout the boundary layer. The main characteristics of these zones are outlined and more specifically their velocity range and wall-normal extent. The variation of these characteristics with wall normal distance and total number of zones are also discussed. Exploiting the time information available, time-scales of zones that have a substantial coherence in time are analysed and results show that the zones' lifetime is dependent on both their momentum deficit level and the total number of zones present. Conditional averaging of the flow statistics seems to further indicate that a large number of zones is the result of a wall-dominant mechanism, while the opposite implies an outer-layer dominance.

  13. Heat Transfer at the Reattachment Zone of Separated Laminar Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Paul M.; Viegas, John R.

    1961-01-01

    The flow and heat transfer are analyzed at the reattachment zone of two-dimensional separated laminar boundary layers. The fluid is considered to be flowing normal to the wall at reattachment. An approximate expression is derived for the heat transfer in the reattachment region and a calculated value is compared with an experimental measurement.

  14. 77 FR 23425 - Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 1 Revisions of Boundaries, Regulations and Zoning Scheme for Florida...

  15. Boundary control of a Timoshenko beam system with input dead-zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Meng, Tingting; Liu, Jin-Kun; Qin, Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, boundary control is designed for a Timoshenko beam system with the input dead-zone. By the Hamilton's principle, the dynamics of the Timoshenko beam system is represented by a distributed parameter model with two partial differential equations and four ordinary differential equations. The bounded part is separated from the input dead-zone and then forms the disturbance-like term together with the boundary disturbance, which finally acts on the Timoshenko beam system. Boundary control, based on the Lyapunov's direct method, is proposed to ensure the Timoshenko beam converge into a small neighbourhood of zero, where stability of the system is also analysed. Besides, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the Timoshenko beam system are proved. Simulations are provided to reveal the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. 77 FR 52680 - Foreign-Trade Zone 242-Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 242--Boundary County, ID, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC, (Gas Centrifuge Production Equipment), Bonneville County, ID Boundary County, grantee of FTZ 242, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf...

  17. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plate, with a transition from subduction of Pacific oceanic lithosphere beneath North Island, to oblique continental collision in South Island. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone up to 250 km wide, with displacements on individual faults up to 100s of kilometres. Active deformation must be driven by a combination of plate-boundary forces and internal buoyancy forces. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses, together with simple Airy isostasy, to determine regional crustal and mantle structure. Integration of the vertical normal stress to the base of the deforming layer yields the buoyancy stress. Horizontal gradients of this can be compared with horizontal gradients of strain rate, using the method of England & Molnar (1997), in the context of a simple thin sheet model of deformation. Thus, if deformation is that of a Newtonian fluid, then appropriate combinations of the horizontal gradients of vorticity and dilatation are related to gradients of buoyancy stress by the fluid viscosity. However, the short term geodetic deformation is strongly biased by elastic strain accumulation related to locking on the plate interface, and cannot be used to determine the plate-boundary velocity field averaged over many seismic cycles (see Lamb & Smith 2013). Therefore, I derive here a velocity field for the plate-boundary zone, which is representative of deformation over tens of thousands of years. This is based on an inversion of fault slip, strain rate azimuth and paleomagnetic data, in the context of the short term relative plate motions, solved in a network of triangles spanning the plate-boundary, using the method of Lamb (2000). A comparison of gradients of buoyancy stress with the appropriate combinations of gradients of vorticity and dilatation shows that deformation in

  18. The memory of the accreting plate boundary and the continuity of fracture zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed aeromagnetic anomaly map of the Mesozoic seafloor-spreading lineations southwest of Bermuda reveals the dominant magnetic grain of the oceanic crust and the character of the accreting boundary at the time of crustal formation. The magnetic anomaly pattern is that of a series of elongate lobes perpendicular to the fracture zone (flowline) trends. The linear sets of magnetic anomaly peaks and troughs have narrow regions of reduced amplitude anomalies associated with the fracture zones. During the period of Mesozoic geomagnetic polarity reversals (when 1200 km of central North Atlantic seafloor formed), the Atlantic accreting boundary consisted of stationary, elongate, spreading center cells that maintained their independence even though sometimes only minor spatial offsets existed between cells. Normal oceanic crustal structure was formed in the spreading center cells, but structural anomalies and discontinuities characteristic of fracture zones were formed at their boundaries, which parallel flowlines of Mesozoic relative plate motion in the central North Atlantic. We suggest that the memory for a stationary pattern of independent spreading center cells resides in the young brittle lithosphere at the accreting boundary where the lithosphere is weakest; here, each spreading center cell independently goes through its cylce of stress buildup, stress release, and crustal accretion, after which its memory is refreshed. The temporal offset between the peaks of the accretionary activity that takes place within each cell may provide the mechanism for maintaining the independence of adjacent spreading center cells through times when no spatial offset between the cells exists.

  19. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  20. Extension and transtension in the plate boundary zone of the northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. ); Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose that the Caribbean (Ca)-North American (NA) plate boundary zone (pbz) from the Puerto Rico Trench to the Venezuelan Basin from Mona Canyon east has been in left-transtension over the last 15-20 ma. A boundary-normal component of extension occurs throughout the pbz and is a principal cause of the Puerto Rico Trench. Such extension is due to WNW velocity of NA-Ca and the northward pullaway of NA from its S-dipping slab, which is below Puerto Rico. Strike slip motion may be taken up among terranes in the pbz by rigid CCW rotation and by oblique slip at their boundaries. Rotation of the largest terrane, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI), has caused such major structures as the Muertos thrust and Anegada Passage. The model implies NA-Ca velocity estimated from Cayman transforms is more accurate than that from slip vectors from seisms in the NA slab.

  1. Modeling the Philippine Mobile Belt: Tectonic blocks in a deforming plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galgana, G. A.; Hamburger, M. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Bacolcol, T. C.; Aurelio, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Philippine Mobile Belt, a seismically active, rapidly deforming plate boundary zone situated along the convergent Philippine Sea/Eurasian plate boundary, is examined using geodetic and seismological data. Oblique convergence between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian plate is accommodated by nearly orthogonal subduction along the Philippine Trench and the Manila Trench, as well as by strike-slip faulting along the Philippine Fault system. We develop a model of active plate boundary deformation in this region, using elastic block models constrained by known fault geometries, published GPS observations and focal mechanism solutions. We then present an estimate of block rotations, fault coupling, and intra-block deformation, based on the best-fit model that minimizes the misfit between observed and predicted geodetic vectors and earthquake slip vectors. Slip rates along the Philippine fault vary from ~22 - 36 mm/yr in the Central Visayas and about 10 to 40 mm/yr in Luzon, trending almost parallel to the fault trace. In northern Luzon, Philippine Fault splays accommodate transpressional strain. The Central Visayas block experiences convergence with the Sundaland block along the Negros Trench and the Mindoro-Palawan collision zone. On the eastern side of Central Visayas, sinistral strike-slip faulting occurs along the NNW-SSE-trending Philippine Fault. Mindanao Island in southern Philippines is dominated by east-verging subduction along the Cotabato Trench, and strain partitioning (strike- slip faulting with west-verging subduction) in eastern Mindanao along the southern Philippine Fault and Philippine Trench, respectively. Oblique active sinistral strike slip faults in Central and Eastern Mindanao that were hypothesized to be responsible for basin formation are obvious boundaries for tectonic blocks. Located south of Mindanao Island we define an adjoining oceanic block defined by the N-S trending complex dual subduction zone of Sangihe and Halmahera

  2. Air Flow Path Dynamics In The Vadose Zone Under Various Land Surface Climate Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Schulte, P. E.; Cihan, A.; Christ, J.

    2010-12-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) refers to the transport of volatile chemical vapors from subsurface sources to surface and subsurface structures through the vadose zone. Because of the difference in pressure between the inside of the building and the subsurface soil pores, vapor can enter the building through cracks in the foundation, slab and walls and utility openings. The processes that govern the vapor transport in the heterogeneous subsurface “outside the home” are complex, and the sampling to assess potential pathways is subjected to spatial and temporal variability. Spatial variability is a result of a number of factors that include changing soil and soil moisture conditions. Temporal variability is a result of transient heat, wind, ambient pressure and a water flux boundary conditions at the land-atmospheric interface. Fluctuating water table conditions controlled by recharge, pumping, and stream-aquifer interactions will also contribute to the transient vapor flux generation at the sources. When the soil moisture changes as a result of precipitation events and other soil surface boundary conditions, the soil moisture content changes and hence the air permeability. Therefore, the primary pathways for the vapor are preferential channels that change with the transient soil moisture distribution. Both field and laboratory studies have shown that heterogeneity has a significant influence on soil moisture conditions in unsaturated soils. Uncertainties in vapor transport predictions have been attributed to heterogeneity and spatial variability in hydraulic properties. In this study, our goal was to determine the role of soil moisture variability on vapor transport and intrusion as affected by the climate driven boundary conditions on the land surface. A series of experiments were performed to generate a comprehensive data set to understand and evaluate how the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture affected by the mass and heat flux boundary conditions on the

  3. Transpression, displacement partitioning, and exhumation in the eastern Caribbean / South American plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avé Lallemant, Hans G.

    1997-04-01

    The Caribbean/South American plate boundary zone in northeastern Venezuela is a transpressive orogenic belt consisting from north to south of a nascent subduction zone (South Caribbean deformed belt), a volcanic arc (Leeward Antilles arc), a "hinterland" with high-pressure (P)/low temperature (T) metamorphic rocks (Cordillera de la Costa belt), and a southern nonmetamorphic, foreland fold and thrust belt (Serranía del Interior). The geometry, style, and orientation of mid-Cretaceous to Tertiary synmetamorphic deformation structures (D1) in the hinterland are compatible with formation in a right-oblique subduction or collision zone in which displacement partitioning has occurred. Late Oligocene to Recent right-oblique convergence resulted in the emplacement of the arc and hinterland on the passive South American margin and the formation of the foreland fold and thrust belt (D2); the displacements between the Caribbean and South American plates are partitioned as well. Both D1 and D2 deformations are diachronous: they are older in the west and younger in the east and related to the eastward passage of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America. The ascent, decompression, and exhumation of the high-P/low-T metamorphic rocks occurred in two stages: the first in the Cretaceous by arc-parallel extension (D1) and the second in Neogene time by thrusting (D2) and subsequent erosion.

  4. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  5. New approach to the boundary-parallel plastic / viscous diapiric flow patterns in the curvilinear boundary zones: an implication for structural geology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil

    2010-05-01

    New approach to the boundary-parallel plastic / viscous diapiric flow patterns in the curvilinear boundary zones: an implication for structural geology studies Khalil Sarkarinejad and Abdolreza Partabian Department of Earth Sciences, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Sarkarinejad@geology.susc.ac.ir). In the oceanic diverging away plates, the asthenospheric flow at solidus high-temperature conditions typically produces mineral foliations and lineations in peridotites. Foliation and lineation of mantle are defined by preferred flattening and alignment of olivine, pyroxene and spinel. In the areas with steep foliations trajectories which are associated with the steeply plunging stretching lineation trajectories, reflecting localized vertical flow and has been related to mantle diapir. The mantle flow patterns are well documented through detail structural mapping of the Neyriz ophiolite along the Zagros inclined dextral transpression and Oman ophiolite. Such models of the diverging asthenaspheric mantle flow and formation of mantle diapir are rarely discussed and paid any attention in the mathematical models of transpressional deformation in converging continental crusts. Systematic measurements of the mineral preferred orientations and construction of the foliation and lineation trajectories of the Zagros high-strain zone reveal two diapers with the shape of the inclined NW-SE boundary-parallel semi-ellipses shape and one rotated asymmetric diapir. These diapers made of quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and garnet amphibolite core with phyllite, phyllonite, muscovite schist and deformed conglomerate as a cover sequences. These boundary-parallel and rotated diapirs are formed by the interaction of Afro-Arabian lower to middle continental detachment and hot subdacting Tethyan oceanic crust, due to increasing effective pressure and temperature. The plastic/viscous gneissic diapers were squeezed between in Zagros transpression curvilinear boundary zones in an

  6. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  7. Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazard of the Sierran Nevada Great Basin Boundary Zone and Yucca Mountain Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K.; von Seggern, D.; Biasi, G. P.; Depolo, D.

    2003-12-01

    Geodetic data indicate that the Sierra Nevada block is moving at about 14 mm/yr N40-450W relative to stable North America. This motion accounts for about 20-25% of the current western North American plate motion budget and is oblique to active faults along the Sierra Nevada-Great Basin boundary zone and Walker Lane belt in a transtensional deformation field. Faulting over the past few million years has been concentrated along faults of the Eastern California shear zone, and the Walker Lane belt. Linear strike-slip faults of the Eastern California shear zone terminate near the Long Valley Caldera region marking an abrupt transition in the deformational style between the southern and northern western Great Basin. These tectonic transitions are reflected in the distribution and character of the historical and instrumental seismicity. North of Long Valley, through going strike-slip faulting is concentrated outboard from the Sierran Range front in the Central Walker Lane belt, whereas normal faulting in a series of left-stepping range bounding faults exhibiting E-W extension characterizes the Sierra Great Basin Boundary region from Long Valley to about the latitude of Reno-Lake Tahoe. Seismicity in the Lake Tahoe region is primarily concentrated in the transition between left-stepping normal faults in zones of high-angle conjugate strike-slip faulting. These observations suggest potential shortening as a mechanism of slip transfer between normal fault systems along the range front. Also, these slip transition zones show different recurrence behavior, activity rates and maximum magnitudes than the adjacent primary normal fault systems. One important kinematic problem is how to reconcile extension directions observed from instrumental seismicity and Sierran motion in the central western Great Basin. An upgrade to a digital seismic network in southern Nevada under the DOE Yucca Mountain Project has increased the detection threshold by about 1 magnitude unit (the catalog is

  8. The Inner Boundary of the Habitable Zone: Loss Processes of Liquid Water from Terrestrial Planet Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracke, B.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Rauer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The question of habitability is very important in the context of terrestrial extrasolar planets. Generally, the Habitable Zone (HZ) is defined as the orbital region around a star, in which life-supporting (habitable) planets can exist. Taking into account that liquid water is a commonly accepted, fundamental requirement for the development of life - as we know it - the habitable region around a star is mainly determined by the stellar insolation of radiation, which is sufficient to maintain liquid water at the planetary surface. This study focuses on different processes that can lead to the complete loss of a liquid water reservoir from the surface of a terrestrial planet to determine the inner boundary of the HZ. The investigated criteria are, for example, reaching the temperature of the critical point of water at the planetary surface, the runaway greenhouse effect and the diffusion-limited escape of water from the atmosphere, which could lead to the loss of the complete water reservoir within the lifetime of a planet. We investigate these criteria, which determine the inner boundary of the HZ, with a one-dimensional radiative-convective model of a planetary atmosphere, which extends from the surface to the mid-mesosphere. Our modelling approach involves the step-by-step increase of the incoming stellar flux and the subsequent iterative calculation of resulting changes in the temperature profiles, the atmospheric water vapour content and the radiative properties. Therefore, this climate model had to be adapted to account for high temperatures and water mixing ratios. For example, the infrared radiative transfer scheme was improved to be suitable for such high temperature and pressure conditions. Modelling results are presented determining the inner boundary of the HZ affected by these processes, which can result in no liquid water on the planetary surface. In this context, especially the role of the runaway greenhouse effect is discussed in detail.

  9. Thinking and meddling with boundaries: Critical reflections on Matthew Weinstein's narrative of street medics, red-zones and glop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and `sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism'. My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the essay performs with respect to three dialectics: (1) technical and political; (2) disciplinarily and multidisciplinarities; and (3) structures and agencies. I conclude with reflections on my boundary labour as a researcher, writer and pedagogue and how such cultural work might learn to live better with difference, ambiguities, hybrids and cross-hybrid learning.

  10. Consolidation patterns during initiation and evolution of a plate-boundary decollement zone: Northern Barbados accretionary prism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.C.; Klaus, A.; Bangs, N.L.; Bekins, B.; Bucker, C.J.; Bruckmann, W.; Erickson, S.N.; Hansen, O.; Horton, T.; Ireland, P.; Major, C.O.; Moore, Gregory F.; Peacock, S.; Saito, S.; Screaton, E.J.; Shimeld, J.W.; Stauffer, P.H.; Taymaz, T.; Teas, P.A.; Tokunaga, T.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole logs from the northern Barbados accretionary prism show that the plate-boundary decollement initiates in a low-density radiolarian claystone. With continued thrusting, the decollement zone consolidates, but in a patchy manner. The logs calibrate a three-dimensional seismic reflection image of the decollement zone and indicate which portions are of low density and enriched in fluid, and which portions have consolidated. The seismic image demonstrates that an underconsolidated patch of the decollement zone connects to a fluid-rich conduit extending down the decollement surface. Fluid migration up this conduit probably supports the open pore structure in the underconsolidated patch.

  11. 75 FR 60004 - Relocation of Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of North Dakota: Mercer County

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Regulation and Enforcement, U.S. Department of Transportation, Room W94-302, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... a century, time zone boundaries in North Dakota have had an interesting and varied history... cluster of counties in the southwest corner of the State. Congress transferred the ICC's time...

  12. Estimates of dynamic parameters and boundaries of habitable zones of selected stars of the Pulkovo program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakht, N. A.; Romanenko, L. G.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Vasilkova, O. O.

    2016-01-01

    A list of selected binary stars is presented that have been observed for several decades using a 26-inch refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory. These stars are at a distance from 3.5 to 25 pc from the Sun. They belong to spectral classes F, G, K, and M. Their masses range from 0.3 to 1.5 solar masses. We have analyzed them as possible parent stars for exoplanets taking into account the physical characteristics of these stars. In view of dynamic parameters and orbital elements that we have obtained by Pulkovo observations, ephemerides of positions for the coming years are calculated. The boundaries of the habitable zones around these stars are calculated. The astrometric signal that depends on the gravitational influence of hypothetical planets is estimated. Space telescopes for astrometric observations with microsecond accuracy can be used to detect Earth-like planets near the closest stars of this program. This paper presents an overview of astrometric programs of searches for exoplanets.

  13. Climatically-Active Gases in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, C.; Garçon, V.; Butz, A.; Yahia, H.; Sudre, J.; Illig, S.; Dewitte, B.; Paulmier, A.; Dadou, I.

    2012-04-01

    The EBUS (Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems) and OMZs (Oxygen Minimum Zone) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, notably with respect to the greenhouse gases (hereafter GHG). From in-situ ocean measurements, the uncertainty of the net global ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes is between 20 and 30%, and could be much higher in the EBUS-OMZ. Off Peru, very few in-situ data are available presently, which justifies alternative approaches for assessing these fluxes. GHG air-sea fluxes determination can be inferred from inverse modeling applied to Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) from GOSAT, using state of the art modeling, at low spatial resolution. For accurately linking sources of GHGs to EBUS and OMZs, the resolution of the source regions needs to be increased. This task develops on new non-linear and multiscale processing methods for complex signals to infer a higher spatial resolution mapping of the fluxes and the associated sinks and sources between the atmosphere and the ocean. The use of coupled satellite data (e.g. SST and/or Ocean colour) that carry turbulence information associated to ocean dynamics is taken into account at unprecedented detail level to incorporate turbulence effects in the evaluation of the air-sea fluxes. We will present a framework as described above for determining sources and sinks of GHG from satellite remote sensing with the Peru OMZ as a test bed.

  14. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    SciTech Connect

    Desjouy, C. Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.; Marsden, O.

    2015-10-28

    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjouy, C.; Ollivier, S.; Marsden, O.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P.

    2015-10-01

    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular - also called Von Neumann - regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

  16. Geodetic constraints on areal changes in the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone: What controls Basin and Range extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.

    2007-10-01

    Using ˜1500 geodetic velocities we model the present-day spatial patterns of areal changes inside the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone. From this model we show that between the central Gulf of California and the Queen Charlotte Islands there is no significant net change in surface area. This zero net areal-change result allows us to relate regions of areal growth to areas of equivalent contraction elsewhere within the plate boundary zone. We find that areal growth of the Basin and Range province (BRP) and its eastern margin (˜5.2 ± 0.1 × 103 m2/yr) is balanced by areal reduction near northwestern California between 38°N and 42°N. The San Andreas fault system south of 38°N and the plate boundary zone north of ˜42°N (including the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridge systems) each have no significant net areal change. Our results suggest a kinematic relationship between extension in the BRP and contraction near the northern California Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains. From these observations we propose that, although BRP extension may be caused by internal forces, the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone provides a “window of escape” that acts as a stress guide to BRP extension as well as northwestward Sierra Nevada motion. Such a dynamic model is consistent with independent findings that (1) the least principal horizontal stress orientations in the BRP are toward northern California, (2) extension directions in the BRP have changed orientation to track the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, and (3) the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone is a relatively weak plate boundary.

  17. Inside-out Planet Formation. III. Planet-Disk Interaction at the Dead Zone Inner Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many of them are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-out planet formation (IOPF) has been proposed as a scenario to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a pebble ring and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow in mass until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and also induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet undergoes significant migration from its formation location. Thus, planet-disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. Here we present numerical simulations that first assess the degree of migration for planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity is undergoing a rapid increase in the radially inward direction. We find that torques exerted on the planet by the disk tend to trap the planet at a location very close to the initial pressure maximum where it formed. We then study gap opening by these planets to assess at what mass a significant gap is created. Finally, we present a simple model for DZIB retreat due to penetration of X-rays from the star to the disk midplane. Overall, these simulations help to quantify both the mass scale of first (“Vulcan”) planet formation and the orbital separation to the location of second planet formation.

  18. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary in Near-Infrared and Violet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in violet (top panel) and near-infrared (bottom panel) light. The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Sunlight at 757 nanometers (near-infrared) penetrates deep into Jupiter's troposphere before being absorbed or scattered by clouds to the Galileo spacecraft. This wavelength reveals the features of the lower visible cloud deck. Sunlight at 415 nanometers (violet) is a scattered or absorbed to varying degrees in different parts of Jupiter's atmosphere depending on the types and concentrations of cloud particles and chemicals that color Jupiter's atmosphere. The near-infrared mosaic primarily shows cloud features. The violet mosaic has three distinct regions: it is brightest at the latitude of the jet (horizontally across the center of the mosaic), moderately bright north of the jet, and dark and patchy south of the jet.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ˜90 to ˜87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70-60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85-80 Ma and 55-45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ˜65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55-45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene-early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene-recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  20. Development of Grain Boundary Precipitate-Free Zones in a Ni-Mo-Cr-W Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Field, Robert; Konitzer, Doug; Kaufman, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the morphology and development of precipitate-free zones (PFZs) near grain boundaries (GBs) in low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) Ni-Mo-Cr-W alloys (based on Haynes 244) have been investigated as a function of thermal history and composition using electron microscopy techniques. It is shown that the formation of wide, continuous PFZs adjacent to GBs can be largely attributed to a vacancy depletion mechanism. It is proposed that variations in the vacancy distributions that develop after solution heat treatment (SHT) and subsequent quenching and aging greatly influence the development of the γ'-Ni2(Mo,Cr) precipitates during the aging process and result in the development of PFZs of varying sizes. The relatively large (5 to 10 μm) PFZs are distinct from the smaller, more common PFZs that result from solute depletion due to GB precipitation that are typically observed after prolonged aging. During the course of this investigation, heat treatment parameters, such as aging time, SHT temperature, cooling rate after SHT, and heating rate to the aging temperature—all of which change vacancy concentration and distribution adjacent to GBs—were investigated and observed to have significant influence on both the size and morphology of the observed PFZs. In contrast to results from other Ni-based alloys studied previously, PFZ development in the current alloys was observed across a broad range of aging temperatures. This appears to be due to the high misfit strain energy of the γ' precipitates, resulting in a nucleation process that is sensitive to vacancy concentration. It is also shown that a slightly modified alloy with higher Mo concentrations develops smaller, more typical PFZs; this is presumably due to an increased driving force for γ' precipitation which overshadows the influence of misfit strain energy, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of precipitation on vacancy concentration.

  1. INSIDE-OUT PLANET FORMATION. III. PLANET–DISK INTERACTION AT THE DEAD ZONE INNER BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiao; Tan, Jonathan C.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered more than 4000 exoplanet candidates. Many of them are in systems with tightly packed inner planets. Inside-out planet formation (IOPF) has been proposed as a scenario to explain these systems. It involves sequential in situ planet formation at the local pressure maximum of a retreating dead zone inner boundary (DZIB). Pebbles accumulate at this pressure trap, which builds up a pebble ring and then a planet. The planet is expected to grow in mass until it opens a gap, which helps to both truncate pebble accretion and also induce DZIB retreat that sets the location of formation of the next planet. This simple scenario may be modified if the planet undergoes significant migration from its formation location. Thus, planet–disk interactions play a crucial role in the IOPF scenario. Here we present numerical simulations that first assess the degree of migration for planets of various masses that are forming at the DZIB of an active accretion disk, where the effective viscosity is undergoing a rapid increase in the radially inward direction. We find that torques exerted on the planet by the disk tend to trap the planet at a location very close to the initial pressure maximum where it formed. We then study gap opening by these planets to assess at what mass a significant gap is created. Finally, we present a simple model for DZIB retreat due to penetration of X-rays from the star to the disk midplane. Overall, these simulations help to quantify both the mass scale of first (“Vulcan”) planet formation and the orbital separation to the location of second planet formation.

  2. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  3. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Ti-6Al-4V Laser Welds Using Solidification and Heat-Affected Zone Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.

    2017-03-01

    Temperature histories of Ti-6Al-4V laser welds are presented, which are calculated using numerical-analytical basis functions and boundary constraints based on measured solidification and heat-affected zone cross sections. These weld temperature histories can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, which include numerical models for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and mechanical response. In addition, these temperature histories can be used parametrically for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study applies an inverse thermal analysis procedure that uses three-dimensional constraint conditions whose two-dimensional projections are mapped within transverse cross sections of experimentally measured solidification and heat-affected zone boundaries.

  4. Inverse Thermal Analysis of Ti-6Al-4V Laser Welds Using Solidification and Heat-Affected Zone Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrakos, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature histories of Ti-6Al-4V laser welds are presented, which are calculated using numerical-analytical basis functions and boundary constraints based on measured solidification and heat-affected zone cross sections. These weld temperature histories can be adopted as input data to various types of computational procedures, which include numerical models for prediction of solid-state phase transformations and mechanical response. In addition, these temperature histories can be used parametrically for inverse thermal analysis of welds corresponding to other welding processes whose process conditions are within similar regimes. The present study applies an inverse thermal analysis procedure that uses three-dimensional constraint conditions whose two-dimensional projections are mapped within transverse cross sections of experimentally measured solidification and heat-affected zone boundaries.

  5. Recharge and Lateral Groundwater Flow Boundary Conditions for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    S. James

    2004-10-06

    This analysis is designed to use existing modeling and analysis results as the basis for estimated groundwater flow rates into the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale model domains, both as recharge (infiltration) at the upper boundary (water table), and as underflow at the lateral boundaries. Specifically, this work compiles information on the recharge boundary conditions supplied to the base-case and alternate SZ site-scale flow models taken from (1) distributed recharge from the 1997 (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131]) or 2001 (D'Agnese et al. 2002 [DIRS 158876]) SZ regional-scale (Death Valley Regional Flow System [DVRFS]) model; (2) recharge below the area of the 1997 (Wu et al. 1997 [DIRS 156453]) or 2003 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]) unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale flow model; and (3) focused recharge along Fortymile Wash. In addition, this analysis includes extraction of the groundwater flow rates simulated by the 1997 and 2001 DVRFS models coincident with the lateral boundaries of the SZ site-scale flow models. The fluxes from the 1997 DVRFS were used to calibrate the base-case SZ site-scale flow model. The 2001 DVRFS fluxes are used in the alternate SZ site-scale flow model.

  6. Neotectonic map of Syria and some aspects of Late Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern boundary zone of the Arabian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukieh, M.; Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Minini, H.; Ammar, O.; Ivanova, T. P.; Zaza, T.; Yusef, A.; Al-Shara, M.; Jobaili, Y.

    2005-09-01

    The neotectonic map of Syria, 1:500,000, was compiled by the authors in 2003-2004. The map shows tectonic features formed or continued to develop during the Neogene and Quaternary in Syria and adjacent territories, including the Mediterranean realm. The neotectonic structure of the region was formed as a result of three phases of deformation. During the Early Miocene first phase, the Arabian plate moved along the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant (Dead Sea) transform fault zone, Roum fault and its continuation in the continental slope of the Mediterranean. The chain of the coastal anticlines in the "Arabian" side of the transform zone and the Lattaqie oblique (sinistral-thrust) boundary fault zone in the north were formed under the NNW-trending compression. The Lattaqie zone continued by the Cyprus arc in the west and by the Taurus (Bitlis) thrust in the east and further by the Main Thrust of the Zagros. After "quiet" (for Syria) epoch of the Middle Miocene when the Arabian plate moved to the NE, during the Late Miocene second phase of deformation, the Arabian plate moved again to the NNW along the same transform boundary. But a part of the Late Miocene plate motion (up to 20 km) resulted by shortening in the Anti-Leban-Palmyride fold-thrust belt that separated the Aleppo block from the main part of the Arabian plate. During the Pliocene-Quaternary third phase of deformation, the recent structural pattern of the Levant zone was formed in Lebanon and the northwestern Syria. At the same time, the Serghaya and smaller sinistral faults branched out the Levant zone and the system of the W-E-trending convex to the south dextral faults ruptured the Palmyrides and the stable part of the Arabian plate. The total Pliocene-Quaternary sinistral offset on the young Levant zone segments and the associated faults has reached 35-40 km, like on the Dead Sea-Jordan segments of the Levant fault zone. The faults, demonstrating the Pliocene-Quaternary activity are still active now

  7. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  8. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  9. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  10. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... southerly along the Montana-North Dakota boundary to the Missouri River; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of that river to the midpoint of the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers; thence southerly and easterly along the middle of the Yellowstone River to the north boundary of T. 150...

  11. [Spatial pattern of soil moisture at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kun; Mi, Jia; Xie, Ying-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    By the methods of classic statistics and geostatistics, this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at 0-50 cm depth in different sampling grain sizes (1 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m) at the cropland-grassland boundary in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China. In study area, the soil moisture at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm depths of cropland, grassland, and cropland-grassland boundary presented moderate variance, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of grassland was higher than that of cropland. The CV increased with soil depth, and a significant linear regression relation (P < 0.05) was observed between them in sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m. In sampling grain size 1 m x 1 m, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture at different depths was obviously higher at cropland-grassland boundary than in cropland and grassland, which had a moderate to strong spatial dependency, and the range (A0) was 7.65-30.99 m; whereas in sampling grain size 2 m x 2 m, the spatial distribution of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary had both the moderate to strong spatial dependency and the pure nugget effect, and the A0 was 4.16-18.86 m, suggesting that there existed ecological edge effect of soil moisture at cropland-grassland boundary.

  12. Non-local sub-characteristic zones of influence in unsteady interactive boundary-layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The properties of incompressible, unsteady, interactive, boundary layers are examined for a model hypersonic boundary layer and internal flow past humps or, equivalently, external flow past short-scaled humps. Using a linear high frequency analysis, it is shown that the domains of dependence within the viscous sublayer may be a strong function of position within the sublayer and may be strongly influenced by the pressure displacement interaction, or the prescribed displacement condition. Detailed calculations are presented for the hypersonic boundary layer. This effect is found to carry over directly to the fully viscous problem as well as the nonlinear problem. In the fully viscous problem, the non-local character of the domains of dependence manifests itself in the sub-characteristics. Potential implications of the domain of dependence structure on finite difference computations of unsteady boundary layers are briefly discussed.

  13. Thinking and Meddling with Boundaries: Critical Reflections on Matthew Weinstein's Narrative of Street Medics, Red-Zones and Glop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of more mindful notions of hybridity, this review essay provides a series of reflections on Mathew Weinstein's representations of Street Medics and "sciences for the red zones of neoliberalism". My analysis draws on three popular ways of thinking with boundaries to offer a critical reading of the boundary-work that the…

  14. STRIKE SLIP ON REACTIVATED TRIASSIC(? ) BASIN BOUNDARY FAULT ZONES AS SOURCES OF EARTHQUAKES NEAR CHARLESTON, S. C.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Yuan, Annette

    1986-01-01

    Interpretation of several thousand kilometers of multifold seismic reflection data supports the old theory that earthquakes in the Charleston, S. C. area are associated with reactivated Triassic(? ) basin boundary extensional fault zones. The Gants-Cooke fault zone associated with the Jedburg basin in the 1886 meizoseismal area, an unnamed fault along the margin of the Branchville basin in the Bowman earthquake area and the offshore Helena Banks fault zone (no observed seismicity) along the margin of the Kiawah basin show evidence of reactivation of Triassic(? ) normal faults zones in a compressional, probably strike slip sense. The previously reported reverse separation of these faults observed on the seismic profiles in the late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Coastal Plain sediments is possibly produced by oblique slip with the horizontal component possibly 10 to 100 times the vertical. Earthquake recurrence intervals of several thousand years reported in the Charleston area appear consistent with ranges of magnitude of strike slip displacement inferred from the seismic reflection data, and are constrained by aeromagnetic data.

  15. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  16. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  17. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  18. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  19. 49 CFR 71.5 - Boundary line between eastern and central zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... County; thence west along the north line of Pulaski County to the east line of Jasper County; thence south along the east line of Jasper County to the south line of Jasper County; thence west along the south lines of Jasper and Newton Counties to the western boundary of the State of Indiana; thence...

  20. Radiocarbon evidence for extensive plate-boundary rupture about 300 years ago at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Atwater, B.F.; Bobrowsky, P.T.; Bradley, L.-A.; Clague, J.J.; Carver, G.A.; Darienzo, M.E.; Grant, W.C.; Krueger, H.W.; Sparks, R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Stuiver, M.

    1995-01-01

    THE Cascadia subduction zone, a region of converging tectonic plates along the Pacific coast of North America, has a geological history of very large plate-boundary earthquakes1,2, but no such earthquakes have struck this region since Euro-American settlement about 150 years ago. Geophysical estimates of the moment magnitudes (Mw) of the largest such earthquakes range from 8 (ref. 3).to 91/2 (ref. 4). Radiocarbon dating of earthquake-killed vegetation can set upper bounds on earthquake size by constraining the length of plate boundary that ruptured in individual earthquakes. Such dating has shown that the most recent rupture, or series of ruptures, extended at least 55 km along the Washington coast within a period of a few decades about 300 years ago5. Here we report 85 new 14C ages, which suggest that this most recent rupture (or series) extended at least 900 km between southern British Columbia and northern California. By comparing the 14C ages with written records of the past 150 years, we conclude that a single magnitude 9 earthquake, or a series of lesser earthquakes, ruptured most of the length of the Cascadia subduction zone between the late 1600s and early 1800s, and probably in the early 1700s.

  1. Subducted banded iron formations as a source of ultralow-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary.

    PubMed

    Dobson, David P; Brodholt, John P

    2005-03-17

    Ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) are regions of the Earth's core-mantle boundary about 1-10 kilometres thick exhibiting seismic velocities that are lower than radial-Earth reference models by about 10-20 per cent for compressional waves and 10-30 per cent for shear waves. It is also thought that such regions have an increased density of about 0-20 per cent (ref. 1). A number of origins for ULVZs have been proposed, such as ponding of dense silicate melt, core-mantle reaction zones or underside sedimentation from the core. Here we suggest that ULVZs might instead be relics of banded iron formations subducted to the core-mantle boundary between 2.8 and 1.8 billion years ago. Consisting mainly of interbedded iron oxides and silica, such banded iron formations were deposited in the world's oceans during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eras. We argue that these layers, as part of the ocean floor, would be recycled into the Earth's interior by subduction, sink to the bottom of the mantle and may explain all of the observed features of ULVZs.

  2. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org

    2012-09-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  3. Strain localization along the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zone in the Eastern Himalaya: insights from field and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir

    2016-04-01

    The southward tapering Himalayan tectonic wedge is sliding over the upper boundary of the subducting Indian crust that act as the basal low angle detachment fault, known as the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). It is now established that at least four crustal-scale south verging thrust faults, such as Main Central Thrust (MCT), Daling Thrust (~ Ramgarh Thrust ~ Shumar Thrust) (DT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), have emerged from the MHT, striking the entire length of Himalayan mountain belts. These structures accommodated hundreds of kilometers of crustal shortening since India-Asia collision and eventually, juxtaposed different tectono-metamorphic rocks in their hanging wall. Field investigations reveal increased number of thrust faults towards the frontal Himalayan mountain belts and their spacing between the successive thrusts are relatively small in contrast to the hinterland part of the mountain belt. For example, in the Eastern Himalayan belt the MBT zone in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence is marked by several such closely spaced thrusts. The present work is aimed to delineate factors that likely to have influenced for the development of such high frequency thrusting. Employing the model of Coulomb Wedge Theory (CWT), several researchers have shown that spacing between two consecutive thrusts is a function of basal friction and pore fluid pressure ratio. However, this model does not explain the cause of closely spaced thrust localization towards the frontal mountain belts during the wedge growth. Our present study using field relations and physical modeling shows that relative strength difference between the basal low angle detachment fault and the interface-strength of the varying lithology of the cover rocks has a major role for such thrust localization with narrow thrust spacing. Moreover, our findings may become useful for structural interpretation for the localization of Main Boundary Thrust zone in the frontal Himalayan mountain

  4. Entrainment Zone Characteristics and Entrainment Rates in Cloud-Topped Boundary Layers from DYCOMS-II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    method . With this method , one must measure the mean ascent/descent of the atmosphere at the interface, , alongside the time rate of change of the...using a new method based on turbulence perturbations from high-rate turbulence samplings taken during the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine...properties and the cloud-top entrainment rates using in situ aircraft measurements . The entrainment zone is defined objectively using a new method based

  5. Visualizing Life Zone Boundary Sensitivities Across Climate Models and Temporal Spans

    SciTech Connect

    Sisneros, Roberto R; Huang, Jian; Ostrouchov, George; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2011-01-01

    Life zones are a convenient and quantifiable method for delineating areas with similar plant and animal communities based on bioclimatic conditions. Such ecoregionalization techniques have proved useful for defining habitats and for studying how these habitats may shift due to environmental change. The ecological impacts of climate change are of particular interest. Here we show that visualizations of the geographic projection of life zones may be applied to the investigation of potential ecological impacts of climate change using the results of global climate model simulations. Using a multi-factor classification scheme, we show how life zones change over time based on quantitative model results into the next century. Using two straightforward metrics, we identify regions of high sensitivity to climate changes from two global climate simulations under two different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Finally, we identify how preferred human habitats may shift under these scenarios. We apply visualization methods developed for the purpose of displaying multivariate relationships within data, especially for situations that involve a large number of concurrent relationships. Our method is based on the concept of multivariate classification, and is implemented directly in VisIt, a production quality visualization package.

  6. Boundary-reaction-diffusion model for oscillatory zoning in binary crystals grown from solution.

    PubMed

    Kalischewski, Felix; Lubashevsky, Ihor; Heuer, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Oscillatory Zoning (OZ) is a phenomenon exhibited by many geologically formed crystals. It is characterized by quasiperiodic oscillations in the composition of a solid solution, caused by self-organization. We present a model for OZ. The growth mechanism applied includes species diffusion through the solution bulk, particle adsorption, surface diffusion, and subsequently desorption or incorporation into the crystal. This mechanism, in particular, can provide the synchronization effects necessary to reproduce the layered structure of experimentally obtained crystals, lacking in other models. We conduct a linear stability analysis combined with numerical simulations. Our results reproduce the experimental findings with respect to the patterns formed and a critical supersaturation necessary for OZ to occur.

  7. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  8. Lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary (LAB) around the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerova, J.; Babuska, V.; Vecsey, L.; Passeq Working Group

    2012-04-01

    Exploiting the long memory of the deep continental lithosphere fabric, we present the LAB as a transition between a fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to the present-day flow in the asthenosphere. A uniform updated model of the European LAB, recalculated from data collected during several regional studies of seismic anisotropy and other tomographic experiments (Plomerova and Babuska, 2010) is complemented by LAB depth estimates from the PASSEQ (2006-2008) field measurements, involving about 17 countries (Wilde-Piorko et al., SGG 2008). Analysis of static terms of teleseismic P-wave travel time deviations shows that the LAB topography is more distinct beneath the Phanerozoic part of Europe than beneath its Precambrian part and deepens down to ~220 km beneath the two Alpine roots, the South Carpathians and eastward of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), being shallowest beneath basins. The TESZ represents a distinct tectonic feature, which can be traced from north-western to south-eastern Europe in various seismic velocity tomography as well as in seismic anisotropy (Babuska et al., PAGEOPH 1998). Modelling seismic anisotropy around the western part of TESZ (Plomerova et al., Tectonophysics 2002; Babuska and Plomerova, Terra Nova 2004) delimited there three lithospheric domains of different thickness and fabrics: (1) thick Fennoscandian lithosphere north of the TESZ, (2) the sharply bounded fragment of a thinner lithosphere between the northern (Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone) and southern branch (Thor Suture) of the TESZ; (3) south of the TESZ, a domain belonging to a very thin lithosphere of Avalonia. Structure of the mantle around the Teisseyere-Tornquist Zone (TT), i.e., in the central part of the TESZ, is one of the main targets of the PASSEQ seismic experiment. The suture appears there as a broad transition zone on the surface and in the mantle it separates the thick lithosphere domains of the Paleozoic

  9. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., <660km depth). Some of the deeply subducted material may indeed be buoyant subducted AUS continental margin (to depths of ~250-300 km), as well as subducted continental material that has reached the point of no return (i.e., > 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  10. The Evolution of Deformation-Induced Grain-Boundary Porosity and Dynamic Permeability in Crustal Fault Zones: Insights From the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. M.; Toy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Fluids and minor phases have an important influence on the bulk rheology of a deforming rock mass, but they are not uniformly distributed at any scale within fault zones. Additionally, exhumed ductile shear zones show little interconnected porosity or static permeability, requiring a dynamic process at depth to allow fluids to access the deforming rock mass. It was recently recognized that reactive fluids interact with high-strain sites to generate cavities on quartz grain boundaries, increasing the grain-scale porosity and dynamic permeability of the rock and allowing for additional fluids to infiltrate the shear zone along interlinking cavities, stimulating further reaction and cavitation. Grain-boundary cavities and fine-grained secondary phases impede grain-boundary mobility and cause a transition in deformation mechanisms from grain-size insensitive dislocation creep to grain-size sensitive creep, which is recognized as a weakening mechanism that promotes strain localisation. At present, it is unclear how the distribution of grain-boundary pores within fault rocks reflects the bulk mineralogy and phase arrangement, which is a function of shear strain. We have used micro-computed x-ray tomography (μ-CT), SEM imaging, and EDS analyses to examine how the distribution of grain-boundary pores varies in relation to the arrangement of secondary phases in exhumed protomylonites, mylonites, and ultramylonites within the actively-deforming Alpine Fault zone, and in samples acquired from the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP). Additionally, EBSD is coupled with µ-CT and EDS analyses to characterise the evolution of microstructures in three dimensions across a finite strain gradient. Here we examine the relationship and competition between grain-boundary cavitation and microstructural processes during deformation in a high-strain shear zone, and discuss the implications of these grain-scale deformation processes on strain localisation and continental fault zone dynamics.

  11. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  12. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT SEARCH TOWARD THE BOUNDARY OF THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE WITH NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Shogo; Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide E-mail: nagata@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    We have carried out near-infrared polarimetry toward the boundary of the Central Molecular Zone, in the field of (–1.°4 ≲ l ≲ –0.°3 and 1.°0 ≲ l ≲ 2.°9, |b| ≲ 0.°1), using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. We have selected 112 intrinsically polarized sources on the basis of the estimate of interstellar polarization on Stokes Q/I – U/I planes. The selected sources are brighter than K{sub S} = 14.5 mag and have polarimetric uncertainty δP < 1%. Ten of these distinctive polarized sources are fit well with spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects when using the photometry in the archive of the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data. However, many sources have spectral energy distributions of normal stars suffering from heavy interstellar extinction; these might be stars behind dark clouds. Due to the small number of distinctive polarized sources and candidates of young stellar objects, we cannot judge if they are declining in number outside the Central Molecular Zone. Many massive candidates for young stellar objects in the literature have only small intrinsic polarization. This might suggest that their masses are 4-15 M {sub ☉}, whose intrinsic polarization has been expected to be small.

  13. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly elevated temperatures to constrain the maximum temperature a slip zone has experienced. The case study comprises sheared clay cored from the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone (décollement), which accommodated the large slip of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The décollement was cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Heating signatures with estimated maximum temperatures ranging from ˜300 to over 500 °C are determined close to the multiple slip surfaces within the décollement. Since it is impossible to tie a specific slip surface to a certain earthquake, thermal evidence for the cumulative effect of several earthquakes is unveiled. This as yet preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' would be a useful tool to detect seismic heating along faults that experienced medium temperature rise, a range which is difficult to assess with other approaches.

  14. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand Plate boundary zone: implications for the strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plate. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone of continental lithosphere up to 250 km wide. I investigate the implications of the short-term kinematics for the strength of the deforming lithosphere. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses to determine both the regional structure of the crust, which ranges from 20 to 50 km thick, and fields of buoyancy stress (or GPE per unit volume). Deformation over thousands of years is quantified in terms of velocity and strain rate fields, based on an inversion of neotectonic fault slip and palaeomagnetic data, in the context of the short-term relative plate motions. Forces on the subduction megathrust, as well as deviatoric stresses in the behind subduction region, are calculated from simple 2-D force balances across the Hikurangi Margin, given negligible deviatoric stresses at the along-strike transition between backarc extension and compression. Average megathrust shear stresses are in the range 6-15 MPa, and average lithospheric stresses <20 MPa in the overriding plate. The regional lithospheric strength of the plate boundary zone, assuming a viscous rheology (Newtonian or power law), is determined from an inversion of the field of gradients of buoyancy stress (averaged over either the top 25 km of the crust, or 100-km-thick lithosphere) and strain rate, using the thin sheet stress balance equations, calibrated with the subduction force balance analysis. Effective viscosities for the deforming lithosphere and/or crust are in the range 0.1-5 × 1021 Pa s, with marked weakening in zones of high strain rate, and an abrupt transition to viscosities >1022 Pa s at the margins of the rigid plates. If lateral variations in effective viscosity are only due to non-Newtonian behaviour, these data indicate a bulk power law rheology, with

  15. Rainy Lake wrench zone: An example of an Archaean subprovince boundary in northwestern Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province of the Canadian Shield comprises an alternation of subprovinces with contrasting lithological, structural and metamorphic styles. Rocks of the Rainly Lake area form a fault bounded wedge between two of these subprovinces, the Wabigoon granite-greenstone terrain to the north and the Quetico metasedimentary terrain to the south. The Quetico and Seine River-Rainy Lake Faults bound this wedge within which interpretation of the stratigraphy has been historically contentious. In the eastern part of the wedge, volcanic rocks and coeval tonalitic sills are unconformably overlain by fluviatile conglomerate and arenite of the Seine Group; in the western part of the wedge, metamorphosed wacke and mudstone of the Coutchiching Group are cut by granodioritic plutons. The Coutchiching Group has previously been correlated with the Seine Group and with the turbiditic Quetico metasediments of the Quetico Subprovince and these correlations are the cornerstone of earlier tectonic models which relate the subprovinces. The structural geology of the Rainy Lake area is characterized by attributes which compare favourably with the known characteristics of dextral wrench or 'transpressive zones based both on experimental data and natural examples. Much of this deformation involved the Seine Group, the youngest stratigraphic unit in the area, and predates the emplacement of late-to-post-tectonic granodioritic plutons for which radiometric data indicate a Late Archean age.

  16. Cerebral Blood Flow Heterogeneity in Preterm Sheep: Lack of Physiological Support for Vascular Boundary Zones in Fetal Cerebral White Matter

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Melissa; Riddle, Art; Manese, Mario; Luo, Ning Ling; Rorvik, Dawn A.; Kelly, Katherine A.; Barlow, Clyde H.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Vinecore, Kevin; Roberts, Colin; Hohimer, A. Roger; Back, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Periventricular white matter (PVWM) injury is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in survivors of prematurity. To address the role of cerebral ischemia in the pathogenesis of this injury, we tested the hypothesis that immaturity of spatially distal vascular “end” or “border” zones predisposes the PVWM to be more susceptible to falls in cerebral blood flow (CBF) than more proximal regions, such as the cerebral cortex. We used fluorescently-labeled microspheres to quantify regional CBF in situ in the 0.65 gestation fetal sheep in histopathologically-defined 3-dimensional regions by means of post hoc digital dissection and co-registration algorithms. Basal flow in PVWM was significantly lower than gyral white matter and cerebral cortex, but was equivalent in superficial, middle and deep PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF (expressed as percentage of basal) CBF did not differ during ischemia or reperfusion between the PVWM and more superficial gyral white matter or cortex. Moreover, CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was equivalent at three distinct levels of the PVWM. Absolute and relative CBF during ischemia and reperfusion was not predictive of the severity of PVWM injury, as defined by TUNEL staining. However, the magnitude of ischemia to the cerebral cortex directly correlated with lesion severity (r= −0.48, p<.05). Hence, the PVWM did not display unique CBF disturbances that accounted for the distribution of injury. These results suggest that previously-defined cellular-maturational factors have a greater influence on the vulnerability of PVWM to ischemic injury than the presence of immature vascular-boundary zones. PMID:18091757

  17. Geologic map transecting the highland/lowland boundary zone, Arabia Terra, Mars; quadrangles 30332, 35332, 40332, and 45332

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Arabia Terra is a large region of cratered terrane extending from about 20° W. longitude eastward across the prime meridian to about 300° W. longitude for an average east-west width of about 5,000 km. The northern boundary ranges from 40° N. to 45° N.; the southern boundary is a poorly defined zone at about 0° N. Thus, the north-south width is about 2,500 km. Except for the westernmost part, Arabia Terra has an albedo higher than surrounding terranes. The four quadrangles mapped (30332, 35332, 40332, 45332) provide a north-south strip from highland terrane in the south to lowland terrane in the north. The northern portion of Arabia Terra is the type region for both fretted terrane and fretted valleys and, along with the immediately adjacent northern plains, is also the site of some of the best examples of putative flow deposits present as aprons around isolated knobs and mesas or as deposits on the floors of fretted valleys and on the lowland surface. Mass wasting, eolian erosion or deposition, glacial scouring, fluvial or shoreline erosion, deposition from an ocean, hydrovolcanism, plateau volcanism, and faulting have all been proposed to account for the topography and crater characteristics in northern Arabia Terra. Although underlain by what appears to be typical highland terrane, Arabia Terra is anomalously low, with elevations generally below the planetary reference. Probably the most important question concerning the global-scale tectonic history of Mars is the origin of the crustal dichotomy. The northern lowland is not only several kilometers lower than the southern highland, it also is surfaced by materials that are significantly younger than surface materials in the southern highland. The young surface materials in the lowland rest unconformably on basement material having an age comparable to the exposed ancient highland terrane to the south. The age of the dichotomy continues to be controversial, as does the mechanism for its formation, as reviewed

  18. Observations of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Across the Land-Sea Transition Zone Using an Elastic Scanning Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Bergant, Klemen; Filipčič, Andrej; Forte, Biagio; Stanič, Samo; Veberič, Darko; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2010-05-01

    In the case of uneven terrain, atmospheric effects in the land-sea transition zone are numerous and diverse due to frequent changes in the wind direction and different effects of the heat flux on the sea and land surface. Such a case is the coastal region of the northernmost part of the Adriatic sea. Behind the coastal line the terrain rapidly rises to a Karst plateau (about 300 m a.s.l.), falls into the Vipava valley (60 m a.s.l.) and rises again to a mountainous region with maximum altitudes at about 1500 m a.s.l. To obtain complete meteorological status of the atmosphere in this region, a series of remote sensing experiments of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) across the land-sea transition zone were performed on 1 July 2009 using an elastic scattering lidar. The lidar system, which has vertical scanning and long-range detection functionality, was located at Otlica observatory in Slovenia, within 30 km of the coastal line and at an elevation of 945 m a.s.l. The atmosphere was scanned for elevation angles between 0° and 20° and the lidar data was processed into Cartesian 2-dimensional range-height-indicator plots with a spatial resolution of 50 m in both coordinates. Each pixel of the plot represents the weighted logarithm range-squared-corrected signal at that position and contains all the atmospheric information. Assuming horizontal atmospheric homogeneity, the optical depth, the extinction coefficients and the height of the ABL were calculated. The increase of the lidar detection range and the steepening of the optical depth profiles with time were observed, showing that on average the extinction coefficients in the ABL were decreasing during the experiment. The height of the ABL changed from 1.8 km to 0.55 km in about 3 hours. Rapid drop of the ABL height indicates highly variable atmospheric conditions in the land-sea transition zone and the adjacent mountainous region.

  19. Continuity of subsurface fault structure revealed by gravity anomaly: the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Shigeki; Sawada, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Nayuta; Okada, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Honda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated gravity anomalies around the Niigata plain, which is a sedimentary basin in central Japan bounded by mountains, to examine the continuity of subsurface fault structures of a large fault zone—the eastern boundary fault zone of the Niigata plain (EBFZNP). The features of the Bouguer anomaly and its first horizontal and vertical derivatives clearly illustrate the EBFZNP. The steep first horizontal derivative and the zero isoline of the vertical derivative are clearly recognized along the entire EBFZNP over an area that shows no surface topographic features of an active fault. Two-dimensional density structure analyses also confirm a relationship between the two first derivatives and the subsurface fault structure. Therefore, we conclude that the length of the EBFZNP as an active fault extends to 56 km, which is longer than previously estimated. This length leads to an estimation of a moment magnitude of 7.4 of an expected earthquake from the EBFZNP.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. The Ionian and Alfeo-Etna fault zones: New segments of an evolving plate boundary in the central Mediterranean Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.; Artoni, A.; Carlini, M.; Faccenna, C.; Ferranti, L.; Gasperini, L.; Govers, R.; Klaeschen, D.; Monaco, C.; Neri, G.; Nijholt, N.; Orecchio, B.; Wortel, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Calabrian Arc is a narrow subduction-rollback system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence. While crustal shortening is taken up in the accretionary wedge, transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transverse lithospheric faults. One of these structures is the NNW-SSE transtensive fault system connecting the Alfeo seamount and the Etna volcano (Alfeo-Etna Fault, AEF). A second, NW-SE crustal discontinuity, the Ionian Fault (IF), separates two lobes of the CA subduction complex (Western and Eastern Lobes) and impinges on the Sicilian coasts south of the Messina Straits. Analysis of multichannel seismic reflection profiles shows that: 1) the IF and the AEF are transfer crustal tectonic features bounding a complex deformation zone, which produces the downthrown of the Western lobe along a set of transtensive fault strands; 2) during Pleistocene times, transtensive faulting reactivated structural boundaries inherited from the Mesozoic Tethyan domain which acted as thrust faults during the Messinian and Pliocene; and 3) the IF and the AEF, and locally the Malta escarpment, accommodate a recent tectonic event coeval and possibly linked to the Mt. Etna formation. Regional geodynamic models show that, whereas AEF and IF are neighboring fault systems, their individual roles are different. Faulting primarily resulting from the ESE retreat of the Ionian slab is expressed in the northwestern part of the IF. The AEF, on the other hand, is part of the overall dextral shear deformation, resulting from differences in Africa-Eurasia motion between the western and eastern sectors of the Tyrrhenian margin of northern Sicily, and accommodating diverging motions in the adjacent compartments, which results in rifting processes within the Western Lobe of the Calabrian Arc accretionary wedge. As such, it is primarily associated with Africa-Eurasia relative motion.

  1. Fold/cleavage relationships as indicator for late Variscan sinistral transpression at the Rheno-Hercynian-Saxo-Thuringian boundary zone, Central European Variscides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe; Hahn, Torsten; Hallas, Peter; Heuse, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The boundary between the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian zones of the European Variscides is characterized by a NE-SW striking late orogenic fold-and-thrust belt affecting the intervening Rheic suture. Classical models used the first-order strike of this zone as an indicator for perpendicular plate convergence, i.e. NW-SE. We present structural data from both sides of the suture, focusing on fold-cleavage relationships. The statistical analysis reveals an orientation maximum of the youngest cleavage that deviates from the strike of the fold-and-thrust belt by c. 22°. The presence of clockwise transection of the folds by the cleavage (up to - 16°) indicates pervasive sinistral transpression. Three types of fold-cleavage relationships are observed: NE trending folds (I) with or (II) without a transecting cleavage, and (III) non-transected ENE trending folds. We explain the occurrence of different fold-cleavage types by strain partitioning due to NNW convergence obliquely to pre-existent NE trending mechanical anisotropies. In terms of plate tectonics we propose that the classical boundary of the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian Zone represents an initial transform plate boundary that was finally affected by sinistral transpression.

  2. Using Paleoseismic Trenching and LiDAR Analysis to Evaluate Rupture Propagation Through Segment Boundaries of the Central Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. E. K.; DuRoss, C. B.; Reitman, N. G.; Devore, J. R.; Hiscock, A.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Personius, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoseismic data near fault segment boundaries constrain the extent of past surface ruptures and the persistence of rupture termination at segment boundaries. Paleoseismic evidence for large (M≥7.0) earthquakes on the central Holocene-active fault segments of the 350-km-long Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) generally supports single-segment ruptures but also permits multi-segment rupture scenarios. The extent and frequency of ruptures that span segment boundaries remains poorly known, adding uncertainty to seismic hazard models for this populated region of Utah. To address these uncertainties we conducted four paleoseismic investigations near the Salt Lake City-Provo and Provo-Nephi segment boundaries of the WFZ. We examined an exposure of the WFZ at Maple Canyon (Woodland Hills, UT) and excavated the Flat Canyon trench (Salem, UT), 7 and 11 km, respectively, from the southern tip of the Provo segment. We document evidence for at least five earthquakes at Maple Canyon and four to seven earthquakes that post-date mid-Holocene fan deposits at Flat Canyon. These earthquake chronologies will be compared to seven earthquakes observed in previous trenches on the northern Nephi segment to assess rupture correlation across the Provo-Nephi segment boundary. To assess rupture correlation across the Salt Lake City-Provo segment boundary we excavated the Alpine trench (Alpine, UT), 1 km from the northern tip of the Provo segment, and the Corner Canyon trench (Draper, UT) 1 km from the southern tip of the Salt Lake City segment. We document evidence for six earthquakes at both sites. Ongoing geochronologic analysis (14C, optically stimulated luminescence) will constrain earthquake chronologies and help identify through-going ruptures across these segment boundaries. Analysis of new high-resolution (0.5m) airborne LiDAR along the entire WFZ will quantify latest Quaternary displacements and slip rates and document spatial and temporal slip patterns near fault segment boundaries.

  3. Compositional variations in spinel-hosted pargasite inclusions in the olivine-rich rock from the oceanic crust-mantle boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Akihiro; Morishita, Tomoaki; Ishimaru, Satoko; Hara, Kaori; Sanfilippo, Alessio; Arai, Shoji

    2016-05-01

    The crust-mantle boundary zone of the oceanic lithosphere is composed mainly of olivine-rich rocks represented by dunite and troctolite. However, we still do not fully understand the global variations in the boundary zone, and an effective classification of the boundary rocks, in terms of their petrographical features and origin, is an essential step in achieving such an understanding. In this paper, to highlight variations in olivine-rich rocks from the crust-mantle boundary, we describe the compositional variations in spinel-hosted hydrous silicate mineral inclusions in rock samples from the ocean floor near a mid-ocean ridge and trench. Pargasite is the dominant mineral among the inclusions, and all of them are exceptionally rich in incompatible elements. The host spinel grains are considered to be products of melt-peridotite reactions, because their origin cannot be ascribed to simple fractional crystallization of a melt. Trace-element compositions of pargasite inclusions are characteristically different between olivine-rich rock samples, in terms of the degree of Eu and Zr anomalies in the trace-element pattern. When considering the nature of the reaction that produced the inclusion-hosting spinel, the compositional differences between samples were found to reflect a diversity in the origin of the olivine-rich rocks, as for example in whether or not a reaction was accompanied by the fractional crystallization of plagioclase. The differences also reflect the fact that the melt flow system (porous or focused flow) controlled the melt/rock ratios during reaction. The pargasite inclusions provide useful data for constraining the history and origin of the olivine-rich rocks and therefore assist in our understanding of the crust-mantle boundary of the oceanic lithosphere.

  4. A general analytical model for pumping tests in radial finite two-zone confined aquifers with Robin-type outer boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Yang, Shaw-Yang; Fen, Chiu-Shia; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2016-09-01

    This study develops a general analytical model for describing transient drawdown distribution induced by pumping at a finite-radius well in a radial two-zone confined aquifer of finite areal extent with Robin-type condition at both inner and outer boundaries. This model is also applicable to heat conduction problems for a composite hollow cylinder on the basis of the analogy between heat flow and groundwater flow. The time-domain solution of the model is derived by the methods of Laplace transform, Bromwich integral, and residue theorem. This new solution can reduce to the solution for constant-head test (CHT) or constant-rate test (CRT) problem by specifying appropriate coefficients at the Robin inner boundary condition. The solution describing the flow rate across the wellbore due to CHT is further developed by applying Darcy's law to the new solution. In addition, steady-state solutions for both CHT and CRT are also developed based on the approximation for Bessel functions with very small argument values. Many existing solutions for transient flow in homogeneous or two-zone finite aquifers with Dirichlet or no-flow condition at the outer boundary are shown to be special cases of the present solution. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the behaviors of the wellbore flow due to CHT and the aquifer drawdown induced by CRT in response to the change in each of aquifer parameters.

  5. Relationship of quartz LPO fabrics in mylonites near the Alpine Fault, New Zealand to the attitude of the shear zone boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, T. A.; Prior, D. J.; Toy, V.

    2015-12-01

    The active Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has known kinematics. Within ~1 km of the fault, the foliation is subparallel to the shear zone boundary in which it formed at amphibolite-facies conditions. Using EBSD, we analysed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations (LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the fault. The samples were mostly taken from naturally outcropping rocks, complemented by a few sections from core from the DFDP-2B hole—rocks that accommodated a range of finite strains and that have diverse quartz contents. All the LPOs feature a single (or strongest) girdle of c-axes hat is inclined ~28 ±4° away from the pole to the shear zone boundary (SZB) in a sense that is synthetic to the bulk shear. A point maximum of a-axes is inclined at the same angle relative to the shearing direction. This girdle is perpendicular to C' extensional shear bands in the rock, not to the bulk shear zone boundary, whereas the maximum is parallel to the slip direction of the shear bands. These relationships prevail across large variations in quartz content and finite shear strain magnitude. We infer that quartz LPOs are not always reliable indicators of SZB attitude, and they do not necessarily undergo an obvious rotation relative to the SZB as a function of increasing finite strain. Both the C' shears and the LPOs formed as late-incremental features at orientations controlled by the instantaneous geometry of a non-simple shear flow. We suggest that that the C' planes were aligned to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate. The data can be explained by flow in a thinning and stretching shear zone that deforms in plane strain at a Wk of ~0.7 to ~0.85. In support of this, inversions of seismic focal mechanism data yield an orientation of σ1 for the brittle crust of the central Southern Alps "natural laboratory" that approximately coincides with the predicted orientation of the contractional instantaneous stretching axis for the above

  6. Geospatial database of the study boundary, sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Button, Daniel T.; Baker, Nancy T.; Burley, Thomas E.; VanMetre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the first of several Regional Stream Quality Assessments (RSQA) was done in the Midwest United States. The Midwest Stream Quality Assessment (MSQA) was a collaborative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA), the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). One of the objectives of the RSQA, and thus the MSQA, is to characterize the relationships between water-quality stressors and stream ecology and to determine the relative effects of these stressors on aquatic biota within the streams (U.S. Geological Survey, 2012). To meet this objective, a framework of fundamental geospatial data was required to develop physical and anthropogenic characteristics of the study region, sampled sites and corresponding watersheds, and riparian zones. This dataset is composed of the four fundamental geospatial data layers that were developed for the Midwest study: 1) study boundary, 2) sampled sites, 3) watershed boundaries, and 4) riparian-zone boundaries.References cited:Nakagaki, N., Qi, S.L., and Baker, N.T., 2016, Selected environmental characteristics of sampled sites, watersheds, and riparian zones for the U.S. Geological Survey Midwest Stream Quality Assessment: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F77W699S.U.S. Geological Survey, 2012, The Midwest stream quality assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2012-3124, 2 p.

  7. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  8. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    PubMed

    Gottscho, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here.

  9. Hurricane Mountain Formation melange: history of Cambro-Ordovician accretion of the Boundary Mountains terrane within the northern Appalachian orthotectonic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, G.M.; Boudette, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Hurricane Mountain Formation (HMF) melange and associated ophiolitic and volcanogenic formations of Cambrian and lowermost Ordovician age bound the SE margin of the Precambrian Y (Helikian) Chain Lakes Massif in western Maine. HMF melange matrix, though weakly metamorphosed, contains a wide variety of exotic greenschist to amphibolite facies blocks as components of its polymictic assemblage, but blocks of high-grade cratonal rocks such as those of Chain Lakes or Grenville affinity are lacking. Formations of melange exposed in structural culminations of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks NE of the HMF in Maine and in the Fournier Group in New Brunswick are lithologically similar and probably tectonically correlative with the HMF; taken together, they may delineate a common pre-Middle Ordovician tectonic boundary. The authors infer that the Hurricane Mountain and St. Daniel melange belts define the SE and NW margins of the Boundary Mountains accreted terrane (BMT), which may consist of cratonal basement of Chain Lakes affinity extending from eastern Gaspe (deBroucker and St. Julien, 1985) to north-central New Hampshire. The Laurentian continental margin, underlain by Grenville basement, underplated the NW margin of this terrane, marked by the SDF suture zone, in late Cambrian to early Ordovician time, while terranes marked by Cambrian to Tremadocian (.) lithologies dissimilar to the Boundary Mountains terrane were accreted to its outboard margin penecontemporaneously. The docking of the Boundary Mountains terrane and the initiation of its peripheral melanges are equated to the Penobscottian disturbance.

  10. Are quartz LPOs predictably oriented with respect to the shear zone boundary?: A test from the Alpine Fault mylonites, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.

    2016-03-01

    The Alpine fault self-exhumes its own ductile shear zone roots and has a known slip kinematics. Within ˜1 km of the fault, the mylonitic foliation is subparallel to the boundary of the amphibolite-facies ductile shear zone in which it formed. Using EBSD, we analyzed quartz Lattice Preferred Orientations [LPOs) of mylonites along a central part of the Alpine Fault. All LPOs feature a strongest girdle of [c]-axes that is forward-inclined ˜28 ± 4° away from the pole to the fault. A maximum of axes is inclined at the same angle relative the fault. The [c]-axis girdle is perpendicular to extensional (C') shear bands and the maximum is parallel to their slip direction. [c]-axis girdles do not form perpendicular to the SZB. Schmid factor analysis suggests that σ1 was arranged at 60-80° to the Alpine Fault. These observations indicate ductile transpression in the shear zone. The inclined arrangement of [c]-axis girdles, axes, and C' planes relative to the fault can be explained by their alignment relative to planes of maximum shear-strain-rate in a general shear zone, a significant new insight regarding shear zones and how LPO fabrics may generally develop within them. For the Alpine mylonite zone, our data imply a kinematic vorticity number (Wk) of ˜0.7 to ˜0.85. Inversions of seismic focal mechanisms in the brittle crust of the Southern Alps indicate that σ1 is oriented ˜60° to the Alpine Fault; that shear bands form at ˜30° to this direction, and that σ2 and σ3 flip positions between the brittle and ductile parts of the crust.

  11. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse

  12. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Mikaela J; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world-in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km(2) of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km(2) of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  13. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, Mikaela J.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C.

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world—in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km2 of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km2 of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  14. The link between strength of lattice preferred orientation, second phase content and grain boundary migration: A case study from the Alpine Fault zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Prior, David J.; Toy, Virginia G.; Lindroos, Zoe Reid

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the microstructure and quartz LPOs of 36 layers of varying composition from a several-meter thick sequence of amphibolite-facies metacherts and related mica-garnet-plagioclase-quartz bearing schists from the central Southern Alps in the mylonite zone related to the Alpine Fault. Quartz contents vary from ∼10 to 100% and all of the LPO fabric skeletons are similar, featuring an asymmetric single girdle of [c]-axes inclined ∼30° away from the ZY plane. LPO strength is typically low at quartz contents <70% (M Index of ∼0.05) whereas it may be very high for nearly pure quartz rocks (M Index of up to 4.0). We attribute this change to a sparseness of interphase boundaries in the more quartzose rocks, a reduction in grain-boundary pinning, and a corresponding efficiency of grain boundary migration during dynamic recrystallization. The transition corresponds to a Zener parameter of approximately 700. In layers poor in quartz and rich in mica, the quartz grain size was kept small, and phase-boundary density, high. This may have promoted grain-size sensitive creep and dislocation glide in mica. Dislocation creep in the interspersed quartz grains was correspondingly reduced, and weaker quartz LPOs were produced. In highly quartzose layers, quartz grain boundaries experienced little drag or pinning from impurity phases and were able to migrate quickly into higher strain-energy grains. Preferential consumption of poorly oriented grains strengthened quartz LPOs, geometrically softened the dislocation creep process in these quartzose layers, and contributed to grain coarsening. The lack of evidence for instabilities in the thinly layered (<1 mm, quartz-rich vs. mica-rich) mylonite implies that a combination of deformation mechanisms, grain-size sensitive flow and dislocation creep, in the layers were able to accommodate a nearly homogeneous deformation between the different composition layers.

  15. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  16. Modeled Temperatures and Fluid Source Distributions for the Mexico Subduction Zone: Effects of Hydrothermal Cooling and Implications for Plate Boundary Seismic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. R.; Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the distribution and nature of slip behavior (e.g., "normal" earthquakes, slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor, very low frequency earthquakes) on the plate boundary fault. A primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution in subduction zones is the distribution of fluid release from hydrous minerals in the subducting sediment and rock. The distributions of these diagenetic and metamorphic fluid sources are controlled by the pressure-temperature paths that the subducting material follows. Thus, constraining subduction zone thermal structure is required to inform conceptual models of seismic behavior. Here, we present results of thermal models for the Mexico subduction zone, a system that has received recent attention due to observations of slow-slip events and non-volcanic tremor. We model temperatures in five margin-perpendicular transects from 96 ˚W to 104 ˚W. In each transect, we examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust. In the transect at 100˚W, hydrothermal circulation cools the subducting material by up to 140 ˚C, shifting peak slab dehydration landward by ~100 km relative to previous estimates from models that do not include the effects of fluid circulation. The age of the subducting plate in the trench increases from ~3 Ma at 104 ˚W to ~18 Ma at 96 ˚W; hydrothermal circulation redistributes the most heat (and cools the system the most) where the subducting plate is youngest. For systems with <20 Ma subducting lithosphere, hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust should be considered in estimating subduction zone temperatures and fluid source distributions.

  17. Diffusion of hydrogen in olivine grain boundaries and implications for the survival of water-rich zones in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    2010-06-01

    published diffusion data for olivine single crystals, hydrogen diffusion in grain boundaries is extracted and yield diffusivities almost three order of magnitude faster (∼ 5 × 10- 6 m2 s- 1 at 1200 °C) than in an olivine single crystal at the equivalent high temperature. On geological scales and for coarse-grain rocks, hydrogen diffusivity in grain boundaries is not fast enough to compete with lattice diffusion. The relative large grain size of mantle rocks will ensure a very limited hydrogen transport by effective diffusion, and a good conservation of water-rich zones in the Earth's mantle.

  18. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.

    2013-12-01

    The mostly strike-slip plate boundary in southern California is expressed as a system of late Quaternary faults or principal slip zones (PSZs), with numerous adjacent smaller slip surfaces. It is complex, even after large cumulative displacements, and consists of major fault systems with multi-stranded, non-planar fault geometry, including some in close proximity to each other. There are also secondary cross faults and low-angle detachments that interact with the PSZs accommodating main plate boundary motion. The loading of plate-tectonic strain causes the largest earthquakes along PSZs, moderate-sized events in their immediate vicinity, and small earthquakes across the whole region. We apply relocated earthquake and refined focal mechanism (1981-2013) catalogs, as well as other geophysical datasets to provide refined views of the 3D fault geometry of these active fault systems. To determine properties of individual fault zones, we measure the Euclidian distance from every hypocenter to the nearest PSZ. In addition, we assign crustal geophysical parameters such as heat flow value and shear or dilatation strain rates to each epicenter. We investigate seismogenic thickness and fault zone width as well as earthquake source processes. We find that the seismicity rate is a function of location, with the rate dying off exponentially with distance from the PSZ. About 80% of small earthquakes are located within 5 km of a PSZ. For small earthquakes, stress drops increase in size with distance away from the PSZs. The magnitude distribution near the PSZs suggests that large earthquakes are more common close to PSZs, and they are more likely to occur at greater depth than small earthquakes. In contrast, small quakes can occur at any geographical location. An optimal combination of heat flow and strain rate is required to concentrate the strain along rheologically weak fault zones, which accommodate the crustal deformation processes, causing seismicity. The regional trend of

  19. The lateral boundary of a metamorphic core complex: The Moutsounas shear zone on Naxos, Cyclades, Greece☆

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai

    2013-01-01

    We describe the structure, microstructures, texture and paleopiezometry of quartz-rich phyllites and marbles along N-trending Moutsounas shear zone at the eastern margin of the Naxos metamorphic core complex (MCC). Fabrics consistently indicate a top-to-the-NNE non-coaxial shear and formed during the main stage of updoming and exhumation between ca. 14 and 11 Ma of the Naxos MCC. The main stage of exhumation postdates the deposition of overlying Miocene sedimentary successions and predates the overlying Upper Miocene/Pliocene conglomerates. Detailed microstructural and textural analysis reveals that the movement along the Moutsounas shear zone is associated with a retrograde greenschist to subgreenschist facies overprint of the early higher-temperature rocks. Paleopiezometry on recrystallized quartz and calcite yields differential stresses of 20–77 MPa and a strain rate of 10−15–10−13 s−1 at 350 °C for quartz and ca. 300 °C for calcite. Chlorite geothermometry of the shear zone yields two temperature regimes, 300–360 °C, and 200–250 °C. The lower temperature group is interpreted to result from late-stage hydrothermal overprint. PMID:26523079

  20. The lateral boundary of a metamorphic core complex: The Moutsounas shear zone on Naxos, Cyclades, Greece.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Liu, Junlai

    2013-09-01

    We describe the structure, microstructures, texture and paleopiezometry of quartz-rich phyllites and marbles along N-trending Moutsounas shear zone at the eastern margin of the Naxos metamorphic core complex (MCC). Fabrics consistently indicate a top-to-the-NNE non-coaxial shear and formed during the main stage of updoming and exhumation between ca. 14 and 11 Ma of the Naxos MCC. The main stage of exhumation postdates the deposition of overlying Miocene sedimentary successions and predates the overlying Upper Miocene/Pliocene conglomerates. Detailed microstructural and textural analysis reveals that the movement along the Moutsounas shear zone is associated with a retrograde greenschist to subgreenschist facies overprint of the early higher-temperature rocks. Paleopiezometry on recrystallized quartz and calcite yields differential stresses of 20-77 MPa and a strain rate of 10(-15)-10(-13) s(-1) at 350 °C for quartz and ca. 300 °C for calcite. Chlorite geothermometry of the shear zone yields two temperature regimes, 300-360 °C, and 200-250 °C. The lower temperature group is interpreted to result from late-stage hydrothermal overprint.

  1. The formation of equilibrium space-charge zones at grain boundaries in the perovskite oxide SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger A

    2009-11-21

    The thermodynamics of space-charge formation at grain boundaries in acceptor-doped SrTiO(3) is examined. Thermodynamic models of varying complexity are developed, which predict the space-charge potential as a function of thermodynamic variables, such as dopant concentration, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Based on the results, limits to the space-charge potential that can arise at a grain boundary and strategies for tuning the space-charge potential are discussed. With literature equations linking the space-charge potential to electrical properties, one specific thermodynamic model is subsequently applied to electrical impedance data reported in the literature for tilt bicrystal samples of Fe-doped SrTiO(3). The thermodynamic driving energies for space-charge formation obtained from the analysis are examined as a function of tilt misorientation angle, in order to explore the relationship between driving energy and interface atomistic structure. In addition, the capabilities and deficiencies of the entire approach (from driving energies via space-charge potentials to electrical properties), with regard to predicting experimental behaviour, are demonstrated.

  2. Caltepec fault zone: An Early Permian dextral transpressional boundary between the Proterozoic Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán complexes, southern Mexico, and regional tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elías-Herrera, Mariano; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    2002-06-01

    The tectonic boundary between the Grenville-age Oaxacan and Paleozoic Acatlán crystalline complexes in southern Mexico, named the Caltepec fault zone (CFZ), is characterized for the first time as a dextral transpressional, NNW trending and ENE dipping ductile fault zone of Early Permian age. The complexes are welded by a syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing granite along the entire length of the CFZ. From east to west, the 2-6 km wide CFZ consists of disrupted and retrograded banded gneisses of the Oaxacan complex, quartz-feldspar mylonite, and the syntectonic magmatic epidote-bearing Cozahuico granite (CZG) with huge xenoliths (up to several kilometers long and up to 600 m wide) of the Proterozoic gneisses, thrust westward over metasedimentary tectonites of the Acatlán complex. The CZG shows magmatic fabrics that represent a transition to solid-state deformation characterized by subvertical foliation, subhorizontal NNE and SSE dipping mineral stretching lineation and dextral kinematics. The megaxenoliths underwent partial melting developing banded migmatites with layers of epidote-bearing granitic neosome. The parallelism of fabrics in these anatexitic rocks and in the enclosing deformed granite suggests that ductile deformation, migmatization of xenolithic gneisses, and granite emplacement along the CFZ were coeval. The neosome yielded a U-Pb zircon concordant age of 275.6 +/- 1 Ma probably dating the peak of the tectonothermal event. We interpret the CFZ as a major terrane boundary accommodating transpressional interaction between the Acatlán and Oaxaquia blocks, which were amalgamated in an oblique convergent setting by Early Permian time, as the leading edge of Gondwana impinged onto the southern margin of Laurentia along the Marathon-Ouachita suture to form Pangea.

  3. Repair boundary for parent tube indications within the upper joint zone of hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) sleeved tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, W.K.; Keating, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    In the Spring and Fall of 1994, and the Spring of 1995, crack-like indications were found in the upper hybrid expansion joint (HEJ) region of Steam Generator (S/G) tubes which had been sleeved using Westinghouse HEJ sleeves. As a result of these findings, analytic and test evaluations were performed to assess the effect of the degradation on the structural, and leakage, integrity of the sleeve/tube joint relative to the requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) draft Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.121. The results of these evaluations demonstrated that tubes with implied or known crack-like circumferential parent tube indications (PTIs) located 1.1 inches or farther below the bottom of the hardroll upper transition, have sufficient, and significant, integrity relative to the requirements of RG 1.121. Thus, the purpose of this report is to provide background information related to the justification of the modified tube repair boundary.

  4. Geophysical and Chemical Weathering Signatures Across the Deep Weathered-Unweathered Granite Boundary of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D., Jr.; Bacon, A. R.; Brantley, S. L.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the relationship between geophysical measurements and chemical weathering at Earth's surface, we combine comprehensive chemical and physical analyses of a 70-m granite weathering profile in the Southern Piedmont in the southeastern United States. The research site is in the uplands of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory and is similar to many geomorphically stable, ancient, and highly-weathered Ultisol soils of the region. Surface and downhole geophysical analyses suggest significant physical changes to depths of about 40 m, where geophysical properties are consistent with competent and unweathered granite. At this depth, surface refraction velocities increase to >4.5 km/s; variations in downhole sonic velocities decrease by more than two-fold; and deviations in the downhole caliper log sharply decrease as well. Forty meters depth is also the depth of initiation of plagioclase feldspar weathering, as inferred from bulk geochemical measurement of the full 70-m deep core. Specifically, element-depth profiles, cast as mass transfer coefficient profiles using Ti and Zr as immobile elements, document inferred loss of plagioclase in the depth interval between 15 and 40-m depth. Plagioclase feldspar is the most abundant of the highly reactive minerals in the granite. Such a wide reaction front is characteristic of weathering granites. Some loss of K is observed at these depths but most K loss, as well as Mg loss, occurs at shallower depths. Nearby geophysical profiles and 3D stress models have been interpreted as showing that seismic velocities decrease at 40 m depth due to opening of fractures as rock is exhumed toward the surface. Given our interpretations of both the geochemical and geophysical data, we infer that the onset of chemical weathering of feldspar coincides with the opening of these fractures. The data highlight the ability of geochemistry and geophysics to complement each other and enrich our understanding of Earth's Critical Zone.

  5. Post-glacial (<20 ka) Dextral Slip Rate of the Offshore Alpine Fault: Implications for Deformation in the Pacific-Australia Plate Boundary Zone, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Geological displacement rates for major plate boundary strike-slip faults have seldom been determined with precision from the marine environment. In this study of the southern Alpine Fault, high-precision fault structure and slip rates are identified using multibeam bathymetric data and dated samples from the Fiordland continental margin. These rates are derived from dextral displacements of relict, but well- preserved, glacial geomorphology (moraines and outwash fans), interpreted to be aged 17 (+2, -1) calendar ka. The weighted mean slip rate is 27.2 (-3.0, +1.8) mm/yr on the shelf between Milford and George sounds, increasing southward to 31.4 (-3.5, +2.1) mm/yr between Caswell and Doubtful sounds, with uncertainties at the 95% confidence level. These offshore rates are higher than those from an adjacent 80 km length section of the fault on land in south Westland, and are in good agreement with GPS data. The southern slip rates represent some of the highest strike-slip rates on Earth, and ~ 90% of the total plate motion in southern New Zealand. The southward increase in strike-slip rate on the Alpine Fault occurs despite a southward reduction in Pacific-Australian relative plate motion rate, and despite the prediction of southward decreasing plate-parallel motion and southward increasing normal convergence. The Fiordland region is thus an excellent example of geological strain being highly partitioned within an obliquely-convergent plate boundary zone.

  6. Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jaillard, E.; Mothes, P.; Jarrín, P.; Segovia, M.; Rolandone, F.; Cisneros, D.

    2016-05-01

    Along the Ecuadorian margin, oblique subduction induces deformation of the overriding continental plate. For the last 15 Ma, both exhumation and tectonic history of Ecuador suggest that the northeastward motion of the North Andean Sliver (NAS) was accompanied by an eastward migration of its eastern boundary and successive progressively narrowing restraining bends. Here we present geologic data, earthquake epicenters, focal mechanisms, GPS results, and a revised active fault map consistent with this new kinematic model. All data sets concur to demonstrate that active continental deformation is presently localized along a single major fault system, connecting fault segments from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the eastern Andean Cordillera. Although secondary faults are recognized within the Cordillera, they accommodate a negligible fraction of relative motion compared to the main fault system. The eastern limit is then concentrated rather than distributed as first proposed, marking a sharp boundary between the NAS, the Inca sliver, and the Subandean domain overthrusting the South American craton. The NAS limit follows a northeast striking right-lateral transpressional strike-slip system from the Gulf of Guayaquil (Isla Puná) to the Andean Cordillera and with the north-south striking transpressive faults along the eastern Andes. Eastward migration of the restraining belt since the Pliocene, abandonment of the sutures and reactivation of north-south striking ancient fault zones lead to the final development of a major tectonic boundary south and east of the NAS, favoring its extrusion as a continental sliver, accommodating the oblique convergence of the Nazca oceanic plate toward South America.

  7. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  8. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  9. A model for the termination of the Ryukyu subduction zone against Taiwan: A junction of collision, subduction/separation, and subduction boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, F.T.; Liang, W.-T.; Lee, J.-C.; Benz, H.; Villasenor, A.

    2009-01-01

    The NW moving Philippine Sea plate (PSP) collides with the Eurasian plate (EUP) in the vicinity of Taiwan, and at the same time, it subducts toward the north along SW Ryukyu. The Ryukyu subduction zone terminates against eastern Taiwan. While the Ryukyu Trench is a linear bathym??trie low about 100 km east of Taiwan, closer to Taiwan, it cannot be clearly identified bathymetrically owing to the deformation related to the collision, making the location of the intersection of the Ryukyu with Taiwan difficult to decipher. We propose a model for this complex of boundaries on the basis of seismicity and 3-D velocity structures. In this model the intersection is placed at the latitude of about 23.7??N, placing the northern part of the Coastal Range on EUP. As PSP gets deeper along the subduction zone it collides with EUP on the Taiwan side only where they are in direct contact. Thus, the Eurasian plate on the Taiwan side is being pushed and compressed by the NW moving Philippine Sea plate, at increasing depth toward the north. Offshore of northeastern Taiwan the wedge-shaped EUP on top of the Ryukyu subducting plate is connected to the EUP on the Ryukyu side and coupled to the NW moving PSP by friction at the plate interface. The two sides of the EUP above the western end of the subduction zone are not subjected to the same forces, and a difference in motions can be expected. The deformation of Taiwan as revealed by continuous GPS measurements, geodetic movement along the east coast of Taiwan, and the formation of the Hoping Basin can be understood in terms of the proposed model. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Topography and tectonics of the central New Madrid seismic zone: Results of numerical experiements using a three-dimensional boundary element program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Ellis, Michael

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a series of numerical experiments designed to test hypothetical mechanisms that derive deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone. Experiments are constrained by subtle topography and the distribution of seismicity in the region. We use a new boundary element algorithm that permits calcuation of the three-dimensional deformation field. Surface displacement fields are calculated for the New Madrid zone under both far-field (plate tectonics scale) and locally derived driving strains. Results demonstrate that surface displacement fields cannot distinguish between either a far-field simple or pure shear strain field or one that involves a deep shear zone beneath the upper crustal faults. Thus, neither geomorphic nor geodetic studies alone are expected to reveal the ultimate driving mechanism behind the present-day deformation. We have also tested hypotheses about strain accommodation within the New Madrid contractional step-over by including linking faults, two southwest dipping and one vertical, recently inferred from microearthquake data. Only those models with step-over faults are able to predict the observed topography. Surface displacement fields for long-term, relaxed deformation predict the distribution of uplift and subsidence in the contractional step-over remarkably well. Generation of these displacement fields appear to require slip on both the two northeast trending vertical faults and the two dipping faults in the step-over region, with very minor displacements occurring during the interseismic period when the northeast trending vertical faults are locked. These models suggest that the gently dippling central step-over fault is a reverse fault and that the steeper fault, extending to the southeast of the step-over, acts as a normal fault over the long term.

  11. Quaternary slip rates along the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone (Kopeh Dagh Mountains, Northeast Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanian, Esmaeil; Siame, Lionel; Bellier, Olivier; Benedetti, Lucilla; Abbassi, Mohammad R.

    2009-08-01

    The Kopeh Dagh is accommodating a large portion of the northward motion of central Iran with respect to Eurasia, involving a major right-lateral strike-slip fault system (Bakharden-Quchan). This fault system corresponds to the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision, and can be considered as a lithospheric-scale tectonic feature. We present a well-constrained estimation of late Quaternary slip rates along two major strike-slip faults (the Baghan and Quchan faults) in this fault system, using in situ-produced 36Cl nuclide to date two offset alluvial fan surfaces. Combining detailed satellite image and digital topographic data analyses complemented with geomorphic fieldwork allows quantifying the cumulative offset values of 940 +/- 100 and 360 +/- 50 m of the fan surfaces along the Baghan and Quchan faults, respectively. A total of 12 carbonate boulders from the fan surfaces were collected and dated. This yields minimum age of two episodes of fan abandonment at 280 +/- 16 (Baghan fault) and 83 +/- 4 ka (Quchan fault). Age estimates and measured offsets of the fans are consistent with respective maximum long-term fault slip rates of 2.8 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 for the Baghan and Quchan faults over the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Applying the slip rates to cumulative post-folding offsets along the Baghan and Quchan faults indicates that strike-slip motion within the Kopeh Dagh may have started ~4 Ma. This constrains the timing of a major tectonic reorganization in the Kopeh Dagh, previously recorded through Arabia-Eurasia collision between 3 and 7 Ma. At the regional scale, the sum of total cumulative strike-slip offsets is about 35-40 km, which implies a total maximum slip rate of about 9 +/- 2 mm yr-1 in the Central-Eastern Kopeh Dagh. This is resolved to average northward and westward slip rates of ~8 and ~4 mm yr-1, respectively, for the Western Kopeh Dagh with respect to Eurasia. Our results also suggests that the localized strike-slip faulting

  12. Breaking into the Plate: Seismic and Hydroacoustic Analysis of a 7.6 Mw Oceanic Fracture Zone Earthquake Adjacent to the Central Indian Ridge Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Chapp, E.

    2003-12-01

    Where oceanic spreading segments are offset laterally from one another, the differential motion of the plates is accommodated by strike-slip motion along ridge-perpendicular transform faults. Off-axis from the ridge-transform intersection, no differential motion is require, and the fracture zone trace is thought to be inactive except where reactivated by intra-plate stresses. On 15 July 2003, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 Mw occurred near the northern Central Indian Ridge (CIR), the divergent boundary separating the Somalian plate from the Indian and Australian plates. The size of this event places it within the 99th quantile of magnitude for shallow (< 40 km depth) strike-slip events (null axis plunge >45 deg) within the global Harvard CMT catalog. The earthquake's epicenter is near 2.5 deg S, 68.33 deg E, where the CIR is marked by a series of short (<100 km long) right-stepping transforms that offset the northwest trending spreading segments (20 mm/yr). Seismic signals associated with the mainshock and its largest aftershocks were recorded well by land-based seismic networks. Regional seismic phases (Pn, Sn), as well oceanic T-waves, where also recorded at an IMS hydroacoustic station to the north of the Diego Garcia atoll. T-wave signals recorded at Diego Garcia were cross correlated to determine accurate travel time differences. These traveltime differences were used in a plane wave fitting inversion to determine the horizontal slowness components and estimate the back azimuth to the epicenter. Aftershock locations are derived using the azimuthal information and Pn-T traveltime differences. Together, the seismically- and hydroacoustically-derived epicenters show a linear band of aftershocks extending more than 200 km along the off-axis trace of a right stepping transform. We interpret these aftershock events as delineating the length of the mainshock rupture. As the well-constrain hypocenter of the mainshock lies near the western edge of this

  13. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology applied to plate boundary zones: Insights from the (U)HP terrane exhumed within the Woodlark Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2011-09-01

    High-pressure and ultra high-pressure (U)HP metamorphic rocks occur in many of the world's major orogenic belts, suggesting that subduction of continental lithosphere is a geologically important process. Despite the widespread occurrence of these rocks, relatively little is known about the timescales associated with (U)HP metamorphism. This is because most (U)HP terranes are tectonically overprinted and juxtaposed against rocks with a different history. An exception to this are the Late Miocene (U)HP metamorphic rocks found in active metamorphic core complexes (MCC) in the Woodlark Rift of southeastern Papua New Guinea. This region provides a rare opportunity to study the garnet Lu-Hf isotopic record of (U)HP metamorphism in a terrane that is not tectonically overprinted. In order to constrain the timing of garnet growth relative to the history of (U)HP metamorphism and the evolution of the Woodlark Rift, Lu-Hf ages were determined, in conjunction with measurements of Lu and major element zoning, for garnets from three metamorphic rocks. Garnets from the three samples yielded different ages that, instead of recording the spatial and temporal evolution associated with a single metamorphic event, provide information on the timing of three separate plate boundary events. The youngest Lu-Hf age determined was 7.1 ± 0.7 Ma for garnets in a Late Miocene coesite eclogite. The age is interpreted to record the time when a garnet-bearing partial melt of the mantle crystallized within subducted continental lithosphere at (U)HP conditions. The young Lu-Hf age from the coesite eclogite is in contrast to a 68 ± 3.6 Ma Lu-Hf age obtained on large (1-2 cm) garnet porphyroblasts, from within the Pleistocene amphibolite facies shear zone carapace bounding exposures of (U)HP rocks in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. This older age records the growth of garnet in response to continental subduction and ophiolite obduction in the region north and east of Australia during late Mesozoic

  14. Cadomian magmatism and metamorphism at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, Iberian Massif, Central Portugal: Geochemistry and P-T constraints of the Sardoal Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, S. B. A.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Tajčmanová, L.; Dunning, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    A well preserved Cadomian basement is exposed in the Iberian Massif, Central Portugal, at the Ossa Morena/Central Iberian zone boundary, which allows the determination of reliable geochemical data. A sequence of Cadomian and Variscan magmatic and tectonometamorphic events has been already described for this area and are documented in other areas of the Avalonian-Cadomian orogen. However, the geochemical information concerning the Cadomian basement for this area is still limited. We present whole rock geochemical and oxygen isotopic information to characterize the igneous protoliths of the Sardoal Complex, located within the Tomar-Badajoz-Córdoba Shear Zone, and identify their tectonic setting. We use detailed petrography, mineral chemistry and P-T data to characterize the final Cadomian tectonometamorphic event. The Sardoal Complex contains orthogneiss and amphibolite units. The protoliths of the orthogneiss are calc-alkaline magmas of acid composition and peraluminous character that were generated in an active continental margin in three different stages (ca. 692 Ma, ca. 569 Ma and ca. 548 Ma). The most significant processes in their petrogenesis are the partial melting of old metasedimentary and meta-igneous crust at different crustal levels and the crystal fractionation of plagioclase, alkali feldspars, apatite, zircon and Fe-Ti oxides. The protoliths of the amphibolite, older than ca. 540 Ma, are tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas of basic composition that display N-, T- and E-MORB affinities. They were generated in an active continental margin. Crustal contamination and fractional crystallization of hornblende and diopside were involved in their petrogenesis. However, the fractional crystallization was not significant. The magmatic activity recorded in the Sardoal Complex indicates the existence of a long-lived continental arc (ca. 692-540 Ma) with coeval felsic and mafic magmatism. The final stage of the Cadomian metamorphism is usually represented in other

  15. Plume Generation Zones On The Core Mantle Boundary: their origin and what they tell about how the Earth works - and how it has worked (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    It is more than 50 years since Wilson (1963) suggested that a fixed plume of deep origin from the convecting mantle is generating the Hotspots of the Hawaiian chain on the overlying moving rigid lithosphere and nearly 45 years since Morgan (1972) followed by suggesting that the plumes which generate Hotspots rise only from the Core/Mantle Boundary (CMB). During the past ~ 15 years testing has begun of a refinement of Morgan's idea based on the observation that Plumes responsible for Hotspots, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) and a significant fraction of other igneous rocks (including kimberlites) originate only in Plume Generation Zones (PGZs) at the edges on the CMB of one or other of TUZO and JASON the 2 antipodal, equatorial, Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) of the deep mantle (Garnero et al. 2007) or from similar PGZs at the edges on the CMB of ~8 smaller Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces. Today I will: (i) demonstrate using dated Hotspot, Large Igneous Province and Kimberlite occurrence history and paleomagnetic rotations (e.g. Torsvik et al. 2010, Burke et al.2008) the stability throughout the past 0.55 Ga of the LLSVPs and LSVPs (ii) show from the history of the Earth and Mars how the LLSVPs and LSVPs are likely to have formed early in Earth history and to have been stable since ~ 4.4 Ga (Burke et al. 2012) (iii) show, following an analogy suggested by Jack Whitehead of similarity to atmospheric fronts, why plumes are generated only from PGZs on the CMB at the margins of LLSVPs and LSVPs. (iv) show from results of recent seismological studies of Iceland, Jan Mayen, Hawaii, Yellowstone, the Afar and Ontong Java, that although plumes rise vertically in the deep mantle from the CMB their fate in the top ~ 1, 000 km of the mantle is proving to be varied and to depend largely, as Wilson suggested, on how they interact with the plates above them. Properties of the Plume Generation Zones (PGZs) on the CMB and of the plumes that rise from them are

  16. Bait attending fishes of the abyssal zone and hadal boundary: Community structure, functional groups and species distribution in the Kermadec, New Hebrides and Mariana trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linley, T. D.; Stewart, A. L.; McMillan, P. J.; Clark, M. R.; Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Fujii, T.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Baited landers were deployed at 83 stations at four locations in the west Pacific Ocean from bathyal to hadal depths: The Kermadec Trench, the New Hebrides Trench, the adjoining South Fiji Basin and the Mariana Trench. Forty-seven putative fish species were observed. Distinct fish faunal groups were identified based on maximum numbers and percentage of observations. Both analyses broadly agreed on the community structure: A bathyal group at <3000 m in the New Hebrides and Kermadec trenches, an abyssal group (3039 - 4692 m) in the Kermadec Trench, an abyssal-hadal transition zone (AHTZ) group (Kermadec: 4707-6068 m, Mariana: 4506-6198 m, New Hebrides: 2578-6898 m, South Fiji Basin: 4074-4101 m), and a hadal group of endemic snailfish in the Kermadec and Mariana trenches (6750-7669 m and 6831-8143 m respectively). The abyssal and hadal groups were absent from the New Hebrides Trench. Depth was the single factor that best explained the biological variation between samples (16%), the addition of temperature and average surface primary production for the previous year increased this to 36% of variation. The absence of the abyssal group from the New Hebrides Trench and South Fiji Basin was due to the absence of macrourids (Coryphaenoides spp.), which defined the group. The macrourids may be energetically limited in these areas. In their absence the species of the AHTZ group appear released of competition with the macrourids and are found far shallower at these sites. The fish groups had distinct feeding strategies while attending the bait: The bathyal and abyssal groups were almost exclusively necrophagous, the AHTZ group comprised predatory and generalist feeders, while the hadal snailfishes were exclusively predators. With increasing depth, predation was found to increase while scavenging decreased. The data suggest scavenging fish fauna do not extend deeper than the hadal boundary.

  17. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet’s atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, “Dune” planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus—1.78; runaway greenhouse—1.04; moist greenhouse—1.01; maximum greenhouse—0.35; and early Mars—0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4–0.5. PMID:24277805

  18. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

    2014-09-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus-1.78; runaway greenhouse-1.04; moist greenhouse-1.01; maximum greenhouse-0.35; and early Mars-0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  19. Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars.

    PubMed

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E

    2014-09-02

    The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

  20. Evolution of a Canada Basin ice-ocean boundary layer and mixed layer across a developing thermodynamically forced marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, Shawn G.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Shaw, William J.; Cole, Sylvia T.; Toole, John M.; Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Maksym, Ted; Hwang, Byongjun

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive set of autonomous, ice-ocean measurements were collected across the Canada Basin to study the summer evolution of the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) and ocean mixed layer (OML). Evaluation of local heat and freshwater balances and associated turbulent forcing reveals that melt ponds (MPs) strongly influence the summer IOBL-OML evolution. Areal expansion of MPs in mid-June start the upper ocean evolution resulting in significant increases to ocean absorbed radiative flux (19 W m-2 in this study). Buoyancy provided by MP drainage shoals and freshens the IOBL resulting in a 39 MJ m-2 increase in heat storage in just 19 days (52% of the summer total). Following MP drainage, a near-surface fresh layer deepens through shear-forced mixing to form the summer mixed layer (sML). In late summer, basal melt increases due to stronger turbulent mixing in the thin sML and the expansion of open water areas due in part to wind-forced divergence of the sea ice. Thermal heterogeneities in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) upper ocean led to large ocean-to-ice heat fluxes (100-200 W m-2) and enhanced basal ice melt (3-6 cm d-1), well away from the ice edge. Calculation of the upper ocean heat budget shows that local radiative heat input accounted for at least 89% of the observed latent heat losses and heat storage (partitioned 0.77/0.23). These results suggest that the extensive area of deteriorating sea ice observed away from the ice edge during the 2014 season, termed the "thermodynamically forced MIZ," was driven primarily by local shortwave radiative forcing.

  1. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an

  3. Present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone from inversion of focal mechanism solutions: A successful trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard M., Franck A.; Castilla, Raymi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a compilation of 16 present-day stress tensors along the southern Caribbean plate boundary zone (PBZ), and particularly in western and along northern Venezuela. As a trial, these new stress tensors along PBZ have been calculated from inversion of 125 focal mechanism solutions (FMS) by applying the Angelier & Mechler's dihedral method, which were originally gathered by the first author and published in 2005. These new tensors are compared to those 59 tensors inverted from fault-slip data measured only in Plio-Quaternary sedimentary rocks, compiled in Audemard et al. (2005), which were originally calculated by several researchers through the inversion methods developed by Angelier and Mechler or Etchecopar et al. The two sets of stress tensors, one derived from geological data and the other one from seismological data, compare very well throughout the PBZ in terms of both stress orientation and shape of the stress tensor. This region is characterized by a compressive strike-slip (transpressional senso lato), occasionally compressional, regime from the southern Mérida Andes on the southwest to the gulf of Paria in the east. Significant changes in direction of the maximum horizontal stress (σH = σ1) can be established along it though. The σ1 direction varies progressively from nearly east-west in the southern Andes (SW Venezuela) to between NW-SE and NNW-SSE in northwestern Venezuela; this direction remaining constant across northern Venezuela, from Colombia to Trinidad. In addition, the σV defined by inversion of focal mechanisms or by the shape of the stress ellipsoid derived from the Etchecopar et al.'s method better characterize whether the stress regime is transpressional or compressional, or even very rarely trantensional at local scale. The orientation and space variation of this regional stress field in western Venezuela results from the addition of the two major neighbouring interplate maximum horizontal stress orientations (

  4. A new AF gravitational instanton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward

    2011-09-01

    It has long been conjectured that the Euclidean Schwarzschild and Euclidean Kerr instantons are the only non-trivial asymptotically flat (AF) gravitational instantons. In this Letter, we show that this conjecture is false by explicitly constructing a new two-parameter AF gravitational instanton with a U (1) × U (1) isometry group, using the inverse-scattering method. It has Euler number χ = 3 and Hirzebruch signature τ = 1, and its global topology is CP2 with a circle S1 removed appropriately. Various other properties of this gravitational instanton are also discussed.

  5. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  6. Contact zone permeability at intrusion boundaries: New results from hydraulic testing and geophysical logging in the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matter, J.M.; Goldberg, D.S.; Morin, R.H.; Stute, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic tests and geophysical logging performed in the Palisades sill and the underlying sedimentary rocks in the NE part of the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA, confirm that the particular transmissive zones are localized within the dolerite-sedimentary rock contact zone and within a narrow interval below this contact zone that is characterized by the occurrence of small layers of chilled dolerite. Transmissivity values determined from fluid injection, aquifer testing, and flowmeter measurements generally fall in the range of 8.1E-08 to 9.95E-06 m2/s and correspond to various scales of investigation. The analysis of acoustic and optical BHTV images reveals two primary fracture sets within the dolerite and the sedimentary rocks - subhorizontal fractures, intersected by subvertical ones. Despite being highly fractured either with subhorizontal, subvertical or both fracture populations, the dolerite above and the sedimentary rocks below the contact zone and the zone with the layers of chilled dolerite are significantly less conductive. The distribution of the particular conductive intervals is not a function of the two dominant fracture populations or their density but rather of the intrusion path of the sill. The intrusion caused thermal fracturing and cracking of both formations, resulting in higher permeability along the contact zone. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1 - Records Search AAC-Northern Region, Galena AFS, Campion AFS, Cape Lisburne AFS, Fort Yukon AFS, Indian Mountain AFS, Kotzebue AFS, Murphy Dome AFS, and Tin City AFS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    registered with Defense Technical Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station ...Information Center should direct requests for copies of this report to: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, Virginia 22314 U’ B...Contract No. F08637 84 C0070. The locations of these installations are shown in Figure 1. INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION Galena AFS * Galena Air Force Station

  8. Polyphase ductile/brittle deformation along a major tectonic boundary in an ophiolitic nappe, Alpine Corsica: Insights on subduction zone intermediate-depth asperities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magott, Rémi; Fabbri, Olivier; Fournier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In an ophiolitic nappe of Alpine Corsica, a major fault zone superimposes metagabbro over serpentinite and peridotite. Ductile and brittle deformation structures are observed in the fault damage zones. In the metagabbro damage zone, early deformation culminates in blueschist or eclogite facies conditions and consists of west-verging mylonitization alternating with pseudotachylyte-forming faulting with undetermined vergence. This early deformation is likely coeval with west-verging seismic (pseudotachylyte-forming) reverse faulting in the footwall peridotite or with aseismic distributed cataclastic deformation of footwall serpentinite. These early events (aseismic mylonitization or distributed cataclasis and seismic faulting) are interpreted as reverse faulting/shear in an east-dipping subducting oceanic lithosphere in Cretaceous to Eocene times. Late deformation events consist of ductile shear and seismic faulting having occurred under retrograde greenschist conditions. Kinematics of the ductile shear is top-to-the-east. These events are interpreted as the result of syn-to post-collision extension of Alpine Corsica in Eocene to Miocene times. The heterogeneous distribution of pseudotachylyte veins along the fault zone (abundant at peridotite-metagabbro interfaces, rare or absent at serpentinite-metagabbro interfaces) is interpreted as the consequence of contrasted frictional properties of the rocks in contact. High-friction peridotite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to asperities whereas low-friction serpentinite-metagabbro contacts could correspond to creeping zones.

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  10. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  11. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  12. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  13. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  14. 49 CFR 71.3 - Atlantic zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Atlantic zone. 71.3 Section 71.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.3 Atlantic zone. The first zone, the Atlantic standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is between 52°30″...

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  19. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  20. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  1. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  2. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a... the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the zones described in paragraphs (a)(8)(iii) and... paragraph (a)(9)(ii). Authorization to enter the waters that lie between the outer boundaries of the...

  3. Ocean floor boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, H D

    1979-04-13

    The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory boundary commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable boundary between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the boundary formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of boundary principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore boundaries.

  4. Tectonic role of margin-parallel and margin-transverse faults during oblique subduction in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes: Insights from Boundary Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton-Yonge, A.; Griffith, W. A.; Cembrano, J.; St. Julien, R.; Iturrieta, P.

    2016-09-01

    Obliquely convergent subduction margins develop trench-parallel faults shaping the regional architecture of orogenic belts and partitioning intraplate deformation. However, transverse faults also are common along most orogenic belts and have been largely neglected in slip partitioning analysis. Here we constrain the sense of slip and slip rates of differently oriented faults to assess whether and how transverse faults accommodate plate-margin slip arising from oblique subduction. We implement a forward 3-D boundary element method model of subduction at the Chilean margin evaluating the elastic response of intra-arc faults during different stages of the Andean subduction seismic cycle (SSC). Our model results show that the margin-parallel, NNE striking Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System accommodates dextral-reverse slip during the interseismic period of the SSC, with oblique slip rates ranging between 1 and 7 mm/yr. NW striking faults exhibit sinistral-reverse slip during the interseismic phase of the SSC, displaying a maximum oblique slip of 1.4 mm/yr. ENE striking faults display dextral strike slip, with a slip rate of 0.85 mm/yr. During the SSC coseismic phase, all modeled faults switch their kinematics: NE striking fault become sinistral, whereas NW striking faults are normal dextral. Because coseismic tensile stress changes on NW faults reach 0.6 MPa at 10-15 km depth, it is likely that they can serve as transient magma pathways during this phase of the SSC. Our model challenges the existing paradigm wherein only margin-parallel faults account for slip partitioning: transverse faults are also capable of accommodating a significant amount of plate-boundary slip arising from oblique convergence.

  5. Health Information in Somali (af Soomaali): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... af Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Wildfires Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media Wildfires - English Dabka duurka - af Soomaali (Somali) PDF Healthy ...

  6. GPS and seismological constraints on active tectonics and arc-continent collision in Papua New Guinea: Implications for mechanics of microplate rotations in a plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Stevens, Colleen; Silver, Eli; McCaffrey, Rob; Loratung, Wesley; Hasiata, Suvenia; Stanaway, Richard; Curley, Robert; Rosa, Robert; Taugaloidi, Jones

    2004-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is located within the deforming zone between the Pacific and Australian plates that converge obliquely at ˜110 mm/yr. New Guinea has been fragmented into a complex array of microplates, some of which rotate rapidly about nearby vertical axes. We present velocities from a network of 38 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites spanning much of the nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The GPS-derived velocities are used to explain the kinematics of major tectonic blocks in the region and the nature of strain accumulation on major faults in PNG. We simultaneously invert GPS velocities, earthquake slip vectors on faults, and transform orientations in the Woodlark Basin for the poles of rotation of the tectonic blocks and the degree of elastic strain accumulation on faults in the region. The data are best explained by six distinct tectonic blocks: the Australian, Pacific, South Bismarck, North Bismarck, and Woodlark plates and a previously unrecognized New Guinea Highlands Block. Significant portions of the Ramu-Markham Fault appear to be locked, which has implications for seismic hazard determination in the Markham Valley region. We also propose that rapid clockwise rotation of the South Bismarck plate is controlled by edge forces initiated by the collision between the Finisterre arc and the New Guinea Highlands.

  7. Cascading ecohydrological transitions: Multiple changes in vegetation and hydrology over the past 500 years for a semiarid forest/woodland boundary zone in New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Craig D.

    2010-05-01

    On decadal and centennial time scales, multiple drivers can cause substantial changes in vegetation cover, which can trigger associated changes in runoff and erosion patterns and processes, with consequent feedbacks to the vegetation - cumulatively this can lead to a cascading series of non-equilibrial ecosystem changes through time. The work reported here provides a relatively detailed 500-year perspective of such changes on the mesas the eastern Jemez Mountains in northern New Mexico (USA), which today exhibit vegetation transitions along an elevational gradient between semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, mixed woodlands dominated by piñon (Pinus edulis) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma), and juniper savannas. Using multiple lines of evidence, a history of major ecosystem changes since ca. 1500 A.D. is reconstructed for a dynamic transition zone on one such mesa (Frijolito Mesa). Evidence includes intensive archaeological surveys, dendrochronological reconstructions of the demographic and spatial patterns of establishment and mortality for these three main tree species, dendrochronological reconstructions of fire regimes and climate patterns, broad-scale mapping of vegetation changes from historic aerial photographs since 1935, monitoring of vegetation from permanent transects since 1991, detailed soil maps and interpretations, intensive ecohydrological studies since 1993 on portions of this mesa, and research on the ecosystem effects of an experimental tree-thinning experiment conducted in 1997. Frijolito Mesa was fully occupied by large numbers of Native American farmers from the A.D. 1200's until the late 1500's, when they left these mesas for settlements in the adjoining Rio Grande Valley. Archaeological evidence and tree ages indicate that the mesa was likely quite deforested when abandoned, followed by episodic tree establishment dominated by ponderosa pine during the Little Ice Age. By the late 1700's Frijolito Mesa included

  8. STBC AF relay for unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Fumiyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    If a large scale disaster similar to the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011 happens, some areas may be isolated from the communications network. Recently, unmanned aircraft system (UAS) based wireless relay communication has been attracting much attention since it is able to quickly re-establish the connection between isolated areas and the network. However, the channel between ground station (GS) and unmanned aircraft (UA) is unreliable due to UA's swing motion and as consequence, the relay communication quality degrades. In this paper, we introduce space-time block coded (STBC) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay for UAS based wireless relay communication to improve relay communication quality. A group of UAs forms single frequency network (SFN) to perform STBC-AF cooperative relay. In STBC-AF relay, only conjugate operation, block exchange and amplifying are required at UAs. Therefore, STBC-AF relay improves the relay communication quality while alleviating the complexity problem at UAs. It is shown by computer simulation that STBC-AF relay can achieve better throughput performance than conventional AF relay.

  9. Transverse tectonic boundaries near Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Von Huene, R.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse tectonic boundaries exist at the NE and SW ends of the Kodiak islands, so that the Aleutian arc-trench system is longitudinally segmented in this area. Evidence for the transverse boundaries includes alignments of such geologic features as offset volcanic lineations, terminations of structural trends, and boundaries of discrete zones of earthquake aftershock sequences. The boundaries appear to be broad zones of disruption that began to form during the late Miocene or Pliocene. Although oceanic fracture zones and seamount chains intersect the continental margin near the boundaries, subduction of these features probably did not cause the tectonic boundaries. The fracture zones and seamount chains have swept northeastward along the margin, at least since the late Pliocene, because of the direction of convergence of the Pacific and N American plates. -Authors

  10. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  11. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...) Valparaiso is to be considered as being on the boundary line of the Summer and the Winter Seasonal Zones....

  12. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  13. 15 CFR 923.32 - Lakeward or seaward boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.32 Lakeward or seaward boundary. (a) (1) For states adjoining the Great Lakes, the lakeward boundary of the State's coastal zone is...

  14. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... accurately reflect other Federal law and to reduce confusion over ambiguous language and inconsistencies... final rule to make the necessary updates and to revise the language for clarity. This final rule is... language without imposing any new requirements. ] Amendments To Conform to Statute Section 71.1(a)...

  15. Safety Zones

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are established primarily to reduce the accidental spread of hazardous substances by workers or equipment from contaminated areas to clean areas. They include the exclusion (hot) zone, contamination reduction (warm) zone, and support (cold) zone.

  16. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  17. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  18. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  19. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  20. 49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hawaii-Aleutian zone. 71.12 Section 71.12 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii...

  1. Microstructural basis for the effect of chromium on the strength and toughness of AF1410-based high performance steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayer, Raghavan; Machmeier, P. M.

    1996-09-01

    The variation in strength and Charpy impact toughness as a function of tempering temperature in the range of 200 ‡C to 650 ‡C was investigated in AF 1410 and AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steels produced in a laboratory-scale, and a commercially produced AerMet 100 steel. The tensile test results showed that AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr had lower strength compared to AF 1410, while AerMet 100 had the highest strength of the three steels examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies demonstrated that the strength variations among the steels can be attributed to differences in the matrix/carbide coherency strain and the volume fraction of the strengthening M2C carbides. The toughness values of the three steels were comparable when tempered up to 424 ‡C. Tempering at and above 454 ‡C resulted in a relative enhancement of toughness in AF 1410 + 1 pct Cr steel compared to AF 1410. This toughening was attributed to the destabilization of cementite at lath and prior austenite boundaries and the formation of reverted austenite.

  2. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  3. AFS Estuaries Section - A Successful Partnership

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuaries Section of the American Fisheries Society offers travel awards to students in support of their attendance and presentations at the AFS meeting. Since 2007, the Southern Association of Marine Laboratories has partnered with the Estuaries Section to sponsor two stude...

  4. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  5. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.40-10 Section 3.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-10 Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector...

  6. 33 CFR 3.45-10 - Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-10 Section 3.45-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-10 Sector Buffalo Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Buffalo's office is located in Buffalo, NY. The boundaries of...

  7. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  8. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  9. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  10. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  11. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.40-10 Section 3.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eighth Coast Guard District § 3.40-10 Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector...

  12. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  13. 33 CFR 3.45-20 - Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.45-20 Section 3.45-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Ninth Coast Guard District § 3.45-20 Sector Detroit Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Detroit's office is located in Detroit, MI. The boundaries of...

  14. 33 CFR 3.35-25 - Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-25 Section 3.35-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-25 Sector San Juan Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector San Juan's office is located in San Juan, PR. The boundaries...

  15. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  16. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  17. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  18. 33 CFR 3.70-15 - Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.70-15 Section 3.70-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fourteenth Coast Guard District § 3.70-15 Sector Guam Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Guam's office is located in Santa Rita, Guam. The boundaries of...

  19. 33 CFR 3.35-40 - Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.35-40 Section 3.35-40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Seventh Coast Guard District § 3.35-40 Sector Key West Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Key West's office is located in Key West, FL. The boundaries...

  20. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  1. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  2. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  3. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  4. 33 CFR 3.25-20 - Sector North Carolina Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Carolina boundary; thence easterly along the North Carolina-South Carolina boundary on the sea at.... The boundary of Sector North Carolina's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone starts at the sea on the North Carolina-Virginia border at 36 deg 33.04 min N. latitude, 75 deg 52.05 min...

  5. Short-Term Interactions between Strike-Slip Faults across a Plate Boundary Zone at the Transition from Subduction to Collision: Comparison to the Marlborough Fault System, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. M.; Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Williams, C. A.; Nuechter, J. A.; Robinson, R.; Upton, P.

    2009-12-01

    We use numerical models to investigate stress interactions between semi-parallel strike-slip faults in a zone of transition from subduction to transpressive collision. The models are broadly inspired by the tectonic setting at the northern end of the South Island, New Zealand. After an initial stress-buildup period during which the faults are given a low frictional strength, the faults are locked for a specified interseismic interval. Stresses build up as a result of applied far-field and basal boundary conditions representing average plate motion. Slip along the faults is self-determined in the model as an effect of stresses built up in the initial setup stage, and is strongly controlled by the inelastic rheology. The model rheology includes elasticity, pressure-sensitive brittle yield, and thermally-controlled ductile creep. After the setup stage we turn various fault strands "on" or "off" in order to investigate the effect on neighbouring faults in terms of stress changes. We investigate these changes for a hierarchy of models with increasing complexity in rheology, and for defined sequences of events, prescribed by unlocking certain faults in a given sequence. As found previously for Critical Coulomb Stress elastic models, we predict that an "Alpine Fault" event will preferentially load one strand of the Marlborough Fault system (in our model, it loads the fault corresponding to the approximate location of the Awatere Fault). The inelastic rheology used in the models allows us to go further, and to investigate stress changes in subsequent interseismic steps. Postseismic creep beneath the brittle crust following an Alpine Fault-type event relieves stress in the mid-crust beneath it and loads the southern end of a strike-slip fault corresponding to the Clarence Fault. An "Awatere Fault" event unloads the shallow crust around itself and neighbouring strike slip faults, causing a stress shadow, but loads the mid-crust below, and to a much lesser extent at the

  6. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  7. Space Boundary Tool (SBT)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Cody

    2012-07-01

    SBT is an application that automatically calculates thermal zone boundaries suitable for input to the EnergyPlus simulation engine from building element and space geometry defined in IFC. SBT has multiple components. There is a general computational core, a DLL for reading and writing IFC files, and a GUI front end. The GUI also has the capability to create ready-to-simulate IDF files for EnergyPlus. Hardware req: PC; Operating Syst/Version: MSVC++2010; Type of files: source code; Documentation: User Manual (Electronic).

  8. 15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart. (b) The Davidson Seamount Management Zone is also part of the Sanctuary. This area, bounded by geodetic lines connecting a rectangle centered on the top of the Davidson Seamount, consists of... County. Exact coordinates for the Davidson Seamount Management Zone boundary are provided in Appendix...

  9. 15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subpart. (b) The Davidson Seamount Management Zone is also part of the Sanctuary. This area, bounded by geodetic lines connecting a rectangle centered on the top of the Davidson Seamount, consists of... County. Exact coordinates for the Davidson Seamount Management Zone boundary are provided in appendix...

  10. 15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subpart. (b) The Davidson Seamount Management Zone is also part of the Sanctuary. This area, bounded by geodetic lines connecting a rectangle centered on the top of the Davidson Seamount, consists of... County. Exact coordinates for the Davidson Seamount Management Zone boundary are provided in appendix...

  11. 15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subpart. (b) The Davidson Seamount Management Zone is also part of the Sanctuary. This area, bounded by geodetic lines connecting a rectangle centered on the top of the Davidson Seamount, consists of... County. Exact coordinates for the Davidson Seamount Management Zone boundary are provided in appendix...

  12. 15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subpart. (b) The Davidson Seamount Management Zone is also part of the Sanctuary. This area, bounded by geodetic lines connecting a rectangle centered on the top of the Davidson Seamount, consists of... County. Exact coordinates for the Davidson Seamount Management Zone boundary are provided in appendix...

  13. U2AF65 adapts to diverse pre-mRNA splice sites through conformational selection of specific and promiscuous RNA recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Agrawal, Anant A.; Gupta, Ankit; Green, Michael R.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate splice site sequences mark the intron boundaries of pre-mRNA transcripts in multicellular eukaryotes. The essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF65 is faced with the paradoxical tasks of accurately targeting polypyrimidine (Py) tracts preceding 3′ splice sites while adapting to both cytidine and uridine nucleotides with nearly equivalent frequencies. To understand how U2AF65 recognizes degenerate Py tracts, we determined six crystal structures of human U2AF65 bound to cytidine-containing Py tracts. As deoxy-ribose backbones were required for co-crystallization with these Py tracts, we also determined two baseline structures of U2AF65 bound to the deoxy-uridine counterparts and compared the original, RNA-bound structure. Local structural changes suggest that the N-terminal RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) is more promiscuous for cytosine-containing Py tracts than the C-terminal RRM2. These structural differences between the RRMs were reinforced by the specificities of wild-type and site-directed mutant U2AF65 for region-dependent cytosine- and uracil-containing RNA sites. Small-angle X-ray scattering analyses further demonstrated that Py tract variations select distinct inter-RRM spacings from a pre-existing ensemble of U2AF65 conformations. Our results highlight both local and global conformational selection as a means for universal 3′ splice site recognition by U2AF65. PMID:23376934

  14. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    .... Regulated Navigation Areas are water areas within a defined boundary for which regulations for vessels.../2011 USCG-2011-0596 Grande Isle, LA Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/2/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/4/2011 USCG-2011-0609 Buffalo, NY Safety Zone (Part 165).... 7/24/2011...

  15. 46 CFR 42.07-15 - Zones and seasonal areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BY SEA Control, Enforcement, and Rights of Appeal § 42.07-15 Zones and seasonal areas. (a) A vessel... regarding the zones and seasonal areas described in subpart 42.30. (b) A port located on the boundary...

  16. 46 CFR 42.07-15 - Zones and seasonal areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BY SEA Control, Enforcement, and Rights of Appeal § 42.07-15 Zones and seasonal areas. (a) A vessel... regarding the zones and seasonal areas described in subpart 42.30. (b) A port located on the boundary...

  17. Investigation of Boundary Layer Disturbances Caused by Periodic Heating of a Thin Ribbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    boundary layer. To obtain quantitative information about the development of these waves, they introduced a two-dimensional artificial disturbance into the...AF IT a. Thermo Systems Inc. (TSI) IFA-iO Intellegent Flow Analyzer Anemometry System b. TSI Model 1218-20 Hot Film Boundary Layer Probe c. Zenith Z

  18. Coaxially electrospun PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats with superhydrophobic properties.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Palanikkumaran; Hsu, Shu-Hau; Sigmund, Wolfgang

    2010-08-03

    This work reports the coaxial electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (AF) and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath nanofiber mats yielding superhydrophobic properties. The coaxial electrospinning configuration allows for the electrospinning of Teflon AF, a nonelectrospinnable polymer, with the help of an electrospinnable PVDF polymer. PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath fibers have been found to a have mean fiber diameter ranging from 400 nm to less than 100 nm. TEM micrographs exhibit a typical core-sheath fiber structure for these fibers, where the sheath fiber coats the core fiber almost thoroughly. Water contact angle measurements by sessile drop method on these core-sheath nanofiber mats exhibited superhydrophobic characteristics with contact angles close to or higher than 150 degrees. Surprisingly, PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF nanofiber mat surface properties were dominated by the fiber dimensions and less influenced by the type of sheath polymer. This suggests that highly fluorinated polymer Teflon AF does not advance the hydrophobicity beyond what surface physics and slightly fluorinated polymer PVDF can achieve. It is concluded that PVDF-Teflon AF and Teflon AF-PVDF core-sheath electrospun nanofiber mats may be used in lithium (Li)-air batteries.

  19. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: 92°12′11″ W (2) Safety Zone #2 (South Spirit Lake): North Boundary: 46°40′45″ N South Boundary: 46°40... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones..., within the designated boxes of latitude and longitude, are safety zones: (1) Safety Zone #1 (North...

  20. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: 92°12′11″ W (2) Safety Zone #2 (South Spirit Lake): North Boundary: 46°40′45″ N South Boundary: 46°40... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones..., within the designated boxes of latitude and longitude, are safety zones: (1) Safety Zone #1 (North...

  1. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: 92°12′11″ W (2) Safety Zone #2 (South Spirit Lake): North Boundary: 46°40′45″ N South Boundary: 46°40... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones..., within the designated boxes of latitude and longitude, are safety zones: (1) Safety Zone #1 (North...

  2. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: 92°12′11″ W (2) Safety Zone #2 (South Spirit Lake): North Boundary: 46°40′45″ N South Boundary: 46°40... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones..., within the designated boxes of latitude and longitude, are safety zones: (1) Safety Zone #1 (North...

  3. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: 92°12′11″ W (2) Safety Zone #2 (South Spirit Lake): North Boundary: 46°40′45″ N South Boundary: 46°40... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones..., within the designated boxes of latitude and longitude, are safety zones: (1) Safety Zone #1 (North...

  4. Boundary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  5. Tidal Boundary Conditions in SEAWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulligan, Ann E.; Langevin, Christian; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2011-01-01

    SEAWAT, a U.S. Geological Survey groundwater flow and transport code, is increasingly used to model the effects of tidal motion on coastal aquifers. Different options are available to simulate tidal boundaries but no guidelines exist nor have comparisons been made to identify the most effective approach. We test seven methods to simulate a sloping beach and a tidal flat. The ocean is represented in one of the three ways: directly using a high hydraulic conductivity (high-K) zone and indirect simulation via specified head boundaries using either the General Head Boundary (GHB) or the new Periodic Boundary Condition (PBC) package. All beach models simulate similar water fluxes across the upland boundary and across the sediment-water interface although the ratio of intertidal to subtidal flow is different at low tide. Simulating a seepage face results in larger intertidal fluxes and influences near-shore heads and salinity. Major differences in flow occur in the tidal flat simulations. Because SEAWAT does not simulate unsaturated flow the water table only rises via flow through the saturated zone. This results in delayed propagation of the rising tidal signal inland. Inundation of the tidal flat is delayed as is flow into the aquifer across the flat. This is severe in the high-K and PBC models but mild in the GHB models. Results indicate that any of the tidal boundary options are fine if the ocean-aquifer interface is steep. However, as the slope of that interface decreases, the high-K and PBC approaches perform poorly and the GHB boundary is preferable.

  6. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  11. Part III: AFS - A Secure Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A.; /SLAC

    2005-06-29

    AFS is a secure distributed global file system providing location independence, scalability and transparent migration capabilities for data. AFS works across a multitude of Unix and non-Unix operating systems and is used at many large sites in production for many years. AFS still provides unique features that are not available with other distributed file systems even though AFS is almost 20 years old. This age might make it less appealing to some but with IBM making AFS available as open-source in 2000, new interest in use and development was sparked. When talking about AFS, people often mention other file systems as potential alternatives. Coda (http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu/) with its disconnected mode will always be a research project and never have production quality. Intermezzo (http://www.inter-mezzo.org/) is now in the Linux kernel but not available for any other operating systems. NFSv4 (http://www.nfsv4.org/) which picked up many ideas from AFS and Coda is not mature enough yet to be used in serious production mode. This article presents the rich features of AFS and invites readers to play with it.

  12. DDX6 transfers P-TEFb kinase to the AF4/AF4N (AFF1) super elongation complex

    PubMed Central

    Mück, Fabian; Bracharz, Silvia; Marschalek, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    AF4/AFF1 and AF5/AFF4 are both backbones for the assembly of “super elongation complexes” (SECs) that exert 2 distinct functions after the recruitment of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP: (1) initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II gene transcription, and (2) modification of transcribed gene regions by distinct histone methylation patterns. In this study we aimed to investigate one of the initial steps, namely how P-TEFb is transferred from 7SK snRNPs to the SECs. In particular, we were interested in the role of DDX6 that we have recently identified as part of the AF4 complex. DDX6 is an evolutionarily conserved member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family that is known to control miRNA and mRNA biology (translation, storage and degradation). Overexpressed DDX6 is associated with different cancer types and with c-Myc protein overexpression. We could demonstrate that DDX6 binds to 7SK snRNA and causes the release and transfer of P-TEFb to the AF4/AF4N SEC. DDX6 also binds stably to AF4 and AF4N as demonstrated by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. As a consequence, overexpression of either AF4/AF4N or DDX6 resulted in a strong increase of mRNA production (5-6 fold), while their simultaneous expression increased the cellular mRNA production by 11-fold. Conversely, the corresponding knockdown of DDX6 decreased mRNA production by 70%. In conclusion, AF4/AF4N and DDX6 represent key molecules for the elongation process of gene transcription and a model will be proposed for the hand-over process of P-TEFb to SECs. PMID:27679741

  13. Compliance Testing of the Clear AFS Power Plant, Coal-Fired Boiler 1 Clear AFS, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Background On 3 February 1987 Clear AFS requested a permit modification to allow limited burning of waste oil for their power plant shown in Figure 1...The Alaska DEC rescindel Permit to Operate No. 8331-AA003 and issued Permit No. 8731-AA004 (Appendix B) allowing the burning of waste oil. As a...below. 1. Visible Emissions (18 AAC 50.050(a)) Visible emissions, excluding condensed water vapor from an industrial process or fuel burning

  14. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  15. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  16. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  17. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  18. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  19. Helena banks strike-slip(. ) fault and the relation to other Cenozoic faults along reactivated Triassic(. ) basin boundary fault zones in the Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake area - results from a marine high-resolution multichannel seismic-reflection survey

    SciTech Connect

    Behrendt, J.C.; Yuan, A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, the USGS conducted a high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) survey offshore of Charleston, South Carolina, to study the relation of Cenozoic faulting to future earthquake hazard. High-angle reverse displacement of Coastal Plain sedimentary rock indicating a linear increase with depth of 51 +/- 12 m/km is observed on the reflection profiles. This is similar to the Gants and Cooke faults in the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake. The authors interpret these results to indicate that the stress field cannot have varied significantly in direction or in magnitude from Late Cretaceous time to Miocene or Pliocene time in the region. The HBF zone trends N 66/sup 0/ E; it comprises several 15- to 40-km-long segments that trend from N 68/sup 0/ E to N 77/sup 0/ E. The en-echelon pattern of the segments is compatible with left-lateral strike-slip and is thus consistent with the present northeast-trending maximum compressional stress field. The HBF zone appears to be an obliquely compressional reactivation of a tensional Triassic(.) fault zone bounding the Triassic(.) Kiawah Basin that has been identified on several MCS profiles. Similarly, the northeast-trending Gants reverse or strike-slip fault was probably reactivated from an old tensional fault bounding the Jedburg Triassic(.) basin in the 1886 meizoseismal area.

  20. Regional variations in seismic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlyanska, Ludmila

    2010-05-01

    Dividing of the Earth into zones in the frame one-dimensional velocity model was proposed Jeffreys and Gutenberg is the first half of XX century. They recovered the following zones: A - the crust; B - zone in the depth interval 33-413 km, C - zone 413-984 km, D - zone 984-2898 km, E - 2898-4982 km, F - 4982-5121 km, G - 5121-6371 km (centre of the Earth). These zones differ in their seismic properties. Later, zone D was divided to the areas D' (984-2700 km) and D" (2700-2900 km). At present, this scheme is significantly modified and only the layer D" is in wide use. The more seismological studies are carried out, the more seismic boundaries appear. Boundaries at 410, 520, 670, and 2900 km, at which increase in the velocity of the seismic waves is particularly noticeable are considered as having global significance. Moreover, there are indications of the existence of geophysical boundaries at 800, 1200-1300, 1700, 1900-2000 km. Using 3D P-velocity model of the mantle based on Taylor approximation method for solving of the inverse kinematics multi-dimensional seismic task we have obtained seismic boundaries for the area covering 20-55° E × 40-55° N. Data on the time of first arrivals of P waves from earthquakes and nuclear explosions recorded at ISC stations during 1964-2002 were used as input to construct a 3-D model. The model has two a priori limits: 1) the velocity is a continuous function of spatial coordinates, 2) the function v(r)/r where r is a radius in the spherical coordinate system r, φ, λ decreases with depth. The first limitation is forced since velocity leaps can not be sustainably restored from the times of first arrival; the second one follows from the nature of the observed data. Results presented as horizontal sections of the actual velocity every 25 km in the depth interval 850-2850 km, and as the longitudinal and latitudinal sections of the discrepancy on the 1-D reference model, obtained as a result of solving of the inversion task at 1

  1. Crossing boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the tensions between professional and personal boundaries and how they affect the work and private lives of family physicians. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Almost all of the family physicians interviewed discussed how their profession negatively affected their personal lives. Many struggled with issues such as heavy workloads, the adverse effects of their profession on their family lives, and the trespassing of patients onto their personal lives in small towns and rural communities. Some physicians had developed strategies to balance their personal lives with their professional demands; however, this often meant reducing work hours or terminating certain shifts, such as those in the emergency department or after-hours clinics. CONCLUSION Family physicians struggle to keep their profession from intruding too much into their private lives. These struggles are important to acknowledge and address in order to avoid physician burnout and premature retirement from clinical practice. PMID:19282540

  2. An Implicit LU/AF FDTD Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent work to develop two and three-dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI) FDTD schemes. These ADI schemes are based upon the original ADI concept developed by Peaceman and Rachford and Douglas and Gunn, which is a popular solution method in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These ADI schemes work well and they require solution of a tridiagonal system of equations. A new approach proposed in this paper applies a LU/AF approximate factorization technique from CFD to Maxwell s equations in flux conservative form for one space dimension. The result is a scheme that will retain its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, but does not require the solution of tridiagonal systems. The theory for this new algorithm is outlined in a one-dimensional context for clarity. An extension to two and threedimensional cases is discussed. Results of Fourier analysis are discussed for both stability and dispersion/damping properties of the algorithm. Results are presented for a one-dimensional model problem, and the explicit FDTD algorithm is chosen as a convenient reference for comparison.

  3. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  4. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  5. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  6. Stability analysis of intermediate boundary conditions in approximate factorization schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    South, J. C., Jr.; Hafez, M. M.; Gottlieb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the intermediate boundary condition in the AF2 scheme used by Holst for simulation of the transonic full potential equation. It is shown that the treatment suggested by Holst led to a restriction on the time step and ways to overcome this restriction are suggested. The discussion is based on the theory developed by Gustafsson, Kreiss, and Sundstrom and also on the von Neumann method.

  7. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Analice; Kimanya, Martin; Haesaert, Geert; Tiisekwa, Bendantuguka; Madege, Richard; Degraeve, Szanne; Cyprian, Cypriana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg(-1) for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg(-1) for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania.

  8. Ecological boundaries in the context of hierarchy theory.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Matthew M; Salthe, Stanley N

    2008-06-01

    Ecological boundaries have been described as being multiscalar or hierarchical entities. However, the concept of the ecological boundary has not been explicitly examined in the context of hierarchy theory. We explore how ecological boundaries might be envisioned as constituents of scalar hierarchical systems. Boundaries may be represented by the surfaces of constituents or as constituents themselves. Where surfaces would correspond to abrupt transition zones, boundary systems might be quite varied depending on hierarchical context. We conclude that hierarchy theory is compatible with a functional vision of ecological boundaries where functions can be largely represented as the processing or filtering of ecological signals. Furthermore, we postulate that emergent ecological boundaries that arise on a new hierarchical level may contribute to the overconnectedness of mature ecosystems. Nevertheless, a thermodynamic approach to the emergence and development of boundary systems does indicate that in many situations, ecological boundaries would persist in time by contributing to the energy production of higher hierarchical levels.

  9. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    ultra low velocity zone (Cottaar and Romanowicz, this meeting) and make it difficult to constrain anisotropy within the Pacific superplume. Notably, however, in both cases, elliptical particle motions become more linear, and thus anisotropy decreases, from the fast side towards the slow side across superplume boundaries. Possibly this is caused by a rotation in the deformational regime, causing rotation of the pre-existing anisotropic fast directions. Forward modeling of deformation using tracers in mantle convection models, considering different mineral physics scenarios (Wenk et al., 2011) suggest that the boundaries in anisotropy from downwellings to upwellings can be sharp, and could possibly contribute to explaining the sharp boundary in VSH, in addition to effects of lateral variations in temperature and composition. Moreover the model for post-perovskite with (001)-slip predicts anti-correlation between S and P wave anisotropy. Variation in VPH due to anisotropy would then be anti-correlated with the variation caused by temperature, and this could explain the lack of correlation in the variations of VSH and VPH across the superplume boundary. Our modeling shows that care must be taken when computing R=dlnVs/dlnVp in the presence of anisotropy.

  10. Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet boundary layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned Currents (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet boundary layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet boundary layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet boundary layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet boundary layer should include the ring current as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.

  11. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    OBSERVATIONS) L P- 14 H~N A A-F S .~ 73-F2 ____ JA&,. ALL WI- LAt E -- .. - - 6 7 0 11 16 17 21 22 27 28- 33 34 *0 41 A7 48 5 .7 * . .3 .4 .4 . 1 . i E...PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4LL . LAT -E- - 10 1 1 i 7 23 22 ’ 2 3 3 A 40 A 3 5 A7 A • ’ .. 5 .t",5...SCOTT A. APR 03 UNCLASSIFIED USAFETAC/DS-83/019 SBI-AD-EB50 397 F/6 4/2 NL SU 2. lii .0 EM *,*,- Ica L- 11111 1.25 s~w ,r- 1 . 11.6 I MiCRQ OPY

  12. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J.; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J.; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes. PMID:26566657

  13. RNA structure replaces the need for U2AF2 in splicing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J; Ferraris, Luciana; Creton, Robbert; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Fairbrother, William G

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays an integral role in catalytic, ribosomal, small nuclear, micro, and transfer RNAs. Discovering a prevalent role for secondary structure in pre-mRNAs has proven more elusive. By utilizing a variety of computational and biochemical approaches, we present evidence for a class of nuclear introns that relies upon secondary structure for correct splicing. These introns are defined by simple repeat expansions of complementary AC and GT dimers that co-occur at opposite boundaries of an intron to form a bridging structure that enforces correct splice site pairing. Remarkably, this class of introns does not require U2AF2, a core component of the spliceosome, for its processing. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this mechanism was present in the ancestral vertebrate lineage prior to the divergence of tetrapods from teleosts. While largely lost from land dwelling vertebrates, this class of introns is found in 10% of all zebrafish genes.

  14. 33 CFR 165.729 - Jacksonville Harbor, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boundaries are established as security zones during the specified conditions: (1) Zone A. 200 yards in all... entrance sea buoy (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Naval Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida....

  15. 33 CFR 165.729 - Jacksonville Harbor, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boundaries are established as security zones during the specified conditions: (1) Zone A. 200 yards in all... entrance sea buoy (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Naval Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida....

  16. 33 CFR 165.729 - Jacksonville Harbor, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... boundaries are established as security zones during the specified conditions: (1) Zone A. 200 yards in all... entrance sea buoy (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Naval Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida....

  17. 33 CFR 165.729 - Jacksonville Harbor, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... boundaries are established as security zones during the specified conditions: (1) Zone A. 200 yards in all... entrance sea buoy (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Naval Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida....

  18. Study of Boundary Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 11 - 4 TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY STRUCTURES...19 B THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 37 C TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN BOUNDARY...layer structure. 10 SECTION 3 THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING BOUNDARY IN fcc STRUCTURE The (111) planes of the fcc structure is stacked as ABCABC... as

  19. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and.... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the.... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area. (1) The boundary of the...

  20. 46 CFR 42.30-5 - Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-5 Northern Winter Seasonal Zones and.... Excluded from this zone are the North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Zone I and the Baltic Sea bounded by the.... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) North Atlantic Winter Seasonal Area. (1) The boundary of the...

  1. AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5: Space Environment Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Hall, T.; Roth, C.; Ling, A.; Ginet, G. P.; Madden, D.

    2010-12-01

    AF-GEOSpace is a graphics-intensive software program with space environment models and applications developed by the Space Weather Center of Excellence at AFRL. The software addresses a wide range of physical domains, e.g., solar disturbance propagation, geomagnetic field and radiation belt configurations, auroral particle precipitation, and ionospheric scintillation. AF-GEOSpace has become a platform for developing and prototyping space weather visualization products. The new AF-GEOSpace Version 2.5 (release scheduled for 2010) expands on the content of Version 2.1 by including modules addressing the following new topics: (1) energetic proton maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly (from Ginet et al. [2007]), (2) GPS scintillation outage simulation tools, (3) magnetopause location determination (Shue et al. [1998]), (4) a plasmasphere model (Global Core Plasma Model, 2009 version based on Gallagher et al. [2000]), (5) a standard ionospheric model (International Reference Ionosphere 2007), (6) the CAMMICE/MICS model of inner magnetosphere plasma population (based on Roeder et al. [2005]), (7) magnetic field models (e.g., Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005]), and (8) loading and displaying externally-produced 3D gridded data sets within AF-GEOSpace. Improvements to existing Version 2.1 capabilities include: (1) a 2005 update to the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity model of Smart and Shea [2003], (2) a 2005 update to the ionospheric scintillation Wide-Band Model (WBMOD) of Secan and Bussey [1994], and (3) improved magnetic field flux mapping options for the existing set of AF-GEOSpace radiation belt models. A basic review of these new AF-GEOSpace capabilities will be provided. To obtain a copy of the software, please contact the first author.

  2. GPIM AF-M315E Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spores, Ronald A.; Masse, Robert; Kimbrel, Scott; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) will demonstrate an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system. Aerojet-Rocketdyne is responsible for the development of the propulsion system payload. This paper statuses the propulsion system module development, including thruster design and system design; Initial test results for the 1N engineering model thruster are presented. The culmination of this program will be high-performance, green AF-M315E propulsion system technology at TRL 7+, with components demonstrated to TRL 9, ready for direct infusion to a wide range of applications for the space user community.

  3. Spatial periodic boundary condition for MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Laattoe, Tariq; Post, Vincent E A; Werner, Adrian D

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale hyporheic zone (HZ) models often use a spatial periodic boundary (SPB) pair to simulate an infinite repetition of bedforms. SPB's are common features of commercially available multiphysics modeling packages. MODFLOW's lack of this boundary type has precluded it from being effectively utilized in this area of HZ research. We present a method to implement the SPB in MODFLOW by development of the appropriate block-centered finite-difference expressions. The implementation is analogous to MODFLOW's general head boundary package. The difference is that the terms on the right hand side of the solution equations must be updated with each iteration. Consequently, models that implement the SPB converge best with solvers that perform both inner and outer iterations. The correct functioning of the SPB condition in MODFLOW is verified by two examples. This boundary condition allows users to build HZ-bedform models in MODFLOW, facilitating further research using related codes such as MT3DMS and PHT3D.

  4. Variations in the kinematics of deformation along the Zagros inclined transpression zone, Iran: Implications for defining a curved inclined transpression zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Partabian, Abdolreza; Faghih, Ali

    2013-03-01

    The combination of inclined collision and plate boundary shape can control the nature of deformation and the sense of shear along a transpression zone. The present study investigated the effects of a boundary zone with curvilinear shape along a transpression zone on the kinematics of deformation. The kinematics of the Zagros transpression zone varies with the orientation of the zone boundary. Detailed structural and microstructural studies showed sinistral sense of shear on the southeastern part of the Zagros inclined transpression zone (Fars Arc), but dextral sense of shear on the northwestern part of the zone. It is inferred that the both senses of shear were developed coevally under a bulk general shear, regional-scale deformation along a curved inclined transpression miming the shape of the Fras Arc of the Zagros and the reentrant of the Bandar Abbas Syntaxis. The Zagros transpression zone formed by inclined continental collision between the Afro-Arabian continent and Iranian microcontinent.

  5. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Jacksonville, Florida—safety zones. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are... any specified Maritime Prepositioned Ship as it transits between the St. Johns River entrance sea...

  6. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Jacksonville, Florida—safety zones. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are... any specified Maritime Prepositioned Ship as it transits between the St. Johns River entrance sea...

  7. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Jacksonville, Florida—safety zones. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are... any specified Maritime Prepositioned Ship as it transits between the St. Johns River entrance sea...

  8. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Jacksonville, Florida—safety zones. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are... any specified Maritime Prepositioned Ship as it transits between the St. Johns River entrance sea...

  9. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start near the intersection of the western boundary of Vermillion Parish, LA, and the sea at latitude 29°34′45″ N, longitude 92°37′00″ W, proceeding north along the eastern and southern boundaries of Cameron, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Rapides...

  10. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start near the intersection of the western boundary of Vermillion Parish, LA, and the sea at latitude 29°34′45″ N, longitude 92°37′00″ W, proceeding north along the eastern and southern boundaries of Cameron, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Rapides...

  11. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start near the intersection of the western boundary of Vermillion Parish, LA, and the sea at latitude 29°34′45″ N, longitude 92°37′00″ W, proceeding north along the eastern and southern boundaries of Cameron, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Rapides...

  12. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start near the intersection of the western boundary of Vermillion Parish, LA, and the sea at latitude 29°34′45″ N, longitude 92°37′00″ W, proceeding north along the eastern and southern boundaries of Cameron, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Rapides...

  13. 33 CFR 3.40-28 - Sector Houston-Galveston Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone; Marine Safety Unit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start near the intersection of the western boundary of Vermillion Parish, LA, and the sea at latitude 29°34′45″ N, longitude 92°37′00″ W, proceeding north along the eastern and southern boundaries of Cameron, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Rapides...

  14. Biostratigraphy: Interpretations of Oppel's zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, G. H.

    2013-11-01

    Zones like those of Oppel and Hedberg's Oppel-Zone are commonly interpreted as rock units delimited temporally. A more restricted view is that they are rock units empirically defined by bioevents that occur in the same order in all sections. Methods used by Oppel and definitions proposed by Hedberg are reviewed to assess their adequacy for definition of biostratigraphic units and their ability to support temporal inferences. Although they are usually interpreted as chronostratigraphic units, Oppel defined his zones in stratigraphic space, without temporal reference. In contrast, Hedberg required that bioevents for his Oppel-Zone should be approximately isochronous across their distribution but provided no operational way to identify such bioevents. Neither author clearly indicated how boundaries should be defined. Recourse to a principle of biosynchroneity to support inferences that stratigraphically ordered bioevents are temporal markers conflicts with knowledge of the biogeographies of modern taxa. Evolutionary theory explains why some bioevents occur in the same stratigraphic order but does not support the inference that they are isochronous events. Since its inception biostratigraphy has focused on ordered classifications, like those of Oppel. Stratigraphic codes should allow for a complementary category of biofacies zones that reflect depositional environments and are not constrained to occur in a particular order.

  15. A conservative treatment of zonal boundaries for Euler equation calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Finite-difference calculations require the generation of a grid for the region of interest. A zonal approach, wherein the given region is subdivided into zones and the grid for each zone is generated independently, makes the grid-generation process for complicated topologies and for regions requiring selective grid refinement a fairly simple task. This approach results in new boundaries within the given region, that is, zonal boundaries at the interfaces of the various zones. The zonal-boundary scheme (the integration scheme used to update the points on the zonal boundary) for the Euler equations must be conservative, accurate, stable, and applicable to general curvilinear coordinate systems. A zonal-boundary scheme with these desirable properties is developed in this study. The scheme is designed for explicit, first-order-accurate integration schemes but can be modified to accommodate second-order-accurate explicit and implicit integration schemes. Results for inviscid flow, including supersonic flow over a cylinder, blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, and one-dimensional shock-tube flow are obtained on zonal grids. The conservative nature of the zonal-boundary scheme permits the smooth transition of the discontinuities associated with these flows from one zone to another. The calculations also demonstrate the continuity of contour lines across zonal boundaries that can be achieved with the present zonal scheme.

  16. Quantifying grain boundary damage tolerance with atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Daniel; Tucker, Garritt J.

    2016-10-01

    Grain boundaries play a pivotal role in defect evolution and accommodation within materials. Irradiated metals have been observed to form defect denuded zones in the vicinity of grain boundaries. This is especially apparent in nanocrystalline metals, which have an increased grain boundary concentration, as compared to their polycrystalline counterparts. Importantly, the effect of individual grain boundaries on microstructural damage tolerance is related to the character or structural state of the grain boundary. In this work, the damage accommodation behavior of a variety of copper grain boundaries is studied using atomistic simulations. Damage accumulation behavior is found to reach a saturation point where both the free volume and energy of a grain boundary fluctuate within an elliptical manifold, which varies in size for different boundary characters. Analysis of the grain boundaries shows that extrinsic damage accommodation occurs due to localized atomic shuffling accompanied by free volume rearrangement within the boundary. Continuous damage accumulation leads to altered atomic structural states that oscillate around a mean non-equilibrium state, that is energetically metastable. Our results suggest that variation of grain boundary behavior, both from equilibrium and under saturation, is directly related to grain boundary equilibrium energy and some boundaries have a greater propensity to continually accommodate damage, as compared to others.

  17. NHWAVE: Consistent boundary conditions and turbulence modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale σ-coordinate ocean circulation models neglect the horizontal variation of σ in the calculation of stress terms and boundary conditions. Following this practice, the effects of surface and bottom slopes in the dynamic surface and bottom boundary conditions have been usually neglected in the available non-hydrostatic wave-resolving models using a terrain-following grid. In this paper, we derive consistent surface and bottom boundary conditions for the normal and tangential stress fields as well as a Neumann-type boundary condition for scalar fluxes. Further, we examine the role of surface slopes in the predicted near-surface velocity and turbulence fields in surface gravity waves. By comparing the predicted velocity field in a deep-water standing wave in a closed basin, we show that the consistent boundary conditions do not generate unphysical vorticity at the free surface, in contrast to commonly used, simplified stress boundary conditions developed by ignoring all contributions except vertical shear in the transformation of stress terms. In addition, it is shown that the consistent boundary conditions significantly improve predicted wave shape, velocity and turbulence fields in regular surf zone breaking waves, compared with the simplified case. A more extensive model-data comparison of various breaking wave properties in different types of surface breaking waves is presented in companion papers (Derakhti et al., 2016a,b).

  18. Sabiperones A-F, new diterpenoids from Juniperus sabina.

    PubMed

    Janar, Jenis; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Wong, Chin Piow; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Six new diterpenoids, sabiperones A-F (1-6) have been isolated from the aerial part of Juniperus sabina. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques. Sabiperone F showed moderate cell growth inhibitory activities against five human cancer cell lines.

  19. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  20. An Empirical Test of Oklahoma's A-F School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Ware, Jordan; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Barnes, Laura L.; Khojasteb, Jam

    2016-01-01

    Oklahoma is one of 16 states electing to use an A-F letter grade as an indicator of school quality. On the surface, letter grades are an attractive policy instrument for school improvement; they are seemingly clear, simple, and easy to interpret. Evidence, however, on the use of letter grades as an instrument to rank and improve schools is scant…

  1. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  2. Increased Heart Rate Is Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (AF): Results From the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A; Kim, Sunghee; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gersh, Bernard J; Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hylek, Elaine; Kowey, Peter R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Reiffel, James A; Chang, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Background Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) require rate control; however, the optimal target heart rate remains under debate. We aimed to assess rate control and subsequent outcomes among patients with permanent AF. Methods and Results We studied 2812 US outpatients with permanent AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. Resting heart rate was measured longitudinally and used as a time-dependent covariate in multivariable Cox models of all-cause and cause-specific mortality during a median follow-up of 24 months. At baseline, 7.4% (n=207) had resting heart rate <60 beats per minute (bpm), 62% (n=1755) 60 to 79 bpm, 29% (n=817) 80 to 109 bpm, and 1.2% (n=33) ≥110 bpm. Groups did not differ by age, previous cerebrovascular disease, heart failure status, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, renal function, or left ventricular function. There were significant differences in race (P=0.001), sinus node dysfunction (P=0.004), and treatment with calcium-channel blockers (P=0.006) and anticoagulation (P=0.009). In analyses of continuous heart rates, lower heart rate ≤65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 per 5-bpm decrease; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P=0.04). Similarly, increasing heart rate >65 bpm was associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.10 per 5-bpm increase; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.0001). This relationship was consistent across endpoints and in a broader sensitivity analysis of permanent and nonpermanent AF patients. Conclusions Among patients with permanent AF, there is a J-shaped relationship between heart rate and mortality. These data support current guideline recommendations, and clinical trials are warranted to determine optimal rate control. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01165710. PMID:26370445

  3. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  4. On boundary superalgebras

    SciTech Connect

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2010-04-15

    We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.

  5. Free-Stream Boundaries of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrsin, Stanley; Kistler, Alan L

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study made of the instantaneously sharp and irregular front which is always found to separate turbulent fluid from contiguous "nonturbulent" fluid at a free-stream boundary. This distinct demarcation is known to give an intermittent character to hot-wire signals in the boundary zone. The overall behavior of the front is described statistically in terms of its wrinkle-amplitude growth and its lateral propagation relative to the fluid as functions of downstream coordinate.

  6. Extracting Uranium from Seawater: Promising AF Series Adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Chris J.; Kuo, L. -J.; Gill, G.; Wood, J. R.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    A new family of high-surface-area polyethylene fiber adsorbents named the AF series was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series adsorbents were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/comonomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154-354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44 M KOH at 80 °C followed by screening at ORNL with sodium-based synthetic aqueous solution, spiked with 8 ppm uranium. The uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170 to 200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/comonomer molar ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through column experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning times at 80 °C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1 and 3 h of KOH conditioning at 80 °C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 1 to 3 h at 80 °C resulted in a 22-27% decrease in uranium adsorption capacity in seawater.

  7. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary; Wood, Jordana; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8 ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.

  8. Extracting uranium from seawater: Promising AF series adsorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Y.; Mayes, Richard T.; ...

    2015-11-02

    Here, a new family of high surface area polyethylene fiber adsorbents (AF series) was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The AF series of were synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid (at different monomer/co-monomer mol ratios) onto high surface area polyethylene fibers. The degree of grafting (%DOG) of AF series adsorbents was found to be 154 354%. The grafted nitrile groups were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with 0.44M KOH at 80 C followed by screening at ORNL with simulated seawater spiked with 8more » ppm uranium. Uranium adsorption capacity in simulated seawater screening ranged from 170-200 g-U/kg-ads irrespective of %DOG. A monomer/co-monomer mol ratio in the range of 7.57-10.14 seemed to be optimum for highest uranium loading capacity. Subsequently, the adsorbents were also tested with natural seawater at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using flow-through exposure uptake experiments to determine uranium loading capacity with varying KOH conditioning time at 80 C. The highest adsorption capacity of AF1 measured after 56 days of marine testing was demonstrated as 3.9 g-U/kg-adsorbent and 3.2 g-U/kg-adsorbent for 1hr and 3hrs of KOH conditioning at 80 C, respectively. Based on capacity values of several AF1 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning from 3hrs to 1hr at 80 C resulted in 22-27% increase in uranium loading capacity in seawater.« less

  9. 33 CFR 165.728 - Jacksonville, Florida-safety zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Jacksonville, Florida—safety zones. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are... any specified Maritime Prepositioned Ship as it transits between the St. Johns River entrance sea buoy..., Jacksonville, Florida. (2) Zone B. 100 yards in all directions on land and 200 yards on water from the...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  11. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  12. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  13. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  14. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  15. 32 CFR 989.12 - AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact... FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.12 AF Form 813, Request for Environmental Impact Analysis. The Air Force uses AF Form 813 to document the need...

  16. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector Mobile...′00″ N; thence north along the Georgia-Alabama border to the southern boundary of Dekalb County, AL... Counties, AL, to the Mississippi-Alabama border; thence north along the Mississippi-Alabama border to...

  17. 33 CFR 3.40-10 - Sector Mobile Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Mobile's office is located in Mobile, AL. The boundaries of Sector Mobile...′00″ N; thence north along the Georgia-Alabama border to the southern boundary of Dekalb County, AL... Counties, AL, to the Mississippi-Alabama border; thence north along the Mississippi-Alabama border to...

  18. 33 CFR 3.40-40 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Upper Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Upper Mississippi River's office is located in St. Louis, MO. The boundaries of Sector Upper Mississippi River's Marine...

  19. 33 CFR 3.40-40 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Upper Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Upper Mississippi River's office is located in St. Louis, MO. The boundaries of Sector Upper Mississippi River's Marine...

  20. 33 CFR 3.40-40 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Upper Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Upper Mississippi River's office is located in St. Louis, MO. The boundaries of Sector Upper Mississippi River's Marine...

  1. 33 CFR 3.40-40 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sector Upper Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Upper Mississippi River's office is located in St. Louis, MO. The boundaries of Sector Upper Mississippi River's Marine...

  2. 33 CFR 3.40-40 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Upper Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Upper Mississippi River's office is located in St. Louis, MO. The boundaries of Sector Upper Mississippi River's Marine...

  3. 33 CFR 3.40-60 - Sector Lower Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sector Lower Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Lower Mississippi River's office is located in Memphis, TN. The boundaries of Sector Lower Mississippi River's Marine Inspection...

  4. 33 CFR 3.40-60 - Sector Lower Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sector Lower Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Lower Mississippi River's office is located in Memphis, TN. The boundaries of Sector Lower Mississippi River's Marine Inspection...

  5. 33 CFR 3.40-60 - Sector Lower Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sector Lower Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Lower Mississippi River's office is located in Memphis, TN. The boundaries of Sector Lower Mississippi River's Marine Inspection...

  6. 33 CFR 3.40-60 - Sector Lower Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Lower Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Lower Mississippi River's office is located in Memphis, TN. The boundaries of Sector Lower Mississippi River's Marine Inspection...

  7. 33 CFR 3.40-60 - Sector Lower Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector Lower Mississippi River... Mississippi River Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Lower Mississippi River's office is located in Memphis, TN. The boundaries of Sector Lower Mississippi River's Marine Inspection...

  8. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Boris RM; Frijns, Arjan JH; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached. PMID:27583296

  9. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  10. Embossed Teflon AF Laminate Membrane Microfluidic Diaphragm Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; Hunt, Brian; White,Victor; Grunthaner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A microfluidic system has been designed to survive spaceflight and to function autonomously on the Martian surface. It manipulates microscopic quantities of liquid water and performs chemical analyses on these samples to assay for the presence of molecules associated with past or present living processes. This technology lies at the core of the Urey Instrument, which is scheduled for inclusion on the Pasteur Payload of the ESA ExoMars rover mission in 2013. Fabrication processes have been developed to make the microfabricated Teflon-AF microfluidic diaphragm pumps capable of surviving extreme temperature excursions before and after exposure to liquid water. Two glass wafers are etched with features and a continuous Teflon membrane is sandwiched between them (see figure). Single valves are constructed using this geometry. The microfabricated devices are then post processed by heating the assembled device while applying pneumatic pressure to force the Teflon diaphragm against the valve seat while it is softened. After cooling the device, the embossed membrane retains this new shape. This solves previous problems with bubble introduction into the fluid flow where deformations of the membrane at the valve seat occurred during device bonding at elevated temperatures (100-150 C). The use of laminated membranes containing commercial Teflon AF 2400 sheet sandwiched between spun Teflon AF 1600 layers performed best, and were less gas permeable than Teflon AF 1600 membranes on their own. Spinning Teflon AF 1600 solution (6 percent in FLOURINERT(Registered TradeMark) FC40 solvent, 3M Company) at 500 rpm for 1.5 seconds, followed by 1,000 rpm for 3 seconds onto Borofloat glass wafers, results in a 10-micron-thick film of extremely smooth Teflon AF. This spinning process is repeated several times on flat, blank, glass wafers in order to gradually build a thick, smooth membrane. After running this process at least five times, the wafer and Teflon coating are heated under vacuum

  11. 33 CFR 3.35-10 - Sector Miami Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... western boundary of Miami-Dade County to the sea at latitude 25°10′36″ N, longitude 80°51′29″ W; thence... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Miami's office is located in Miami, FL. The boundaries of Sector Miami's...; thence south to the northern boundary of Collier County, FL, at longitude 81°30′00″ W; thence...

  12. 33 CFR 3.35-10 - Sector Miami Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... western boundary of Miami-Dade County to the sea at latitude 25°10′36″ N, longitude 80°51′29″ W; thence... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Miami's office is located in Miami, FL. The boundaries of Sector Miami's...; thence south to the northern boundary of Collier County, FL, at longitude 81°30′00″ W; thence...

  13. 33 CFR 3.35-10 - Sector Miami Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... western boundary of Miami-Dade County to the sea at latitude 25°10′36″ N, longitude 80°51′29″ W; thence... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Miami's office is located in Miami, FL. The boundaries of Sector Miami's...; thence south to the northern boundary of Collier County, FL, at longitude 81°30′00″ W; thence...

  14. 33 CFR 3.35-10 - Sector Miami Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... western boundary of Miami-Dade County to the sea at latitude 25°10′36″ N, longitude 80°51′29″ W; thence... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Miami's office is located in Miami, FL. The boundaries of Sector Miami's...; thence south to the northern boundary of Collier County, FL, at longitude 81°30′00″ W; thence...

  15. 33 CFR 3.35-10 - Sector Miami Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... western boundary of Miami-Dade County to the sea at latitude 25°10′36″ N, longitude 80°51′29″ W; thence... Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Miami's office is located in Miami, FL. The boundaries of Sector Miami's...; thence south to the northern boundary of Collier County, FL, at longitude 81°30′00″ W; thence...

  16. Interaction between Subunits of Heterodimeric Splicing Factor U2AF Is Essential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, David Z.; Kanaar, Roland; Breger, Kevin S.; Rio, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    The heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor, U2AF (U2 snRNP auxiliary factor), plays a critical role in 3′ splice site selection. Although the U2AF subunits associate in a tight complex, biochemical experiments designed to address the requirement for both subunits in splicing have yielded conflicting results. We have taken a genetic approach to assess the requirement for the Drosophila U2AF heterodimer in vivo. We developed a novel Escherichia coli copurification assay to map the domain on the Drosophila U2AF large subunit (dU2AF50) that interacts with the Drosophila small subunit (dU2AF38). A 28-amino-acid fragment on dU2AF50 that is both necessary and sufficient for interaction with dU2AF38 was identified. Using the copurification assay, we scanned this 28-amino-acid interaction domain for mutations that abrogate heterodimer formation. A collection of these dU2AF50 point mutants was then tested in vivo for genetic complementation of a recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. A mutation that completely abolished interaction with dU2AF38 was incapable of complementation, whereas dU2AF50 mutations that did not effect heterodimer formation rescued the recessive lethal dU2AF50 allele. Analysis of heterodimer formation in embryo extracts derived from these interaction mutant lines revealed a perfect correlation between the efficiency of subunit association and the ability to complement the dU2AF50 recessive lethal allele. These data indicate that Drosophila U2AF heterodimer formation is essential for viability in vivo, consistent with a requirement for both subunits in splicing in vitro. PMID:9528748

  17. The Role of U2AF1 Mutations in the Pathogenesis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    to U2AF1(WT). We validated several homologous dysregulated junctions (i.e., across species) in MDS patient bone marrow samples that have mutant ...U2AF1(S34F) versus U2AF1(WT). Together, these results suggest that mutant U2AF1 expression contributes to the altered hematopoiesis and pre-mRNA...whether the U2AF1(S34F) mutation alters hematopoiesis in vivo. We will inducibly express wild-type and S34F mutant (resulting from the most common

  18. Characterization of physically vapor deposited AF2400 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Spragge, M.K.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.; Ward, R.; Thomas, I.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    Anti-reflective coatings made with Teflon AF2400 had the highest damage thresholds recorded for physical vapor deposited coatings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory damage facility. Physical vapor deposited layers of Teflon AF2400, a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, maintained the bulk optical properties of a high transmittance from 200 nm to 1600 nm, and a low refractive index. In addition, the refractive index can be intentionally reduced by control of two common deposition parameters, deposition rate and substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance observations indicated that morphological changes caused the variations in the refractive index rather than compositional changes. The coatings adhered to fused silica and silicon wafers under normal laboratory handling conditions.

  19. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F, cytotoxic polyacetylenes from Gymnaster koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Ju; Min, Byung-Sun; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Bae, Ki-Hwan

    2002-06-01

    Six new polyacetylenes, gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6), were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis, together with 2,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-8-ol (7) and 1,9,16-heptadecatriene-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8), by bioassay-guided fractionation using the L1210 tumor cell line as a model for cytotoxicity. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established spectroscopically, which included 2D NMR experiments. Gymnasterkoreaynes A-F (1-6) are linear diacetylenes and are structurally related to falcarinol, panaxynol, panaxydiol, and panaxytriol. Of the compounds isolated, gymnasterkoreaynes B (2), C (3), F (6), and 1,9,16-heptadecatrien-4,6-diyn-3,8-diol (8) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against L1210 tumor cells with ED(50) values of 0.12-3.3 microg/mL.

  20. Boundary layer theory and subduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, A.C.

    1993-12-01

    Numerical models of thermally activated convective flow in Earth`s mantle do not resemble active plate tectonics because of their inability to model successfully the process of subduction, other than by the inclusion of artificial weak zones. Here we show, using a boundary layer argument, how the `rigid lid` style of convection favored by thermoviscous fluids leads to lithospheric stresses which may realistically exceed the yield stress and thus cause subduction ot occur through the visoc-plastic failure of lithospheric rock. An explicit criterion for the failure of the lid is given, which is sensitive to the internal viscosity eta(sub a) below the lid. For numbers appropriate to Earth`s mantle, this criterion is approximately eta(sub a) greater than 10(exp 21) Pa s.

  1. Boundary lubrication: Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on boundary lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of boundary surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the boundary lubrication regime are considered.

  2. Improved AF Squadron Command Structure for Leadership, Accountability, and Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-20

    of Defense respectively focus on span of control. The concept of span of control was developed in 1922 by Sir Ian Hamilton based on the assumption...For the AF, this means squadrons must be organized across a wing to minimize inconsistency within units as well as across them. A study by Dewar ... Dewar , Robert D., and Simet, Donald P. “A Level Specific Prediction of Spans of Control Examining the Effects of Size, Technology, and

  3. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    the development of green rocket propellants . The Air Force Research Laboratory’s (AFRL) monopropellant, AF-M315E, has been selected for...art rocket fuels and propellants . A known quantity of liquid propellant is placed in a metal U-tube and held isothermally in a preheated mixture of... Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) program. As the propulsion system developed by Aerojet- Rocketdyne for this propellant advances in maturity, studies

  4. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  5. Genomic functions of U2AF in constitutive and regulated splicing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tongbin; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The U2AF heterodimer is generally accepted to play a vital role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing. Given prevalent mutations in U2AF, particularly in the U2AF1 gene (which encodes for the U2AF35 subunit) in blood disorders and other human cancers, there are renewed interests in these classic splicing factors to further understand their regulatory functions in RNA metabolism in both physiological and disease settings. We recently reported that U2AF has a maximal capacity to directly bind ˜88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome and that numerous U2AF binding events also occur in various exonic and intronic locations, thus providing additional mechanisms for the regulation of alternative splicing besides their traditional role in titrating weak splice sites in the cell. These findings, coupled with the existence of multiple related proteins to both U2AF65 and U2AF35, beg a series of questions on the universal role of U2AF in functional 3' splice site definition, their binding specificities in vivo, potential mechanisms to bypass their requirement for certain intron removal events, contribution of splicing-independent functions of U2AF to important cellular functions, and the mechanism for U2AF mutations to invoke specific diseases in humans.

  6. Durable Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Spontaneous Wrinkling of Teflon AF.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, Liam R J; Hoatson, Ben S; Wood, Elliot S; Hawkett, Brian S; Neto, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of both single-scale and hierarchical superhydrophobic surfaces, created by exploiting the spontaneous wrinkling of a rigid Teflon AF film on two types of shrinkable plastic substrates. Sub-100 nm to micrometric wrinkles were reproducibly generated by this simple process, with remarkable control over the size and hierarchy. Hierarchical Teflon AF wrinkled surfaces showed extremely high water repellence (contact angle 172°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (2°), resulting in droplets rolling off the surface at tilt angles lower than 5°. The wrinkling process intimately binds the Teflon AF layer with its substrate, making these surfaces mechanically robust, as revealed by macroscale and nanoscale wear tests: hardness values were close to that of commercial optical lenses and aluminum films, resistance to scratch was comparable to commercial hydrophobic coatings, and damage by extensive sonication did not significantly affect water repellence. By this fabrication method the size of the wrinkles can be reproducibly tuned from the nanoscale to the microscale, across the whole surface in one step; the fabrication procedure is extremely rapid, requiring only 2 min of thermal annealing to produce the desired topography, and uses inexpensive materials. The very low roll-off angles achieved in the hierarchical surfaces offer a potentially up-scalable alternative as self-cleaning and drag-reducing coatings.

  7. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  8. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, extending from the surface to the sea floor: (1) Within a... territorial sea) in the Southeastern New England COTP zone. This zone will remain activated at all times while... the water within the boundaries of these security zones unless previously authorized by the COTP...

  9. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone, extending from the surface to the sea floor: (1) Within a... territorial sea) in the Southeastern New England COTP zone. This zone will remain activated at all times while... the water within the boundaries of these security zones unless previously authorized by the COTP...

  10. Wild-Type U2AF1 Antagonizes the Splicing Program Characteristic of U2AF1-Mutant Tumors and Is Required for Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Dennis Liang; Motowski, Hayley; Chatrikhi, Rakesh; Gao, Shaojian; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have asked how the common S34F mutation in the splicing factor U2AF1 regulates alternative splicing in lung cancer, and why wild-type U2AF1 is retained in cancers with this mutation. A human lung epithelial cell line was genetically modified so that U2AF1S34F is expressed from one of the two endogenous U2AF1 loci. By altering levels of mutant or wild-type U2AF1 in this cell line and by analyzing published data on human lung adenocarcinomas, we show that S34F-associated changes in alternative splicing are proportional to the ratio of S34F:wild-type gene products and not to absolute levels of either the mutant or wild-type factor. Preferential recognition of specific 3′ splice sites in S34F-expressing cells is largely explained by differential in vitro RNA-binding affinities of mutant versus wild-type U2AF1 for those same 3′ splice sites. Finally, we show that lung adenocarcinoma cell lines bearing U2AF1 mutations do not require the mutant protein for growth in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, wild-type U2AF1 is required for survival, regardless of whether cells carry the U2AF1S34F allele. Our results provide mechanistic explanations of the magnitude of splicing changes observed in U2AF1-mutant cells and why tumors harboring U2AF1 mutations always retain an expressed copy of the wild-type allele. PMID:27776121

  11. Alternative splicing of U2AF1 reveals a shared repression mechanism for duplicated exons

    PubMed Central

    Kralovicova, Jana; Vorechovsky, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary factor of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2AF) facilitates branch point (BP) recognition and formation of lariat introns. The gene for the 35-kD subunit of U2AF gives rise to two protein isoforms (termed U2AF35a and U2AF35b) that are encoded by alternatively spliced exons 3 and Ab, respectively. The splicing recognition sequences of exon 3 are less favorable than exon Ab, yet U2AF35a expression is higher than U2AF35b across tissues. We show that U2AF35b repression is facilitated by weak, closely spaced BPs next to a long polypyrimidine tract of exon Ab. Each BP lacked canonical uridines at position -2 relative to the BP adenines, with efficient U2 base-pairing interactions predicted only for shifted registers reminiscent of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The BP cluster was compensated by interactions involving unpaired cytosines in an upstream, EvoFold-predicted stem loop (termed ESL) that binds FUBP1/2. Exon Ab inclusion correlated with predicted free energies of mutant ESLs, suggesting that the ESL operates as a conserved rheostat between long inverted repeats upstream of each exon. The isoform-specific U2AF35 expression was U2AF65-dependent, required interactions between the U2AF-homology motif (UHM) and the α6 helix of U2AF35, and was fine-tuned by exon Ab/3 variants. Finally, we identify tandem homologous exons regulated by U2AF and show that their preferential responses to U2AF65-related proteins and SRSF3 are associated with unpaired pre-mRNA segments upstream of U2AF-repressed 3′ss. These results provide new insights into tissue-specific subfunctionalization of duplicated exons in vertebrate evolution and expand the repertoire of exon repression mechanisms that control alternative splicing. PMID:27566151

  12. Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepoutre, Damien; Layrol, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops, and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop-production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  13. 33 CFR 3.65-20 - Sector North Bend Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mission Coordinator Zone. The Sector North Bend office is located in North Bend, OR. The boundaries of.... latitude, 123°18.0′ W. longitude; thence westerly along 42°0.00′ N. latitude to the sea. The offshore boundary is bounded on the south by the southern boundary of the 13th Coast Guard District, which...

  14. 33 CFR 3.65-20 - Sector North Bend Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mission Coordinator Zone. The Sector North Bend office is located in North Bend, OR. The boundaries of.... latitude, 123°18.0′ W. longitude; thence westerly along 42°0.00′ N. latitude to the sea. The offshore boundary is bounded on the south by the southern boundary of the 13th Coast Guard District, which...

  15. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    DOEpatents

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  16. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennekes, Hendrik

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

  17. 33 CFR 165.1702 - Gastineau Channel, Juneau, Alaska-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-safety zone. 165.1702 Section 165.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 165.1702 Gastineau Channel, Juneau, Alaska—safety zone. (a) The waters within the following boundaries are a safety zone: A line beginning at the Standard Oil Company Pier West Light (LLNR 3217),...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1702 - Gastineau Channel, Juneau, Alaska-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-safety zone. 165.1702 Section 165.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 165.1702 Gastineau Channel, Juneau, Alaska—safety zone. (a) The waters within the following boundaries are a safety zone: A line beginning at the Standard Oil Company Pier West Light (LLNR 3217),...

  19. 75 FR 76953 - Foreign-Trade Zone 207-Richmond, VA Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 207--Richmond, VA Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade Zone... Richmond area. The current update does not alter the physical boundaries that have previously been approved... acres)--within the Richmond International Airport Complex; Site 2 (221 acres)--SouthPoint Business...

  20. 33 CFR 165.729 - Jacksonville Harbor, Florida-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Jacksonville Harbor, Florida—security zone. (a) The water, land, and land and water within the following boundaries are established as security zones during the specified conditions: (1) Zone A. 200 yards in all... entrance sea buoy (STJ) and its berth inside the Mayport Naval Basin (Ribault Bay), Mayport, Florida....

  1. Boundary and intimacy.

    PubMed

    Paris, J

    1985-10-01

    Personal boundaries are essential for psychological stability. In psychopathology, they may be too porous, as in the case of borderline personalities, or too rigid, as in the case of narcissistic and paranoid personalities. A developmental model which could explain abnormal boundaries would postulate neglect producing porous boundaries, and intrusiveness producing rigid boundaries. Case material is presented in which patients with narcissistic personality traits had grown up with an intrusive, controlling mother, and without a father to provide a buffer. This led to an inability to tolerate intimacy in adult relationships. The transference of both patients reflected their extreme sensitivity to impingement on their boundaries. Such patients suffer from inner emptiness because of their inability to incorporate positive experiences.

  2. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  3. A general boundary capability embedded in an orthogonal mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D.W.; Yu-Jiuan Chen

    1995-07-01

    The authors describe how they hold onto orthogonal mesh discretization when dealing with curved boundaries. Special difference operators were constructed to approximate numerical zones split by the domain boundary; the operators are particularly simple for this rectangular mesh. The authors demonstrated that this simple numerical approach, termed Dynamic Alternating Direction Implicit, turned out to be considerably more efficient than more complex grid-adaptive algorithms that were tried previously.

  4. Spectral zone selection methodology for pebble bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ramatsemela Mphahlele; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kostadin N. Ivanov; Hans D. Gougar

    2011-01-01

    A methodology is developed for determining boundaries of spectral zones for pebble bed reactors. A spectral zone is defined as a region made up of a number of nodes whose characteristics are collectively similar and that are assigned the same few-group diffusion constants. The spectral zones are selected in such a manner that the difference (error) between the reference transport solution and the diffusion code solution takes a minimum value. This is achieved by choosing spectral zones through optimally minimizing this error. The objective function for the optimization algorithm is the total reaction rate error, which is defined as the sum of the leakage, absorption and fission reaction rates errors in each zone. The selection of these spectral zones is such that the core calculation results based on diffusion theory are within an acceptable tolerance as compared to a proper transport reference solution. Through this work, a consistent approach for identifying spectral zones that yield more accurate diffusion results is introduced.

  5. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  6. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  7. The Advancing State of AF-M315E Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert; Spores, Ronald A.; McLean, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The culmination of twenty years of applied research in hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based monopropellants, the NASA Space Technology mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) will achieve the first on-orbit demonstration of an operational AF-M315E green propellant propulsion system by the end of 2015. Following an contextual overview of the completed flight design of the GPIM propellant storage and feed system, results of first operation of a flight-representative heavyweight 20-N engineering model thruster (to be conducted in mid-2014) are presented with performance comparisons to prior lab model (heavyweight) test articles.

  8. RX-26-AY/AF rifle bullet tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    A series of rifle bullet tests was performed on two explosives, RX-26-AY and RX-26-AF, using the Pantex version of the Picatinny Arsenal Test (PA-2). With the exception of one test, both explosives displayed a relatively low sensitivity to bullet impact. However, a marked difference was noted in the average burn time duration between the two types of explosives being tested. A minor modification was made on the rifle barrel used at the test site in order to improve the sighting procedure.

  9. Characterising the Alpine Fault Damage Zone using Fault Zone Guided Waves, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, J. D.; Gulley, A.; Boese, C. M.; Malin, P. E.; Townend, J.; Thurber, C. H.; Guo, B.; Sutherland, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fault Zone Guided Waves (FZGWs) are observed within New Zealand's transpressional continental plate boundary, the Alpine Fault, which is late in its typical seismic cycle. Distinctive dispersive seismic coda waves (~7-35 Hz), trapped within the low-velocity fault damage zone, have been recorded on three component 2 Hz borehole seismometers installed within 20 m of the principal slip zone in the shallow (< 150 m deep) DFDP-1 boreholes. Near the central Alpine Fault, known for low background seismicity, FZGW-generating microseismic events are located beyond the catchment-scale strike-slip and thrust segment partitioning of the fault indicating lateral connectivity of the low-velocity zone immediately below the near-surface segmentation. Double-difference earthquake relocation of events using the dense SAMBA and WIZARD seismometer arrays allows spatio-temporal patterns of 2013 events to be analysed and the segmentation and low velocity zone depth extent further explored. Three layer, dispersion modeling of the low-velocity zone indicates a waveguide width of 60-200 m with a 10-40% reduction in S-wave velocity, similar to that inferred for the fault core of other mature plate boundary faults such as the San Andreas and North Anatolian Faults.

  10. Hybrid Zones: Windows on Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica L.; Harrison, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Defining the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on biodiversity and species distributions is currently a high priority. Niche models focus primarily on predicted changes in abiotic factors; however, species interactions and adaptive evolution will impact the ability of species to persist in the face of changing climate. Our review focuses on the use of hybrid zones to monitor species' responses to contemporary climate change. Monitoring hybrid zones provides insight into how range boundaries shift in response to climate change by illuminating the combined effects of species interactions and physiological sensitivity. At the same time, the semi-permeable nature of species boundaries allows us to document adaptive introgression of alleles associated with response to climate change. PMID:25982153

  11. Chemically peculiar A/F stars in open clusters of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2010-12-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars and open clusters that Gaia will observe in the Galaxy.

  12. NMR study of the AF-SC-SC-AF phased transition in a pnictide superconductor LaFeAsO1-xHx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoki; Sakurai, Ryosuke; Iimura, Soushi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo; Yamakawa, Youichi; Kontani, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    We have performed 75As and 1H NMR measurements in LaFeAsO1xHx, an isomorphic compound of LaFeAsO1xFx. LaFeAsO1xHx is an electron doped system, and O2- can be replaced with H- up to x = 0.5. LaFeAsO1xHx is known for having double superconducting (SC) domes on H doping. Recently, we discovered that a new antiferromagnetic (AF) phase follows the double SC domes on further H doping, forming a symmetric AF-SC-SC-AF phase alignment in the electronic phase diagram Unlike the AF ordering in the lightly H-doped regime, the AF ordering in the highly H-doped regime is attributed to the nesting between electron pockets. In the conference, we will show the data of both NMR spectra and the relaxation rate 1/T1 in the whole doping region. We will discuss the difference of electronic states between the lightly H-doped AF-SC phases and highly H-doped SC-AF phases. This work is supported by a Grant-in-Aid (Grant No. KAKENHI 23340101) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.

  13. Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii. Volcano boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent volcanoes along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for volcano boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii is the geologic map of Hawaii (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active volcanoes. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).

  14. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukotic, B.; Cirkovic, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  15. Grain boundary hierarchy development in a quartz mylonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimby, Patrick W.; Prior, David J.; Wheeler, John

    1998-07-01

    Orientation contrast imaging using forescatter detectors and backscattered electron diffraction techniques in the scanning electron microscope have been used to investigate the boundary hierarchy characteristics of a quartz mylonite shear zone from Torridon, NW Scotland. The boundary hierarchy is defined as the relationship between the boundary misorientations, their enclosed domain size and their frequency distribution. By measuring the misorientation across every grain and subgrain boundary, the characteristics of the boundary hierarchy can be found. Two microstructural domains were studied: one partially recrystallized low strain domain with large relict grains and one fully recrystallized high strain mylonitic domain. Our results indicate that the processes of recovery, subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration recrystallization each produce identifiable boundary hierarchy signatures. In the relict quartz grains we have identified the processes of recovery and subgrain rotation; in the recrystallized quartz a cyclic steady state exists between these and other processes. Coupling these data with traditional microstructural observations allows a more rigorous investigation into the development of a high strain, fine grained mylonite from a coarse grained, undeformed protolith. We suggest that this type of detailed crystallographic microstructural analysis can greatly further our understanding of microstructural development in shear zones and may have implications for the effective use of (sub)grain size palaeopiezometers.

  16. AFS men and women differ most in their lifestyle choices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connelly, N.A.; Brown, T.L.; Hardiman, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society sponsored a survey to examine the career development choices of men and women and how they might differ by gender. A random sample of 700 men and 700 women was selected from the AFS membership database. The survey was mailed out in October 2004 and 991 questionnaires were returned for an adjusted response rate of 71%. Some differences exist between men and women in the areas of interest development, education, and employment, but the substantive differences occur in lifestyle choices. Women with a fisheries career are less likely to be married than men, even when age is controlled for, and women who are married are more likely to have dual-career considerations than their male counterparts. Among respondents without dependents in their home during their professional career, twice as many women as men think having children will adversely affect their career. For those with dependents, more than twice as many women as men said they had to put their career "on hold" because of their dependents. While AFS members do not represent all members of the fisheries profession, their experiences shed substantial light on the lifestyle choices likely faced by most members of the profession.

  17. Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Tsai, C.

    2003-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is situated in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting northwestward underneath the Eurasian plate along the Ryukyu Trench in the north, while the Eurasian plate underthrusts the Philippine Sea plate along the Manila Trench in the south. Taking advantage of the extremely high strain rate in the Taiwan area, an integrated National Science Council project, Plate Boundary Observatory in Taiwan (PBOT), was initiated following the idea of US PBO. The scientific goal of PBOT is to observe the crustal deformation on various temporal and spatial scales in the Taiwan plate boundary zone employing available state of the art techniques for measuring crustal strain. The techniques include seismology, Global Positioning System (GPS), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), borehole strainmeter, and earthquake geology. They are complementary to each other and form a complete spectrum of measuring various periods of crustal strain. The process of crustal deformation is generally quite slow. To obtain a reliable result, we usually need to persist in the observations for several years or even decades. Thus the PBOT should be a long-term project. In the first phase of 3 years period from 2003 to 2006, we will focus on the two areas, i.e. the plate suture zone in the Longitudinal Valley area and the western Taiwan where the higher seismic hazard is expected. A five-year national program, entitled ­Program for Earthquake and Active-fault Research (PEAR)­" was initiated after the disastrous 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6). As part of the PEAR, a dense continuous GPS array consisting of 150 new and about 50 pre-existing stations will be completed in the Taiwan area by the end of 2005 through a joint effort by the Central Weather Bureau and the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica. The 50 new stations are going to be evenly distributed around the Taiwan Island. The other

  18. A framework of boundary collision data aggregation into neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ge; Wang, Xin; Kwon, Dae-Won

    2015-10-01

    A large portion of the total number of motor collisions can be boundary collisions; therefore, exaggerated or underestimated numbers for boundary collisions aggregated into neighbourhoods may hamper road safety analyses and management. In this paper, we propose a systematic framework for boundary collision aggregation. First, an entropy-based histogram thresholding method is utilized to determine the boundary zone size and identify boundary collisions. Next, the collision density probability distribution is then established, based on the collisions in each neighbourhood. Last, an effective boundary collision aggregation method, called the collision density ratio (CDR), is used to aggregate boundary collisions into neighbourhoods. The proposed framework is applied to collision data in the City of Edmonton for a case study. The experimental results show that the proposed entropy-based histogram thresholding method can identify boundary collision with the high precision and recall, and the proposed CDR method is more effective than the existing methods, the half-to-half ratio method and the one-to-one ratio method, to aggregate boundary collisions into neighbourhoods.

  19. Habitable zone dependence on stellar parameter uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.

    2014-02-20

    An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground- and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with an HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

  20. 47 CFR 22.912 - Service area boundary extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the cellular market boundary, but within the service area as calculated using the methods of § 22... Exclusive Zone (GMEZ), or into any adjacent cellular market on a channel block for which the five year build... its CGSA and/or unserved area in its cellular market, during its five year build-out period....

  1. Magnetostratigraphic correlation of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylski, Piotr A.; Ogg, James G.; Wierzbowski, Andrzej; Coe, Angela L.; Hounslow, Mark W.; Wright, John K.; Atrops, François; Settles, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic polarity pattern for Boreal and Sub-Boreal ammonite zones of the Upper Oxfordian to Lower Kimmeridgian was established and confirmed in four British sections, including the proposed Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) on the Isle of Skye (Scotland) to define the base of the international Kimmeridgian Stage. A coeval pattern for Sub-Mediterranean ammonite zones was compiled from seven sections in Poland, one German section and multi-section composites from France and Spain. The mean paleopole for the European Craton (excluding Spain) at the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary is 74.2°N, 181.3°E ( Α95 = 3.8°). The common magnetic polarity scale enables inter-correlation of ammonite subzones among these three faunal provinces and to the marine magnetic-anomaly M-Sequence. The proposed GSSP at the base of the Pictonia baylei Zone is near the base of an extended interval dominated by reversed polarity, which is interpreted to be Chron M26r. This GSSP level projects to the lower to middle part of the Epipeltoceras bimammatum Subzone, which is the middle subzone of this E. bimammatum Zone in the Sub-Mediterranean standard zonation. In contrast, the traditional placement of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary in that Sub-Mediterranean standard zonation (base of Sutneria platynota Zone) is at the base of Chron M25r, or nearly 1 million years younger.

  2. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, Eastern Mediterranean region: subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    SciTech Connect

    Rotstein, Y.; Kafka, A.L.

    1982-09-10

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increease from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. Most of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes along the entire southern boundary of Anatolia indicate that N to NNW thrusting is the dominant mode of seismic deformation.

  3. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous boundary layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick boundary layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.

  4. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  5. A Conditional Role of U2AF in Splicing of Introns with Unconventional Polypyrimidine Tracts▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vinod; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of polypyrimidine (Py) tracts typically present between the branch point and the 3′ splice site by the large subunit of the essential splicing factor U2AF is a key early step in pre-mRNA splicing. Diverse intronic sequence arrangements exist, however, including 3′ splice sites lacking recognizable Py tracts, which raises the question of how general the requirement for U2AF is for various intron architectures. Our analysis of fission yeast introns in vivo has unexpectedly revealed that whereas introns lacking Py tracts altogether remain dependent on both subunits of U2AF, introns with long Py tracts, unconventionally positioned upstream of branch points, are unaffected by U2AF inactivation. Nevertheless, mutation of these Py tracts causes strong dependence on the large subunit U2AF59. We also find that Py tract diversity influences the requirement for the conserved C-terminal domain of U2AF59 (RNA recognition motif 3), which has been implicated in protein-protein interactions with other splicing factors. Together, these results suggest that in addition to Py tract binding by U2AF, supplementary mechanisms of U2AF recruitment and 3′ splice site identification exist to accommodate diverse intron architectures, which have gone unappreciated in biochemical studies of model pre-mRNAs. PMID:17709389

  6. Evaluation of the atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain AF36 in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The atoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus AF36, which has been extensively used as a biocontrol agent in commercial corn and cotton fields to reduce aflatoxin contamination, was applied in research pistachio orchards from 2002 to 2005 and in commercial pistachio orchards from 2008 to 2011. AF36 was a...

  7. Seladoeflavones A-F, six novel flavonoids from Selaginella doederleinii.

    PubMed

    Zou, ZhenXing; Xu, KangPing; Xu, PingSheng; Li, XiaoMin; Cheng, Fei; Li, Jing; Yu, Xia; Cao, DongSheng; Li, Dan; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, GuoGang; Tan, GuiShan

    2017-01-01

    Six new flavonoids, seladoeflavones A-F (1-6), were isolated from the whole herbs of Selaginella doederleinii, together with one known flavonoid (7). Their structures including absolute configuration were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All compounds consist of an aryl substituent at the C-3' position of naringenin or apigenin skeletons, and compounds 1 and 6 were identified as R configurations, which are uncommonly encountered in nature. A possible biosynthetic pathway was postulated. In addition, bioassay of the isolates revealed that 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines NCI-H460, A549, and K562 in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 8.17 to 18.66μM.

  8. Optimised secure transmission through untrusted AF relays using link adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    A new transmission scheme is presented for a two-hop relay network including two AF relays, considering physical layer security where relays are not able to detect signal with an acceptable bit error rate (BER) but the combined received signal is detected with an acceptable BER at the final receiver. It is assumed that there is no direct path between the transmitter and the receiver (relay network without diversity). Adaptive modulation and coding is utilised at the transmitter and transmission powers of the transmitter and of the relays are continuously adapted provisioning individual average power constraint for each node. Numerical evaluations show that an acceptable performance degradation is seen by the proposed secure relaying scheme compared to the optimum relay selection scheme without security constraint.

  9. Computer program for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers for a compressible axisymmetric flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Gregg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Finite-difference computer program calculates viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. Flow may be initially laminar and progress through transitional zone to fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of momentum and energy equations.

  10. A six-zone simulation model for HCCI engines with a non-segregated solver of zone state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarac, Darko; Lulic, Zoran; Sagi, Goran

    2010-07-01

    A new six-zone simulation model for the calculation of changes in an HCCI engine has been developed and tested. The model uses comprehensive chemical kinetics and a non-sequential solver of zone states. This means that the state vector comprises the states in all zones, and that the changes in states in all zones are calculated simultaneously. In this manner, physical accuracy during the calculation of a new state is maintained at the expense of the calculation time. The model comprises the wall heat transfer, zone heat transfer and zone mass transfer as means of zone interactions. The cylinder is divided into two central zones, three boundary layer zones and one crevice zone. Since the model calculates only the high pressure part of an engine cycle, it has been connected with the cycle simulation software AVL Boost. In this way, a relatively easy-to-use, higher accuracy, simulation tool for HCCI engines has been obtained. The model was tested by comparing simulation results with experimental ones. The comparison was made with a single cylinder engine running on isooctane. The calculated pressure and net rate of heat release correspond to the experimental results very well in the entire operating region. By using the six-zone simulation model, a big improvement, compared to the single zone simulation, is obtained in operating points where combustion efficiency is over 90%. Results of emissions of unburned HC and CO show that predictions of these species are greatly improved, but it has also been noticed that these emissions are still slightly underpredicted. Predictions of emissions that come from crevice regions are good, but emissions that come from the corners of boundary layers are not captured very well. A detailed description of the simulation model is given, and validation results and possibilities of a further development are discussed.

  11. The leukemogenic CALM/AF10 fusion protein alters the subcellular localization of the lymphoid regulator Ikaros.

    PubMed

    Greif, P A; Tizazu, B; Krause, A; Kremmer, E; Bohlander, S K

    2008-05-01

    The t(10;11)(p13;q14) translocation leads to the fusion of the CALM and AF10 genes. This translocation can be found as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and in malignant lymphomas. The expression of CALM/AF10 in primary murine bone marrow cells results in the development of an aggressive leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the lymphoid regulator Ikaros as an AF10 interacting protein. Interestingly, Ikaros is required for normal development of lymphocytes, and aberrant expression of Ikaros has been found in leukemia. In a murine model, the expression of a dominant negative isoform of Ikaros causes leukemias and lymphomas. The Ikaros interaction domain of AF10 was mapped to the leucine zipper domain of AF10, which is required for malignant transformation both by the CALM/AF10 and the MLL/AF10 fusion proteins. The interaction between AF10 and Ikaros was confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Coexpression of CALM/AF10 but not of AF10 alters the subcellular localization of Ikaros in murine fibroblasts. The transcriptional repressor activity of Ikaros is reduced by AF10. These results suggest that CALM/AF10 might interfere with normal Ikaros function, and thereby block lymphoid differentiation in CALM/AF10 positive leukemias.

  12. Expression of MLL-AF4 or AF4-MLL fusions does not impact the efficiency of DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Julio; Herrero, Ana B; Bursen, Aldeheid; González, Federico; Marschalek, Rolf; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Menendez, Pablo

    2016-05-24

    The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide. Conversely, the genome-wide mutational landscape in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL has been reported silent. Thus, whether MLL fusions compromise the recognition and/or repair of DNA damage remains unanswered. Here, the fusion proteins MLL-AF4 (MA4) and AF4-MLL (A4M) were CRISPR/Cas9-genome edited in the AAVS1 locus of HEK293 cells as a model to study MLL fusion-mediated DNA-DSB formation/repair. Repair kinetics of etoposide- and ionizing radiation-induced DSBs was identical in WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells, as revealed by flow cytometry, by immunoblot for γH2AX and by comet assay. Accordingly, no differences were observed between WT, MA4- and A4M-expressing cells in the presence of master proteins involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ; i.e.KU86, KU70), alternative-NHEJ (Alt-NHEJ; i.e.LigIIIa, WRN and PARP1), and homologous recombination (HR, i.e.RAD51). Moreover, functional assays revealed identical NHEJ and HR efficiency irrespective of the genotype. Treatment with etoposide consistently induced cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M independent of MA4/A4M expression, revealing a proper activation of the DNA damage checkpoints. Collectively, expression of MA4 or A4M does neither influence DNA signaling nor DNA-DSB repair.

  13. Mutant U2AF1 Expression Alters Hematopoiesis and Pre-mRNA Splicing In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; Ley, James N.; White, Brian S.; Kim, Sanghyun; Tibbitts, Justin; Shao, Jin; Ndonwi, Matthew; Wadugu, Brian; Duncavage, Eric J.; Okeyo-Owuor, Theresa; Liu, Tuoen; Griffith, Malachi; McGrath, Sean; Magrini, Vincent; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterozygous somatic mutations in the spliceosome gene U2AF1 occur in ~11% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most common adult myeloid malignancy. It is unclear how these mutations contribute to disease. We examined in vivo hematopoietic consequences of the most common U2AF1 mutation using a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model. Mice expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F) display altered hematopoiesis and changes in pre-mRNA splicing in hematopoietic progenitor cells by whole transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Integration with human RNA-seq datasets determined that common mutant U2AF1-induced splicing alterations are enriched in RNA processing genes, ribosomal genes, and recurrently-mutated MDS and acute myeloid leukemia-associated genes. These findings support the hypothesis that mutant U2AF1 alters downstream gene isoform expression, thereby contributing to abnormal hematopoiesis in MDS patients. PMID:25965570

  14. 75 FR 37371 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Bering Sea Subarea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... nonpelagic trawl gear to directed fish for flatfish in the Bering Sea subarea and would change the boundaries... boundaries of the Northern Bering Sea Research Area (NBSRA) to establish the Modified Gear Trawl Zone (MGTZ... match the southern ] boundary of Statistical Area 400 at the Bering Strait. Area 514 of the Bering...

  15. Boundary Changing without Acrimony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, a rapid-growth school district on the Texas Gulf Coast shifted its paradigm of rezoning. Even though half of the Katy Independent School District (Katy ISD) was affected, it achieved a genuine ownership for boundary changes that would affect more than 11,500 students at five schools. Katy ISD accomplished this by seeking…

  16. The atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Garratt, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, boundary-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. Finally, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.

  17. New Madrid Seismic Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

  18. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  19. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  20. Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar welding

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Yonghao; Ding, Xianfei; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2015-09-15

    Microstructures and microhardness at fusion boundary of a weld joint were investigated in a 316 stainless steel/Inconel 182 dissimilar weldment. The results showed that there were two alternately distributed typical fusion boundaries, a narrow random boundary (possessed 15% in length) with a clear sharp interface and an epitaxial fusion one with (100){sub BM}//(100){sub WM} at the joint interface. The composition transition, microstructure and hardness across the fusion boundary strongly depended on the type of the fusion boundary. For the random boundary, there was a clear sharp interface and the composition transition with a width of 100 μm took place symmetrically across the grain boundary. For the epitaxial fusion one, however, there were Type-I and Type-II grain boundaries perpendicular and parallel to the epitaxial fusion boundary, respectively. The composition transition took place in the Inconel 182 weld side. Σ3 boundaries in the HAZ of 316SS side and Σ5 grain boundaries in weld metal were usually observed, despite the type of fusion boundary, however the former was much more in epitaxial fusion boundary. Microhardness was continuously decreased across the random fusion boundary from the side of Inconel 182 to 316SS, but a hardening phenomenon appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary zone because of its fine cellular microstructure. - Highlights: • Two typical fusion boundaries alternately distributed in the fusion interface • The microstructure, composition and hardness across fusion boundary depended on its type. • Different regions in welded joint have different special CSL value boundaries. • Hardening phenomenon only appeared in the epitaxial fusion boundary.

  1. Sound Radiation from a Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, J.

    1961-01-01

    If the restriction of incompressibility in the turbulence problem is relaxed, the phenomenon of energy radiation in the form of sound from the turbulent zone arises. In order to calculate this radiated energy, it is shown that new statistical quantities, such as time-space correlation tensors, have to be known within the turbulent zone in addition to the conventional quantities. For the particular case of the turbulent boundary layer, indications are that the intensity of radiation becomes significant only in supersonic flows. Under these conditions, the recent work of Phillips is examined together with some experimental findings of the author. It is shown that the qualitative features of the radiation field (intensity, directionality) as predicted by the theory are consistent with the measurements; however, even for the highest Mach number flow, some of the assumptions of the asymptotic theory are not yet satisfied in the experiments. Finally, the question of turbulence damping due to radiation is discussed, with the result that in the Mach number range covered by the experiments, the energy lost from the boundary layer due to radiation is a small percentage of the work done by the wall shearing stresses.

  2. Normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdong; Liu, Tieyan; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Jingyi; Chen, Yuefeng; Sun, Pengyu; Wang, Xuesong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this research, the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males has been studied. Methods: The sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted non-fat suppressed fast spin-echo images of pelvic cavities of 86 Chinese young males were studied. Result: Urethral sphincter complex threaded through the prostate and divided it into 2 parts: transition zone (TZ), periurethral glands internal to the urethral sphincter and peripheral zone (PZ), central zone (CZ), anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFS) zone external to the urethral sphincter. The length of urethral striated sphincter is 12.26-20.94 mm (mean 16.59 mm) at membranous urethra. Conclusions: In this paper, we summarized the normal anatomic relationship between urethral sphincter complex and zones of prostrate in young Chinese males with no urinary control problems. PMID:26629244

  3. Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone lymphomas are a group of indolent (slow-growing) NHL B-cell lymphomas, which account for approximately 12 percent of all B-cell lymphomas. The median age for diagnosis is 65 years old. There are three types of marginal zone lymphoma: ...

  4. Urban Terrain Zone Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    function . An example of the interaction of some of these can result in an exposed surface of decorative brick veneer on a framed stracture . Or, a...Classification System for HOUT Studies . . . . . . . . .- ..- . . . . . . 14 2. Urban Terrain Zones Function /Morphology Relationship...By Function --All Cities Aggregated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6. Building Types: Major Terrain Zones . . . . ...... 103 7. Urban Terrain

  5. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  6. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  7. Subduction of fracture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  8. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  9. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  10. Boundary transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations

    SciTech Connect

    Vlaar, Bart

    2015-07-15

    A simple relation between inhomogeneous transfer matrices and boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ) equations is exhibited for quantum integrable systems with reflecting boundary conditions, analogous to an observation by Gaudin for periodic systems. Thus, the boundary quantum KZ equations receive a new motivation. We also derive the commutativity of Sklyanin’s boundary transfer matrices by merely imposing appropriate reflection equations, in particular without using the conditions of crossing symmetry and unitarity of the R-matrix.

  11. 75 FR 3859 - Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Baltimore Captain of Port Zone AGENCY... establishing a temporary safety zone in all navigable waters of the Captain of the Port Baltimore zone. The... authorized by the Captain of the Port Baltimore, or his designated representative. This safety zone...

  12. The response of a laminar boundary layer in supersonic flow to small amplitude progressive waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a small amplitude progressive wave on the laminar boundary layer on a semi-infinite flat plate, due to a uniform supersonic freestream flow, is considered. The perturbation to the flow divides into two streamwise zones. In the first, relatively close to the leading edge of the plate, on a transverse scale comparable to the boundary layer thickness, the perturbation flow is described by a form of the unsteady linearized compressible boundary layer equations. In the freestream, this component of flow is governed by the wave equation, the solution of which provides the outer velocity conditions for the boundary layer. This system is solved numerically, and also the asymptotic structure in the far downstream limit is studied. This reveals a breakdown and a subsequent second streamwise zone, where the flow disturbance is predominantly inviscid. The two zones are shown to match in a proper asymptotic sense.

  13. Geophysical Limitations on the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2015-10-01

    Planets are typically classified as potentially life-bearing planets (i.e. habitable planets) if they are rocky planets and if a liquid (e.g. water) could exist at the surface. The latter depends on several factors, like for example the amount of available solar energy, greenhouse effects in the atmosphere and an efficient CO2-cycle. However, the definition of the habitable zone should be updated to include possible geophy-sical constraints, that could potentially influence the CO2-cycle. Planets like Mars without plate tectonics and no or only limited volcanic events can only be considered to be habitable at the inner boundary of the habitable zone, since the greenhouse effect needed to ensure liquid surface water farther away from the sun is strongly reduced. We investigate how these geophysical processes depend on the mass and interior structure of terrestrial planets. We find that plate tectonics, if it occurs, always leads to sufficient volcanic outgassing and therefore greenhouse effect needed for the outer boundary of the habitable zone (several tens of bar CO2). One-plate planets, however, may suffer strong volcanic limitations if their mass and/or iron content exceeds a critical value, reducing their possible surface habitability.

  14. Boundary layer simulator improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.

    1984-01-01

    High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick boundary layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.

  15. Tension versus ecological zones in a two-locus system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    Previous theories show that tension and ecological zones are indistinguishable in terms of gene frequency clines. Here I analytically show that these two types of zones can be distinguished in terms of genetic statistics other than gene frequency. A two-locus cline model is examined with the assumptions of random mating, weak selection, no drift, no mutation, and multiplicative viabilities. The genetic statistics for distinguishing the two types of zones are the deviations of one- or two-locus genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or from random association of gametes (RAG), and the deviations of additive and dominance variances from the values at HWE. These deviations have a discontinuous distribution in space and different extents of interruptions in the ecological zone with a sharp boundary, but exhibit a continuous distribution in the tension zone. Linkage disequilibrium enhances the difference between the deviations from HWE and from RAG for any two-locus genotypic frequency.

  16. Autocatalytic sets and boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hordijk, Wim; Steel, Mike

    Autopoietic systems, chemotons, and autogens are models that aim to explain (the emergence of) life as a functionally closed and self-sustaining system. An essential element in these models is the notion of a boundary containing, maintaining, and being generated by an internal reaction network. The more general concept of collectively autocatalytic sets, formalized as RAF theory, does not explicitly include this notion of a boundary. Here, we argue that (1) the notion of a boundary can also be incorporated in the formal RAF framework, (2) this provides a mechanism for the emergence of higher-level autocatalytic sets, (3) this satisfies a necessary condition for the evolvability of autocatalytic sets, and (4) this enables the RAF framework to formally represent and analyze (at least in part) the other models. We suggest that RAF theory might thus provide a basis for a unifying formal framework for the further development and study of such models. Graphical abstractThe emergence of an autocatalytic (super)set of autocatalytic (sub)sets.

  17. Hospitalizations in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis from ROCKET AF

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Adam D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Breithardt, Guenter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Patel, Manesh R.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The high costs associated with treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) are primarily due to hospital care, but there are limited data to understand the reasons for and predictors of hospitalization in patients with AF. Methods and results The ROCKET AF trial compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in AF. We described the frequency of and reasons for hospitalization during study follow-up and utilized Cox proportional hazards models to assess for baseline characteristics associated with all-cause hospitalization. Of 14 171 patients, 14% were hospitalized at least once. Of 2614 total hospitalizations, 41% were cardiovascular including 4% for AF; of the remaining, 12% were for bleeding. Compared with patients not hospitalized, hospitalized patients were older (74 vs. 72 years), and more frequently had diabetes (46 vs. 39%), prior MI (23 vs. 16%), and paroxysmal AF (19 vs. 17%), but less frequently had prior transient ischaemic attack/stroke (49 vs. 56%). After multivariable adjustment, lung disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.66], diabetes [1.22, (1.11–1.34)], prior MI [1.27, (1.13–1.42)], and renal dysfunction [HR 1.07 per 5 unit GFR < 65 mL/min, (1.04–1.10)] were associated with increased hospitalization risk. Treatment assignment was not associated with differential rates of hospitalization. Conclusion Nearly 1 in 7 of the moderate-to-high-risk patients with AF enrolled in this trial was hospitalized within 2 years, and both AF and bleeding were rare causes of hospitalization. Further research is needed to determine whether care pathways directed at comorbid conditions among AF patients could reduce the need for and costs associated with hospitalization. PMID:27174904

  18. Temporal change of climate zones in China in the context of climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianliang; Yan, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    In China, ten climate types were classified using the K-means cluster analysis based on monthly temperature and precipitation data from 753 national meteorological stations for the period 1966-2005. However, 11 mountain climate stations, which are located in southeast China, were classified as one type due to their distinct climate characteristic that differentiated them from other stations. This type could not represent the climate characteristic of this region because all climate stations in this type were located at high-elevation mountains. Thus, it was eliminated when defining climate zones based on climate types. Therefore, nine climate zones were defined in China. Moreover, the temporal change of climate zones was detected in 20-year intervals (1966-1985 and 1986-2005). Although 48 stations changed their climate zones between these two periods, the whole pattern of all climate zones remained stable in these two periods. However, the boundaries between some climate zones changed slightly due to inconsistent variation of regional temperature and precipitation. The most obvious change was the eastern movement of the boundary between an arid temperate zone and a sub-humid temperate zone. There was also a northern shift of the boundary between a tropic zone and a southern subtropic zone. All these changes were probably connected with the climate change in recent 40 years.

  19. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  20. Seismic reflection imaging of two megathrust shear zones in the northern Cascadia subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Andrew J

    2004-03-11

    At convergent continental margins, the relative motion between the subducting oceanic plate and the overriding continent is usually accommodated by movement along a single, thin interface known as a megathrust. Great thrust earthquakes occur on the shallow part of this interface where the two plates are locked together. Earthquakes of lower magnitude occur within the underlying oceanic plate, and have been linked to geochemical dehydration reactions caused by the plate's descent. Here I present deep seismic reflection data from the northern Cascadia subduction zone that show that the inter-plate boundary is up to 16 km thick and comprises two megathrust shear zones that bound a >5-km-thick, approximately 110-km-wide region of imbricated crustal rocks. Earthquakes within the subducting plate occur predominantly in two geographic bands where the dip of the plate is inferred to increase as it is forced around the edges of the imbricated inter-plate boundary zone. This implies that seismicity in the subducting slab is controlled primarily by deformation in the upper part of the plate. Slip on the shallower megathrust shear zone, which may occur by aseismic slow slip, will transport crustal rocks into the upper mantle above the subducting oceanic plate and may, in part, provide an explanation for the unusually low seismic wave speeds that are observed there.

  1. Structure of the welding zone between titanium and orthorhombic titanium aluminide for explosion welding: II. Local melting zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the local melting zones that form during explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide with commercial-purity titanium near a wavy interface between them are studied. The Rayleigh number is estimated to propose a possible mechanism for the formation of a concentric structure in these zones. Titanium aluminide fragments are detected near the zone boundaries. It is assumed that the fragmentation in the transition zone is caused by the division of a material into loosely coupled microvolumes under the action of a strong external action in a time comparable with the explosion time. Outside the transition zone, fragmentation occurs via a traditional way beginning from dislocation accumulation. Both processes occur in titanium aluminide and only one process (banded structure formation) takes place in titanium.

  2. Quartz grain boundaries as fluid pathways in metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruhl, JöRn H.; Wirth, Richard; Morales, Luiz F. G.

    2013-05-01

    and SEM/FIB sequential imaging of quartz grain boundaries from contact and regional metamorphic rocks show that most of the grain boundaries are open on the nanometer scale. Three types of voids occur. (i) Roughly 40-500 nm wide open zones parallel to the grain boundaries. They are suggested to be caused by general volume reduction as a result of anisotropic cooling contraction at temperatures decreasing below ca. 300°C, the threshold temperature of diffusion in quartz and of decompression expansion at pressures decreasing below several hundred MPa. (ii) Cavities of variable shape and up to micrometer size along the open grain boundaries and (iii) cone-shaped, nanometer-sized depressions at sites where dislocation lines meet the open grain boundaries. The latter two types are generated by dissolution-precipitation processes. Open grain boundaries, cavities, and depressions form a connected network of porosity, which allows fluid circulation and may affect physical properties of the rocks. The same process is suggested to occur along grain and phase boundaries in other rocks as exemplified in this study, and it should be expected along intracrystalline cracks or cleavage planes.

  3. Redefinition of the Meramecian/Chesterian boundary (Mississippian)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, C.G.; Waters, J.A.

    1987-07-01

    The Meramecian/Chesterian (Mississippi) boundary in the type area is currently defined as the highest occurrence of the crinoid Platycrinites penicillus and the lowest occurrence of the crinoid genera Agassizocrinus and Talarocrinus. Because these taxa have not been reported outside eastern North America, attempts have been made to use conodonts and Foraminifera to extend the Meramecian/Chesterian boundary outside the type area. Unfortunately, changes in conodont and foraminiferal assemblages do not coincide with the currently defined Meramecian/Chesterian boundary, and use of these fossil groups does not allow exact placement of the boundary outside of eastern North America. The authors suggest that the Meramecian/Chesterian boundary be redefined as the boundary between Foraminiferal Zones 15 and 16i of the Mamet scheme, irrespective of the occurrence of Platycrinites penicillus. This change in definition places the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (Genevievian Stage) in the lowermost part of the Chesterian Series, with which it is biotically and sedimentologically more allied than with the underlying St. Louis Limestone. This change provides a sound biostratigraphic base for correlating the Meramecian/Chesterian boundary outside of the type area. Foraminifera, conodonts, brachiopods, and corals all show significant changes at or slightly below the St. Louis/Ste. Genevieve contact rather than at the Genevievian/Chesterian contact. 52 references.

  4. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  5. Flacourtosides A-F, phenolic glycosides isolated from Flacourtia ramontchi.

    PubMed

    Bourjot, Mélanie; Leyssen, Pieter; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Canard, Bruno; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2012-04-27

    In an effort to identify novel inhibitors of chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue (DENV) virus replication, a systematic study with 820 ethyl acetate extracts of madagascan plants was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV, and a DENV NS5 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Flacourtia ramontchi was selected for its significant activity in both assays. Six new phenolic glycosides, named flacourtosides A-F (1-6), phenolic glycosides itoside H, xylosmin, scolochinenoside D, and poliothrysoside, and betulinic acid 3β-caffeate were obtained using the bioassay-guided isolation process. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Even though several extracts and fractions showed significant selective antiviral activity in the CHIKV virus-cell-based assay, none of the purified compounds did. However, in the DENV RNA polymerase assay, significant inhibition was observed with betulinic acid 3β-caffeate (IC(50) = 0.85 ± 0.1 μM) and to a lesser extent for the flacourtosides A and E (1 and 5, respectively), and scolochinenoside D (IC(50) values ~10 μM).

  6. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, navigable waters of the United States includes all waters of the territorial sea as described in..., 1988 declared that the territorial sea of the United States extends to 12 nautical miles from the... boundaries of the safety and security zones unless previously authorized by the Captain of the Port,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section, navigable waters of the United States includes all waters of the territorial sea as described in..., 1988 declared that the territorial sea of the United States extends to 12 nautical miles from the... boundaries of the safety and security zones unless previously authorized by the Captain of the Port,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section, navigable waters of the United States includes all waters of the territorial sea as described in..., 1988 declared that the territorial sea of the United States extends to 12 nautical miles from the... boundaries of the safety and security zones unless previously authorized by the Captain of the Port,...

  9. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section, navigable waters of the United States includes all waters of the territorial sea as described in..., 1988 declared that the territorial sea of the United States extends to 12 nautical miles from the... boundaries of the safety and security zones unless previously authorized by the Captain of the Port,...

  10. Permeable Boundaries in Organizational Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazy, James K.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Schwandt, David R.

    The nature of the organizational boundary is investigated in the context of organizational learning. Boundary permeability is defined and hypotheses relating it to performance are tested computationally using data from 5,500 artificial organizations. We find that matching boundary permeability to the environment predicts both agent and organization survival.

  11. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  12. Anomalous zones (domal)

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, D.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Each zone contains several anomalous salt properties (anomalous features). Zones cannot be characterized by any single property Zones are highly variable, lenticular, and discontinuous in detail; however, once established, they commonly have a predictable trend. The individual anomalous features can occur alone (locally in pairs) over areas of various sizes and shapes. These alone occurrences are not anomalous zones. Anomalous zones may be of any origin, and origin is not part of the definition. Typical origins include: primary (sedimentary), external sheath zone, separating two spines of salt, or caused by toroidal flow. The major importance of an anomalous zone is that it consists of various anomalous features distributed discontinuously along the zone. Thus, if three or more anomalous properties are observed together, one should look for others. The anomalous zones observed in the Gulf Coast thus far are vertical, linear, and semicontinuous. Most are reasonably straight, but some bend sharply, end abruptly, or coalesce. Textures in salt involve grain size, color (white to dark gray), grain shape, or grain distribution of the salt. Typical anomalous textures are coarse-grain, poikiloblastic, and friability. A change in color is commonplace and seldom anomalous. Structural anomalous features, broadly defined, account for most of the rest of the anomalous features. Not uncommonly they cause mining problems. Among the structural anomalous features: INCLUSIONS: Sediments, hydrocarbons, brine, gases. Common gases are air (as N{sub 2}), CH-compounds, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. STRUCTURES: Sheared salt, undue stabbing or jointing, voids (crystal-lined pockets), permeability, increased porosity COMPOSITION: High anhydrite content, visible anhydrite as grains or boudins, very black salt = disseminated impurities such as clay.

  13. Seismic Receiver Functions and the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, R.; Yuan, X.; Kumar, P.

    2012-12-01

    The lower boundary of the lithospheric plates has remained as an enigmatic boundary for seismologists, since it is relatively poorly observed by seismic means. There is traditionally a broad consensus that the asthenosphere is observable as a low velocity zone by seismic surface waves. Seismic techniques which use shorter period P-to-S or S-to-P converted body waves are now far enough developed to be successful in observing such a low velocity zone with a higher resolution. The principle of this technique (the so-called receiver function technique) is that a strong teleseismic mother phase (e.g. P, S, PP or SKS) incident from below on any seismic discontinuity beneath a station produces a converted phase (Ps or Sp) which indicates its depth and properties. We discuss details of this technique. A sufficient number of such observations exist already to indicate that the top of the low velocity zone is a globally observable discontinuity and it is sharper than previously thought. An intriguing observation is that in some cratons the new seismic data indicate that the low velocity zone exists already at shallower depths than obtained from surface waves. This confirms earlier results from controlled source observations (Thybo and Perchuc 1997). We discuss possible interpretations of this shallow low velocity zone in cratonic regions.

  14. Seismic receiver functions and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kumar, Prakash

    2012-04-01

    The lower boundary of the lithospheric plates has remained as an enigmatic boundary for seismologists, since it is relatively poorly observed by seismic means. There is traditionally a broad consensus that the asthenosphere is observable as a low velocity zone by seismic surface waves. Seismic techniques which use shorter period P-to-S or S-to-P converted body waves are now far enough developed to be successful in observing such a low velocity zone with a higher resolution. The principle of this technique (the so-called receiver function technique) is that a strong teleseismic mother phase (e.g. P, S, PP or SKS) incident from below on any seismic discontinuity beneath a station produces a converted phase (Ps or Sp) which indicates its depth and properties. We discuss details of this technique. A sufficient number of such observations exist already to indicate that the top of the low velocity zone is a globally observable discontinuity and it is sharper than previously thought. An intriguing observation is that in some cratons the new seismic data indicate that the low velocity zone exists already at shallower depths than obtained from surface waves. This confirms earlier results from controlled source observations (Thybo and Perchuc, 1997). We discuss possible interpretations of this shallow low velocity zone in cratonic regions.

  15. A sharp and flat section of the core-mantle boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vidale, J.E.; Benz, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    THE transition zone between the Earth's core and mantle plays an important role as a boundary layer for mantle and core convection1. This zone conducts a large amount of heat from the core to the mantle, and contains at least one thermal boundary layer2,3; the proximity of reactive silicates and molten iron leads to the possibility of zones of intermediate composition4. Here we investigate one region of the core-mantle boundary using seismic waves that are converted from shear to compressional waves by reflection at the boundary. The use of this phase (known as ScP), the large number of receiving stations, and the large aperture of our array all provide higher resolution than has previously been possible5-7. For the 350-km-long section of the core-mantle boundary under the northeast Pacific sampled by the reflections, the local boundary topography has an amplitude of less than 500 m, no sharp radial gradients exist in the 400 km above the boundary, and the mantle-lo-core transition occurs over less than 1 km. The simplicity of the structure near and above the core-mantle boundary argues against chemical heterogeneity at the base of the mantle in this location.

  16. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  17. 33 CFR 165.T05-0511 - Safety Zone, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Philadelphia, PA. 165.T05-0511 Section 165.T05-0511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...-0511 Safety Zone, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Delaware River in Chester, PA, inside a boundary encompassing all waters just...

  18. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  19. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  20. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  1. 75 FR 12731 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, CA; Site Renumbering Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, CA; Site Renumbering Notice Foreign-Trade... the Long Beach/Los Angeles area. The current update does not alter the physical boundaries that...

  2. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  3. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. Hydrothermal experiments on serpentinization at crust/mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, R.; Okamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization commonly proceeds in seafloor hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges, along the bending faults, and at the boundary of wedge mantle and subducting plate. Silica activity are key factors in controlling reaction paths and the rate of serpentinization (e.g., Frost and Beard, 2007; Klein et al., 2009; Ogasawara et al.,2013). However, most of the previous experimental studies focused on bulk solid materials and solutions within the reaction vessel, and local changes of products reaction rate in response to concentration gradient have not been clarified. Ogasawara et al. (2013) conducted hydrothermal experiments in Ol-Opx-H2O system, and modeled the progress of serpentinization by coupled reactions and silica diffusion. In their experiment, reaction product is only serpentine and no talc or brucite were found. In this study, we conducted hydrothermal experiments in olivine (Ol)-quartz (Qtz)-H2O and Ol-plagioclase (Pl)-H2O systems as the analogue of crust/mantle boundary. The condition was 250 degreeC and at a vapor-saturated pressure. Composite powders (composed of Qtz/Ol zone, or Pl/Ol zone) were set in tube-in-tube vessels, and then loaded into autocrave with fluid ( NaOHaq, pH = 13.8 at 25 degreeC ). Runnig time is up to 25 days and maximum water content in the products is 12 wt% H2O. After the experiments, solution chemistry and the extent of serpentinization were analyzed in detail. In the Ol-Qtz-H2O experiments, we observed systematic changes of reaction products in the Ol zone. Smectite and serpentine was formed at Ol-Qtz boundary due to high Na concentration although talc is expected to form in MgO-SiO2-H2O system at Ol-Qtz boundary. Mg/Si ratio of products from EDS analyze shows high Si gradient near the boundary indicate that amount of smectite decreased with increasing distance from the Ol-Qtz boundary and only serpentine zone was observed at ~10mm. At >10mm away from Ol-Qtz boundary, serpentine ( chrysotile nano tubes) and brucite was

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of a Marine Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Section, Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands: Implications for the Temporal Correlation of a 'Big Five' Mass Extinction Event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilburn, I. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Ward, P. D.; Haggart, J. W.; Raub, T. D.

    2008-12-01

    Several causes have been proposed for Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary extinctions, including global ocean anoxia/euxinia, an impact event, and/or eruption of the massive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), but poor intercontinental correlation makes testing these difficult. Sections at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia span the late Norian through Rhaetian (Triassic) and into the earliest Hettangian (Jurassic) and provide the best integrated magneto- and chemostratigraphic framework for placing necessary temporal constraints upon the T-J mass extinctions. At Kennecott Point, turnover of radiolaria and ammonoids define the T-J boundary marine extinction and are coincident with a 2 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg similar in magnitude to that observed at Ferguson Hill (Muller Canyon), Nevada (1, 2). With Conodont Alteration Index values in the 1-2 range, Kennecott Point provides the ideal setting for use of magnetostratigraphy to tie the marine isotope excursion into the chronostratigraphic framework of the Newark, Hartford, and Fundy Basins. In the summer of 2005, we collected a ~1m resolution magnetostratigraphic section from 105 m of deep marine, silt- and sandstone turbidites and interbedded mudstones, spanning the T-J boundary at Kennecott Point. Hybrid progressive demagnetization - including zero-field, low-temperature cycling; low-field AF cleaning; and thermal demagnetization in ~25°C steps to 445°C under flowing N2 gas (3) - first removed a Northerly, steeply inclined component interpreted to be a Tertiary overprint, revealing an underlying dual-polarity component of moderate inclination. Five major polarity zones extend through our section, with several short, one-sample reversals interspersed amongst them. Comparison of this pattern with other T-J boundary sections (4-6) argues for a Northern hemisphere origin of our site, albeit with large vertical-axis rotations. A long normal chron bounds the T-J boundary punctuated

  6. Kinematics of the Eastern California shear zone: Evidence for slip transfer from Owens and Saline Valley fault zones to Fish Lake Valley fault zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Dixon, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    Late Quaternary slip rates and satellite-based geodetic data for the western Great Basin constrain regional fault-slip distribution and evolution. The geologic slip rate on the Fish Lake Valley fault zone (the northwest extension of the Furnace Creek fault zone) increases northward from about 3 to 5 mm/yr, in agreement with modeled geodetic data. The increase coincides with the intersections of the Deep Springs fault, connected to the Owens Valley fault zone, and of other faults connected to the Saline Valley fault. The combined geologic and geodetic data suggest that (1) the northwest-striking faults of the Eastern California shear zone north of the Garlock fault are connected by north- to northeast-striking normal faults that transfer slip in a series of right steps, and (2) the amount and distribution of slip among the many faults of this broad, complex plate boundary have changed through time.

  7. TIGER 2010 Boundaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This web service includes the State and County boundaries from the TIGER shapefiles compiled into a single national coverage for each layer. The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB).

  8. High-resolution micropatterned Teflon AF substrates for biocompatible nanofluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Czolkos, Ilja; Hakonen, Bodil; Orwar, Owe; Jesorka, Aldo

    2012-02-14

    We describe a general photolithography-based process for the microfabrication of surface-supported Teflon AF structures. Teflon AF patterns primarily benefit from superior optical properties such as very low autofluorescence and a low refractive index. The process ensures that the Teflon AF patterns remain strongly hydrophobic in order to allow rapid lipid monolayer spreading and generates a characteristic edge morphology which assists directed cell growth along the structured surfaces. We provide application examples, demonstrating the well-controlled mixing of lipid films on Teflon AF structures and showing how the patterned surfaces can be used as biocompatible growth-directing substrates for cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells develop in a guided fashion along the sides of the microstructures, selectively avoiding to grow over the patterned areas.

  9. Adiabatic Compression Sensitivity of AF-M315E (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    dynamic response • Waterhammer effect Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Hydroxyethylhydrazinium Nitrate ...Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HEHN) (HAN) [ ]-NO3 + [ ]HOCH2CH2N2H4 [ ]-+[ ]NH3OH NO3 AF-M315E

  10. A classification of ecological boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

    2003-01-01

    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  11. Habitable zones around main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.; Whitmire, Daniel P.; Reynolds, Ray T.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for stabilizing climate on the earth and other earthlike planets is described, and the physical processes that define the inner and outer boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) around the sun and main sequence stars are discussed. Physical constraints on the HZ obtained from Venus and Mars are taken into account. A 1D climate model is used to estimate the width of the HZ and the continuously habitable zone around the sun, and the analysis is extended to other main sequence stars. Whether other stars have planets and where such planets might be located with respect to the HZ is addressed. The implications of the findings for NASA's SETI project are considered.

  12. Visualization of Microstructural Factor Resisting the Cleavage-Crack Propagation in the Simulated Heat-Affected Zone of Bainitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Miyahara, Yu; Ohata, Mitsuru; Moriguchi, Koji; Tomio, Yusaku; Hayashi, Kotaro

    2015-12-01

    Cleavage-crack propagation behavior was investigated in the simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of bainitic steel using electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) pattern analysis when a low heat input welding was simulated. From viewpoint of crystallographic analysis, it was the condition in which the Bain zone was smaller than the close-packed plane (CP) group. It was clarified that the Bain zone and CP group boundaries provided crack-propagation resistance. The results revealed that when the Bain zone was smaller than the CP group, crack length was about one quarter the size of that measured when the CP group was smaller than the Bain zone because of the increasing Bain-zone boundaries. Furthermore, it was clarified that the plastic work associated with crack opening and resistance at the Bain and CP boundaries could be visualized by the kernel average misorientation maps.

  13. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  14. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  15. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″ W...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Computation of Acoustic Waves Through Sliding-Zone Interfaces Using an Euler/Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of a patched sliding-zone interface on the transmission of acoustic waves is examined for two- and three-dimensional model problems. A simple but general interpolation scheme at the patched boundary passes acoustic waves without distortion, provided that a sufficiently small time step is taken. A guideline is provided for the maximum permissible time step or zone speed that gives an acceptable error introduced by the sliding-zone interface.

  17. Saltwater upconing zone of influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovovic, Danica; Werner, Adrian D.; de Louw, Perry G. B.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we define and characterize the saltwater upconing zone of influence (SUZI). The SUZI is the region around a pumping well within which significant rise in the saltwater-freshwater interface occurs. While the zone of influence of a pumping well can be clearly defined in terms of hydraulics (e.g., drawdown), the SUZI has not been recognised and characterised, despite its importance for groundwater decision-making in coastal regions. We explore the SUZI under various conditions and compare common methods of investigation using both axisymmetric (1D and 2D vertical cross-section) and 3D simulations of saltwater upconing at the field scale, based on a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. The SUZI was found to be dependent on the relative magnitudes of pumping, regional flow, distance of the well from the coast, and position of the well above the interface, as expected. The three-dimensional coastal setting simulations revealed an asymmetric shape of the lateral extent of the SUZI, which is largest in the direction parallel to the coast. This occurs because the ocean and the inland extent of the seawater wedge limit the propagation of the SUZI perpendicular to the coast. Predictions of the SUZI using the Ghyben-Herzberg approximation, including cases where sloping interfaces occur (i.e., in contrast to the artificiality of horizontal interfaces used in axisymmetric approaches), provide reasonable first approximations of the SUZI. Numerical modelling of dispersive upconing in the 3D inclined interface case is influenced by practical limits to the model domain size and grid resolution. For example, the no-flow boundary condition at 1500 m from the pumping well elongates the SUZI in the direction parallel to the coast. This study extends previous concepts of well interference, which have previously been based on hydraulics only, by introducing the SUZI and characterising its extent, with consideration given to differences in commonly adopted

  18. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  19. Cascadia Subduction Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry and recurrence times of large earthquakes associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) were discussed and debated at a March 28-29, 2006 Pacific Northwest workshop for the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps. The CSZ is modeled from Cape Mendocino in California to Vancouver Island in British Columbia. We include the same geometry and weighting scheme as was used in the 2002 model (Frankel and others, 2002) based on thermal constraints (Fig. 1; Fluck and others, 1997 and a reexamination by Wang et al., 2003, Fig. 11, eastern edge of intermediate shading). This scheme includes four possibilities for the lower (eastern) limit of seismic rupture: the base of elastic zone (weight 0.1), the base of transition zone (weight 0.2), the midpoint of the transition zone (weight 0.2), and a model with a long north-south segment at 123.8? W in the southern and central portions of the CSZ, with a dogleg to the northwest in the northern portion of the zone (weight 0.5). The latter model was derived from the approximate average longitude of the contour of the 30 km depth of the CSZ as modeled by Fluck et al. (1997). A global study of the maximum depth of thrust earthquakes on subduction zones by Tichelaar and Ruff (1993) indicated maximum depths of about 40 km for most of the subduction zones studied, although the Mexican subduction zone had a maximum depth of about 25 km (R. LaForge, pers. comm., 2006). The recent inversion of GPS data by McCaffrey et al. (2007) shows a significant amount of coupling (a coupling factor of 0.2-0.3) as far east as 123.8? West in some portions of the CSZ. Both of these lines of evidence lend support to the model with a north-south segment at 123.8? W.

  20. Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Arnold AFS, Tennessee.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DIBENZOFURANS, AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARNOLD AFS TN ISAAC ATKINS, JR., CAPTAIN, USAF, BSC January 1987 D I ~ELECTE FINAL REPORT 0Wfl D LU...NO 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassificatiOtl) Air Sampling of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated ... Biphenyls at Arnold AFS TN (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Captaiq Isaac Atkins, Jr. 13a. TYP OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month

  1. Services Officer Utilization Field (AFS 62XX and Equivalent-Grade Civilians).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    CHART le~ -- Sq ,.. O. pt’*. q UNITED STATES AIR FORCE cv, Lfl o D SERVICES OFFICER UTILIZATION FIELD (AFS 62XX AND EQUIVALENT-GRADE CIVILLANS) AFPT 90...Administration From January through Ma’ch 1985, job inventories were administered to all elicible AFSC 62XX nfficer: in the continental United States ... PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED t, , . . . .. .. . . . . , . . . . . . , . _". ... , I! . . $ IJSTRIBIJTION FOR AFS( u-)XX OSR AND SUPPORTING

  2. Dentin Caries Zones

    PubMed Central

    Pugach, M.K.; Strother, J.; Darling, C.L.; Fried, D.; Gansky, S.A.; Marshall, S.J.; Marshall, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    Caries Detector staining reveals 4 zones in dentin containing caries lesions, but characteristics of each zone are not well-defined. We therefore investigated the physical and microstructural properties of carious dentin in the 4 different zones to determine important differences revealed by Caries Detector staining. Six arrested dentin caries lesions and 2 normal controls were Caries-Detector-stained, each zone (pink, light pink, transparent, apparently normal) being analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging for microstructure, by AFM nano-indentation for mechanical properties, and by transverse digital microradiography (TMR) for mineral content. Microstructure changes, and nanomechanical properties and mineral content significantly decreased across zones. Hydrated elastic modulus and mineral content from normal dentin to pink Caries-Detector-stained dentin ranged from 19.5 [10.6-25.3] GPa to 1.6 [0.0-5.0] GPa and from 42.9 [39.8-44.6] vol% to 12.4 [9.1-14.2] vol%, respectively. Even the most demineralized pink zone contained considerable residual mineral. PMID:19131321

  3. Turbulent boundary layer heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finson, M. L.; Clarke, A. S.; Wu, P. K. S.

    1981-01-01

    A Reynolds stress model for turbulent boundary layers is used to study surface roughness effects on skin friction and heat transfer. The issues of primary interest are the influence of roughness character (element shape and spacing) and the nature of roughness effects at high Mach numbers. Computations based on the model compare satisfactorily with measurements from experiments involving variations in roughness character, in low speed and modestly supersonic conditions. The more limited data base at hypersonic Mach numbers is also examined with reasonable success, although no quantitative explanation is offered for the reduction of heat transfer with increasing roughness observed by Holden at Me -9.4. The present calculations indicate that the mean velocity is approximately uniform over much of the height range below the tops of the elements, y less than or equal to k. With this constant (roughness velocity,) it is simple to estimate the form drag on the elements. This roughness velocity has been investigated by systematically exercising the present model over ranges of potential parameters. The roughness velocity is found to be primarily a function of the projected element frontal area per unit surface area, thus providing a new and simple method for predicting roughness character effects. The model further suggests that increased boundary layer temperatures should be generated by roughness at high edge Mach numbers, which would tend to reduce skin friction and heat transfer, perhaps below smooth wall levels.

  4. Fluid migration in ductile shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Fluid migration in metamorphic environments depends on a dynamically evolving permeable pore space, which was rarely characterised in detail. The data-base behind our understanding of the 4-dimensional transport properties of metamorphic rocks is therefore fragmentary at best, which leaves conceptual models poorly supported. Generally, it seems established that deformation is a major driver of permeability generation during regional metamorphism, and evidence for metamorphic fluids being channelled in large scale shear zones has been found in all depth segments of the continental crust. When strain localizes in ductile shear zones, the microfabric is modified until a steady state mylonite is formed that supports large deformations. A dynamic porosity that evolves during mylonitisation controls the distinct transport pathways along which fluid interacts with the rock. This dynamic porosity is controlled by a limited number of mechanisms, which are intrinsically linked to the metamorphic evolution of the rock during its deformational overprint. Many mid- and lower-crustal mylonites comprise polyphase mixtures of micron-sized grains that show evidence for deformation by dissolution/precipitation-assisted viscous grain boundary sliding. The establishment of these mineral mixtures is a critical process, where monomineralic layers are dispersed and grain growth is inhibited by the heterogeneous nucleation of secondary mineral phases at triple junctions. Here we show evidence from three different mid- and lower-crustal shear zones indicating that heterogeneous nucleation occurs in creep cavities. Micro- and nanotomographic observations show that creep cavities provide the dominant form of porosity in these ultramylonites. They control a "granular fluid pump" that directs fluid migration and hence mass transport. The granular fluid pump operates on the grain scale driven by viscous grain boundary sliding, and requires only small amounts of fluid. The spatial arrangement of

  5. AF-M315E Propulsion System Advances and Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, Robert K.; Allen, May; Driscoll, Elizabeth; Spores, Ronald A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Schneider, Steven J.; Vasek, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Even as for the GR-1 awaits its first on-orbit demonstration on the planned 2017 launch of NASA's Green Propulsion Infusion Mission (GPIM) program, ongoing efforts continue to advance the technical state-of-the-art through improvements in the performance, life capability, and affordability of both Aerojet Rocketdyne's 1-N-class GR-1 and 20-N-class GR-22 green monopropellant thrusters. Hot-fire testing of a design upgrade of the GR-22 thruster successfully demonstrated resolution of a life-limiting thermo-structural issue encountered during prototype testing on the GPIM program, yielding both an approximately 2x increase in demonstrating life capability, as well as fundamental insights relating to how ionic liquid thrusters operate, thruster scaling, and operational factors affecting catalyst bed life. Further, a number of producibility improvements, related to both materials and processes and promising up to 50% unit cost reduction, have been identified through a comprehensive Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) assessment activity recently completed at Aerojet Rocketdyne. Focused specifically on the GR-1 but applicable to the common-core architecture of both thrusters, ongoing laboratory (heavyweight) thruster testing being conducted under a Space Act Agreement at NASA Glenn Research Center has already validated a number of these proposed manufacturability upgrades, additionally achieving a greater than 40% increase in thruster life. In parallel with technical advancements relevant to conventional large spacecraft, a joint effort between NASA and Aerojet Rocketdyne is underway to prepare 1-U CubeSat AF-M315E propulsion module for first flight demonstration in 2018.

  6. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  7. Nicotine improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuo; Furukawa, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Tsuneo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2010-01-18

    Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) is a neurotoxic derivative of choline that produces not only long-term presynaptic cholinergic deficits, but also various memory deficits in rats similar to some characteristics observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. This study investigated whether nicotine (NCT) administration attenuated spatial learning deficits induced by intracerebroventricular AF64A treatment. AF64A (6 nmol/6 microl)-or saline (SAL)-treated rats were trained in Morris water maze task. NCT (0.025-0.25mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected 5 min before the training every day. The results showed that moderate dose (0.10mg/kg) of NCT attenuated AF64A-induced prolongation of escape latency. Furthermore, NCT dose-dependently recovered the AF64A-induced decrease of time spent in the target quadrant in the probe test. These results suggest that NCT improves AF64A-induced spatial memory deficits, and thus it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of memory deficits in dementia.

  8. Oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yao; Jost, Carsten; Mumme, Jan; Wang, Kaijun; Linke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the oxygen tolerance capacity of upflow anaerobic solid-state (UASS) with anaerobic filter (AF) system, the effect of microaeration on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of maize straw was investigated under batch conditions and in the UASS with AF system. Aeration intensities of 0-431mL O2/gvs were conducted as pretreatment under batch conditions. Aeration pretreatment obviously enhanced anaerobic digestion and an aeration intensity of 431mL O2/gvs increased the methane yield by 82.2%. Aeration intensities of 0-355mL O2/gvs were conducted in the process liquor circulation of the UASS with AF system. Dissolved oxygen (DO) of UASS and AF reactors kept around 1.39±0.27 and 0.99±0.38mg/L, respectively. pH was relatively stable around 7.11±0.04. Volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration in UASS reactor were higher than those in AF reactor. Methane yield of the whole system was almost stable at 85±7mL/gvs as aeration intensity increased step by step. The UASS with AF system showed good oxygen tolerance capacity.

  9. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  10. Structural analysis of the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary: Implications for the age and kinematics of the central Piedmont suture, a terrane boundary that records Paleozoic Laurentia-Gondwana interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Thomas E.

    1998-06-01

    New field mapping along the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary in South Carolina and eastern Georgia reveals preaccretionary, synaccretionary, and postaccretionary faults. The dextral strike-slip Lowndesville shear zone is adjacent to a ˜50-km-long segment of the terrane boundary. However, the Lowndesville shear zone is correlated eastward with the dextral strike-slip Beaver Creek shear zone, which is within the Carolina terrane and predates ˜415 Ma. The Lowndesville shear zone is overprinted by a dextral strike-slip phyllonite zone, named the Deal Creek shear zone. The Deal Creek shear zone is correlated eastward with the Gold Hill-Silver Hill shear zone which is also within the Carolina terrane and records dextral strike-slip motion between ˜400 and ˜325 Ma. The Cross Anchor and Mulberry Creek faults both truncate the Lowndesville and the Deal Creek shear zones and form the terrane boundary. The Mulberry Creek fault, probably of Triassic-Jurassic age, juxtaposes the Lowndesville shear zone adjacent to the Carolina-Inner Piedmont terrane boundary west of Waterloo, South Carolina. The Cross Anchor fault is the terrane boundary east of Waterloo, South Carolina, and forms the southeastern boundary of the Whitmire reentrant. Crosscutting relationships indicate that the Cross Anchor fault is the oldest fault which juxtaposes the Carolina and Inner Piedmont terranes in the study area. These structural interpretations and available geochronological data indicate that the Cross Anchor fault is a ˜325 Ma thrust fault and may be the central Piedmont suture. An early Alleghanian suture resolves the problem of inserting the Carolina terrane into the western Iapetus Ocean.

  11. Driver responses to differing urban work zone configurations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F; Duley, A R; Hancock, P A

    2010-05-01

    This study reports the results of a simulator-based assessment of driver response to two different urban highway work zone configurations. One configuration represented an existing design which was contrasted with a second configuration that presented a reduced taper length prototype work zone design. Twenty-one drivers navigated the two different work zones in two different conditions, one with and one without a lead vehicle; in this case a bus. Measures of driver speed, braking, travel path, and collision frequency were recorded. Drivers navigated significantly closer to the boundary of the work area in the reduced taper length design. This proximity effect was moderated by the significant interaction between lead vehicle and taper length and such interactive effects were also observed for driver speed at the end of the work zone and the number of collisions observed within the work zone itself. These results suggest that reduced taper length poses an increase in risk to both drivers and work zone personnel, primarily when driver anticipation is reduced by foreshortened viewing distances. Increase in such risk is to a degree offset by the reduction of overall exposure to the work zone that a foreshortened taper creates. The benefits and limitations to a simulation-based approach to the assessment and prediction of driver behavior in different work zone configurations are also discussed.

  12. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  13. Boundary layer transition studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-02-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  14. Recognition of the 3' splice site RNA by the U2AF heterodimer involves a dynamic population shift.

    PubMed

    Voith von Voithenberg, Lena; Sánchez-Rico, Carolina; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Madl, Tobias; Zanier, Katia; Barth, Anders; Warner, Lisa R; Sattler, Michael; Lamb, Don C

    2016-11-15

    An essential early step in the assembly of human spliceosomes onto pre-mRNA involves the recognition of regulatory RNA cis elements in the 3' splice site by the U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF). The large (U2AF65) and small (U2AF35) subunits of the U2AF heterodimer contact the polypyrimidine tract (Py-tract) and the AG-dinucleotide, respectively. The tandem RNA recognition motif domains (RRM1,2) of U2AF65 adopt closed/inactive and open/active conformations in the free form and when bound to bona fide Py-tract RNA ligands. To investigate the molecular mechanism and dynamics of 3' splice site recognition by U2AF65 and the role of U2AF35 in the U2AF heterodimer, we have combined single-pair FRET and NMR experiments. In the absence of RNA, the RRM1,2 domain arrangement is highly dynamic on a submillisecond time scale, switching between closed and open conformations. The addition of Py-tract RNA ligands with increasing binding affinity (strength) gradually shifts the equilibrium toward an open conformation. Notably, the protein-RNA complex is rigid in the presence of a strong Py-tract but exhibits internal motion with weak Py-tracts. Surprisingly, the presence of U2AF35, whose UHM domain interacts with U2AF65 RRM1, increases the population of the open arrangement of U2AF65 RRM1,2 in the absence and presence of a weak Py-tract. These data indicate that the U2AF heterodimer promotes spliceosome assembly by a dynamic population shift toward the open conformation of U2AF65 to facilitate the recognition of weak Py-tracts at the 3' splice site. The structure and RNA binding of the heterodimer was unaffected by cancer-linked myelodysplastic syndrome mutants.

  15. Extending Alaska's plate boundary: tectonic tremor generated by Yakutat subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wech, Aaron G.

    2016-01-01

    The tectonics of the eastern end of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone are complicated by the inclusion of the Yakutat microplate, which is colliding into and subducting beneath continental North America at near-Pacific-plate rates. The interaction among these plates at depth is not well understood, and further east, even less is known about the plate boundary or the source of Wrangell volcanism. The drop-off in Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) seismicity could signal the end of the plate boundary, the start of aseismic subduction, or a tear in the downgoing plate. Further compounding the issue is the possible presence of the Wrangell slab, which is faintly outlined by an anemic, eastward-dipping WBZ beneath the Wrangell volcanoes. In this study, I performed a search for tectonic tremor to map slow, plate-boundary slip in south-central Alaska. I identified ∼11,000 tremor epicenters, which continue 85 km east of the inferred Pacific plate edge marked by WBZ seismicity. The tremor zone coincides with the edges of the downgoing Yakutat terrane, and tremors transition from periodic to continuous behavior as they near the aseismic Wrangell slab. I interpret tremor to mark slow, semicontinuous slip occurring at the interface between the Yakutat and North America plates. The slow slip region lengthens the megathrust interface beyond the WBZ and may provide evidence for a connection between the Yakutat slab and the aseismic Wrangell slab.

  16. Modeling hyporheic zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2003-01-01

    Stream biogeochemistry is influenced by the physical and chemical processes that occur in the surrounding watershed. These processes include the mass loading of solutes from terrestrial and atmospheric sources, the physical transport of solutes within the watershed, and the transformation of solutes due to biogeochemical reactions. Research over the last two decades has identified the hyporheic zone as an important part of the stream system in which these processes occur. The hyporheic zone may be loosely defined as the porous areas of the stream bed and stream bank in which stream water mixes with shallow groundwater. Exchange of water and solutes between the stream proper and the hyporheic zone has many biogeochemical implications, due to differences in the chemical composition of surface and groundwater. For example, surface waters are typically oxidized environments with relatively high dissolved oxygen concentrations. In contrast, reducing conditions are often present in groundwater systems leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Further, microbial oxidation of organic materials in groundwater leads to supersaturated concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide relative to the atmosphere. Differences in surface and groundwater pH and temperature are also common. The hyporheic zone is therefore a mixing zone in which there are gradients in the concentrations of dissolved gasses, the concentrations of oxidized and reduced species, pH, and temperature. These gradients lead to biogeochemical reactions that ultimately affect stream water quality. Due to the complexity of these natural systems, modeling techniques are frequently employed to quantify process dynamics.

  17. Modeling the urban boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

  18. Linear and nonlinear stability of the Blasius boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, F. P.; Herbert, TH.; Spalart, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Two new techniques for the study of the linear and nonlinear instability in growing boundary layers are presented. The first technique employs partial differential equations of parabolic type exploiting the slow change of the mean flow, disturbance velocity profiles, wavelengths, and growth rates in the streamwise direction. The second technique solves the Navier-Stokes equation for spatially evolving disturbances using buffer zones adjacent to the inflow and outflow boundaries. Results of both techniques are in excellent agreement. The linear and nonlinear development of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in the Blasius boundary layer is investigated with both techniques and with a local procedure based on a system of ordinary differential equations. The results are compared with previous work and the effects of non-parallelism and nonlinearity are clarified. The effect of nonparallelism is confirmed to be weak and, consequently, not responsible for the discrepancies between measurements and theoretical results for parallel flow.

  19. Minority lifetime degradation of silicon wafers after electric zone melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. C.; Yang, C. F.; Lan, C. W.

    2015-06-01

    The degradation of minority lifetime of mono- and multi-crystalline silicon wafers after electric zone melting, a simple and contamination-free process, was investigated. The thermal-stress induced dislocations were responsible to the degradation; however, the grain size also played a crucial role. It was believed that the grain boundaries helped the relaxation of thermal stress, so that the degradation was reduced as the grain size decreased. In addition to lifetime mapping and etch pit density, photoluminescence mapping was also used to examine the electrically active defects after zone melting. Factors affecting lifetime degradation of silicon wafers after electric zone melting were examined. Small-grain multi-crystalline wafers showed better lifetime after zone melting. Twining area showed better lifetime. The formation of new grains relaxed the thermal stress mitigating lifetime degradation.

  20. Numerical study of compressible magnetoconvection with an open transitional boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Hanami, H.; Tajima, T.

    1990-08-01

    We study by computer simulation nonlinear evolution of magnetoconvection in a system with a dynamical open boundary between the convection region and corona of the sun. We study a model in which the fluid is subject to the vertical gravitation, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and high stratification, through an MHD code with the MacCormack-Donner cell hybrid scheme in order to well represent convective phenomena. Initially the vertical fluid flux penetrates from the convectively unstable zone at the bottom into the upper diffuse atmosphere. As the instability develops, the magnetic fields are twisted by the convection motion and the folding magnetic fields is observed. When the magnetic pressure is comparable to the thermal pressure in the upper layer of convective zone, strong flux expulsion from the convective cell interior toward the cell boundary appears. Under appropriate conditions our simulation exhibits no shock formation incurred by the fluid convected to the photosphere, in contrast to earlier works with box boundaries. The magnetic field patterns observed are those of concentrated magnetic flux tubes, accumulation of dynamo flux near the bottom boundary, pinched flux near the downdraft region, and the surface movement of magnetic flux toward the downdraft region. Many of these computationally observed features are reminiscent of solar observations of the fluid and magnetic structures of their motions.

  1. SAMZ: Satellite-Derived Management Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The term "satellite-derived management zones" (SAMZ) denotes agricultural management zones that are subdivisions of large fields and that are derived from images of the fields acquired by instruments aboard Earth orbiting satellites during approximately the past 15 years. "SAMZ" also denotes the methodology and the software that implements the methodology for creating such zones. The SAMZ approach is one of several products of continuing efforts to realize a concept of precision agriculture, which involves optimal variations in seeding, in application of chemicals, and in irrigation, plus decisions to farm or not to farm certain portions of fields, all in an effort to maximize profitability in view of spatial and temporal variations in the growth and health of crops and in the chemical and physical conditions of soils. As used here, "management zone" signifies, more precisely, a subdivision of a field within which the crop production behavior is regarded as homogeneous. From the perspective of precision agriculture, management zones are the smallest subdivisions between which the seeding, application of chemicals, and other management parameters are to be varied. In the SAMZ approach, the main sources of data are the archives of satellite imagery that have been collected over the years for diverse purposes. One of the main advantages afforded by the SAMZ approach is that the data in these archives can be reused for purposes of precision agriculture at low cost. De facto, these archives contain information on all sources of variability within a field, including weather, crop types, crop management, soil types, and water drainage patterns. The SAMZ methodology involves the establishment of a Web-based interface based on an algorithm that generates management zones automatically and quickly from archival satellite image data in response to requests from farmers. A farmer can make a request by either uploading data describing a field boundary to the Web site or else

  2. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  3. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  4. Impact of boundary-layer separation on local exhaust design and worker exposure

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.K.; Flynn, M.R.; Goodman, R.

    1990-01-01

    Flow visualization and tracer gas studies were conducted in a wind tunnel with a mannequin, to examine the phenomenon of boundary layer separation as it relates to a worker's breathing zone concentration. A simple conceptual model was used which was based on mass transport by vortex shedding. The model provided a reasonable estimate of the mannequin breathing zone concentration. An empirical model was developed which then related the measured concentration to the distance from the source to the breathing zone for conditions where the contaminant was released downstream in a uniform flow. The results of the mannequin experiments suggested that boundary layer separation plays a significant part in determining the concentration of contaminant in the breathing zone. The interaction of the separated boundary layer with a contaminant source downstream of a person in uniform flow can pull contaminant back into the breathing zone of the person. The amount of contaminant observed in the breathing zone was much less when the mannequin was positioned such that the air could flow from the side. The turbulent mixing zone was formed more to the side of the mannequin and thus has less opportunity to interact with the contaminant source. These results suggested that in situations such as paint booths where a worker is immersed in a uniform flow, a higher level of control may be achieved by standing to the side of the workpiece.

  5. A Computer Analysis of the Plasma-Boundary Layer Behavior over a Positive Electrode.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    temperature velocity boundary layer thickness (Sec. III.A.3) permitivity of free space (8.85410-12 F/n) characteristic sheath length M$ mobility of...to 106 V/a and the mobility ,At = 10- 4 £z/s/volt. Clearly, in the presence of a relatively strong interelectrode field, the contribution of ion...Institute of Tecnology Pasadena, California 91125 26. Capt. T. A. FilcoffAF L-AREP Kirtland Air Force Base Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 159 - I,-

  6. Stresses Modelling Across The Andean Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, T.; Rebetsky, Yu.; Goetze, H.-J.

    A tectonophysical model, including geological-geophysical-tectonic structure, phys- ical properties of the medium (density and rheology), and its loading mechanism (boundary conditions on forces and movements) is constructed along a 21S profile. The model stresses and strains produced by separate plate motions and density inho- mogeneities and by their net effect. The inferred results are qualitatively compared with the stress state parameters of the medium, reconstructed from data on the earth- quake centroid moment tensor, and with the available tectonic, geological, and geo- physical data. The orientation analysis of the principal deviatoric axes of maximum compression and extension yields evidence for a few deformation mechanisms that function both along the subducting slab and in the junction zone of the oceanic and continental plates. The inferred intense rearrangement areas of the stress field indicate possible fragmentation zones in the oceanic plate. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes at depths below 70 km yield evidence of over-lithostatic tectonic dilatation; along with mathematical modeling results, this supports the idea of a more rapid motion of the lower denser part of the slab beneath South America as compared with its overlying portions. Plate motions directly control solely the stresses within the subducting slab and around its shallower (above 50 km) parts. The recent tectonics and stresses in the Andean mountain belt are dominated by density inhomogeneities. Stress distribution details caused by density inhomogeneities are shown to correlate well with large-scale geological features. Thus, the Pre-Cordilleran fault zone separating coastal zones from the Andean mountain belt distinctly correlates with the reorientation of the deviatoric compression-extension axes. The entire thickened crust of the belt is under conditions of over-lithostatic dilatation, and the inferred zones of the negative total isotropic pres- sure correlate with local dilatation

  7. First-principles study of the effect of phosphorus on nickel grain boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenguan; Ren, Cuilan; Han, Han E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Zou, Yang; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Xu, Hongjie E-mail: xuhongjie@sinap.ac.cn; Tan, Jie

    2014-01-28

    Based on first-principles quantum-mechanical calculations, the impurity-dopant effects of phosphorus on Σ5(012) symmetrical tilt grain boundary in nickel have been studied. The calculated binding energy suggests that phosphorus has a strong tendency to segregate to the grain boundary. Phosphorus forms strong and covalent-like bonding with nickel, which is beneficial to the grain boundary cohesion. However, a too high phosphorus content can result in a thin and fragile zone in the grain boundary, due to the repulsion between phosphorus atoms. As the concentration of phosphorus increases, the strength of the grain boundary increases first and then decreases. Obviously, there exists an optimum concentration for phosphorus segregation, which is consistent with observed segregation behaviors of phosphorus in the grain boundary of nickel. This work is very helpful to understand the comprehensive effects of phosphorus.

  8. Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

  9. Characterization of microstructure, local deformation and microchemistry in Alloy 690 heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi; Yamazaki, Seiya

    2015-10-01

    With increasing the distance from the weld fusion line in an Alloy 690 heat-affected zone, micro-hardness decreases, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Chromium depletion at grain boundaries in the Alloy 690 heat-affected zone is less significant than that in an Alloy 600 heat-affected zone. Alloy 690 heat-affected zone exhibits much higher IGSCC resistance than Alloy 600 heat-affected zone in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water. Heavily cold worked Alloy 690 exhibits localized intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The effects of metallurgical and mechanical properties on stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 690 are discussed.

  10. Wetland Boundary Determination in the Great Dismal Swamp Using Weighted Averages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Garrett, Mary Keith; Gammon, Patricia T.

    1988-01-01

    A weighted average method was used to analyze transition zone vegetation in the Great Dismal Swamp to determine if a more uniform determination of wetland boundaries can be made nationwide. The method was applied to vegetation data collected on four transects and three vertical layers across the wetland-to-upland transition zone of the swamp. Ecological index values based on water tolerance were either taken from the literature or derived from local species tolerances. Wetland index values were calculated for 25-m increments using species cover and rankings based on the ecological indices. Wetland index values were used to designate increments as either wetland, transitional, or upland, and to examine the usefulness of a provisional wetland-upland break-point. The weighted average method did not provide for an objective placement of an absolute wetland boundary, but did serve to focus attention on the transitional boundary zone where supplementary information is necessary to select a wetland-upland breakpoint.

  11. Vegetation zones shift in changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climate variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. In case of the Köppen-Trewartha classification it is integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is used on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Furthermore, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area of individual types, in the continental scale some shifts of boundaries

  12. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio μ in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ≥ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for μ ≲ 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on μ. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –1/3}, prevails at small μ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger μ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ≈ 0.024 μ{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Δa {sub cl,} {sub int} ≅ 1.2 μ{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Δa {sub cl,} {sub ext} ≅ 1.7 μ{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  13. Boundary-Layer & health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  14. Eddies along western boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Wilton Zumpichiatti

    The Ulleung eddy owes its existence to beta and nonlinearities . A nonlinear theory for the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) in the Japan/East Sea is proposed. Using the nonlinear reduced gravity (shallow water) equations, it is shown analytically and numerically that the eddy is established in order to balance the northward momentum flux exerted by the separating western boundary current (WBC). In this scenario the presence of beta produces a southward (eddy) force balancing the northward momentum flux of the separating East Korea Warm Current. In contrast to the familiar idea attributing the formation of eddies to instabilities (i.e., the breakdown of a known steady solution), the UWE is an integral part of the steady stable solution. On an f-plane no eddy is produced. To balance the northward momentum force imparted by the nonlinear WBC the f-plane system moves offshore producing a southward Coriolis force. We also found that the observed UWE scale agrees with the analytical and numerical estimates. The Mindanao and Halmahera eddies are due to the bending of their parent currents, nonlinearities and beta. Starting with the simple case of a northward (southward) WBC flowing along a concave solid boundary with a sharp corner on an beta-plane, it is shown that an anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddy is established to balance the upstream momentum flux. (On an f-plane no eddy is established because a pressure force which balances the WBC momentum flux is generated.) With the aid of the above analysis we then examine the collision of two opposing WBCs on a beta-plane. It is shown that this problem can be conceptually reduced to the above problem of two WBCs turning in a solid corner on a beta-plane where the streamline separating the two colliding currents acts like a "zonal wall." We show that an eddy is established (to balance the momentum flux of the respective WBC) on each side of the dividing streamline. Based on the collision problem, an explanation for the Mindanao and

  15. Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

  16. Soot profiles in boundary-layer flames

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, R.A.; Pagni, P.J.

    1981-12-01

    Carbon particulate volume fractions and approximate particle size distributions are measured in a free laminar combusting boundary layer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (n-heptane, iso-octane, cyclohexane, cyclohexene, toluene) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). A multiwavelength laser transmission technique determines a most probable radius and the total particle concentration, which are two parameters in an assumed form for the size distribution. In the combusting boundary layer, a sooting region exists between the pyrolyzing fuel surface and the flame zone. The liquid fuel soot volume fractions, f/sub v/, range from f/sub v/ approx. 10/sup -7/ for n-heptane, a paraffin, to f/sub v approx. 10/sup -5/ for toluene, an aromatic. The PMMA volume fractions, f/sub v/ approx. 5 X 10/sup -7/, are approximately the same as the values previously reported for pool fires. The soot volume fractions increase with height; convection of carbon particles downstream widens the soot region with height. For all fuels tested, the most probable radius is between 20 nm and 50 nm, and it changes only slightly with height and distance from the fuel surface.

  17. Competitive hydration and dehydration at olivine-quartz boundary revealed by hydrothermal experiments: Implications for silica metasomatism at the crust-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hirano, Nobuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Serpentinization occurs via interactions between mantle peridotite and water that commonly passes through the crust. Given that such a fluid has a high silica activity compared with mantle peridotite, it is thought that serpentinization and silica metasomatism occur simultaneously at the crust-mantle boundary. In this study, we conducted hydrothermal experiments in the olivine (Ol)-quartz (Qtz)-H2O system at 250 °C and vapor-saturated pressure under highly alkaline conditions (NaOHaq, pH = 13.8 at 25 °C) to clarify the mechanism of silica metasomatism at the crust-mantle boundary. Composite powders consisting of a Qtz layer and an Ol layer were set in tube-in-tube vessels. After the experiments, the extents of serpentinization and metasomatic reactions were evaluated as a function of distance from the Ol-Qtz boundary. The mineralogy of the reaction products in the Ol-hosted region changed with increasing distance from the Ol-Qtz boundary, from smectite + serpentine (Smc zone) to serpentine + brucite + magnetite (Brc zone). Olivine hydration proceeded in both zones, but the total H2O content in the products was greater in the Brc zone than in the Smc zone. Mass balance calculations revealed that olivine hydration occurred without any supply of silica in the brucite zone. In contrast, the Smc zone was formed by silica metasomatism via competitive hydration and dehydration reactions. In the Smc zone, smectite formed via the simultaneous progress of olivine hydration and serpentine dehydration, and around the boundary of the Smc and Brc zones, serpentine formation occurred by olivine hydration and brucite dehydration. The relative extent of hydration and dehydration reactions controlled the along-tube variation in the rate of H2O production/consumption and the rate of volume increase. Our findings suggest that the competitive progress of serpentinization and silica metasomatic reactions would cause fluctuations in pore fluid pressure, possibly affecting the

  18. Boundary effects in entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiere, Clément; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a number of explicit calculations of Renyi and entanglement entropies in situations where the entangling surface intersects the boundary of d-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When the boundary is a single plane we compute the contribution to the entropy due to this intersection, first in the case of the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, and then in the case of a generic Robin type boundary condition. The flow in the boundary coupling between the Neumann and Dirichlet phases is analyzed in arbitrary dimension d and is shown to be monotonic, the peculiarity of d = 3 case is noted. We argue that the translational symmetry along the entangling surface is broken due the presence of the boundary which reveals that the entanglement is not homogeneous. In order to characterize this quantitatively, we introduce a density of entanglement entropy and compute it explicitly. This quantity clearly indicates that the entanglement is maximal near the boundary. We then consider the situation where the boundary is composed of two parallel planes at a finite separation and compute the entanglement entropy as well as its density in this case. The complete contribution to entanglement entropy due to the boundaries is shown not to depend on the distance between the planes and is simply twice the entropy in the case of single plane boundary. Additionally, we find how the area law, the part in the entropy proportional to the area of entire entangling surface, depends on the size of the separation between the two boundaries. The latter is shown to appear in the UV finite part of the entropy.

  19. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  20. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  1. A simple web-based tool to compare freshwater fish data collected using AFS standard methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Rahr, Matt; Torrey, Yuta T.; Cate, Averill

    2016-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) recently published Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes. Enlisting the expertise of 284 scientists from 107 organizations throughout Canada, Mexico, and the United States, this text was developed to facilitate comparisons of fish data across regions or time. Here we describe a user-friendly web tool that automates among-sample comparisons in individual fish condition, population length-frequency distributions, and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data collected using AFS standard methods. Currently, the web tool (1) provides instantaneous summaries of almost 4,000 data sets of condition, length frequency, and CPUE of common freshwater fishes collected using standard gears in 43 states and provinces; (2) is easily appended with new standardized field data to update subsequent queries and summaries; (3) compares fish data from a particular water body with continent, ecoregion, and state data summaries; and (4) provides additional information about AFS standard fish sampling including benefits, ongoing validation studies, and opportunities to comment on specific methods. The web tool—programmed in a PHP-based Drupal framework—was supported by several AFS Sections, agencies, and universities and is freely available from the AFS website and fisheriesstandardsampling.org. With widespread use, the online tool could become an important resource for fisheries biologists.

  2. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  3. GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  4. Nanometer focusing properties of Fresnel zone plates described by dynamical diffraction theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, F.; David, C.; Veen, J. F. van der; Bergemann, C.

    2006-06-15

    The x-ray focusing properties of linear Fresnel zone plates have been derived by solving the Helmholtz equation for the field propagating through the zones. We consider the imaging of a point object into the first diffraction order of a volume zone plate having its zones parallel to the optical axis. For plane wave illumination, the focal spot size is limited by the same material-dependent but wavelength-independent value that affects waveguide focusing. In marked contrast, for the one-to-one imaging condition, corresponding to specular reflection of the x rays from the zone boundaries, the image is found to have a minimal spot size approximately equal to the outermost zone width. Unlike x-ray waveguides, zone plates therefore do not appear to possess a fundamental limit to the smallest spot size to which they can focus.

  5. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  6. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning.

  7. Dilution Zone Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Studies to characterize dilution zone mixing; experiments on the effects of free-stream turbulence on a jet in crossflow; and the development of an interactive computer code for the analysis of the mixing of jets with a confined crossflow are reviewed.

  8. Microgravity Silicon Zoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research program is directed toward the understanding of the float zone crystal growth process, the melt interactions which lead to crystal inhomogeneities, and the influence of microgravity on reducing these inhomogeneities. Silicon was selected as the model crystal because its inhomogeneities lead to known variations in device performance, and because the mechanisms involved in its growth are understood better than for other high temperature crystals. The objective of the program is to understand the growth mechanisms in float zone growth and thereby determine the feasibility and advantages of float zone growth of silicon under microgravity conditions. This will be done by characterizing the growth at g = 1, projecting the changes in melt flows due to microgravity, observing these in space growth and determining the effects on defective inhomogeneities. A Thin Rod Zoner was constructed as a laboratory prototype for flight growth of 5 mm diameter silicon crystals, which can be done within the power and cooling capabilities of shuttle flights. A new method of zoning silicon, using resistance heating, has resulted in melting 5 mm diameter ingots.

  9. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    PubMed

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  10. An analysis of boundary condition effects on the thermomechanical modeling of the FSW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedoiri, A.; Moufki, A.; Favier, V.; Zahrouni, H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the influence of thermal boundary conditions on the simulation of friction stir welding process "FSW". Generally, dimensions of the workpieces to be welded are very large and a very small zone surrounding the welding tool is modeled for the thermomechanical study of the process. This area, named box, should be small enough to reduce the computation time and large enough to minimize effects of boundary conditions. It is well known that during welding, the mixing zone is closed arround the tool; it is easily identified by analyzing the velocity field which is complex in contact interface with the tool and which tends rapidly to the tool traverse speed far from the tool. In the thermal analysis, the boundary conditions are not obvious since they depend on the welding parameters, on the workpiece dimensions and on its vicinity. We propose in this study a numerical strategy for determining the thermal boundary conditions on the box.

  11. Prenylation inhibitors stimulate both estrogen receptor α transcriptional activity through AF-1 and AF-2 and estrogen receptor β transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Cestac, Philippe; Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Médale-Giamarchi, Claire; Rochaix, Philippe; Balaguer, Patrick; Favre, Gilles; Faye, Jean-Charles; Doisneau-Sixou, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We showed in a previous study that prenylated proteins play a role in estradiol stimulation of proliferation. However, these proteins antagonize the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) α to stimulate estrogen response element (ERE)-dependent transcriptional activity, potentially through the formation of a co-regulator complex. The present study investigates, in further detail, how prenylated proteins modulate the transcriptional activities mediated by ERα and by ERβ. Methods The ERE-β-globin-Luc-SV-Neo plasmid was either stably transfected into MCF-7 cells or HeLa cells (MELN cells and HELN cells, respectively) or transiently transfected into MCF-7 cells using polyethylenimine. Cells deprived of estradiol were analyzed for ERE-dependent luciferase activity 16 hours after estradiol stimulation and treatment with FTI-277 (a farnesyltransferase inhibitor) or with GGTI-298 (a geranylgeranyltransferase I inhibitor). In HELN cells, the effect of prenyltransferase inhibitors on luciferase activity was compared after transient transfection of plasmids coding either the full-length ERα, the full-length ERβ, the AF-1-deleted ERα or the AF-2-deleted ERα. The presence of ERα was then detected by immunocytochemistry in either the nuclei or the cytoplasms of MCF-7 cells. Finally, Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme treatment was used to determine the involvement of Rho proteins in ERE-dependent luciferase activity. Results FTI-277 and GGTI-298 only stimulate ERE-dependent luciferase activity in stably transfected MCF-7 cells. They stimulate both ERα-mediated and ERβ-mediated ERE-dependent luciferase activity in HELN cells, in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. The roles of both AF-1 and AF-2 are significant in this effect. Nuclear ERα is decreased in the presence of prenyltransferase inhibitors in MCF-7 cells, again in the presence of and in the absence of estradiol. By contrast, cytoplasmic ERα is mainly decreased after treatment with FTI

  12. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  13. Expansive Learning across Workplace Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerosuo, Hannele; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses a collaborative effort of learning across workplace boundaries in a regional learning network of South Savo, Finland. The focus is on the "Forum of In-house Development" in the network. Our objective is to highlight a dialectical approach to boundaries that draws from the ideas of cultural-historical activity theory.…

  14. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  15. The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Marzouk, Akmal M.; Ahmad, Fayez

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in Jordan is marked by a major depositional hiatus that differs in magnitude from place to place due to variable structural movements of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt that resulted in irregularity of Jordan/Levant depositional basin after the deposition of Maastrichtian succession. To elucidate the nature of this hiatus, fieldwork was carried out at a number of locations including lithofacies and stratigraphic analysis, and a multi-proxy study of microplanktonic biostratigraphy (calcareous nannofossilis and planktonic formaminifera). However, the duration of this hiatus extended over latest Maastrichtian and early Danian stages. This is based on the absence of the planktonic foraminifera; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra (CF2), Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1), Guembelitria cretacea (P0), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P&) zones and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (P1a) subzones and the coeval calcareous nannofossils Nephrolithus frequens and Markalius inversus zones. We estimate that in the paleo-lows areas an unexpected 3.96 Ma hiatus is present. Conversely, in swell areas, the duration of the hiatus represents the entire Danian-Selandian interval and revealed an unexpected 10.33 Ma hiatus, especially in the central part of Jordan. Subsequently, a marked transgression took place over the whole of Jordan which resulted in the prevalence of deep water conditions (Zones P4 or equivalent NP7/8); this caused the deposition of a retrogradational parasequence set of middle shelf pelagic marl and chalk during a rapid relative rise of sea-level. A correlative hiatus and time gap have also been reported in different parts of the Arabian and African plates, indicating that Jordan was influenced by regional tectonics that combined with the latest Maastrichtian sea-level fall resulted in a long-term sub-marine hiatus and/or non-deposition of sediments. A combination of sea level changes and tectonic uplift are the

  16. Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopAF1 suppresses plant immunity by targeting methionine recycling to block ethylene induction

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Erica J.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Finkel, Omri M.; Wan, Li; Kieber, Joseph J.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2016-01-01

    HopAF1 is a type III effector protein of unknown function encoded in the genomes of several strains of Pseudomonas syringae and other plant pathogens. Structural modeling predicted that HopAF1 is closely related to deamidase proteins. Deamidation is the irreversible substitution of an amide group with a carboxylate group. Several bacterial virulence factors are deamidases that manipulate the activity of specific host protein substrates. We identified Arabidopsis methylthioadenosine nucleosidase proteins MTN1 and MTN2 as putative targets of HopAF1 deamidation. MTNs are enzymes in the Yang cycle, which is essential for the high levels of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that HopAF1 inhibits the host defense response by manipulating MTN activity and consequently ethylene levels. We determined that bacterially delivered HopAF1 inhibits ethylene biosynthesis induced by pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that Arabidopsis mtn1 mtn2 mutant plants phenocopy the effect of HopAF1. Furthermore, we identified two conserved asparagines in MTN1 and MTN2 from Arabidopsis that confer loss of function phenotypes when deamidated via site-specific mutation. These residues are potential targets of HopAF1 deamidation. HopAF1-mediated manipulation of Yang cycle MTN proteins is likely an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby HopAF1 orthologs from multiple plant pathogens contribute to disease in a large variety of plant hosts. PMID:27274076

  17. Structure-guided U2AF65 variant improves recognition and splicing of a defective pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anant A.; McLaughlin, Krystle J.; Jenkins, Jermaine L.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2014-01-01

    Purine interruptions of polypyrimidine (Py) tract splice site signals contribute to human genetic diseases. The essential splicing factor U2AF65 normally recognizes a Py tract consensus sequence preceding the major class of 3′ splice sites. We found that neurofibromatosis- or retinitis pigmentosa-causing mutations in the 5′ regions of Py tracts severely reduce U2AF65 affinity. Conversely, we identified a preferred binding site of U2AF65 for purine substitutions in the 3′ regions of Py tracts. Based on a comparison of new U2AF65 structures bound to either A- or G-containing Py tracts with previously identified pyrimidine-containing structures, we expected to find that a D231V amino acid change in U2AF65 would specify U over other nucleotides. We found that the crystal structure of the U2AF65-D231V variant confirms favorable packing between the engineered valine and a target uracil base. The D231V amino acid change restores U2AF65 affinity for two mutated splice sites that cause human genetic diseases and successfully promotes splicing of a defective retinitis pigmentosa-causing transcript. We conclude that reduced U2AF65 binding is a molecular consequence of disease-relevant mutations, and that a structure-guided U2AF65 variant is capable of manipulating gene expression in eukaryotic cells. PMID:25422459

  18. AF1q is a novel TCF7 co-factor which activates CD44 and promotes breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jino; Schlederer, Michaela; Schreiber, Martin; Ice, Ryan; Merkel, Olaf; Bilban, Martin; Hofbauer, Sebastian; Kim, Soojin; Addison, Joseph; Zou, Jie; Ji, Chunyan; Bunting, Silvia T; Wang, Zhengqi; Shoham, Menachem; Huang, Gang; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Gibson, Laura F; Rojanasakul, Yon; Remick, Scot; Ivanov, Alexey; Pugacheva, Elena; Bunting, Kevin D; Moriggl, Richard; Kenner, Lukas; Tse, William

    2015-08-21

    AF1q is an MLL fusion partner that was identified from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with t (1; 11) (q21; q23) chromosomal abnormality. The function of AF1q is not yet fully known, however, elevated AF1q expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Here, we show that AF1q specifically binds to T-cell-factor-7 (TCF7) in the Wnt signaling pathway and results in transcriptional activation of CD44 as well as multiple downstream targets of the TCF7/LEF1. In addition, enhanced AF1q expression promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, mammosphere formation, and chemo-resistance. In xenograft models, enforced AF1q expression in breast cancer cells also promotes liver metastasis and lung colonization. In a cohort of 63 breast cancer patients, higher percentages of AF1q-positive cancer cells in primary sites were associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and brain metastasis-free survival (b-MFS). Using paired primary/metastatic samples from the same patients, we demonstrate that AF1q-positive breast cancer cells become dynamically dominant in the metastatic sites compared to the primary sites. Our findings indicate that breast cancer cells with a hyperactive AF1q/TCF7/CD44 regulatory axis in the primary sites may represent "metastatic founder cells" which have invasive properties.

  19. An Evaluation of the Impacts of AF-M315E Propulsion Systems for Varied Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.; Oleson, Steven R.; Fittje, James; Colozza, Anthony; Packard, Tom; Gyekenyesi, John; McLean, Christopher H.; Spores, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the AF-M315E COMPASS study is to identify near-term (3-5 years) and long term (5 years +) opportunities for infusion, specifically the thruster and associated component technologies being developed as part of the GPIM project. Develop design reference missions which show the advantages of the AF-M315E green propulsion system. Utilize a combination of past COMPASS designs and selected new designs to demonstrate AF-M315E advantages. Use the COMPASS process to show the puts and takes of using AF-M315E at the integrated system level.

  20. Constraints on accumulated strain near the ETS zone along Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, Randy D.; Schmidt, David A.; Weldon, Ray J.; Burgette, Reed J.

    2016-04-01

    Current national seismic hazard models for Cascadia use the zone of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) to denote the lower boundary of the seismogenic zone. Recent numerical models have suggested that an appreciable amount of long-term strain may accumulate at the depth of ETS and questions this assumption. We use uplift rates from leveling campaigns spanning approximately 50-70 yrs in Washington and Oregon to investigate the amount of potential long-term locking near the ETS zone. We evaluate the potential for deeper locking in Cascadia by exploring a range of locking parameters along the subduction zone, including the ETS zone. Of the four east-west leveling profiles studied, three show a reduction in the misfit when secondary locking near the ETS zone is included; however the reduction in misfit values is only statistically significant for one profile. This would suggest that models including a small amount of secondary locking are broadly indistinguishable from models without any secondary locking. If secondary locking is considered, the leveling data allow for locking up to ∼20% of the plate rate near the updip edge of the ETS zone. These results are consistent with, but less resolved, by GPS observations.