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Sample records for afb1 basal diet

  1. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  2. Effects of lipoic acid on immune function, the antioxidant defense system, and inflammation-related genes expression of broiler chickens fed aflatoxin contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  3. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Immune Function, the Antioxidant Defense System, and Inflammation-Related Genes Expression of Broiler Chickens Fed Aflatoxin Contaminated Diets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNFα and IFNγ were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by α-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-κB p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that α-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNFα in broiler chickens. PMID:24699046

  4. Spectra analysis of coating antigen: A possible explanation for difference in anti-AFB1 polyclonal antibody sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yang; Liu, Aiping; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-10-01

    For the detection of small hapten molecules, indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) is a preferred method. However, diverse coating antigen might bring different antiserum titer and sensitivity for the identical antiserum. In the present study, four AFB1-protein (aflatoxin B1-carrier protein) conjugates were prepared by activated ester method (AFB1O-BSA/AFB1O-OVA) and mannich method (AFB1-cBSA/AFB1-cOVA), and then applied as coating antigen for titer and sensitivity detection of the identical antiserum obtained from rabbit immunized by AFB1-KLH. Afterwards, the ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence and far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far-UV CD) spectra were recorded for understanding the difference in titer and sensitivity obtained. Results revealed that AFB1O-BSA/AFB1O-OVA showed a strong intrinsic fluorescence band centered at 450 nm that originated from the emission of AFB1, which differed from AFB1-cBSA/AFB1-cOVA, while the decrease of α-helical and increase of β-sheet in AFB1-cBSA was the most remarkable. This indicated that the better sensitivity obtained by using AFB1O-BSA as coating antigen might be caused by its extended structure, because such structure affect the binding between AFB1 and antibody. The study might offer structural information for understanding the titer and sensitivity difference caused by coating antigen.

  5. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of progeny of hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feed. For this purpose, White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into six groups (A-F). Hens in Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B and C were kept on a diet amended with 3 and 5 mg OTA/Kg, respectively. Group D was fed a ration containing 5 mg AFB(1)/Kg, while hens in Groups E and F were kept on feed amended with OTA and AFB(1) each. All feedings were for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on a weekly basis to obtain progeny of each week separately. At 14 days-of-age, subsets of progeny were euthanized and the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in their spleen and bursa of Fabricius assessed; at 16 days-of-age, other chicks in each set were utilized to determine their lymphoblastogenic responses against phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P). At 30 days-of-age, the final sub-set of chicks/group was euthanized and their peritoneal macrophages harvested for measurements of phagocytic potential and nitrite production. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the spleen were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of progeny chicks obtained from hens fed the OTA + AFB(1) mixed diet. Feeding contaminated diets to breeder hens also resulted in significantly lower responses to PHA-P. In addition, the percentages of peritoneal macrophages displaying phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the number of SRBC/macrophage, and nitrite production were each significantly lower in cells from progeny chicks from OTA- and AFB(1)-fed hens. The findings of the present study indicated there were severe immunosuppressive effects in progeny chicks as a result of exposure of their

  6. AFB1-induced mutagenesis of the gpt gene in AS52 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wattanawaraporn, Roongtiwa; Kim, Min Young; Adams, Jillian; Trudel, Laura J.; Woo, Leslie L.; Croy, Robert G.; Essigmann, John M.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mutagen and an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. Transgenic mouse strains and cells in culture have been used to detect different types of mutations caused by AFB1 and investigate the molecular determinants of their location and frequency. The AFB1 mutational spectrum in the gpt gene was markedly different in AS52 cells compared to the liver in gpt delta B6C3F1 transgenic mice. The results demonstrate the importance of metabolism, chromosomal location, transcription and selection conditions on mutational spectra. PMID:22733615

  7. High fat diet promotes prostatic basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate epithelial hyperplasia originated from basal cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Boyu; Zhang, Li; Xin, Li

    2016-05-01

    Recent lineage tracing studies showed that the prostate basal and luminal cells in adult mice are two independent lineages under the physiological condition, but basal cells are capable of generating luminal progenies during bacterial infection-induced prostatitis. Because acute bacterial infection in human prostate tissues is relatively rare, the disease relevance of the bacterial infection-induced basal-to-luminal differentiation is uncertain. Herein we employ a high fat diet-induced sterile prostate inflammation model to determine whether basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by inflammation irrespective of the underlying etiologies. A K14-CreER model and a fluorescent report line are utilized to specifically label basal cells with the green fluorescent protein. We show that high fat diet promotes immune cell infiltration into the prostate tissues and basal-to-luminal differentiation. Increased cell proliferation accompanies basal-to-luminal differentiation, suggesting a concurrent regulation of basal cell proliferation and differentiation. This study demonstrates that basal-to-luminal differentiation can be induced by different types of prostate inflammation evolved with distinct etiologies. Finally, high fat diet also accelerates initiation and progression of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia that are originated from basal cells with loss-of-function of the tumor suppressor Pten. Because prostate cancer originated from basal cells tends to be invasive, our study also provides an alternative explanation for the association between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer.

  8. Soy Content of Basal Diets Determines the Effects of Supplemental Selenium in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Quiner, Trevor E.; Nakken, Heather L.; Mason, Brock A.; Lephart, Edwin D.; Hancock, Chad R.; Christensen, Merrill J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of supplemental Se in rodent models may depend upon composition of the basal diet to which it is added. Wild-type male littermates of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice were fed until 18 wk of age 1 of 2 Se-adequate stock diets high in soy (HS) or low in phytoestrogens (LP) or the same diets supplemented with 3.0 mg Se/kg diet as seleno-methylselenocysteine. Body and abdominal fat pad weights were lower (P < 0.01) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplemental Se reduced fat pad weights in mice receiving the LP diet but increased body and fat pad weights in mice consuming the HS formulation (P-interaction < 0.005). Serum free triiodothyronine concentrations were unaffected by supplemental Se in mice fed the LP diet but were decreased by Se supplementation of mice given the HS feed (P-interaction < 0.02). Free thyroxine concentrations were higher in mice consuming the HS diet regardless of Se intake (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA for iodothyronine deiodinase I was lower (P < 0.001) in mice fed the HS diet. Supplementation of Se increased this mRNA (P < 0.001) in both diet groups. Results from this study show a significant interaction between the composition of basal diets and the effects of supplemental Se with respect to body composition. These findings have important implications for future studies in rodent models of the effects of supplemental Se on heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and other conditions related to body weight and composition. PMID:22031663

  9. Formulation of the Total Western Diet (TWD) as a basal diet for rodent cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E

    2012-07-11

    Rodent cancer studies typically use defined diets with nutrient profiles optimized for rodent health. However, a defined rodent diet that represents typical American nutrition in all aspects, including calorie sources and macro- and micronutrient composition, is not yet available. Thus, a nutrient density approach was used to formulate the new Total Western Diet (TWD) based on NHANES data for macro- and micronutrient intakes. The TWD has fewer calories from protein and carbohydrate sources and twice that from fat as compared to the AIN-93 diet. The new diet contains more saturated and monounsaturated fats, less polyunsaturated fat, fewer complex carbohydrates, and twice the level of simple sugars. The TWD includes less calcium, copper, folate, thiamin, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E, but much more sodium. This newly devised diet that better represents typical American nutrition will be highly useful for studies employing animal models of human disease, including cancer.

  10. Studies on the biological functions of CPS1 in AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Fu, Rao; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2016-10-10

    Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as treated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogenesis mycotoxin. In this study, we firstly confirmed that AFB1 down-regulated the expression of CPS1 in a dose-dependent manner. At the meantime, both siRNA knock down of CPS1 and AFB1 treatment inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis. To further analysis the function of CPS1, the interacting proteins of CPS1 were searched by Co-IP, and three interacting proteins including type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), albumin (ALB), and ubiquitin C (UBC) were found. Both KRT1 and ALB were new interacting proteins for CPS1. Our further study showed that CPS1 was regulating interacted and colocalized with KRT1 and ALB, and the intensity correlation was changed by AFB1. KRT1, ALB and CPS1 were all reported to play an important role in differentiation and tissue specialization. These results may offer an increasing understand that CPS1 might have a function in differentiation. PMID:27425868

  11. Basal metabolic rate in carnivores is associated with diet after controlling for phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Garcia, Agusti; Williams, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal metabolic rate (BMR), the minimum metabolic rate of postabsorptive, inactive endotherms while in their rest phase and thermal neutral zone, have contributed significantly to our understanding of animal energetics. Besides body mass, the main determinant of BMR, researchers have invoked diet and phylogenetic history as important factors that influence BMR, although their relative importance has been controversial. For 58 species within the Carnivora, we tested the hypothesis that BMR is correlated with home range size, a proxy for level of activity, and diet, using conventional least squares regression (CLSR) and regression based on phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). Results showed that BMR of Carnivora was positively correlated with home range size after controlling for body mass, regardless of the statistical method employed. We also found that diet and mass-adjusted home range size were correlated. When we simultaneously tested the effect of diet and mass-adjusted home range on mass-adjusted BMR, home range size was insignificant because of its colinearity with diet. Then we eliminated home range size from our model, and diet proved to be significant with both CLSR and PIC. We concluded that species that eat meat have larger home ranges and higher BMR than species that eat vegetable matter. To advance our understanding of the potential mechanisms that might explain our results, we propose the "muscle performance hypothesis," which suggests that selection for different muscle fiber types can account for the differences in BMR observed between meat eaters and vegetarian species within the Carnivora.

  12. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model.

    PubMed

    Luongo, D; Russo, R; Balestrieri, A; Marzocco, S; Bergamo, P; Severino, L

    2014-10-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus spp. that can occur as a natural contaminant in foods and feeds of vegetable origin. Post-ingestion, AFB(1) can be metabolized in the liver of mammals into hydroxylated aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) that is excreted with milk. Although several studies have been carried out to evaluate effects of AFB(1) on the immune system, studies regarding AFM(1) are moreover lacking. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of AFB(1) and AFM(1) on immune function using a lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line as an experimental model. Both AFB(1) and AFM(1) produced significant decreases in Jurkat cell proliferation, whereas only minor effects were noted on interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ cytokines mRNA expression in stimulated cells that had been pre-incubated with AFB(1) and AFM(1). Particularly, AFB(1), but not AFM(1), at the highest concentration (50 µM) induced a marked increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The results of the current study suggested the existence of a concentration threshold for AFB(1) and AFM(1) needed to exert biological activity on cell viability and innate immunity.

  13. Transfer of dietary aflatoxin B1 to milk aflatoxin M1 and effect of inclusion of adsorbent in the diet of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J L; Wang, Y M; Nennich, T D; Li, Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and to evaluate the effects of Solis Mos (SM; Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) on milk aflatoxin M1, plasma biochemical parameters, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows fed varying doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Three groups of 8 multiparous Holstein cows in late lactation (days in milk = 271 ± 29; milk yield = 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/d) were assigned to 1 of 3 experiments in a crossover design. Cows in experiment 1 received no aflatoxin, cows in experiment 2 received 20 µg of AFB1/kg of dry matter, and cows in experiment 3 received 40 µg of AFB1/kg of dry matter. Cows in each experiment were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control or 0.25% SM. Each experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods with the first 4 d (d 1 to 4) as adaptation, followed by AFB1 challenge for 7 d (d 5 to 11), and finally clearance for 5 d (d 12 to 16) in each period. Samples of total mixed ration and milk were collected on d 1, 2, and 10 to 14 of each period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein on d 1, 11, and 14 of each period. Rumen fluid was collected by oral stomach tube 2 h after the morning feeding on d 1 and 11 of each period. Adding SM to basal or AFB1-contaminated diets at 0.25% had no effect on lactation performance, liver function, or immune response. However, addition of SM improved antioxidative status, as indicated by increased plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde regardless of dietary AFB1 level. Addition of SM to the AFB1-free diet eliminated the background AFM1 in milk and increased total ruminal volatile fatty acid (99.6 vs. 94.2 mM) concentrations. Adding SM to the AFB1-contaminated diet in experiment 2 decreased the AFM1 concentration (88.4 vs. 105.3 ng/L) and the transfer of aflatoxin to milk (0.46 vs. 0.56%), and increased total volatile fatty acid concentration (99.8 vs. 93.4 mM). Adding SM to diets with 40 µg/kg of

  14. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  15. Error-prone Replication Bypass of the Primary Aflatoxin B1 DNA Adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.; Stone, Michael P.; Lloyd, R. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions. PMID:24838242

  16. Aptamer induced assembly of fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots on gold nanoparticles for sensitive detection of AFB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Lu, Zhisong; Li, Chang Ming; Yu, Cong

    2016-04-15

    Novel fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N,C-dots) were synthesized and assembled on aptamer modified gold nanoparticles (Aptamer/AuNPs) for the super sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Positively charged N,C-dots were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of pancreatin. The prepared N,C-dots were assembled on aptamer/AuNPs by electrostatic interactions. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots was efficiently quenched. When AFB1 was added to the assay solution, specific interactions between AFB1 and the aptamer caused release of the N,C-dots. The fluorescence of the N,C-dots recovered and the intensity increase could be used to calculate the amount of AFB1 added. The assay exhibits super-high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 pg/mL (16 pM) and a wide range of linear response of 5 pg/mL to 2.00 ng/mL. A novel aptasensor is thus successfully constructed, it provides an efficient way for sensitive AFB1 sensing as well as a new technique for aptamer based novel sensor construction. PMID:26584079

  17. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Busman, Mark; Liu, Jihong; Zhong, Hongjian; Bobell, John R; Maragos, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionisation coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings were optimised to obtain sensitive and accurate determination of aflatoxin AFB1. 84:16 acetonitrile water extracts of corn were analysed by DART-MS. The lowest calibration level (LCL) for aflatoxin AFB1 was 4 μg kg⁻¹. Quantitative analysis was performed with the use of matrix-matched standards employing the ¹³C-labelled internal standard for AFB1. DART-MS of spiked corn extracts gave linear response in the range 4-1000 μg kg⁻¹. Good recoveries (94-110%) and repeatabilities (RSD = 0.7-6.9%) were obtained at spiking levels of 20 and 100 μg kg⁻¹ with the use of an isotope dilution technique. Trueness of data obtained for AFB1 in maize by DART-MS was demonstrated by analysis of corn certified reference materials. PMID:24588621

  18. Determination of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of a common form of aflatoxin, AFB1, extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument...

  19. Basal metabolic rate and organ size in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii): Effects of photoperiod, temperature and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Wang, De-Hua

    2006-12-30

    This study examined the effects of photoperiod (long day [16 Light:8 Dark] and short day [8 Light:16 Dark]), temperature (cold [5 degrees C] and warm [23 degrees C]), and diet quality (high-fiber diet [36% neutral-detergent fiber (NDF)] and low-fiber diet [23% NDF]) on basal metabolic rate (BMR), digestible energy intake, and organ size in the Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Cold increased BMR and showed a significant interaction with diet quality. Cold and short photoperiod increased intake of food and digestible energy. The high-fiber diet increased food intake, but decreased digestibility, and had no effects on digestible energy intake. Voles housed in the cold had heavier liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal segments but a lighter carcass. Segments of the gastrointestinal tract tended to be heavier when voles were fed the high-fiber diet. Voles housed in short photoperiod had lighter heart and kidneys but heavier gut segments. With the effects of body mass on BMR and organs was removed, BMR was significantly related to the dry mass of heart, liver, kidneys and cecum. Digestible energy intake was significantly related to the dry mass of kidneys and stomach. These significant relationships were also detected after removing the effects of body mass, temperature, photoperiod and diet quality. There was also a significant correlation between BMR and digestible energy intake. Our results suggest that variations in BMR reflected the evolution of metabolic machinery that induces higher energy intakes. The data also support the assimilation capacity model of endothermy.

  20. Effectiveness of nitrate addition and increased oil content as methane mitigation strategies for beef cattle fed two contrasting basal diets.

    PubMed

    Troy, S M; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Roehe, R; Ross, D W; Wallace, R J; Waterhouse, A; Rooke, J A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of (1) the addition of nitrate and (2) an increase in dietary oil on methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions from 2 breeds (cross-bred Charolais and purebred Luing) of finishing beef cattle receiving 2 contrasting basal diets consisting (grams per kilogram DM) of 500:500 (Mixed) and 80:920 (Concentrate) forage to concentrate ratios. Within each basal diet there were 3 treatments: (i) control treatments (mixed-CTL and concentrate-CTL) contained rapeseed meal as the protein source, which was replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (mixed-NIT and concentrate-NIT) supplying 21.5 g nitrate/kg DM, or (iii) rapeseed cake (mixed-RSC and concentrate-RSC) to increase dietary oil from 27 (CTL) to 53 g/kg DM (RSC). Following adaption to diets, CH4 and H2 emissions were measured on 1 occasion from each of the 76 steers over a 13-wk period. Dry matter intakes tended (P = 0.051) to be greater for the concentrate diet than the mixed diet; however, when expressed as grams DMI per kilogram BW, there was no difference between diets (P = 0.41). Dry matter intakes for NIT or RSC did not differ from CTL. Steers fed a concentrate diet produced less CH4 and H2 than those fed a mixed diet (P < 0.001). Molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.001) and butyrate (P < 0.01) were lower and propionate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P < 0.05) higher in the rumen fluid from steers fed the concentrate diet. For the mixed diet, CH4 yield (grams per kilogram DMI) was decreased by 17% when nitrate was added (P < 0.01), while H2 yield increased by 160% (P < 0.001). The addition of RSC to the mixed diet decreased CH4 yield by 7.5% (P = 0.18). However, for the concentrate diet neither addition of nitrate (P = 0.65) nor increasing dietary oil content (P = 0.46) decreased CH4 yield compared to concentrate-CTL. Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P < 0.001) and those of propionate lower (P < 0.01) in rumen fluid from NIT treatments compared to

  1. Variation of Basal EROD Activities in Ten Passerine Bird Species – Relationships with Diet and Migration Status

    PubMed Central

    Rainio, Miia J.; Kanerva, Mirella; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific differences in animal defence mechanisms against toxic substances are currently poorly understood. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme plays an important role in defence against toxic chemicals in a wide variety of animals, and it is an important biomarker for environmental contamination. We compared basal hepatic EROD activity levels among ten passerine species to see if there is inter-specific variation in enzyme activity, especially in relation to their diet and migration status. Migratory insectivores showed higher EROD activity compared to granivores. We hypothesize that the variable invertebrate diet of migratory insectivores contains a wider range of natural toxins than the narrower diet of granivores. This may have affected the evolution of mixed function oxidases (MFO) system and enzyme activities. We further tested whether metabolic rates or relative liver size were associated with the variation in detoxification capacity. We found no association between EROD activity and relative (per mass unit) basal metabolic rate (BMR). Instead, EROD activity and relative liver mass (% of body mass) correlated positively, suggesting that a proportionally large liver also functions efficiently. Our results suggest that granivores and non-migratory birds may be more vulnerable to environmental contaminants than insectivores and migratory birds. The diet and migration status, however, are phylogenetically strongly connected to each other, and their roles cannot be fully separated in our analysis with only ten passerine species. PMID:22479477

  2. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo.

  3. Immuno-physiological alterations from AFB1 in rats counteracted by treatments with Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 and montmorillonite clay mixture.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Jebali, Rania; Sharafi, Hakimeh; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Oueslati, Ridha; Abbès, Samir

    2016-09-01

    High contamination by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been detected in Beja province (Tunisia) in many dairy products and animal feed, which has resulted in many tons of cereals and cereals being removed from the market, causing economic loss. While removal represents a means of reducing risk, exposures still occur. Studies have increasingly focused on means of AFB1 biodegradation/elimination using lactic acid bacteria and clay mineral. In the study here, Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 (LP) and montmorilonite clay (MT) were used to reduce the physio-/immunotoxicologic disorders that could develop in rats that underwent AFB1 exposures for a total of 7 consecutive days. The results indicated that rats treated with AFB1 (80 μg/kg BW) alone had significant decreases in lymphocytes in their blood (including B-lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte subtypes, and NK cells), immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and pro-inflammatory cytokines; these rats also had altered oxidative stress status. In contrast, in rats treated with LP + MT (2 × 10(9) cfu/ml [∼ 2 mg/kg] + 0.5 mg MT/kg BW) for a total of 7 days before, concurrent with or after AFB1 treatment, there was a significant blockade/mitigation of each AFB1-impacted parameter. Moreover, treatment with the mixture at any point in relation to AFB1 treatment expectedly caused enhanced TNFα and IL-1β expression relative to control values; all other parameters were comparable to values noted in control rats. Alone, the mixture had no impact on host parameters. From the results here it may be concluded the the LP + MT mixture was effective in protecting these hosts against AFB1-induced immunologic/physiologic disorders and that LP + MT could prevent and/or mitigate AFB1 toxicities in vivo. PMID:27294391

  4. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in

  5. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs.

  6. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  7. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  8. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  9. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Xue, Kathy S; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A; Elmore, Sarah E; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-07-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer 344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25% or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1 per kg body weight and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1 -albumin, urinary AF (AFM1) and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 h. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging from 45% to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67% and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1 -albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  10. Effect of Sodium Selenite on Pathological Changes and Renal Functions in Broilers Fed a Diet Containing Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Na; Wang, Fengyuan; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Zhengli; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi; Geng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the renal toxicity of dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ameliorating effects of added dietary sodium selenite in broiler, renal histopathological changes, ultrastructural changes, and renal function parameters were monitored at 7, 14, and 21 days of age. Two hundred one-day-old healthy male Avian broilers were divided into four groups, namely control group, AFB1 group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1), +Se group (0.4 mg/kg Se), and AFB1+Se group (0.3 mg/kg AFB1+0.4 mg/kg Se). Compared with that of the control group, the relative weight of kidney was increased in the AFB1 group. There were no significant differences between the AFB1+Se group and the control group. By histopathological observation, the renal epithelia were swelling and necrosis at 7 and 21 days of age. Ultrastructurally, the lipid droplets and expanded endoplasmic reticulum appeared in the plasma of epithelia cells in the AFB1 group. Enlarged mitochondria with degenerated cristae were observed in the +Se group. Compared with the control group, the contents of serum creatinine and serum uric acid in the AFB1 group were increased, while the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase was decreased. When 0.4 mg/kg selenium was added into the diet containing 0.3 mg/kg AFB1, there were no obvious histological changes in the AFB1+Se group, and the contents of the serum creatinine and serum uric acid contents and the activity of renal Na+-K+ ATPase were close to those in the control group. In conclusion, sodium selenite exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced kidney toxicity in broilers. PMID:26371027

  11. Effect of dietary monensin inclusion on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid concentration and blood status of West African dwarf bucks fed with basal diets of forages.

    PubMed

    Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Onwuka, Chryss Friday Ijeoma; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Oduguwa, Oluseyi Olutosin; Aina, Ayobami Bukola Joseph

    2012-06-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary monensin on performance, nutrient utilisation, rumen volatile fatty acid and blood status in West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed with basal diets of forages. Four concentrate supplements were formulated to include 0 (MO), 15 (M15), 30 (M30) and 45 (M45) mg monensin/kg dry matter. Twenty-four WAD bucks (7.3 ± 1.20 kg initial body weight, aged 9-12 months) were randomly allotted to four experimental diets in a completely randomised design for 90 days, six animals per diet. Results indicated that animals fed M15, M30 and M45 diets had lower (P < 0.01) dry matter and water intake than those fed M0 diet. Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre intakes by the bucks followed similar trend. Animals on M15, M30 and M45 had better (P < 0.001) feed and protein efficiency ratio than those fed M0 diet. Rumen pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were maintained (P > 0.05) while monensin decreased (P < 0.001) acetate/propionate ratio. Blood glucose increased (P < 0.001) from 59.1 mg/dl in animals on M0 diet to 67.8, 66.0 and 66.3 mg/dl in animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. Overall, there were no variations among animals on M15, M30 and M45 diets. It is concluded that feeding monensin at 15 to 45 mg/kg DM of supplemental concentrate diets to West African dwarf bucks could be effective in improving feed and protein efficiency, manipulating the rumen for increased propionate production and increasing blood glucose levels.

  12. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds. PMID:24482756

  13. A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Hongshanornis longicresta: insights into the aerodynamics and diet of a basal ornithuromorph.

    PubMed

    Chiappe, Luis M; Zhao, Bo; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Chunling, Gao; Wang, Xuri; Habib, Michael; Marugan-Lobon, Jesus; Meng, Qingjin; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that contains all living birds. Here we report on a new specimen (DNHM D2945/6) referable to Hongshanornis longicresta that contributes significant information to better understand the morphology, trophic ecology, and aerodynamics of this species, as well as the taxonomy of the Hongshanornithidae. Most notable are the well-preserved wings and feathered tail of DNHM D2945/6, which afford an accurate reconstruction of aerodynamic parameters indicating that as early as 125 million years ago, basal ornithuromorphs had evolved aerodynamic surfaces comparable in size and design to those of many modern birds, and flight modes alike to those of some small living birds.

  14. Depressed levels of prostaglandin F2α in mice lacking Akr1b7 increase basal adiposity and predispose to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Volat, Fanny E; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Pastel, Emilie; Morio, Béatrice; Sion, Benoit; Hamard, Ghislaine; Guichardant, Michel; Colas, Romain; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Negative regulators of white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion are poorly documented in vivo. Prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) is a potent antiadipogenic factor in cultured preadipocytes, but evidence for its involvement in physiological context is lacking. We previously reported that Akr1b7, an aldo-keto reductase enriched in adipose stromal vascular fraction but absent from mature adipocytes, has antiadipogenic properties possibly supported by PGF(2α) synthase activity. To test whether lack of Akr1b7 could influence WAT homeostasis in vivo, we generated Akr1b7(-/-) mice in 129/Sv background. Akr1b7(-/-) mice displayed excessive basal adiposity resulting from adipocyte hyperplasia/hypertrophy and exhibited greater sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. Following adipose enlargement and irrespective of the diet, they developed liver steatosis and progressive insulin resistance. Akr1b7 loss was associated with decreased PGF(2α) WAT contents. Cloprostenol (PGF(2α) agonist) administration to Akr1b7(-/-) mice normalized WAT expansion by affecting both de novo adipocyte differentiation and size. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Akr1b7(-/-) mice with cloprostenol suggested that decreased adipocyte size resulted from inhibition of lipogenic gene expression. Hence, Akr1b7 is a major regulator of WAT development through at least two PGF(2α)-dependent mechanisms: inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. These findings provide molecular rationale to explore the status of aldo-keto reductases in dysregulations of adipose tissue homeostasis.

  15. [Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition].

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Noelia; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    El Síndrome Metabólico (SMet) se diagnostica por el cumplimiento de al menos tres criterios: hipertrigliceridemia, HDL-C disminuido, hipertensión arterial, glucemia alterada en ayunas y obesidad. Dicha obesidad constituiría el punto inicial para el desarrollo del SMet. Según la evidencia científica, las dietas hipocalóricas, incluyendo la mediterránea y la reducida en grasa con alto contenido en carbohidratos, reducen la masa grasa (MG) de estos pacientes y su efecto se potencia al combinarse con ejercicio físico (EF), pero se desconoce aún su influencia sobre la tasa metabólica basal (TMB). Objetivo: Conocer el efecto de dos dietas hipocalóricas: mediterránea y baja en grasas, combinadas o no con EF, sobre la TMB y la composición corporal (CC) de adultos con SMet. Métodos: 36 voluntarios, > 50 años, ambos sexos, con diagnóstico de SMet. Se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno de los cuatro grupos de intervención: Dieta hipocalórica mediterránea (MED), Dieta hipocalórica baja en grasa (CHO) ó ambas asociadas a EF (MEDE y CHOE respectivamente). Se evaluó CC (antropometría) y TMB (calorimetría indirecta) antes y después de la intervención. Resultados: La adición de EF a los dos tratamientos hipocalóricos produjo mayor pérdida de peso y MG que las dietas por sí solas, siendo esta pérdida en CHOE > MEDE (p < 0,05). Dichos grupos descendieron la TMB siendo MEDE > CHOE (p < 0,05). La Dieta Mediterránea, combinada o no con EF, disminuyó la MM siendo MEDE > MED (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: CHOE fue el tratamiento que mayor pérdida de peso y MG produjo, induciendo menor reducción de TMB y manteniendo un mejor perfil de CC que MEDE.

  16. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs ... specific region. Others, like the DASH diet, were designed for people who have certain health problems. But ...

  17. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  18. Optimum ratio of histidine in the piglet ideal protein model and its effects on body metabolism. I. Basal diet formulation based on digestible amino acids according to the ideal protein model for 10 to 20 kg piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Li, D F; Gong, L M; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, D F

    2002-04-01

    A 4 x 4 Latin square design was used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of amino acids (AAs) in corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey in young pigs. The data were then to be used in formulating a basal diet for studies on AA metabolism in young pigs. Eight castrates T-cannulated at terminal ileum (average initial body weight 12.5 +/- 0.62 kg) were divided into 4 groups on the basis of body weight and transferred to individual metabolism crates. They were then fed four experimental diets containing the four feedstuffs to be tested (corn, soybean meal, feather meal and dried whey). The trial lasted 20 days, which included 4 five-day periods for ileal digesta collection. It was found that the digestibility of the AAs was similar to that reported in literature. Based on the findings a basal diet for this research was formulated according to an ideal protein model for the 10 to 20 kg piglet, on the basis of digestible AAs and containing 14.13 MJ/kg digestible energy, 18.22% crude protein, 1.04% digestible lysine and 0.23% digestible histidine.

  19. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems.

  20. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet). The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  2. Effects of 3 sequestering agents on milk aflatoxin M1 concentration and the performance and immune status of dairy cows fed diets artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Arriola, K G; Jiang, Y; Driver, J P; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether adding 3 mycotoxin-sequestering agents to diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) would reduce milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentration, and improve the performance and alter immune status of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating dairy cows were used in an experiment with an incomplete crossover design including four 28-d periods. Treatments included a control diet (C), a toxin diet (T; 1,725µg of AFB1/head per day; 75µg/kg), and diets containing the toxin and 20g/head per day of a proprietary mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product containing a low (SEQ1) or high (SEQ2) dose of a chlorophyll-based additive, or a low dose of the chlorophyll-based additive and sodium bentonite clay (SEQ3). Sequestering agents were top-dressed on the total mixed ration (TMR) daily in each period, and AFB1 was dosed orally in gelatin capsules before the TMR was fed on d 21 to 25. Milk was sampled twice daily on d 20 to 28 and plasma was sampled on d 20 and 25. Sequestering agents did not affect milk AFM1 concentration during the toxin-dosing period. However, after AFB1 was withdrawn, the sequestering agents reduced the time required (24 vs. 48h) to reduce the milk AFM1 concentration below the Food and Drug Administration action level of 0.5µg/kg. Feeding T instead of C tended to reduce milk and fat-corrected milk yields, but feeding SEQ1 prevented these effects. Red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration were reduced by feeding T instead of C, but not by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, or SEQ3. The mean fluorescence intensity of antibody staining for 2 leukocyte adhesion molecules, L-selectin (CD62L) and β-integrin (CD18), tended to be greatest when SEQ1 and SEQ3 were fed. Plasma acid-soluble protein concentration was decreased by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, and SEQ3 instead of T. Sequestering agents had no effect on milk AFM1 concentration, but they reduced the time required to reduce milk AFM1 concentration to a safe level after withdrawal of AFB1 from

  3. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  4. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure rate of more than 95%, but regular examination ...

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  6. Effect of high sucrose diet on liver enzyme content and activity and aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Leandra P; Teel, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal toxin and contaminant that has been implicated in human liver carcinogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effect of a 65% of total calories from sucrose diet (HSD) for 90 days on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity compared to rats maintained on standard lab chow (0% sucrose). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of S. typhimurium His+ revertants (p < 0.001) generated from the incubation of AFB1 with hepatic microsomes from rats fed a HSD. The HSD did not affect the total microsomal CYP450 content nor content of CYP450 1A2, 2B1, 2 isoforms which activate AFB1. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity (MROD, PROD) of microsomes from animals fed HSD was decreased by 73% and 49%, respectively. MROD activity is linked to CYP 1A2 activity while PROD is linked to CYP 2B1,2 activity. Although the amount of CYP 3A was significantly decreased in rats fed a HSD, its activity, determined by the presence of the fluorometric metabolite 7-hydroxyquinidine, was unchanged. GST activity was significantly lower in the rats fed HSD.

  7. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions.

  8. Efficacy of adsorbents (bentonite and diatomaceous earth) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin in chicks.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, F R; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Chimonyo, M

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of bentonite clay (BC), diatomaceous earth (DE) and turmeric powder (TUM) in alleviating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). A total of 250 Ross-308 d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 10 dietary treatments (5 replicates of 5 chicks) from hatch to d 21. Dietary treatments were: basal diet; basal diet plus AFB1 (2 mg) or BC (0.75%), or DE (0.75%), or TUM (200 mg/kg curcuminoids) and different combinations of AFB1, BC, DE and TUM. Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed gain (FG) of the birds fed on BC or DE separately were not different from control birds. Birds fed on TUM only had similar FI and FG but lower BWG than control chicks. Aflatoxin B1 reduced FI, BWG and serum concentrations of glucose, albumin, total protein calcium, but increased FG and relative liver and kidney weights. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1 and BC had similar FI and FG to control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of DE and AFB1 had lower FI (23.1%) and BWG (28.6%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of TUM and AFB1 also had decreased FI (26.2 %) and BWG (31%) compared with control chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, BC and TUM consumed significantly higher amounts of feed compared with chicks fed on only AF, but gained less when compared with control diet chicks. Chicks fed on the combination of AFB1, DE and TUM diet had poorer growth performance than those fed on AFB1 alone. None of the combination diets reduced the severity of liver lesions. PMID:25990012

  9. Polar basal melting on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal requirements and implications of polar basal melting on Mars are discussed in detail. The composition, geology, origin, and evolution of the Martian polar terrains are summarized. Thermal calculations and flow calculations of the basal melt are discussed. The significance of the basal melting for the origin of major polar reentrants, the storage of an ancient Martian ice sheet, the mass balance of the polar terrain, and basal melting at temperate latitudes is examined.

  10. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal diet (CSBM) or CSBM with 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and co...

  11. Basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity. Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of increased sun exposure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions on treatment response/recurrence (within 1 year of therapy) in people with basal cell carcinoma? What are the effects of interventions on long-term recurrence (a minimum of 2 years after treatment) in people with basal cell carcinoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and cautery/electrodesiccation, fluorouracil, imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, and surgery (conventional or Mohs' micrographic surgery). PMID:21718567

  12. Protective Efficacy of Alpha-lipoic Acid against AflatoxinB1-induced Oxidative Damage in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Ma, Q. G.; Zhao, L. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Duan, G. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Ji, C.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is not only involved in energy metabolism, but is also a powerful antioxidant that can protect against hepatic oxidative stress induced by some drugs, toxins, or under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of α-LA against liver oxidative damage in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly divided into four groups and assigned different diets: basal diet, 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in basal diet, diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, for 3 weeks. The results revealed that the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA protected against the liver function damage of broilers induced by chronic low dose of AFB1 as estimated by a significant (p<0.05) change in levels of plasma total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and the activities of liver glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The histopathological analysis also showed that liver tissues were injured in the AFB1 diet, but this effect was alleviated by the addition of 300 mg/kg α-LA. Additionally, AFB1 induced a profound elevation of oxidative stress in birds, as indicated by an increase in malondialdehyde level, a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity and a depletion of the glutathione content in the liver. All of these negative effects were inhibited by treatment with α-LA. Our results suggest that the inhibition of AFB1-induced excess production of lipid peroxides and the maintenance of intracellular antioxidant status may play important roles in the protective effects of α-LA against AFB1-induced oxidative damage in the liver. PMID:25050030

  13. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  14. Cortical Basal Ganglionic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Chin, Steven S.; Marder, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  15. A practical guide to basal and prandial insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Holman, R R; Turner, R C

    1985-01-01

    Separating basal and meal-related insulin requirements allows a systematic approach to subcutaneous insulin therapy. Simple guidelines for both the doctor and patient can cater for the spectrum of severity of diabetes. A non-insulin-dependent diabetic who, despite dieting, continues to have moderate fasting hyperglycaemia (6-10 mmol/l) may need only a basal insulin supplement, whereas a totally insulin-dependent diabetic usually needs similar amounts of basal and meal-related insulin. The likely insulin requirements of individual diabetics can be predicted, including the increased amounts required by obese patients. The algorithms have been developed using ultralente to provide the basal insulin requirement, but the principles and doses probably apply to other similarly long-acting insulins or an insulin pump. The insulin doses can be easily altered for varying lifestyles, including night work, religious fasts or long distance aeroplane travel, and for temporary disturbances such as operations or intercurrent infections.

  16. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  17. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature

  18. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the expression of hepatic genes associated with biotransformation, antioxidant, and immune systems in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Yarru, L P; Settivari, R S; Gowda, N K S; Antoniou, E; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin, an antioxidant found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), to ameliorate changes in gene expression in the livers of broiler chicks fed aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments, which included the following: A) basal diet containing no AFB(1) or TMP (control), B) basal diet supplemented with TMP (0.5%) that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin, C) basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet, and D) basal diet supplemented with TMP that supplied 74 mg/kg of curcumin and 1.0 mg of AFB(1)/kg of diet. Aflatoxin reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake and BW gain and increased (P < 0.05) relative liver weight. Addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet ameliorated (P < 0.05) the negative effects of AFB(1) on growth performance and liver weight. At the end of the 3-wk treatment period, livers were collected (6 per treatment) to evaluate changes in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant function [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST)], biotransformation [epoxide hydrolase (EH), cytochrome P450 1A1 and 2H1 (CYP1A1 and CYP2H1)], and the immune system [interleukins 6 and 2 (IL-6 and IL-2)]. Changes in gene expression were determined using the quantitative real-time PCR technique. There was no statistical difference in gene expression among the 4 treatment groups for CAT and IL-2 genes. Decreased expression of SOD, GST, and EH genes due to AFB(1) was alleviated by inclusion of TMP in the diet. Increased expression of IL-6, CYP1A1 and CYP2H1 genes due to AFB(1) was also alleviated by TMP. The current study demonstrates partial protective effects of TMP on changes in expression of antioxidant, biotransformation, and immune system genes in livers of chicks fed AFB(1). Practical application of the research is supplementation of TMP in diets to prevent or reduce the

  19. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  20. Efficacy of beer fermentation residue containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for ameliorating aflatoxicosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Franco, L T; Kobashigawa, E; Rottinghaus, G E; Ledoux, D R; Oliveira, C A F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the study. In vitro evaluation of the BFR was conducted using different concentrations of AFB1 (2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 μg AFB1/mL) and 100 mg/10 mL of BFR at pH 3.0 or 6.0. Two hundred 1-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d, which included: 1) basal diet (BD), with no BFR or AFB1; 2) BD supplemented with 1% BFR; 3) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg of feed; and 4) BD supplemented with 2 mg AFB1/kg feed and 1% BFR. Performance variables were determined weekly, while serum analyses were performed on d 14 and 21. At the end of the study, chicks were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the kidney, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were removed for determination of relative weights, and for histological evaluation. In vitro assays showed that the higher the initial AFB1 concentration in solution, the greater the AFB1 amount adsorbed by BFR at both pHs tested. Feed intake, BW gain, and concentrations of albumin, total protein, and globulin increased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed BFR+AFB1 (Diet 4), when compared to the birds receiving only AFB1 (Diet 2). Although BFR was not able to reduce or prevent the effects of AFB1 on relative weights of kidneys and liver, it reduced the severity of histological changes in the liver and kidney caused by AFB1.

  1. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes. PMID:11784818

  2. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol from a total diet study in an adult urban Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Raad, F; Nasreddine, L; Hilan, C; Bartosik, M; Parent-Massin, D

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to mycotoxins may be associated with carcinogenic, immunosuppressant and estrogenic effects. In the Middle-East, studies investigating food contamination and dietary exposure to mycotoxins are particularly scarce. This study aims at evaluating the dietary exposure of an adult Lebanese urban population to four mycotoxins (AFB1, AFM1, OTA, DON) classified as priority food contaminants by the WHO. Dietary exposure assessment was performed by means of the total diet study approach. Average and excessive consumer exposure estimates (p95) were calculated and compared with appropriate toxicological reference values (TRVs). Average dietary exposure levels to OTA and DON represented 29.9% and 156.8% of the respective TRVs, with the p95 exposure estimates approaching or exceeding the TRVs for these mycotoxins (95.1% and 355.8%, respectively). Based on the mean dietary exposure level to AFB1, cancer risk was estimated at 0.0527-0.0545cases/100,000persons/year, while mean exposure to AFM1 was associated with a population risk of 0.0018-0.0027cases/100,000persons/year. The study's findings place Lebanon among countries that are highly exposed to mycotoxins through the diet and call for larger-scale studies aiming at providing a comprehensive assessment of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to mycotoxins as well as to other food contaminants.

  3. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  4. Effect of dietary resveratrol in ameliorating aflatoxin B1-induced changes in broiler birds.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M; Suganthi, R U; Thammiaha, V

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminated feed by poultry affects the health of broiler birds causing severe economic losses. The use of phytochemicals is a safe, effective, alternative and practical approach to combat the toxic effect of AF in broilers. Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from red grapes, berries and peanuts, exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Our study was aimed at evaluating the possible protective effects of resveratrol against the adverse effects of AFB1 in broiler birds. A feeding trial of 42 days of duration was undertaken in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments: G1-AFB1(1.0 ppm); G2-CTR (basal diet alone); G3-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 0.5%; G4-AFB1(1.0 ppm)+Resv 1%; and G5-Resv 1%. Gain in body weight (BWG) and feed intake (FI) was observed to be highest (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 birds followed by the control group. Feed conversion ratio was lowest in G2-CTR birds and failed to record any significant variation (p > 0.05) between groups as well as within groups. Birds fed resveratrol at both 0.5% and 1.0% levels in combination with AFB1 as well as alone along with basal diet had lower BWG and FI between the fourth and fifth week and also at the fifth week (p < 0.05). No variation (p > 0.05) was obtained in the FCR of AFB1 and resveratrol group of broiler birds. AFB1 feeding significantly increased the activities of aspartate-(AST) and alanine-(ALT) amino transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.05) but lowered glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum. Supplementation of resveratrol helped in increasing the activities of the oxidative enzymes and in improving the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and total protein (TP) significantly (p < 0.05) and protein values. The livers of AFB1 group showed degeneration of hepatocytes, bile duct hyperplasia and microgranuloma formation. In resveratrol supplemented birds, the severity and degree of the

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Lipoic Acid Protection against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Responses in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qiugang; Li, Yan; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Wei, Hua; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) was evaluated in this study for its molecular mechanisms against liver oxidative damage and inflammatory responses induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Birds were randomly allocated into four groups with different diets for three weeks: a basal diet, a 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in a basal diet, a diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg α-LA supplementation in a diet containing 74 μg/kg AFB1. In the AFB1 group, the expression of GSH-PX mRNA was down-regulated (p < 0.05), and the levels of lipid peroxide and nitric oxide were increased (p < 0.05) in the chicken livers compared to those of the control group. Additionally, the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory factor interleukin-6 was up-regulated significantly (p < 0.05), the protein expressions of both the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in the AFB1 group. All of these negative effects were inhibited by α-LA. These results indicate that α-LA may be effective in preventing hepatic oxidative stress, down-regulating the expression of hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as inhibiting NF-κB expression. PMID:26694462

  6. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Exposure to radiation can lead to skin cancers. ... DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. 2002 Jun 20 ... al. eds. Cancer of the Skin. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  7. The intraoral basal cell adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pogrel, M A

    1987-12-01

    The histological and clinical behaviour of nine intraoral salivary basal cell adenomas is described. Despite problems in classification, this study confirms the impression that these are all benign salivary gland tumours which respond well to localized excision only.

  8. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  9. Effects of increasing the fibre content of a layer diet.

    PubMed

    Longe, O G

    1984-04-01

    The fibre content of a basal diet fed to laying hens was increased from 149.2 g to between 218.6 and 292.3 g/kg by the inclusion of various fibrous farm wastes and by-products at 200 g/kg diet. The fibrous ingredients lowered the metabolisable energy (ME) of the basal diet from 11.82 to between 9.31 and 11.21 MJ/kg. Utilisation (g food/kg egg) of the basal diet was not significantly different from values for diets containing maize cob, cassava or maize starch residues. The diet containing maize cob supported a performance similar to that of the basal diet, despite a lower energy content (10.08 MJ/kg). Diets containing cowpea shell, cassava peel or sawdust, with lower energy contents, and those containing maize starch residue, palm kernel meal or dried brewers grains, with higher energy contents, were not as good. The diet containing cassava starch residue supported similar egg production to the basal but egg size was less. Inclusion of some of the fibre sources caused slight decreases in yolk cholesterol, although this could not be correlated with dietary fibre content. Additional dietary fibre caused slight increases in gizzard weight but this was also not simply related to dietary fibre content. PMID:6329485

  10. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  11. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, Kannan S; Sivapatha Sundharam, B; Manikandan, R

    2006-01-01

    Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  14. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  15. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was hypothesized that basal…

  16. Apathy and the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard; Czernecki, Virginie

    2006-12-01

    We should like to emphasize the following points: 1. Apathy is defined here as a quantified and observable behavioral syndrome consisting in a quantitative reduction of voluntary (or goal-directed) behaviors; 2. Therefore, apathy occurs when the systems that generate and control voluntary actions are altered; 3. These systems are mostly represented by the different subregions embedded in the Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in the basal ganglia regions that are closely connected with the PFC; 4. In consequence, clinically, apathy is a prefrontal syndrome either due to direct lesions of the PFC or to lesions of basal ganglia areas that are closely related to the PFC; 5. Apathy is not a single entity but rather heterogeneous. Several different mechanisms may lead to apathy; Because there are several anatomical-functional prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits, the underlying mechanisms responsible for apathy may differ according to which prefrontal-basal ganglia circuit is affected; 6. In this context, apathy is the macroscopic results of the disruption of one or several elementary steps necessary for goal-directed behavior that are subserved by different prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits; 7. Intense apathy is related to caudate nucleus and GPi, disrupting associative and limbic pathways from/to the PFC; 8. in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and focal lesions (caudate nuclei, GPi), apathy may be due to a loss of PFC activation; 9. In Parkinson's disease (PD), apathy may be due to a loss of signal focalization; 10. More globally, we propose that apathy may be explained by the impact of lesions or dysfunctions of the BG, because these lesions or dysfunctions lead to a loss of amplification of the relevant signal and/or to a loss of temporal and spatial focalization, both of which result in a diminished extraction of the relevant signal within the frontal cortex, thereby inhibiting the capacity of the frontal cortex to select, initiate, maintain and shift programs of action.

  17. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( < 0.05) in the CSBM-DDGS diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( < 0.05) than those of CSBM-based diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( < 0.05) using the IM than those using the total collection approach (TC; DY and MM). In Exp. 2, interactions ( < 0.05) were observed between diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( < 0.05) using the DY than those using the MM in pigs fed the BCM. There were no interactions between basal diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( < 0.05) than those using the IM, and ATTD of N tended to be greater ( < 0.10) using the MM than that using the IM. All estimates using the DY were not

  18. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  19. A practical guide to fad diets.

    PubMed

    Porcello, L A

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  1. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  2. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  3. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  4. Effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate and internal morphology of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, K.; Hayes, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed either a low- or high-quality diet to test the effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and internal morphology. Basal metabolic rate did not differ significantly between the two dietary groups, but internal morphology differed greatly. Starlings fed the low-quality diet had heavier gastrointestinal tracts, gizzards, and livers. Starlings fed the high-quality diet had heavier breast muscles. Starlings on the low-quality diet maintained mass, while starlings on the high-quality diet gained mass. Dry matter digestibility and energy digestibility were lower for starlings fed the low-quality diet, and their food and water intake were greater than starlings on the high-quality diet. The lack of dietary effect on BMR may be the result of increased energy expenditure of digestive organs paralleling a reduction of energy expenditure of organs and tissues not related to digestion (i.e., skeletal muscle). This trade-off in energy allocation among organs suggests a mechanism by which organisms may alter BMR in response to a change in seasonal variation in food availability.

  5. Low-fiber diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; Surgery - low fiber diet ... of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease Ulcerative colitis Sometimes people are put on this diet after ...

  6. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Venura; Madan, Vishal; Lear, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC. PMID:21152128

  7. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis.

    PubMed

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction of the left ventricle. Despite all the effort placed on automatic cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, suffers from high interobserver variability. As a result, an automatic algorithm for basal slice identification is required. Guidelines published in 2013 identify the basal slice based on the percentage of myocardium surrounding the blood cavity in the short-axis view. Existing methods, however, assume that the basal slice is the first short-axis view slice below the mitral valve and are consequently at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that utilizes the two-chamber view to determine the basal slice while following the guidelines. To this end, an active shape model is trained to segment the two-chamber view and create temporal binary profiles from which the basal slice is identified. From the 51 tested cases, our method obtains 92% and 84% accurate basal slice detection for the end-systole and the end-diastole, respectively. PMID:27660805

  9. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B₁ with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus.

  10. Ice Sheet Stratigraphy Can Constrain Basal Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Creyts, T. T.; Buck, W. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Basal slip is an important component of ice sheet mass flux and dynamics. Basal slip varies over time due to variations in basal temperature, water pressure, and sediment cover. All of these factors can create coherent patterns of basal slip that migrate over time. Our knowledge of the spatial variability in basal slip comes from inversions of driving stress, ice thickness, and surface velocity, but these inversions contain no information about temporal variability. We do not know if the patterns in slip revealed by those inversions move over time. While englacial stratigraphy has classically been used to constrain surface accumulation and geothermal flux, it is also sensitive to horizontal gradients in basal slip. Here we show that englacial stratigraphy can constrain the velocity of basal slip patterns. Englacial stratigraphy responds strongly to patterns of basal slip that move downstream over time close to the ice sheet velocity. In previous work, we used a thermomechanical model to discover that thermally controlled slip patterns migrate downstream and create stratigraphic structures, but we were unable to directly control the pattern velocity, as that arose naturally out of the model physics. Here, we use a kinematic flowline model that allows us to directly control pattern velocity, and thus is applicable to a wide variety of slip mechanisms in addition to basal temperature. We find that the largest and most intricate stratigraphic structures develop when the pattern moves at the column-average ice velocity. Patterns that move slower than the column-average ice velocity produce overturned stratigraphy in the lower part of the ice sheet, while patterns moving at the column-average eventually cause the entire ice sheet to overturn if they persist long enough. Based on these forward models, we develop an interpretive guide for deducing moving patterns in basal slip from ice sheet internal layers. Ice sheet internal stratigraphy represents a potentially vast

  11. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  12. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  14. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  15. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  16. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  17. [Clinical importance of basal insulin analogues and insulin Toujeo® 300 units/ml].

    PubMed

    Adamíková, Alena

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized approach to treatment with goals tailored to capabilities and abilities of the patient, his other diseases so as to ensure good diabetes control without the risk of hypoglycemic events and the development or progression of late diabetic complications. Recommendations for treatment of diabetes is classified in second-line as a one of the possibilities of treatment of basal insulin immediately after the failure of therapy with metformin and diet. The new generation of basal insulin analogues provides its effect profile and features a completely new quality to the treatment of diabetes. Toujeo® 300 units/ml is a new long-acting basal insulin glargine concentration of 300 units/ ml with a low glycemic variability, which in studies has demonstrated consistent control of diabetes in a significant reduction in the risk of hypoglycemia especially at night compared with insulin glargin of concentration 100 units/ml. PMID:26652788

  18. Action, time and the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Henry H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506

  19. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  20. A multigrain protein enriched diet mitigates fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Rupal A; Amaravadi V R L, Narasimhacharya

    2013-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. The present work focuses on investigating the utility of nutrient and antioxidant rich grains- ragi, jowar, bajra, maize in formulation of basal, high carbohydrate low protein and low carbohydrate high protein diets in mitigating fluoride toxicity. Exposure to fluoride through drinking water not only significantly increased plasma glucose and lipid profiles, but also elevated both hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation, hepatic lipid profiles and G-6-Pase activity with a reduction in plasma HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content, hexokinase activity and antioxidant status. Even though basal and high carbohydrate diets did not significantly alter plasma glucose, lipid profiles in fluoride administered animals, protein enriched multigrain diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and lipid levels. However, the multigrain basal and high carbohydrate diets influenced the hepatic glycogen, lipid profiles, hexokinase and G-6-Pase activities, hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status though not as significantly as that of multigrain diet enriched with protein. Thus the results of the present study indicate that both a multigrain diet rich in nutrients and antioxidants, and fortified with protein is useful in mitigating the fluoride toxicity. PMID:24425948

  1. Effects of Rumen-Mate on lactational performance of Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Emery, R S; Schricker, B R

    1989-07-01

    Three Latin-square trials were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing Rumen-Mate, a commercial buffer containing KCl, NaCl, and Mg and Na carbonates, on lactation performance of Holsteins. Cows were fed a basal ration of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate in Trials 1 and 2, and 40% corn silage, 55% concentrate, and 5% alfalfa hay in Trial 3 (DM basis). In Trial 1, treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either 1% NaHCO3, or 1, 3, or 4.4% Rumen-Mate. Increasing dietary Rumen-Mate resulted in a linear increase in milk fat production and concentration with no difference between 1% Rumen-Mate and 1% bicarbonate. There was a significant linear decrease in milk protein concentration, but not production, with increasing concentrations of Rumen-Mate. In Trial 2 treatments were: basal diet, or basal diet supplemented with either .8% NaHCO3, 2.6% Rumen-Mate, .5% MgO, .8% NaHCO3 plus .5% MgO, or 1.8% Rumen-Mate plus .8% NaHCO3. Organic matter and CP intakes and milk protein yield and concentration were decreased by Rumen-Mate with a nonsignificant increase in milk fat concentration. Data from Trials 1 and 2 were combined with data from Trial 3, which compared basal diet, 1% bicarbonate, and 3% Rumen-Mate. The combined data showed a larger increase over basal diet in milk fat yield and concentration for 2.6 to 3% Rumen-Mate vs. .8 to 1% bicarbonate. Rumen-Mate did not decrease DM intake or protein yield relative to basal diet but did decrease protein yield 34 g/d compared with that of bicarbonate.

  2. [Space diet].

    PubMed

    Luigi, R

    1989-06-01

    Food prepared for astronauts meets various physical and biological requirements determined by living conditions in a space environment. Onboard systems, work programs, launch costs impose weight and volume limitations. For all investigated food items, the manufacturing technique must take into account all flight specific mechanical parameters. From a nutrition and sanitation standpoint, food packs must be designed to comply with certain specific effects of long term flights ans selected food items must be thoroughly safe, which requires very strict laboratory testing. The diet must also be varied, if possible it should match astronauts' personal preferences. Food preparations must be easy to use. Space food items are original applications of existing technologies: they are of very high quality.

  3. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Diets that Work Fact Sheet Diets that Work February 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Susan ... there? It can be hard to know what works and what’s healthy. Everyone wants a diet that ...

  4. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity - diet myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and fact; Weight-loss diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  5. The basal ganglia: anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Stephen; Silberstein, Paul; Limousin-Dowsey, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2004-12-01

    The basal ganglia are perceived as important nodes in cortico-subcortical networks involved in the transfer, convergence, and processing of information in motor, cognitive, and limbic domains. How this integration might occur remains a matter of some debate, particularly given the consistent finding in anatomic and physiologic studies of functional segregation in cortico-subcortical loops. More recent theories, however, have raised the notion that modality-specific information might be integrated not spatially, but rather temporally, by coincident processing in discrete neuronal populations. Basal ganglia neurotransmitters, given their diverse roles in motor performance, learning, working memory, and reward-related activity are also likely to play an important role in the integration of cerebral activity. Further work will elucidate this to a greater extent, but for now, it is clear that the basal ganglia form an important nexus in the binding of cognitive, limbic, and motor information into thought and action. PMID:15550292

  6. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  7. [Basal cell adenomas of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, O M

    1975-01-01

    The author presents data on morphology and clinical features of basal-cell adenomas of the salivary gland (10 cases). Singling out this neoplasm into independent onconosological group seems reasonable since basal-cell adenoma not infrequently is erroneously diagnosed as cylindroma or mixed tumour of the salivary gland, which may lead to a wrong clinical prognosis and inadequate therapeutic measures. The clinical course of this tumour is benign. The main morphological feature of the tumour is a monomorphic character of cell elements, their palisade-like distribution over the periphery of individual tumour structures and a clear-cut delimination of the parenchyma from the stroma.

  8. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  9. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish. PMID:27097088

  10. Sodium butyrate inhibits the enhancing effect of high fat diet on mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, S; Yamashita, M; Imai, S

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effect of butyrate on mammary tumorigenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. As reported previously, a high incidence of mammary tumors was observed in rats fed a basal diet containing 20% margarine. However, the enhancing effect of margarine was inhibited when sodium butyrate was supplemented in the high margarine diet. Sodium butyrate did not cause any effect when it was supplemented in the basal diet. The result suggests a possibility that a part of the inhibitory effect of butter on mammary tumorigenesis, which we had previously reported, was caused by butyrate milk lipids.

  11. Basal plasma immunoreactive calcitonin in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Chesnut, C H; Baylink, D J; Sisom, K; Nelp, W B; Roos, B A

    1980-06-01

    Calcitonin (CT) deficiency has been suggested as an etiologic factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PM-OP). Basal immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) was measured with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 62 PM-OP women with compression fractures (CF) and in 28 normal age-matched women. Mean iCT values in the two groups were not significantly different (43.5 and 45.1 pg/ml, p greater than 0.10). In the 62 PM-OP females, no significant correlation was noted between basal plasma iCT levels and (1) age; (2) severity of disease as assessed by number of CF; (3) serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone; and (4) total bone mass as assessed by neutron activation analysis determinations of total body calcium (TBC). In 20 PM-OP patients treated for 24 mo with 100 Medical Research Council (MRC) units daily of synthetic salmon CT, no correlation was observed between basal plasma iCT and response of bone mass (TBC) to therapy. These data suggest that basal CT is not decreased in women with PM-OP, and that the level of circulating CT does not influence therapeutic changes in bone mass during CT therapy. CT is probably not a major etiologic or pathogenetic factor in PM-OP.

  12. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master social…

  13. Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Nakamura, Kae; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward. Through their abundant outputs to the brain stem motor areas and the thalamocortical circuits, the basal ganglia appear capable of producing body movements based on expected reward. A good behavioral measure to test this hypothesis is saccadic eye movement because its brain stem mechanism has been extensively studied. Studies from our laboratory suggest that the basal ganglia play a key role in guiding the gaze to the location where reward is available. Neurons in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata are extremely sensitive to the positional difference in expected reward, which leads to a bias in excitability between the superior colliculi such that the saccade to the to-be-rewarded position occurs more quickly. It is suggested that the reward modulation occurs in the caudate where cortical inputs carrying spatial signals and dopaminergic inputs carrying reward-related signals are integrated. These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory.

  14. Treatment of Gender in Basal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Maxwell W.; Chick, Kay A.

    2005-01-01

    Nominal level gender and gender-related information in four, well-known basal reading series was gathered and analyzed. For each of 746 stories, the number of male and female main characters in text and illustrations was determined. Employment status, job title and estimated yearly salary were obtained for employed adult, human, main characters.…

  15. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  16. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  17. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  18. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diet was first created to help lower high blood pressure . It is also a healthy way to lose weight. ... traditional low-salt diet. The DASH diet emphasizes foods high in ... lower blood pressure. To follow the DASH diet for weight loss, ...

  19. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies. PMID:25195415

  20. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies.

  1. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, John G; Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-09-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  2. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  3. Basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chien, Chih-Yen; Huang, Shun-Chen; Su, Chih-Ying

    2003-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute about 3% to 4% of all head and neck neoplasms. Approximately 80% originate in the parotid gland, and they rarely present in the sublingual gland; however, a disproportionately large majority of sublingual gland tumors are malignant. Basal cell adenoma is a benign epithelial salivary gland tumor that appears to have unique histologic characteristics, different from those of mixed tumors, and has a predilection for development in the parotid and minor salivary glands. No case has ever been reported as arising from the sublingual gland in the otolaryngology literature. We report here a case of a middle-aged woman with basal cell adenoma of the sublingual gland. The clinical presentation, pathological features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for this relatively rare tumor are discussed.

  4. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution.

  5. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  6. Basal cell nevus syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ocholla, T J; Guthua, S W; Kimaro, S S

    1994-11-01

    A case is reported of a 13 year old Kenyan girl who presented at the Kenyatta National Hospital Dental Clinic with multiple mandibular and maxillary cysts, cutaneous lesions and mandibular prognathism. This combination of clinical and radiographic features led to a diagnosis of basal cell nevus syndrome. This paper is the first reported case of the syndrome in Kenya. The significance of thorough clinical inspection and radiographic screening of suspected cases is discussed. PMID:7859664

  7. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-05-01

    The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

  8. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. PMID:25166890

  9. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  10. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  11. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  12. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    PubMed Central

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  13. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  14. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  15. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  16. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  17. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V

  18. Basal cell carcinomas: attack of the hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ervin H

    2008-10-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were essentially a molecular 'black box' until some 12 years ago, when identification of a genetic flaw in a rare subset of patients who have a great propensity to develop BCCs pointed to aberrant Hedgehog signalling as the pivotal defect leading to formation of these tumours. This discovery has facilitated a remarkable increase in our understanding of BCC carcinogenesis and has highlighted the carcinogenic role of this developmental pathway when aberrantly activated in adulthood. Importantly, a phase 1 first-in-human trial of a Hedgehog inhibitor has shown real progress in halting and even reversing the growth of these tumours.

  19. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  20. Metabolic effects of very low calorie weight reduction diets.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, L J; Bistrian, B R; Young, V R; Blackburn, G L; Matthews, D E

    1984-01-01

    A randomized comparison trial of two very low calorie weight reduction diets was carried out for 5 or 8 wk in 17 healthy obese women. One diet provided 1.5 g protein/kg ideal body weight; the other provided 0.8 g protein/kg ideal body weight plus 0.7 g carbohydrate/kg ideal body weight. The diets were isocaloric (500 kcal). Amino acid metabolism was studied by means of tracer infusions of L-[1-13C]leucine and L-[15N]alanine. After 3 wk of adaptation to the diets, nitrogen balance was zero for the 1.5 g protein diet but -2 g N/d for the 0.8 g protein diet. Postabsorptive plasma leucine and alanine flux decreased from base line by an equal extent with both diets by approximately 20 and 40%, respectively. It was concluded that protein intakes at the level of the recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g/kg) are not compatible with nitrogen equilibrium when the energy intake is severely restricted, and that nitrogen balance is improved by increasing the protein intake above that level. Basal rates of whole body nitrogen turnover are relatively well maintained, compared with total fasting, at both protein intakes. However, turnover in the peripheral compartment, as evidenced by alanine flux, may be markedly diminished with either diet. PMID:6707202

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Part 1: Basal Cell Carcinoma Has Come of Age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Min; Marsch, Amanda F; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Almost 2 centuries after its recognition, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common cancer worldwide, with a 30% overall lifetime risk in the United States and an incidence that continues to increase annually. The increasing incidence of BCC is multifactorial and likely correlates to multiple risk factors, including exposure to both ionizing and UV radiation. Despite its relatively indolent growth, what was once referred to as a rodent ulcer or basal cell epithelioma is now identified as a full-fledged malignancy. The authors describe the societal burden of this disease and characterize its malignant potential, emphasizing associated clinical and histopathologic prognostic features. PMID:26380507

  2. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-02-15

    Understanding the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems has been complicated by the by the ambiguous phylogenetic position of the Xenocoelomorpha (Xenoturbellids, acoel flat worms, nemertodermatids), which has been placed either as basal bilaterians, basal deuterostomes or as a sister group to the hemichordate/echinoderm clade (Ambulacraria), which is a sister group of the Chordata. None of these groups has a single longitudinal nerve cord and a brain. A further complication is that echinoderm nerve cords are not likely to be evolutionarily related to the chordate central nervous system. For hemichordates, opinion is divided as to whether either one or none of the two nerve cords is homologous to the chordate nerve cord. In chordates, opposition by two secreted signaling proteins, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, regulates partitioning of the ectoderm into central and peripheral nervous systems. Similarly, in echinoderm larvae, opposition between BMP and Nodal positions the ciliary band and regulates its extent. The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates.

  3. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial. PMID:26564075

  4. Basal body replication and cilogenesis in a suctorian, Tokophrya infusionum.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, L L; Rudzinska, M A

    1970-09-01

    Basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya infusionum were studied in synchronized cultures. Basal body replication occurs during the 1st hr of reproduction, which in Tokophrya is by internal budding. The number of basal bodies increases from about 20 to over 300 within this period. New basal bodies develop in association with mature basal bodies; they are formed at right angles to the mature basal body as short "probasal" bodies, which elongate, slant upward, become parallel to the mature basal body, and elongate to the mature size. Ciliogenesis occurs only during reproduction; the nonreproducing adult is not ciliated, and has only 18-25 barren basal bodies. Cilia first appear as short bulges above the basal body. The axonemal structure is incomplete at first, with one or both central microtubules absent, and occasionally the B fibers of the outer doublets are missing. Several accessory fibers are associated with the basal bodies, both in the adult and during reproduction. One of the fibers appears only after the cilia have sprouted. The scheme of basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya is compared to that reported in other organisms, and the role of the accessory fibers is discussed. PMID:4349131

  5. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  6. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  7. Versazyme supplementation of broiler diets improves market growth performance.

    PubMed

    Odetallah, N H; Wang, J J; Garlich, J D; Shih, J C H

    2005-06-01

    Day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 32 floor pens in a completely randomized block design and grown to 6 wk of age. Birds in experiment 1 were fed 1 of 2 basal diets supplemented with or without a protease containing feed additive, Versazyme (VZ). The 4 treatments were 1) control (C), a corn-soybean meal diet that contained 95% of amino acids recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; 2) C + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (C+) in the starter diet only; 3) high (HP) amino acid diet, a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 to 105% of amino acid recommended by NRC except for threonine and isoleucine; and 4) HP + 0.1% VZ (wt/wt) (HP+) in starter diet only. Supplementing both diets with VZ improved BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 21 d of age and BW at 42 d of age. Cumulative 42-d FCR was only improved in birds fed the HP+ diet. Birds in experiment 2 received the following treatments: 1) HP, 2) HP + 0.1% VZ batch A (wt/wt) (A) in starter diet only, and 3) HP + 0.1% VZ batch B (wt/wt) (B) in starter diet only. Enzyme supplementation improved 22-d BW and FCR. There was no significant difference in BW at 43 d of age. Both A and B improved overall FCR (1.758 and 1.751 vs. 1.79 for A and B vs. HP, respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of starter broiler diets with VZ resulted in improved market growth performance.

  8. Effects of astaxanthin and esterified glucomannan on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed aflatoxin-B1-contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jigang; Wang, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    The effects of astaxanthin (ASTA) and esterified glucomannan (EMG) on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed on aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) contaminated diet were investigated. Two hundred and forty 10-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments including: (i) control diet; (ii) AFB1-contaminated diet; (iii) AFB1 + EGM diet; (iv) AFB1 + ASTA diet; and (v) AFB1 + EGM + ASTA diet. At 35 days old, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results indicated that total white blood cell (WBC) number, hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) level, serum alanine amino transferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, red blood cell (RBC) number, serum globulin (GLB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (P < 0.05) were increased by feeding AFB1-contaminated diet. EMG and ASTA alleviated the alteration of RBC, WBC, Hgb and AST caused by AFB1-contaminated diet. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced, while myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by AFB1-contaminated diet (P < 0.05). Both EGM and ASTA restrained the increase of MPO activity (P < 0.05). Degeneration of the liver tissues was found in broilers fed AFB1-contaminated diet. It suggested that feeding 0.4 mg/kg AFB1-contaminated diet resulted in adverse effects on blood parameters and liver morphology. Dietary addition of EGM addition at 5 g/kg diet, ASTA at 10 mg/kg diet and especially their combination showed positive protection effects on alleviating the alteration of feeding AFB1. The results indicated that supplementation of 5 g EGM/kg diet, 10 mg ASTA/kg diet and their combination could partially or greatly alleviate the adverse effects caused by AFB1, with the EGM+ASTA group receiving the most effective treatment.

  9. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    PubMed Central

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G.; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; Klingenspor, M.; White, C. R.; Jastroch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence. PMID:21632624

  10. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  11. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  12. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  13. [Spontaneous oscillations in basal blood insulin].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    1987-02-01

    Many studies show that basal insulinemia is not stable over time, but oscillates significantly. The period and amplitude of oscillations appear species-specific. Studies on living animals have established that neither central autonomic command nor liver-pancreas feedback play a determining role on these cycles. Work on the isolated, perfused, canine pancreas has demonstrated the existence of an intrinsic pancreatic oscillator. Studies on human subjects confirm and complete animal data. The amplitude of insulinemia cycles is less in humans than in animals. In obese humans, insulin cycles are normal. In non-insulin-dependent diabetics, insulin oscillations are very irregular; after partial pancreatectomy (removal of the head of the pancreas), the normal insulin cycles disappear. The insulinemia cycles thus seem to reflect the behavior of an intrinsic pancreatic oscillator which synchronizes the activity of beta cells. Spontaneous oscillations in plasma insulin could play a role in the regulation of receptor affinity in target-tissues.

  14. Punishment shock intensity and basal skin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A

    1965-11-01

    The relationship between punishment shock intensity and basal skin resistance (BSR) was investigated in two sessions with human females selected for their ability to maintain a fairly substantial operant rate under a wide range of shock intensities. In both sessions each button-pressing response was reinforced with a counter tally. Subjects were paid one cent for each 20 counts. In session 1, punishment followed each response during alternate 4-min periods; in session 2 punishment was programmed in all 4-min periods. Shock intensities were presented randomly among the 4-min shock periods, with the restriction that the first three presentations occurred in ascending order. Operant responding showed some suppression at higher shock intensities in session 1, with substantial recovery in most subjects during session 2. Respondent behavior was characterized by greater activity at successively higher intensities, with recovery at all shock levels, especially the lowest levels, apparent during the second session.

  15. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Elizabeth M; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration. PMID:27022271

  16. Decreased basal insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of pups in a rat model of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin; Calzada, Lizbeth; Ibáñez, Carlos A; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Carmen A; Morales, Angélica; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-10-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) is a deleterious condition that enhances susceptibility of adult offspring to metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The objective is to study the effect of MO on in vitro insulin secretion and pancreatic cellular population in offspring. We hypothesize that a harmful antenatal metabolic environment due to MO diminishes the basal glucose-responsive secretory function of pancreatic beta cells in offspring. Mothers were fed a control (C) or high-fat diet from weaning through pregnancy (120 days) and lactation. At postnatal days (PNDs) 36 and 110, pups were killed, peripheral blood was collected and pancreatic islets were isolated. Basal insulin secretion was measured in vitro in islets for 60 min. It was found that blood insulin, glucose and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index were unaffected by maternal diet and age in females. However, male MO offspring at PND 110 showed hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance compared with C. Body weight was not modified by MO, but fat content was higher in MO pups compared with C pups. Triglycerides and leptin concentrations were higher in MO than in C offspring in all groups except in females at PND 36. Pancreatic islet cytoarchitecture was unaffected by MO. At PND 36, islets of male and female C and MO offspring responded similarly to glucose, but at PND 110, male and female MO offspring islets showed a 50% decrease in insulin secretion. It was concluded that MO impairs basal insulin secretion of offspring with a greater impact on males than females, and this effect mainly manifests in adulthood. PMID:27496224

  17. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets. PMID:26891816

  18. The toxic effects of combined aflatoxins and zearalenone in naturally contaminated diets on laying performance, egg quality and mycotoxins residues in eggs of layers and the protective effect of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Ma, Qiugang; Fan, Yu; Ji, Cheng; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-04-01

    The toxic effect of aflatoxins (AF) and zearalenone (ZEA) and their combination on laying performance, egg quality and toxins residues in eggs, as well as the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis biodegradation product (BDP) for ameliorating these effects in layers were evaluated. Layers were submitted to a two phase experiment. The first phase was an intoxication period (18-23 wk) with birds fed 7 (3 × 2 + 1) diets (3 treatments with mycotoxins: AF (123.0 μg/kg), ZEA (260.2 μg/kg), or AF + ZEA (123.0 + 260.2 μg/kg); 2 treatments with or without BDP (1000 g/t); and a control group contained no toxins nor BDP). The next phase was a recovery period (24-29 wk) in which birds were fed a toxin-free diet. In the intoxication period, AF and AF + ZEA groups exhibited lower egg production, feed intake and shell thickness, and higher AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 residues as compared with the control group. In addition, AF and ZEA exerted synergistic effects on egg production and feed intake. Moreover, AF alone or combined with ZEA had a continuous toxic effect on laying performance in the recovery phase. Addition of BDP offset these negative effects, showing that BDP has a protective effect on layers fed contaminated diets.

  19. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. PMID:25155667

  20. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research.

    PubMed

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Megraw, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various types of basal bodies and cilia, which are needed for sensory neuron and sperm function. Genetics, cell biology and behaviour studies in the fruit fly have unveiled new basal body components and revealed different modes of assembly and functions of basal bodies that are conserved in many other organisms, including human, green algae and plasmodium. Here we describe the various basal bodies of Drosophila, what is known about their composition, structure and function. PMID:27382461

  1. Effects of Dietary Cellulose on the Basal Endogenous Loss of Phosphorus in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Son, A. R.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose concentration in diets containing no phosphorus (P) on the basal endogenous loss (BEL) of P in growing pigs. Twelve barrows (an initial mean body weight = 49.6±3.2 kg) were individually housed in metabolism crates. Pigs were allotted to 4 experimental diets according to a cross-over design with 12 animals and 2 periods. Four P-free diets were mainly based on corn starch, sucrose, and gelatin, and were formulated to contain 0%, 4%, 8%, or 12% cellulose. Each period consisted of a 5-d adaptation and a 5-d collection period. The marker-to-marker method was used for fecal collection. The feed intake (p<0.05, linear and quadratic) and dry feces output (p<0.01, linear and quadratic) were increased with increasing dietary cellulose concentration. However, P concentration in the feces was decreased (p<0.01, linear and quadratic) with increasing dietary cellulose concentration. There was no significant difference in total P output and the BEL of P as mg per kg DMI (ranging from 157 to 214 mg/kg of dry matter intake) among experimental diets. However, values for the apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and calcium were linearly decreased (p<0.01) with increasing cellulose concentration in the diet. In conclusion, dietary cellulose affected the amount of feces and digestibility of energy and nutrients, but did not affect the endogenous loss of P. PMID:25656212

  2. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation.

  3. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  4. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  5. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    PubMed

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  6. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    PubMed Central

    Nasrallah, Sami N.; Reynolds, L. Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5 PMID:22879797

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    PubMed

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  9. Heterogeneity of basal keratinocytes: nonrandom distribution of thymidine-labeled basal cells in confluent cultures is not a technical artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Milstone, L.M.; LaVigne, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Basal surface autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)dThd-labeled, confluent, keratinocyte cultures reveals that proliferating cells have a nonrandom, patterned distribution. Unlabeled cells, likewise, appear nonrandomly in clusters. The authors show here that failure to detect DNA synthesis in some basal cells in culture is not an artifact caused either by physical separation of the labeled nuclei from the radiographic emulsion or by a diffusion barrier that would prevent (/sup 3/H)dThd from reaching basal cells.

  10. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role.

  11. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  12. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  13. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.

  14. Novel investigational drugs for basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y; Epstein, Ervin H

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field In the United States, the annual incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is close to 1 million. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the main risk factor; however, the availability of ever more potent sunscreens and education have not prevented the rise in BCC incidence. Therefore, concerted effects to identify novel preventive and therapeutic strategies are necessary. Areas covered in this review This article summarizes our current understanding of the etiology and molecular mechanisms of BCC tumorigenesis and discusses the preclinical and clinical studies to identify agents with anti-BCC efficacy. What the reader will gain The discovery that hyperactive Hh pathway signaling causes several cancers, including BCC, has spawned the development of many pharmacologic inhibitors of Hh signaling. Early clinical testing of the most advanced, GDC-0449, demonstrated impressive efficacy in patients with advanced BCC. Other promising anti-BCC chemopreventive strategies include drugs that are already FDA-approved for treating other diseases. Take home message Preclinical and clinical trials with pre-existing FDA-approved drugs suggest novel uses for BCC chemoprevention and treatment. Also, new chemical entities that inhibit the Hh pathway show promise, and in combination with other drugs may provide a nonsurgical cure for this most common cancer. PMID:20662553

  15. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  16. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  17. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged < or = 5 y and can lead to imparied growth. Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  18. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  19. Evolution of basal metabolic rate in bank voles from a multidirectional selection experiment

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Edyta T.; Stawski, Clare; Rudolf, Agata; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Chrząścik, Katarzyna M.; Baliga-Klimczyk, Katarzyna; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    A major theme in evolutionary and ecological physiology of terrestrial vertebrates encompasses the factors underlying the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals and interspecific variation of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Here, we applied the experimental evolution approach and compared BMR in lines of a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), selected for 11 generations for: high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), ability to maintain body mass on a low-quality herbivorous diet (H) and intensity of predatory behaviour towards crickets (P). Four replicate lines were maintained for each of the selection directions and an unselected control (C). In comparison to C lines, A lines achieved a 49% higher maximum rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, H lines lost 1.3 g less mass in the test with low-quality diet and P lines attacked crickets five times more frequently. BMR was significantly higher in A lines than in C or H lines (60.8, 56.6 and 54.4 ml O2 h−1, respectively), and the values were intermediate in P lines (59.0 ml O2 h−1). Results of the selection experiment provide support for the hypothesis of a positive association between BMR and aerobic exercise performance, but not for the association of adaptation to herbivorous diet with either a high or low BMR. PMID:25876844

  20. Evolution of basal metabolic rate in bank voles from a multidirectional selection experiment.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Edyta T; Stawski, Clare; Rudolf, Agata; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Chrząścik, Katarzyna M; Baliga-Klimczyk, Katarzyna; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    A major theme in evolutionary and ecological physiology of terrestrial vertebrates encompasses the factors underlying the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals and interspecific variation of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Here, we applied the experimental evolution approach and compared BMR in lines of a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), selected for 11 generations for: high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), ability to maintain body mass on a low-quality herbivorous diet (H) and intensity of predatory behaviour towards crickets (P). Four replicate lines were maintained for each of the selection directions and an unselected control (C). In comparison to C lines, A lines achieved a 49% higher maximum rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, H lines lost 1.3 g less mass in the test with low-quality diet and P lines attacked crickets five times more frequently. BMR was significantly higher in A lines than in C or H lines (60.8, 56.6 and 54.4 ml O2 h(-1), respectively), and the values were intermediate in P lines (59.0 ml O2 h(-1)). Results of the selection experiment provide support for the hypothesis of a positive association between BMR and aerobic exercise performance, but not for the association of adaptation to herbivorous diet with either a high or low BMR.

  1. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (<0.7% of total fatty acid methyl esters) although HOSFO and RSFO diets increased it. The variations in the fatty acid profiles observed with the 4 diets, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid isomer contents, are extensively discussed. Compared with that in the control diet, the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance.

  2. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (<0.7% of total fatty acid methyl esters) although HOSFO and RSFO diets increased it. The variations in the fatty acid profiles observed with the 4 diets, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid isomer contents, are extensively discussed. Compared with that in the control diet, the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance. PMID:22032358

  3. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - traveler's diarrhea; Diarrhea - traveler's - diet; Gastroenteritis - traveler's ... sick because their bodies are used to the bacteria. You can lower your ... diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent ...

  4. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  5. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often enough to cure basal and squamous cell skin cancers without further treatment. There are different types of skin biopsies. The ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Skin Cancer - ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Basal and Squamous ...

  6. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  7. Do Basal Readers Deskill Teachers? Reading Research Report No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.; Heubach, Kathleen M.

    A study evaluated the assertion that basal reading programs limit or control teachers' instructional decision making through a process referred to as "deskilling" by surveying elementary educators regarding their use of and opinions about basal reading programs. Responses from 553 of 1,000 randomly sampled International Reading Association members…

  8. Multiple basal cell carcinomas arising in port-wine haemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Magaña-García, M; Magaña-Lozano, M

    1988-09-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man, who had had two port-wine stains from birth, in which many basal cell carcinomas developed during his forties. The appearance of multiple basal cell carcinomas in port-wine stains has not been reported previously to our knowledge and may represent a new syndrome.

  9. Preservation of basal inner ear structures in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Adunka, Oliver; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Hambek, Markus; Unkelbach, Marc H; Radeloff, Andreas; Kiefer, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this report was to examine basal trauma in implanted human temporal bones and discuss modified approaches to the basal cochlear turn to avoid destruction of basal cochlear structures. Thirty-three human temporal bones were implanted with four different cochlear implant electrode arrays manufactured by MED-EL using either a caudal approach cochleostomy or round window membrane insertions. All specimens were processed with a special histological technique that allows sectioning of undecalcified bone with the electrode in situ. All bones were evaluated histologically in terms of basal cochlear trauma. Two pathomechanisms of basal trauma could be distinguished and were evaluated separately, buckling of the basal end of the array and trauma by drilling. Using the caudal approach cochleostomy, the total percentage of destructive basal trauma was 48% compared to less than 15% when performing round window membrane insertions. Although it is still unclear whether basal cochlear trauma influences apical cochlear function or not, adapted surgical procedures and no forceful insertion maneuvers should be used when performing cochlear implantations with hearing preservation.

  10. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  11. Ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition for thumb basal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Elfar, John C; Burton, Richard I

    2013-02-01

    Arthritis at the base of the thumb is common and debilitating. Arthroplasty has evolved over 3 decades to become a highly refined surgical procedure, with excellent results. This article summarizes the history, method, and expected results of basal joint arthroplasty, and the authors describe their method of ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition for thumb basal arthritis.

  12. Effect of high-fiber and high-oil diets on the fecal flora of swine.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Moore, L V; Cato, E P; Wilkins, T D; Kornegay, E T

    1987-01-01

    Six pairs of pigs were fed a basal diet, a high-fiber diet, and a diet high in corn oil in different sequences to minimize the carry-over effect of diet. After 2 months on each diet, a fecal specimen from each pig was cultured on nonselective medium in roll tubes. Fifty colonies were randomly selected from each fecal sample, and isolates were characterized to identify a representative cross section of the fecal flora. The bacterial composition of the fecal flora differed between basal and high-fiber diets (P = 0.002) and between high-fiber and high-oil diets (P = 0.015). However, the floras were not significantly different between the basal and the high-oil diets (P = 0.135), nor were the floras of the 12 individual pigs (each on all three diets) statistically different (P = 0.103). Only 14 of the 160 observed taxa have been detected in the human fecal flora, and only 159 of 1,871 total isolates (8.5%) were members of described species. The most common isolate was a Streptococcus species similar to that reported by Robinson et al. (I. M. Robinson, S. C. Whipp, J. A. Bucklin, and M. J. Allison, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:964-969, 1984), which was found in 34 of 36 samples and which represented 27.5% of all isolates. Lactobacillus, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, and Peptostreptococcus species were the next most common bacteria. Escherichia coli represented 1.7% of all fecal isolates, which is somewhat higher than the 0.1 to 0.6% observed in human feces cultured similarly with prereduced anaerobically sterilized media.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2821900

  13. Basal cell adenocarcinoma and Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathological review of seventy tumors with comparison of morphologic features and growth control indices.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas C; Robinson, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    Basal cell adenoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma represent uncommon basaloid salivary gland neoplasms that show marked morphologic similarity. We wished to compare clinical outcome and morphologic features as well as growth and proliferation associated markers for both neoplasms. We reviewed the pathologic features of 70 neoplasms diagnosed as basal cell adenoma or basal cell adenocarcinoma. Observations included maximum mitotic activity and presence or absence of invasion into surrounding normal tissues as well as immunohistochemical studies for Ki-67, caspase 3, p53, and bcl-2. Establishing malignancy on the basis of invasion into surrounding benign tissues, 41 basal cell adenomas and 29 basal cell adenocarcinomas were identified. For tumors with follow-up, recurrence rates were 6.7 % for basal cell adenoma and 16.7 % for basal cell adenocarcinoma. One patient with basal cell adenocarcinoma had distant metastases and died of disease. Overall basal cell adenocarcinomas showed significantly higher values for growth and proliferation markers compared to basal cell adenomas. Salivary gland basal cell adenoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma show morphologic similarity. Basal cell adenocarcinoma can exhibit a locally aggressive behavior and has potential metastatic behavior. The overall mitotic rate and Ki-67 expression were higher in basal cell adenocarcinoma compared to basal cell adenoma, but overlap between the results of these observations in each tumor did not allow for accurate diagnosis or prediction of outcome in individual cases. We conclude that morphologic observation of local tissue invasion is the best marker for separating basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma.

  14. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  15. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  16. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  17. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected. PMID:26409038

  18. Basal/HER2 breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufí, Silvia; Moreno, José Manuel; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Urruticoechea, Ander; Martín, Ángel G.; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    forecasting early tumor responses to trastuzumab should identify biological determinants that causally underlie the intrinsic flexibility of HER2-positive CSCs to “enter” into or “exit” from trastuzumab-sensitive states. An accurate integration of CSC cellular states and EMT-related biomarkers with the currently available breast cancer molecular taxonomy may significantly improve our ability to make a priori decisions about whether patients belonging to HER2 subtypes differentially enriched with a “mesenchymal transition signature” (e.g., luminal/HER2 vs. basal/HER2) would distinctly benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy ab initio. PMID:23255137

  19. Diet for Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  20. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation ... Dr. Shorter completed the first validated, systematic food sensitivity questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April ...

  1. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "bad" stuff. But the truth is, the human body is designed to purify itself. Detox diets vary. ... fat or fat-free milk or yogurt). The human body is designed to purify itself. You can help ...

  2. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... It includes things such as: Clear broth Tea Cranberry juice Jell-O Popsicles This diet is easier ... such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or consommé) Clear sodas, ...

  3. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  4. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  5. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  6. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  7. Choline Essentiality and Its Requirement in Diets for Juvenile Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Jang, Ji-Woong; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con+, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed Con+ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the Con+ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the Con+ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately 230 mg kg−1 diet meets the requirement of parrot fish. PMID:25924958

  8. Diet and Health

    PubMed Central

    Gotto, Antonio M.; Scott, Lynne W.; Foreyt, John P.

    1984-01-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ease the task. PMID:6523862

  9. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology. PMID:26400429

  10. Appetoff: another diet fad.

    PubMed

    Beckerich, M J

    1989-12-01

    Appetoff diet patches were diet aids introduced to the public in 1987 and removed from the market in 1988 by the FDA for reasons of fraud. The ingredients were supposedly homeopathic concentrations of plant and mineral products. Although 91.6% of persons in this study who used the product for at least 1 week reported weight loss and mild side effects, no active ingredients could be detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  11. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  12. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease. PMID:24264226

  13. The Effect of Aflatoxin-B1 on Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and Assessment of Dietary Supplementation of NovaSil for the Prevention of Aflatoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J.; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  14. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  15. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  16. Circadian variation of diet-induced thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romon, M; Edme, J L; Boulenguez, C; Lescroart, J L; Frimat, P

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess a circadian variation of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) that could favor weight gain among night workers used to eating a night time snack. Nine young men were given the same mean at 0900, 1700, or 0100. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry 1 h before and during the 6 h after the snack. DIT was calculated as the 3 h of energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Morning DIT was significantly higher than afternoon DIT (P = 0.04) and night DIT (P = 0.002). Afternoon DIT was higher than night DIT (P = 0.06). We conclude that the time when a meal is consumed affects the thermogenic response and must be considered in the energy balance.

  17. [From gene to disease: basal cell naevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Meij, T G J; Baars, M J H; Gille, J J P; Hack, W W M; Haasnoot, K; van Hagen, J M

    2005-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, basal cell naevus syndrome, Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by mutations in the PTCH gene mapped to chromosome 9q22.3. It is characterised by multiple basal cell carcinomas, keratocysts of the jaws, palmar and plantar pits, cerebral ectopic calcification and several skeletal anomalies. Occasionally, patients with NBCCS develop other neoplasms, particularly medulloblastomas and ovarian fibromas, indicating that the PTCH gene is a tumor-suppressor gene. Early recognition and careful follow-up are needed. Guidelines for managing these patients are presented.

  18. The basal ganglia-circa 1982 - A review and commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent studies which utilize new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods in order to improve knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and to clarify their sites of origin. These studies have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and have revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Also examined are the many new histochemical techniques that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in or interconnecting with the basal ganglia.

  19. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made.

  20. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  1. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  2. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  3. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  5. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    PubMed

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27590651

  6. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    PubMed

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27591446

  7. Effects of aproteic diet on hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal regulation in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Ponzo, Osvaldo J.; Rondina, Dora; Szwarcfarb, Berta; Carbone, Silvia; Moguilevsky, Jaime; Scacchi, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    The effect of an aproteic diet (Ap) on the reproductive axis in young male rats was studied. Also the refeeding effect at different times after the aproteic diet was studied. The Ap diet was given during 21 days. In refeeding groups, the control diet was given during 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the aproteic diet. We studied the plasmatic testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Also the hypothalamic GnRH concentration and in vitro hypothalamic GnRH secretion in basal and induced condition was studied. The total protein deficit produced significant reduction in body, testis, seminal vesicles and prostate weights. This was accompanied with decreased levels of plasmatic testosterone (P<0.02). In this aproteic group there was a significant reduction in LH (P<0.05) and FSH (P<0.05) plasmatic levels. Refeeding with control diet reversed this situation, producing significant increment in LH (P<0.05) and FSH levels (P<0.01) at the fourth and second weeks, respectively. The basal hypothalamic GnRH secretion did not differ from the control; nevertheless the induced secretion was significantly (P<0.05) greater in the aproteic group. Also the hypothalamic GnRH concentration was increased (P<0.05) in animals fed with the aproteic diet. The minor testis, prostate, and seminal vesicles" weight, and a decreased plasmatic testosterone in rats fed with an aproteic diet, are produced by a decrease in gonadotrophin secretion. This decrease in turn is caused by a reduction in GnRH secretion, since hypothalamic GnRH concentration is increased in rats fed with the aproteic group, and induced secretion is greater in this group. All these alterations produced by an aproteic diet are reversible, since-with contol diet refeeding-the gonadotrophin secretion returned at control levels.

  8. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  9. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  10. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  11. [Basal cell carcinoma. Molecular genetics and unusual clinical features].

    PubMed

    Reifenberger, J

    2007-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common human cancer. Its incidence is steadily increasing. The development of basal cell carcinoma is linked to genetic factors, including the individual skin phototype, as well as the cumulative exposure to UVB. The vast majority of basal cell carcinomas are sporadic tumors, while familial cases associated with certain hereditary syndromes are less common. At the molecular level, basal cell carcinomas are characterized by aberrant activation of sonic hedgehog signaling, usually due to mutations either in the ptch or smoh genes. In addition, about half of the cases carry mutations in the tp53 tumor suppressor gene, which are often UVB-associated C-->T transition mutations. Clinically, basal cell carcinomas may show a high degree of phenotypical variability. In particular, tumors occurring in atypical locations, showing an unusual clinical appearance, or imitating other skin diseases may cause diagnostic problems. This review article summarizes the current state of the art concerning the etiology, predisposition and molecular genetics of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, examples of unusual clinical manifestations are illustrated. PMID:17440702

  12. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations. PMID:12798783

  13. Diet and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    This paper provides a historical summary of military nutrition research into the role of diet for sustaining soldier physical performance. Studies of underfeeding document that physical performance is preserved during several days of underfeeding provided sufficient carbohydrate and minerals are consumed to minimize the diuresis associated with semi-starvation diets and serial intake of carbohydrate is available to support metabolism during prolonged work. The Military Recommended Dietary Allowances, AR 40-25, currently recommends that when restricted rations are required, that the ration contain at least 1,100-1,500 kcal, 50-70 g of protein, and a minimum of 100 g of carbohydrate on a daily basis. This low energy diet, however, is not recommended for subsistence for longer than 10 consecutive days. Dietary carbohydrate intakes of approximately 300-400 g will more closely match the quantity of carbohydrate oxidized to meet daily energy requirements during field operations. Research into the potential advantages of dietary supplements has generally not proved advantageous when compared to eating a well balanced diet. Future investigations of the role of diet for sustaining soldier health and performance should be directed toward a better understanding of the influence of energy intake and macro-nutrient composition for preserving lean body mass, reducing susceptibility to illness and injury and enhancing recovery during and after sustained operations.

  14. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, H; Mousavi, Y; Höckerstedt, K

    1992-01-01

    It is a general opinion that the Western diet plays a significant role in increasing the risk of breast cancer in the Western World. Recently some likely mechanisms involved in increasing the risk have been disclosed. It has been found that a Western-type diet elevates plasma levels of sex hormones and decreases the sex hormone binding globulin concentration, increasing the availability of these steroids for peripheral tissues. The same diet results in low formation by intestinal bacteria of mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phyotestrogens from plant precursors. These diphenolic compounds seem to affect hormone metabolism and production and cancer cell growth by many different mechanisms making them strong candidates for a role as cancer protective substances. The sex hormone pattern found in connection with a Western-type diet combined with low lignan and isoflavonoid excretion was found particularly in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and omnivores living in high-risk areas, and to a lesser degree in areas with less risk. However, the pattern observed was not entirely due to diet.

  15. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  16. Vegetarian diets and children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  17. Diet and Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Samir P.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, it was thought that many common dermatological conditions had no relationship to diet. Studies from recent years, however, have made it clear that diet may influence outcome. In this review, the authors focus on conditions for which the role of diet has traditionally been an underappreciated aspect of therapy. In some cases, dietary interventions may influence the course of the skin disease, as in acne. In others, dietary change may serve as one aspect of prevention, such as in skin cancer and aging of the skin. In others, dermatological disease may be linked to systemic disease, and dietary changes may affect health outcomes, as in psoriasis. Lastly, systemic medications prescribed for dermatological disease, such as steroids, are known to raise the risk of other diseases, and dietary change may reduce this risk. PMID:25053983

  18. A standard experimental diet for the study of fatty acid requirements of weaning and first ongrowing stages of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L.: comparison of extruded and extruded/coated diets.

    PubMed

    Coutteau, P; Van Stappen, G; Sorgeloos, P

    1996-01-01

    The stability of the coated lipid fraction of a standard weaning diet was verified by comparing growth and fatty acid incorporation for European sea bass fed diets with an identical formulation but prepared either by extrusion/coating or extrusion only. For each type of experimental diet, a (n-3) HUFA level of 1 and 2.5% of the dry diet was evaluated. European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. were weaned and consequently reared for 23 days on the experimental diets in a recirculation system. A commercial weaning diet served as a control. Final individual dry weight of sea bass larvae weaned and ongrown for a total period of 30 days on the various diets did not differ significantly. The (n-3) HUFA content of the fish tissue was a reflection of the dietary (n-3) HUFA requirements of European sea bass during and immediately after weaning did not exceed 1% of the dry diet. The combined technique of cooking-extrusion of a basal diet followed by coating of a lipid emulsion proved to be a valid technique to prepare diets for studying quantitative fatty acid requirements of weaning and first ongrowing stages of marine fish. A standard diet with open formulation is proposed.

  19. Basal ice facies: a review and unifying approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Bryn; Cook, Simon; Coulson, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    Over the past ˜30 years numerous basal ice facies have been identified, named and classified. However, the resulting facies descriptions and names are inconsistent and no single scheme encompasses all of the different ice types that exist at different ice masses. In this paper, we review and critique existing basal ice facies names, descriptions and classification schemes, and propose a new, non-genetic approach that has the capacity to name and describe all basal ice types. We define six fundamental basal cryofacies and a further 12 composite cryofacies which can all be defined on the basis of a cursory evaluation of debris disposition and concentration. More detailed cryofacies description is based on characterizing three sets of ice properties that can also be estimated visually in the field: (a) the thickness of the basal ice facies and its constituent sub-layers, (b) the concentration and texture of debris included within any or all of those layers, and (c) the concentration and size of bubbles included within any or all of those layers. We also propose a shorthand method for the presentation of this descriptive information. Here, codes for the layer thicknesses are presented as standard text, and codes for the included debris characteristics and included bubble characteristics are presented as superscripts and subscripts respectively. Sub-layers are characterized similarly, but within a nested sequence of brackets. We evaluate the effectiveness of these two schemes by using them to rename and reclassify several existing basal ice facies. Results indicate that the schemes are robust and that they provide a coherent, non-genetic framework for the effective naming and description of basal cryofacies.

  20. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST.

  1. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  2. [Acne and diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish.

  3. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L; Copeland, Trisha; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Buckley, Rita B

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle-all common conditions in breast cancer patients-are likely to be associated with poor survival and poor quality of life in women with breast cancer. Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Most studies of diet and healthcare have focused on the role of single nutrients, foods, or food groups in disease prevention or promotion. Recent cancer guidelines on nutrition and physical activity emphasize diets that promote maintenance of a healthy body weight and a prudent dietary pattern that is low in red and processed meats and high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Except for dietary fat, few nutritional factors in adult life have been associated with breast cancer. Extensive data from animal model research, international correlations linking fat intake and breast cancer rates, and case-control studies support the hypothesis that a high-fat diet is conducive to the development of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conflicting findings from cohort studies, however, have created uncertainty over the role of dietary fat in breast cancer growth and recurrence. Results from large-scale nutritional intervention trials are expected to resolve such issues. As new and improved data on dietary factors and patterns accumulate, dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction will become more focused.

  4. Diet and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid

    2005-12-01

    In the future there will be more people aged 65 years and over ('older adults'). Although the exact mechanisms underlying normal ageing are not fully understood, ageing is generally associated with an increase in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and osteoporosis. It is becoming clear that it is possible to prevent, slow or reverse the onset of many these by modifying lifestyle factors such as diet. Studies of older adults in a range of countries have highlighted a number of areas in which dietary quality could be improved. It is important to identify dietary patterns in addition to specific dietary components that offer protection against chronic disease. The challenge in the area of diet and healthy ageing is twofold: first, there is a need to improve the diet of older adults; and second, as most chronic diseases begin earlier in life, there is a need to encourage other age groups to adapt their diet so they can enter old age in better health.

  5. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  6. [Basal C peptide levels in response to intravenous tolbutamide in the detection of incorrect insulin therapy (or prolonged misuse)].

    PubMed

    Wemeau, J L; Fourlinnie, J C; Beuscart, R; Vaast, D; Romon, M; Vie, M C; Fossati, P

    1983-03-01

    Fifty nine insulin dependant diabetics were hospitalised for a trial withdrawal of insulin: 17 patients rapidly showed signs of lack of insulin, 18 did not develop cetoacidosis but could not be stabilised on diet and oral hypoglycemic agents, 24 were stabilised without insulin. A statistical study (multifactorial analysis of correlations, plotting of ROC graphs) validated the classification of these diabetics into 3 groups. It also showed that in patients with hypoglycemia, the values of C-protein, and after intravenous injection of tolbutamide, were good predictive factors for insulin-dependance: all patients with basal C-protein less than 1,9 ng/ml could not be stabilised without insulin; when the basal C-protein greater than or equal to 1,9 ng/ml and the amplitude of response at the 5th min was greater than or equal to 0,4 ng/ml, the diabetes could be stabilised by diet and oral hypoglycemic agents in 90 p. 100 of cases. This institutes an easy, reliable and economic method of detecting abusive insulin therapy.

  7. The basal ganglia optimize decision making over general perceptual hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lepora, Nathan F; Gurney, Kevin N

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are a subcortical group of interconnected nuclei involved in mediating action selection within cortex. A recent proposal is that this selection leads to optimal decision making over multiple alternatives because the basal ganglia anatomy maps onto a network implementation of an optimal statistical method for hypothesis testing, assuming that cortical activity encodes evidence for constrained gaussian-distributed alternatives. This letter demonstrates that this model of the basal ganglia extends naturally to encompass general Bayesian sequential analysis over arbitrary probability distributions, which raises the proposal to a practically realizable theory over generic perceptual hypotheses. We also show that the evidence in this model can represent either log likelihoods, log-likelihood ratios, or log odds, all leading proposals for the cortical processing of sensory data. For these reasons, we claim that the basal ganglia optimize decision making over general perceptual hypotheses represented in cortex. The relation of this theory to cortical encoding, cortico-basal ganglia anatomy, and reinforcement learning is discussed.

  8. Basal ganglia output reflects internally-specified movements

    PubMed Central

    Lintz, Mario J; Felsen, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    How movements are selected is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the sensorimotor transformations underlying stimulus-guided movements, less is known about how internal goals – critical drivers of goal-directed behavior – guide movements. The basal ganglia are known to bias movement selection according to value, one form of internal goal. Here, we examine whether other internal goals, in addition to value, also influence movements via the basal ganglia. We designed a novel task for mice that dissociated equally rewarded internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements, allowing us to test how each engaged the basal ganglia. We found that activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a basal ganglia output, predictably differed preceding internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements. Incorporating these results into a simple model suggests that internally-specified movements may be facilitated relative to stimulus-guided movements by basal ganglia processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13833.001 PMID:27377356

  9. Phylogeny of Basal Iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): An Update

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional “Camptosaurus” and “Iguanodon”. The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328

  10. Basal cell adenocarcinomas of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L; Wiscovitch, J G

    1990-04-01

    Basal cell adenoma of salivary gland has become an established variant of monomorphic adenoma since its segregation from pleomorphic adenoma in 1967. Although there have been many comprehensive reports about benign basal cell adenomas, only rare case reports of malignant basal cell type neoplasms have appeared in the literature. Described in this report are the clinicopathologic features of 29 cases labeled basal cell adenocarcinomas that had morphologic characteristics of basal cell adenomas but infiltrative, perineural, and intravascular growth features that indicated a malignant potential. With limited follow-up, seven tumors are known to have recurred, and three of these metastasized to lymph nodes and lung. One patient died with extensive local spread of the tumor. All patients were adults. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life, and there was no gender predilection. The parotid gland was the predominant site. A solid type growth configuration was most frequent; membranous, trabecular, and tubular types were less frequent, in that order. Three patients also had dermal cylindromas, perhaps indicative of a salivary gland-skin adnexal diathesis that has been previously reported.

  11. Effect of genistein on basal jejunal chloride secretion in R117H CF mice is sex and route specific.

    PubMed

    Rayyan, Esa; Polito, Sarah; Leung, Lana; Bhakta, Ashesh; Kang, Jonathan; Willey, Justin; Mansour, Wasim; Drumm, Mitchell L; Al-Nakkash, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from the loss or reduction in function of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein) chloride channel. The third most common CFTR mutation seen clinically is R117H. Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen, is known to stimulate CFTR function in vitro. We aimed to determine whether route of administration of genistein could mediate differential effects in R117H male and female CF mice. Mice were fed (4 weeks) or injected subcutaneously (1 week) with the following: genistein 600 mg/kg diet (600Gd); genistein-free diet (0Gd); genistein injection 600 mg/kg body weight (600Gi); dimethyl sulfoxide control (0Gi). In male R117H mice fed 600Gd, basal short circuit current (Isc) was unchanged. In 600Gd-fed female mice, there was a subgroup that demonstrated a significant increase in basal Isc (53.14±7.92 μA/cm(2), n=6, P<0.05) and a subgroup of nonresponders (12.05±6.59 μA/cm(2), n=4), compared to 0Gd controls (29.3±6.5 μA/cm(2), n=7). In R117H mice injected with 600Gi, basal Isc was unchanged in both male and female mice compared to 0Gi controls. Isc was measured in response to the following: the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 μM, bilateral), bumetanide (100 μM, basolateral) to indicate the Cl(-) secretory component, and acetazolamide (100 μM, bilateral) to indicate the HCO3 (-) secretory component; however, there was no effect of genistein (diet or injection) on any of these parameters. Jejunal morphology (ie, villi length, number of goblet cells per villus, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells per crypt) in R117H mice suggested no genistein-mediated difference among the groups. Serum levels of genistein were significantly elevated, compared to respective controls, by either 600Gd (equally elevated in males and females) or 600Gi (elevated more in females versus males). These data suggest a sex-dependent increase in basal Isc of R117H mice and that the increase is also specific for route

  12. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  13. Is Dieting OK for Kids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This ... White House Lunch Recipes Is Dieting OK for Kids? KidsHealth > For Kids > Is Dieting OK for Kids? ...

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  15. GLP-1(32-36)amide Pentapeptide Increases Basal Energy Expenditure and Inhibits Weight Gain in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Eva; Stanojevic, Violeta; McManus, Karen; Khatri, Ashok; Everill, Paul; Bachovchin, William W; Habener, Joel F

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related diabetes is increasing worldwide. Here we report the identification of a pentapeptide, GLP-1(32-36)amide (LVKGRamide), derived from the glucoincretin hormone GLP-1, that increases basal energy expenditure and curtails the development of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. The pentapeptide inhibited weight gain, reduced fat mass without change in energy intake, and increased basal energy expenditure independent of physical activity. Analyses of tissues from peptide-treated mice reveal increased expression of UCP-1 and UCP-3 in brown adipose tissue and increased UCP-3 and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle, findings consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. In palmitate-treated C2C12 skeletal myotubes, GLP-1(32-36)amide activated AMPK and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation of fat metabolism in response to energy depletion. By mass spectroscopy, the pentapeptide is rapidly formed from GLP-1(9-36)amide, the major form of GLP-1 in the circulation of mice. These findings suggest that the reported insulin-like actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists that occur independently of the GLP-1 receptor might be mediated by the pentapeptide, and the previously reported nonapeptide (FIAWLVKGRamide). We propose that by increasing basal energy expenditure, GLP-1(32-36)amide might be a useful treatment for human obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

  16. Calcium soaps of olive fatty acids in the diets of Manchega dairy ewes: effects on digestibility and production.

    PubMed

    Perez Alba, L M; De Souza Cavalcanti, S; Perez Hernandez, M; Martinez Marin, A; Fernandez Marin, G

    1997-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with dairy ewes to determine the effects of supplementation of calcium soaps of olive fatty acids at 10% of the basal diet on digestibility, roughage intake, milk production and composition, and response to early induced ovulation. The addition of calcium soaps of olive fatty acids to the diets of dairy ewes significantly decreased the digestibility of dietary dry matter but not the digestibility of other components. The digestibility of crude fat was enhanced. Voluntary intake of roughage, with fixed concentrate allowances, was slightly, but not significantly, reduced for ewes fed the supplemented diet. After weaning at 35 d postpartum and during the next 5-wk period of twice daily milking, ewes fed the supplemented diet produced more total solids in milk than did ewes fed the basal diet. Ewes fed the supplemented diet also tended to produce more milk protein, and milk energy and tended to have greater milk fat percentages. The composition of milk fatty acids was changed by the calcium soaps of olive fatty acids. Fewer short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0), less C18:2, and more C18:1 and C18:0 were obtained in the milk of ewes fed the supplemented diet. Responses to ovulation induced at 60 d after lambing, while ewes were still lactating, were significantly higher for ewes fed the diet supplemented with calcium soaps of olive fatty acids than for ewes fed the basal diet. The calcium soaps of olive fatty acids appeared to be a useful source of energy for dairy ewes, and dairy ewes may be a good model for the study of the effects of nutrition during early lactation on reproductive performance of dairy ruminants.

  17. Is the Chilean diet a Mediterranean-type diet?

    PubMed

    Rozowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet.

  18. New therapeutic options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sligh, James E

    2014-06-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that is frequently treated by cryosurgery. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of man, and early-stage lesions are usually cured via surgery. Advanced basal cell carcinoma may require more extensive surgery resulting in deformity, and many advanced lesions cannot be treated surgically. Several recent developments have improved therapeutic options for both conditions. Cryosurgery is still a mainstay of treatment for AK, but the introduction of effective topical agents, imiquimod cream and ingenol mebutate, has provided alternatives to cryosurgery. For advanced basal cell carcinoma, the small-molecule inhibitor vismodegib has proven to be an effective therapy for lesions that are not amenable to surgery and has demonstrated ability to achieve dramatic improvement in advanced, potentially disfiguring cancer. PMID:25268601

  19. Decremental reset in basal metabolism during 20-days bed rest.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kawakubo, K; Yanagibori, R; Gunji, A

    1994-01-01

    Changes in basal metabolism during 20 days bed rest were measured in 9 young healthy males and 5 females. Food intake was unrestricted and supplementary meals were allowed. All food intake was monitored. A special sleeping pattern was not enforced, although an ordinary day-night diurnal rhythm was kept in the rooms. Body temperatures were measured daily every 2 hours from 7:00 to 22:00. Basal oxygen uptake decreased significantly during the first 10 days of bed rest and levelled off during the following 10 days. Body weight and composition remained substantially unchanged in spite of a decreased energy consumption during the bed rest. In conclusion, basal VO2 was reset at a decreased level during the first 10 days of bedrest with no relationship to the dietary energy intake or to the body temperature, while no more change took place during the following 10 days.

  20. Neurotransmitters in the human and nonhuman primate basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Haber, S N

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new molecules, particularly peptides, have been identified as putative neurotransmitters. The basal ganglia, is especially rich in a number of classical transmitter molecules, amino acids and neuropeptides considered to function in neurotransmission. These include: the well-described terminal fields in the striatum which originate from the brain stem and contain the monoamines, dopamine and serotonin; amino acid containing axons projecting from the cortex and thalamus; striatal cholinergic and peptide-positive interneurons; and amino acid and peptide containing projection neurons to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Two amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are considered to provide excitatory input to the striatum while gamma aminobutyric acid is thought to mediate inhibitory output. Neuropeptides which are richly concentrated in the basal ganglia include, enkephalin, dynorphin, substance P, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and cholincystokinease. Changes in many of these peptide levels have recently been associated with a number of basal ganglia disorders.

  1. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

  2. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  3. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  4. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  5. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, W; Fung, B; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-04-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the region around the basal bodies of ciliated cat tracheal cells. Thus, we have found an antigen that is common to a variety of cell types from many different animal sources and is specifically associated with both centrioles and basal bodies. The possible role of the antigen in differentiation is discussed.

  6. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  7. Number processing and basal ganglia dysfunction: a single case study.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Domahs, Frank; Lochy, Aliette; Karner, Elfriede; Benke, Thomas; Poewe, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Numerical processing has never been investigated in a case of Fahr's disease (FD) and only rarely in cases of basal ganglia dysfunction. The study describes the cognitive decline of a pre-morbidly high-functioning patient (medical doctor) affected by FD and his difficulties in number processing. A MRI scan revealed bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and a brain PET showed a massive reduction of glucose metabolism in the basal ganglia and both frontal lobes, but no other brain abnormalities. The patient's cognitive deficits included impairments in problem solving, in cognitive set shifting and in mental flexibility, as well as in verbal memory. These deficits are attributed to the disruption of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit involving the basal ganglia. In number processing, the patient showed a severe deficit in the retrieval of multiplication facts, deficits in all tasks of numerical problem solving and in the execution of complex procedures. Importantly, he also showed a dense deficit in conceptual knowledge, which concerned all test conditions and all operations. The findings confirm the predictions of the triple code model in so far, as a disruption of cortico-subcortical loops involving the basal-ganglia may lead to specific deficits in fact retrieval. However, no verbal deficit, as assumed in the triple code model and reported in similar cases, could be observed. The present findings further add to current knowledge on numerical processing, showing how fronto-executive dysfunction may disrupt conceptual understanding of arithmetic. This study shows that not only parietal lesions may lead to severe deficits in conceptual understanding, but that basal ganglia lesions leading to frontal dysfunction may have a devastating effect. PMID:15093144

  8. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  9. Is a healthy diet an environmentally sustainable diet?

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2013-02-01

    The concept of a healthy and environmentally sustainable diet is not new, but with increasing concern about future global food security and climate change there is a renewed interest in this topic. Dietary intakes in UK accounts for approximately 20-30% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), with the greatest contributions coming from high intakes of meat and dairy products. Dietary proposals to help mitigate climate change (i.e. reduce GHGE) have focused on reducing consumption of meat and dairy products, but this must be considered in the context of the whole diet, alongside any possible nutritional consequences for health. Bringing together health and environmental impact of the diet raises the question of whether a healthy diet can also be an environmentally sustainable diet. While recent research showed that it is possible to achieve a realistic diet that meets dietary requirement for health and has lower GHGE, it cannot be assumed that a healthy diet will always have lower GHGE. With different combinations of food it is possible to consume a diet that meets dietary requirements for health, but has high GHGE. It is important to understand what constitutes a sustainable diet, but this then needs to be communicated effectively to try and change well-established dietary intakes of the population. Studies show that understanding of sustainable diets is poor and there are many misconceptions (e.g. the overestimation of the protein requirements for a healthy diet), which could contribute to the barriers towards changing dietary intakes.

  10. Depression in adult patients with biotin responsive basal ganglia disease.

    PubMed

    Bubshait, Dalal K; Rashid, Asif; Al-Owain, Mohammed A; Sulaiman, Raashda A

    2016-01-01

    Biotin responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD), is a potentially treatable inherited metabolic disorder which clinically presents as sub-acute encephalopathy in children. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder results in good clinical recovery in childhood. However, there is no report in the literature on the long term outcome of these treated patients in adult life. We report two patients with BBGD who were metabolically stable on treatment and developed depression later in life. These cases highlight the association of depression with basal ganglia disorders and demonstrate that depression is the potential long term complication of BBGD.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma masquerading as a hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Geoffrey G; Bulatao, Imelda S

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of primary skin cancers of the foot is exceedingly low; conversely, problems associated with a hallux valgus are common. A nonhealing ulcer overlying a hallux valgus managed conservatively with ointments and orthotic adjustments, and even with skin grafts, did not resolve over a period of 10 years. Ultimately, a shave biopsy revealed that the lesion was a basal cell carcinoma. Wide local excision and another skin graft resulted in tumour eradication and, finally, healing. Basal cell carcinoma associated with a hallux valgus has not been previously reported, and this reinforces the concept that malignant degeneration as the cause of any chronic ulceration should not be overlooked. PMID:19554132

  12. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  13. [Research progress of corneal epithelial basal cells and basement membrane].

    PubMed

    Qu, J H; Sun, X G

    2016-09-11

    The cylinder cells at the bottom of corneal epithelial cells are basal cells. Their cytoplasm contains keratin intermediate filament which is important in secretion of basement membrane. Corneal epithelial dysfunction due to diabetes or ocular surgery is intimately related with basal cell abnormality. Corneal epithelial basement membrane is a highly specific extracellular matrix which is made up of lamina lucida and lamina densa. It plays an extremely important role in renewal and restoration. Many ocular abnormalities and diseases have been described to relate to the corneal epithelial basement membrane, such as traumatic recurrent corneal erosion, corneal dystrophy and keratoconus. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 703-707). PMID:27647251

  14. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiumin; Zhao, Huijie; Zhu, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts. PMID:27408696

  15. Liquid diets reduce cell proliferation but not neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Patten, A R; Moller, D J; Graham, J; Gil-Mohapel, J; Christie, B R

    2013-12-19

    Neurogenesis continues to occur in restricted regions of the brain throughout adulthood and can be modulated by dietary factors. Liquid or "soft" diets are commonly used for the administration of drugs in experimental models of disease, making it critical to determine whether dietary composition itself can affect neurogenesis. In this study Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a liquid or a solid diet of identical composition from weaning until young adulthood. No differences in neuronal differentiation and survival of newly born cells were observed between rats that were fed a liquid diet and those that received a solid diet. However, a significant reduction in hippocampal cell proliferation was observed in the liquid diet-fed group, as assessed by the expression of two endogenous proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The method of feeding did not alter the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in these animals, as no changes in circulating levels of corticosterone (CORT) were detected between liquid and solid diet-fed groups. There was also a significant reduction in cellular proliferation in the hypothalamus of liquid diet-fed rats, a brain region known to be involved in feeding-related behaviors. These findings indicate that liquid diets themselves can directly impact rates of cellular proliferation, but this does not seem to impact levels of overall neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  16. Dietary butylated hydroxytoluene protects against aflatoxicosis in Turkeys.

    PubMed

    Klein, Patrick J; Van Vleet, Terry R; Hall, Jeffery O; Coulombe, Roger A

    2002-07-01

    Turkeys are among the most sensitive species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In mammals, dietary antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), have been shown to lessen the toxic effects of AFB(1) by various mechanisms. To test whether BHT protects against aflatoxicosis in turkeys, we supplemented the feed of 10-day-old male white turkeys with low (1000 ppm) and high (4000 ppm) BHT for 20 days. AFB(1) (1 ppm) was then added to the diets and continued for another 10 days. Birds in the AFB(1)-only group had a lower weight gain, a condition that had returned to near control in groups fed diets containing AFB(1) + BHT. Significant elevations in serum aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, which were evident in the AFB(1) group, were reversed in the AFB(1) + BHT groups. Histopathology revealed hepatic submassive necrotic lesions and biliary hyperplasia, the severity of which was lessened in the AFB(1) + BHT-treated birds. Hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was observed in the BHT-only group, but not in the AFB(1) + BHT groups. This condition associated with BHT treatment was found in a separate study to be reversible and without any long-term adverse effects. These results indicate that BHT counteracts many of the deleterious effects caused by AFB(1) and that this antioxidant may prove to be a viable feed additive for the reduction of aflatoxicosis in turkeys.

  17. Absorption and distribution of cadmium in mice fed diets containing either inorganic or oyster-incorporated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Hardy, J.T.; Miller, B.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Siewicki, T.C.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the absorption, organ distribution, and retention of organically bound cadmium (Cd) and the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on Cd metabolism, groups of mice were fed five different diets. The organic Cd used in the diets was in the form of lyophilized oyster (Crassostrea virginica) that had accumulated radiolabeled 109Cd through a plankton food chain. The mice were fed either a standard basal mouse diet (AIN-76) or diets containing five or eight times the Zn concentration of the basal diet. The source of Zn was either oyster tissue or ZnCO3. The concentration of organic and inorganic Cd provided a dose of approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Diets prepared from oyster tissue probably contained all of the Cd and 85% of the Zn in organic form. Diets prepared with inorganic metals contained about the same Cd and Zn concentrations as the diets prepared with oyster. There was very little difference between the retention of Cd by mice that ingested organic (oyster bound) Cd and those fed inorganic Cd (CdCl2). However, when the Cd retained in the intestine was excluded, retention of organic Cd was significantly greater than that of inorganic Cd. The organ distribution of Cd differed significantly according to the chemical form of Cd fed (organic or inorganic) and the Zn level in the diet. The kidneys of mice fed organically bound Cd retained a higher percentage of the metal than the kidneys of those fed inorganic Cd. On the other hand, the livers of animals fed a low-Zn diet retained a higher percentage of the Cd than the livers of those fed a high-Zn diet, regardless of the dietary source of Cd.

  18. Diet and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  19. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  20. Circadian variation of basal and postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and patients with type-1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tatò, F; Tatò, S; Beyer, J; Schrezenmeir, J

    1991-05-01

    The circadian variation of basal and postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels was analyzed in 10 healthy individuals and 10 type-1 diabetic patients treated with a glucose-controlled insulin infusion system. In both groups the postprandial glycemic response to identical low caloric mixed meals ingested at 8.00 am, 1.00 pm, and 6.00 pm increased significantly in the course of the day. In contrast to findings in conventional insulin therapy mean postprandial insulin requirements of the diabetic patients increased from 8.5 +/- 3.0 IU for breakfast to 9.1 +/- 2.0 for lunch and 10.9 +/- 3.0 for dinner (p less than 0.01). Repeated studies with different test meals showed that in the diabetic patients the circadian deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance was reduced after a fibre rich meal with low glycemic effect and insulin requirements. In the healthy subjects basal insulin levels at 8.00 am were 35% higher than at 1 and 6.00 pm (p less than 0.01). Basal insulin requirements of the diabetic patients increased significantly from a night value of 0.7 IU/h to 1.18 IU/h during the early morning and remained constant throughout day time. We conclude that circadian changes in postprandial carbohydrate tolerance are independent from the endogenous rhythmics of basal glucose metabolism. In diabetic patients the circadian pattern of postprandial responses is substantially determined by exogenous factors like diet composition caloric intake and therapeutic regimen.

  1. Tetrahymena Poc1 ensures proper intertriplet microtubule linkages to maintain basal body integrity

    PubMed Central

    Meehl, Janet B.; Bayless, Brian A.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Pearson, Chad G.; Winey, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basal bodies comprise nine symmetric triplet microtubules that anchor forces produced by the asymmetric beat pattern of motile cilia. The ciliopathy protein Poc1 stabilizes basal bodies through an unknown mechanism. In poc1∆ cells, electron tomography reveals subtle defects in the organization of intertriplet linkers (A-C linkers) that connect adjacent triplet microtubules. Complete triplet microtubules are lost preferentially near the posterior face of the basal body. Basal bodies that are missing triplets likely remain competent to assemble new basal bodies with nine triplet microtubules, suggesting that the mother basal body microtubule structure does not template the daughter. Our data indicate that Poc1 stabilizes basal body triplet microtubules through linkers between neighboring triplets. Without this stabilization, specific triplet microtubules within the basal body are more susceptible to loss, probably due to force distribution within the basal body during ciliary beating. This work provides insights into how the ciliopathy protein Poc1 maintains basal body integrity. PMID:27251062

  2. [Diet and migraine].

    PubMed

    Leira, R; Rodríguez, R

    1996-05-01

    Some foods in our diet can spark off migraine attacks in susceptible individuals. Some foods can bring an attack on through an allergic reaction. A certain number such as citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables and cola drinks have been cited as possible allergens associated with migraine. This mechanism has however been criticized: an improvement in symptoms by eliminating some food(s) from our diet does not necessarily mean an immunologically based allergic reaction. The high IgE incidence rate is not greater in such patients than in the population at large. Other allergic reactions unrelated to diet may also be associated with migraine attacks. On the other hand substances in food may be the cause of modifications in vascular tone and bring migraine on in those so prone. Among such substances are tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate, aspartame) and caffeine. Another recognized trigger for migraine is hypoglycemia. Such foods as chocolate, cheese, citrus fruits, bananas, nuts, 'cured' meats, dairy products, cereals, beans, hot dogs, pizza, food additives (sodium nitrate, monosodium glutamate in Chinese restaurant food, aspartame as a sweetener), coffee, tea, cola drinks, alcoholic drinks such as red wine, beer or whisky distilled in copper stills, all may bring on a migraine attack. For every patient we have to assess which foodstuffs are involved in the attack (not necessarily produced by consuming the product concerned) in order to try to avoid their consumptions as a means of prophylaxis for migraine.

  3. Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Divisi, Duilio; Di Tommaso, Sergio; Salvemini, Salvatore; Garramone, Margherita; Crisci, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between diet and cancer development. It has been estimated that 30-40% of all kinds of cancer can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. A low use of fibres, the intake of red meat and an imbalance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fats may contribute to increase the risk of cancer. On the other hand, the assumption of lots of fruit and vegetables may lower the risk of cancer. Protective elements in a cancer-preventive diet include selenium, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, chlorophyll and antioxidants such as carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, cryptoxanthin). Ascorbic acid has limited benefits if taken orally, but it effective through intravenous injection. A supplementary use of oral digestive enzymes and probiotics is also an anticancer dietary measure. A diet drawn up according to the proposed guidelines could decrease the incidence of breast, colon-rectal, prostate and bronchogenic cancer.

  4. Acne and diet.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  5. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  6. Protective roles of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis of jejunum in broilers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-12-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler's jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25590100

  7. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Shengqiang; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1), 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se), respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression. PMID:25526081

  8. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (< 0. 1 mm), and 17 healthy and six atretic antral follicles (0.5-12 mm in diameter) were processed for light and electron microscopy to investigate the relationship the between follicular basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually < 1 microm long and had vesicles (20-30 nm) attached to the inner aspect. Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  9. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  10. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  11. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  12. Basal body assembly in ciliates: the power of numbers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Chad G.; Winey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Centrioles perform the dual functions of organizing both centrosomes and cilia. The biogenesis of nascent centrioles is an essential cellular event that is tightly coupled to the cell cycle so that each cell contains only two or four centrioles at any given point in the cell cycle. The assembly of centrioles and their analogs, basal bodies, is well characterized at the ultrastructural level whereby structural modules are built into a functional organelle. Genetic studies in model organisms combined with proteomic, bioinformatic, and identifying ciliary disease gene orthologs have revealed a wealth of molecules requiring further analysis to determine their roles in centriole duplication, assembly, and function. Nonetheless, at this stage our understanding of how molecular components interact to build new centrioles and basal bodies is limited. The ciliates, Tetrahymena and Paramecium, historically have been the subject of cytological and genetic study of basal bodies. Recent advances in the ciliate genetic and molecular toolkit have placed these model organisms in a favorable position to study the molecular mechanisms of centriole and basal body assembly. PMID:19192246

  13. Familial papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer.

    PubMed

    Brena, Michela; Besagni, Francesca; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tadini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a novel keratinocytic nevus, has recently been described as a mosaic condition with varying presentations. We herein describe typical PENS lesions, which usually occur sporadically, affecting two members of the same family. The concept of paradominant inheritance is proposed to explain the paradox of occasional transmission of normally sporadically occurring traits.

  14. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASAL BODIES AND FLAGELLA IN ALLOMYCES ARBUSCULUS

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Fernando L.; Swift, Hewson

    1964-01-01

    The development of basal bodies and flagella in the water mold Allomyces arbusculus has been studied with the electron microscope. A small pre-existing centriole, about 160 mµ in length, was found in an inpocketing of the nuclear membrane in the vegetative hypha. Thus, formation of a basal body does not occur de novo. When the hyphal tip started to differentiate into gametangia, the centrioles were found to exist in pairs. One of the members of the pair then grew distally to more than three times its original length, whereas the other remained the same size. The larger centriole would correspond to the basal body of a future gamete. Gametogenesis was usually induced by transferring a "ripe" culture to distilled water. Shortly after this was done, a few vesicles were pinched off from the cell membrane of the gametangium and came in contact with the basal body. Apparently, they fused and formed a large primary vesicle. The flagellum then started to grow by invaginating into it. Flagellar fibers were evident from the very beginning. As the flagellum grew so did the vesicle by fusion with secondary vesicles, thus coming to form the flagellar sheath. The different stages of flagellar morphogenesis are described and the possible interrelationships with other processes are discussed. PMID:14222818

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  17. Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  19. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 links) Encyclopedia: Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Health Topic: B Vitamins Health Topic: Brain Diseases Health Topic: Movement Disorders ... doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1128152. Epub 2009 Mar 17. Review. Citation on PubMed GeneReview: Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive ...

  1. Fetal rhabdomyoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    DiSanto, S; Abt, A B; Boal, D K; Krummel, T M

    1992-01-01

    A 6-year-old white female presented with a fetal rhabdomyoma of the posterior mediastinum and retroperitoneum. Radiologic evaluation and family history revealed features of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBS). Literature review disclosed two other children with NBS and fetal rhabdomyoma, which should be regarded as one of the soft tissue tumors associated with NBS.

  2. Writing with Basals: A Sentence Combining Approach to Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Merrill, Jimmie D.

    Sentence combining techniques can be used with basal readers to help students develop writing skills. The first technique is addition, characterized by using the connecting word "and" to join two or more base sentences together. The second technique is called "embedding," and is characterized by putting parts of two or more base sentences together…

  3. Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, F; Orhan, C; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Hayirli, A

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance, egg quality, serum and egg yolk carotenoids, vitamins and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in were investigated in laying hens in mid-lay. 2. A total of 90 laying hens, 49 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate cages, 5 birds per cage. Birds were randomly fed on one of three diets: basal diet and basal diet added with 5 or 10 g tomato powder per kg diet. 3. As tomato powder concentration increased, there were linear increases in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk colour and a linear decrease in feed conversion. Shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh unit remained unchanged in response to dietary treatments. 4. Concentrations of serum and egg yolk lycopene, β-carotene, lutein and vitamin A increased for both diets including tomato powder, whereas MDA decreased linearly with increasing supplemental tomato powder concentration. 5. Tomato powder supplementation increased egg production persistency and increased carotenoids and vitamin A contents in egg yolk, accompanied by reduced yolk lipid peroxidation. PMID:23281763

  4. Experimental Studies on Some Immunotoxicological Aspects of Aflatoxins Containing Diet and Protective Effect of Bee Pollen Dietary Supplement.

    PubMed

    El-Bialy, Badr E; Abdeen, Eman E; El-Borai, Nermeen B; El-Diasty, Eman M

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs), widely distributed food-borne mycotoxins, affect quality and safety of food and cause economic losses in livestock. In this study, the protective effect of Bee Pollen (BP) against some immunotoxic hazards elucidated from eating of AFs-containing diet was investigated in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly classified intofour groups and treated for 30 days, Group 1; control negative, Group 2; Total AFs (3 mg kg(-1) basal diet), Group 3; BP (20 g kg(-1) basal diet) and Group 4; AFs+BP in basal diet. The immunoprotective effect of BP was revealed in terms of increasing (relative to levels seen in Group 2 rats that consumed the AFs diet) serum total protein and globulin levels, restored normal neutrophil (PMN)/lymphocyte ratio, increased PMN phagocytic activity and increased lymphocyte proliferative capacity. Also, the use of the BP reduced spleen H2O2 levels and increased GSH content while maintaining normal levels of NO formation. Histopathologic analysis showed thatthe AFs caused lymphocytic depletion in the spleen; however, BP induced lymphocytic hyperplasia and reduced the levels of AFs-inducible cellular exhaustion or depletion. These results provide evidence of a protective effect of BP against some immunotoxic actions induced in situ by consumption of AFs.

  5. Experimental Studies on Some Immunotoxicological Aspects of Aflatoxins Containing Diet and Protective Effect of Bee Pollen Dietary Supplement.

    PubMed

    El-Bialy, Badr E; Abdeen, Eman E; El-Borai, Nermeen B; El-Diasty, Eman M

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs), widely distributed food-borne mycotoxins, affect quality and safety of food and cause economic losses in livestock. In this study, the protective effect of Bee Pollen (BP) against some immunotoxic hazards elucidated from eating of AFs-containing diet was investigated in Wistar rats. Rats were randomly classified intofour groups and treated for 30 days, Group 1; control negative, Group 2; Total AFs (3 mg kg(-1) basal diet), Group 3; BP (20 g kg(-1) basal diet) and Group 4; AFs+BP in basal diet. The immunoprotective effect of BP was revealed in terms of increasing (relative to levels seen in Group 2 rats that consumed the AFs diet) serum total protein and globulin levels, restored normal neutrophil (PMN)/lymphocyte ratio, increased PMN phagocytic activity and increased lymphocyte proliferative capacity. Also, the use of the BP reduced spleen H2O2 levels and increased GSH content while maintaining normal levels of NO formation. Histopathologic analysis showed thatthe AFs caused lymphocytic depletion in the spleen; however, BP induced lymphocytic hyperplasia and reduced the levels of AFs-inducible cellular exhaustion or depletion. These results provide evidence of a protective effect of BP against some immunotoxic actions induced in situ by consumption of AFs. PMID:26930797

  6. Combination therapy with GLP-1 receptor agonists and basal insulin: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Balena, R; Hensley, I E; Miller, S; Barnett, A H

    2013-01-01

    Treatment algorithms for type 2 diabetes call for intensification of therapy over time as the disease progresses and glycaemic control worsens. If diet, exercise and oral antihyperglycaemic medications (OAMs) fail to maintain glycaemic control then basal insulin is added and ultimately prandial insulin may be required. However, such an intensification strategy carries risk of increased hypoglycaemia and weight gain, both of which are associated with worse long-term outcomes. An alternative strategy is to intensify therapy by the addition of a short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) rather than prandial insulin. Short-acting GLP-1 RAs such as exenatide twice daily are particularly effective at reducing postprandial glucose while basal insulin has a greater effect on fasting glucose, providing a physiological rationale for this complementary approach. This review analyzes the latest randomized controlled clinical trials of insulin/GLP-1 RA combination therapy and examines results from ‘real-world’ use of the combinations as reported through observational and clinical practice studies. The most common finding across all types of studies was that combination therapy improved glycaemic control without weight gain or an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Many studies reported weight loss and a reduction in insulin use when a GLP-1 RA was added to existing insulin therapy. Overall, the relative degree of benefit to glycaemic control and weight was influenced by the insulin titration employed in conjunction with the GLP-1 RA. The greatest glycaemic benefits were observed in studies with structured titration of insulin to glycaemic targets while the greatest weight benefits were observed in studies with a protocol-specified focus on insulin sparing. The adverse event profile of GLP-1 RAs in the reviewed trials was similar to that reported with GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or in combination with OAMs with gastrointestinal events being the most commonly

  7. The past, present, and future of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Jeremy; Santos Cavaiola, Tricia; Tamborlane, William V; Edelman, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Insulin production by the pancreas follows a basic pattern where basal levels of insulin are secreted during fasting periods, with prandial increases in insulin associated with food ingestion. The aim of insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is to match the endogenous pattern of insulin secretion as closely as possible without causing hypoglycaemia. There are several optimal pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of long-acting basal insulins that can help to achieve this aim, namely, as follows: activity that is flat and as free of peaks as possible, a duration of action of ≥24-h, and as little day-to-day variation as possible. The long-acting basal insulins are a fundamental therapy for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and those that are currently available have many benefits; however, the development of even longer-acting insulins and improved insulin delivery techniques may lead to better glycemic control for patients in the future. Established long-acting basal insulins available in the United States and Europe include insulin glargine 100 units/mL and insulin detemir, both of which exhibit similar glycemic control to that of the intermediate-acting neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, but with a reduction in hypoglycaemia. Newer insulin products available include new insulin glargine 300 units/mL (United States and Europe) and the ultra-long-acting insulin degludec (Europe) with basal insulin peglispro currently in development. These new insulins demonstrate different pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles and longer durations of action (>24 h) compared with insulin glargine 100 units/mL, which may lead to potential benefits. The introduction of biosimilar insulins may also broaden access to insulins by reducing treatment costs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26509843

  8. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  9. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  10. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Horakova, Olga; Voigt, Anja; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, Catalina; Caimari, Antoni; Kopecky, Jan; Klaus, Susanne; Keijer, Jaap

    2012-07-01

    Experimental replication is fundamental for practicing science. To reduce variability, it is essential to control sources of variation as much as possible. Diet is an important factor that can influence many processes and functional outcomes in studies performed with rodent models. This is especially true for, but not limited to, nutritional studies. To compare functional effects of different nutrients, it is important to use standardized, semi-purified diets. Here, we propose and describe a standard reference diet, the BIOCLAIMS standard diet. The diet is AIN-93 based, but further defined with dietary and experimental requirements taken into account that allow for experiments with bioactive food components and natural (non-expensive) labeling. This diet will be implemented by two European research consortia, Mitofood and BIOCLAIMS, to ensure inter-laboratory comparability. PMID:22228221

  11. Evaluation of supplemental niacin for turkeys fed corn-soy diets from four to twelve weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R B; Harms, R H; Ruiz, N

    1986-12-01

    A corn-soy basal diet, which was calculated to contain 21 mg of niacin/kg diet, was used to investigate the niacin needs of turkey poults from 4 to 12 weeks of age. Poults had been fed a diet that contained 80.6 mg niacin/kg of feed until 4 weeks of age. Supplemental niacin was added at 0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in mortality, leg disorders, or 12-week weight gains due to amount of niacin of the diet. These data indicate that 21 mg/kg niacin is adequate for optimum growth of turkeys from 4 to 12 weeks of age when they are fed a corn-soy diet.

  12. Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Peterson, Sabrina; Chen, Chu; Makar, Karen W.; Schwarz, Yvonne; King, Irena B; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; Kestin, Mark; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase-II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared to the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione-S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance, such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, cross-over feeding trial in humans (n=70), 3 test diets, (single- and double-“dose” cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared to a fruit-and-vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11 and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity, and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared to the basal diet (p<0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in: *1/*1 in both single and double-dose cruciferous diets compared to basal (p<0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to single-dose cruciferous (p<0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared to basal (p<0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals. PMID:19336732

  13. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg.

  14. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  15. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  16. Effect of an organic acid blend and phytase added to a rapeseed cake-containing diet on performance, intestinal morphology, caecal microflora activity and thyroid status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Smulikowska, S; Czerwiński, J; Mieczkowska, A

    2010-02-01

    The experiment was carried out on 96 female broilers, allocated to eight groups of 12 birds kept in individual cages. Two basal wheat- and soyabean meal-based diets containing 150 g/kg of rapeseed expeller cake were formulated, differing in the level of P: 7.1 g/kg in diet H or 5.9 g/kg in diet L. Rapeseed cake supplied 3.15 micromol alkenyl glucosinolates per gram of diet. The eight treatments were: basal diets only, basal diets + phytase (1000 U/kg), basal diets + organic acid blend (OA, 6 g/kg), or basal diets + both additives. Diets were fed from day 8 to 28 of life. The results showed that the lower dietary P content and OA supplementation did not significantly affect feed intake or BWG, while both increased (p < 0.001) after phytase supplementation. Tibia ash content as well as tibia ultimate strength were lower (p < 0.001) in birds fed diets L compared with diets H, and increased (p < 0.01) with phytase supplementation of diet L, while OA had no influence on either parameter. Dietary P levels and OA supplementation had no influence on the pH of gut digesta, but the pH of jejunal digesta increased following phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). Morphological measurements of the small intestinal mucosa of chicks indicated that OA added to diet L depressed villi height (p < 0.001) and crypt depth (p < 0.001); both parameters increased after phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). The lower total SCFA as well as acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations in caecal digesta indicated lower activity of caecal microflora in birds fed diets L compared with H. OA supplementation had no influence, while phytase supplementation increased the concentration of acetic acid in caecal digesta. Supplementation of diets with either phytase or OA increased thyroid weight by 16% (p < 0.01) and 11% (p < 0.05) respectively. The increase in thyroid weight because of phytase supplementation was greater at the lower dietary P level, and the greatest when both phytase and OA were

  17. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  18. Hypoandrogenism and abnormal regulation of gonadotropin secretion in rats fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Mellitt, R; Vigersky, R A; Swerdloff, R S

    1979-02-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in rats fed a low protein diet for 4 weeks beginning at 21 days of age. Compared to control, the low protein group had decreased seminal vesicle and prostate weights as well as decreased testicular testosterone output in vitro, although serum testosterone was not different. The low protein group showed no consistent alterations in serum LH (basal, post-LHRH, and postcastration) compared to control although serum FSH (basal and post-LHRH) was lower in the low protein group. Despite this lower basal FSH, the low protein group had supranormal serum FSH after castration. Seminiferous tubule diameter and testicular histology were normal in the low protein group although testicular androgen-binding protein was absent. Testicular androgen-binding protein was also undetectable in a modestly food-restricted control group which had normal testicular size, testicular histology, androgen output, and serum FSH. This finding suggests that loss of testicular androgen-binding protein may be a sensitive sign of undernutrition. We conclude that rats fed a low protein diet have hypoandrogenism, normal testicular histology, and supranormal FSH after castration despite subnormal basal FSH. The latter combination suggests overproduction of an FSH inhibitor of testicular origin.

  19. Microbial phytase in finisher diets of White Pekin ducks: effects on growth performance, plasma phosphorus concentration, and leg bone characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Adeola, O; Stroshine, R

    1999-03-01

    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the growth response of White Pekin ducks to inclusion of microbial phytase in finisher diet. In Exp. 1, 1-d-old male ducks (240 total) were reared in litter-floor pens and fed regular starter diet until 3 wk of age. At 3 wk of age, ducks were randomly divided into six groups of 10 ducks each and each group was fed one of four diets. Three finisher diets containing 16% CP and 0.18% available phosphorus (AP) without supplemental P were formulated with microbial phytase (Natuphos) added at 0, 750, or 1,500 phytase units/kg of diet. The fourth diet was a control finisher diet that was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (DCP) to supply dietary AP of 0.41%. Group BW and feed intake were measured weekly to assess growth response. At 6 wk of age, leg bones (tibia, femur, metatarsus) from five randomly selected ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics. In Exp. 2, a total of 120 ducks reared as in Exp. 1 were randomly divided into six groups of five ducks each and fed one of four diets. A basal finisher diet was formulated to contain 16% CP and 0.18% AP. Monosodium phosphate was added to the basal diet to give dietary AP levels of 0.18, 0.27, and 0.36%. The fourth diet was the basal diet supplemented with microbial phytase (750 phytase units/kg of diet). Ducks were fed these diets from 3 to 6 wk of age. At the end of the study, ducks were bled by cardiac puncture and blood plasma was analyzed for P concentration. Leg bones from all ducks were removed and analyzed for bone characteristics as in Exp. 1. Feed intake increased linearly with increased level of dietary phytase, whereas the weight gain response was quadratic only during the last week of Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, there was a quadratic response for weight gain due to dietary AP. Weight gain due to phytase (750 units) was not different from ducks fed diets at 0 or 0.18% AP. Plasma P concentration increased linearly as dietary AP increased. Plasma P levels

  20. Diet expert subsystem for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the mathematical basis of a diet-controlling expert system, designated 'Ceres' for the human crews of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Ceres methodology can furnish both steady-state and dynamic diet solutions; the differences between Ceres and a conventional nutritional-modeling method is illustrated by the case of a three-component, potato-wheat-soybean food system. Attention is given to the role of food processing in furnishing flexibility in diet-planning management. Crew diet solutions based on simple optimizations are not necessarily the most suitable for optimum CELSS operation.

  1. Diet and dementia.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Lawrence J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2004-09-01

    The ageing brain adapts to the accumulation of damage caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. Adaptive processes include neuroprotective and neurorestorative mechanisms. Individual differences in susceptibility to dementia arise when these mechanisms are impaired or are overwhelmed by the molecular pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Neuroprotection relies upon extrinsic and intrinsic defences. An adequate intake of antioxidant micronutrients (eg, vitamin C and vitamin E) and anti-inflammatory macronutrients (eg, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) forms an essential component of extrinsic defences against brain ageing. There are many epidemiological data to support an association between an inadequate intake of antioxidants and/or fish oils (an important source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and a greater than expected incidence of late onset dementia. These associations are confounded by established links between poverty, poor diet and failing health, especially in old age. Such links may be sufficient to explain some of the effects of an inadequate diet on the retention of cognitive function and increased risk of dementia in old age. More compelling is the association between increased plasma homocysteine concentration and later increased risk of dementia. This association is possibly caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin B(12)/folate.

  2. The modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  3. Diet in dermatology: revisited.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Sowmya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum's disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria), nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia) and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  4. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future. PMID:26668038

  5. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    PubMed

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.

  6. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  7. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  8. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  9. Low vitamin E in diet reduces stress resistance of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Tort, L; Robaina, L; Vergara, J M; Izquierdo, M S

    2001-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of dietary vitamin E on juveniles of gilthead seabream under stressful situations, focusing on the effects on growth, haematology, some immune parameters and plasma cortisol as indicators of stress. Two sardine meal-based experimental diets, one of them supplemented with 150 mg of alpha tocopherol kg(-1) of diet (control) and another one without vitamin E supplementation (diet NE), were assayed under two different stress conditions: overcrowding as a chronic stressor (during 15 weeks) and repetitive chasing as an acute repetitive stressor. Low levels of vitamin E in the diet depleted alternative complement pathway activity [from 167.23 U ml(-1) (control fish) down to 100.99 U ml(-1)] and also nonspecific haemagglutination. Also, fish fed a non-supplemented diet showed an elevation of plasma cortisol basal levels without a stressor influence [from 3.91 ng cortisol ml(-1) plasma (control fish) up to 21.70 ng cortisol ml(-1) plasma]. Low levels of vitamin E in the diet also produced an increase of erythrocyte fragility. Under chronic stress, fish fed the vitamin E-deficient diet showed a reduction in growth and survival, and alterations in haematological parameters, such as an additional haemoconcentration in response to overcrowding when compared with control fish. Under repetitive stress, fish fed the vitamin E deficient diet showed faster elevation of plasma cortisol levels in response to stress and a lower survival rate than control fish. Production of oxygen radicals by blood neutrophils was reduced under repetitive stress in fish fed the non-supplemented diet. These results suggest that fish fed the vitamin E-deficient diet had lower stress resistance.

  10. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  11. Basal cell naevus syndrome: an update on genetics and treatment.

    PubMed

    John, A M; Schwartz, R A

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that stems from mutations in multiple genes, most commonly patched 1 (PTCH1). The classic triad of symptoms consists of basal cell carcinomas, jaw keratocysts and cerebral calcifications, although there are many other systemic manifestations. Because of the broad range of symptoms and development of several types of tumours, early diagnosis and close monitoring are essential to preserve quality of life. Targeting treatment is often difficult because of tumour prevalence. Newer inhibitors of the hedgehog signalling pathway and proteins involved in proliferative growth have shown therapeutic promise. In addition, preventive medications are being devised. We propose a method for determining appropriate treatment for cutaneous tumours. PMID:26409035

  12. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  13. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  14. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  15. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  16. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  17. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  18. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, N. K.; Tilak Raj, T. N.; Mukunda, K. S.; Rajashekar Reddy, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:23633824

  20. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  1. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  2. Conjunctival ganglioglioma as a feature of basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Arnaud; Blavin, Julie; Lhermitte, Benoit; Speeg-Schatz, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (MIM #109400), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. The syndrome is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts of the mandible, postnatal tumors, and multiple basal cell carcinomas. Mutations in the PTCH1 gene (a tumor suppressor gene) or, more rarely, the NBCCS or the TRPC1 genes are responsible for the development of many postnatal tumors. We present a case of Gorlin syndrome presenting as a conjunctival ganglioglioma in a 13-year-old girl. While cases of cerebral ganglioglioma have been described in association with Gorlin syndrome, conjunctival ganglioglioma has not, to the best of our knowledge, been reported. PMID:21907124

  3. [New hypothesis on the replication of centrioles and basal bodies].

    PubMed

    Mignot, J P

    1996-12-01

    Certain morphological data, obtained in studies of the ultrastructure of centrioles and basal bodies in cells of metazoa and protists, lead us to think that the cartwheel represents of the most appropriate organization for a self-reproducing and transmissible centriolar organizer. Centrioles and basal bodies might then not be simply the centres of replication of those organizers, but also reservoirs containing several superposed centriolar organizers, which are released depending on the requirements of the cell. As an isolated cartwheel is extremely unlikely to be detected, either in conventional electron microscopy or in immunocytochemistry, it is thus the reservoir which has so far been under consideration. Such a hypothesis would permit the explanation that biogenesis de novo and biogenesis in proximity to preexisting organelles may differ only in terms of the number of morphogenetic units involved.

  4. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  5. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  6. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  7. Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Dezhe Z.; Fujii, Naotaka; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys performing a routine visuomotor task. We found that a subset of neurons exhibited time-stamp encoding strikingly similar to that required by models of reinforcement-based learning: They responded with spike activity peaks that were distributed at different time delays after single task events. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the population activity allowed robust decoding of task time by perceptron models. We suggest that time information can emerge as a byproduct of event coding in cortico-basal ganglia circuits and can serve as a critical infrastructure for behavioral learning and performance. PMID:19850874

  8. Dietary vitamin E in White Leghorn layer breeder hens: a strategy to combat aflatoxin B1-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajid Arshad; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Rafique, Shahid; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Ahad, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of animal and human feed and food respectively. This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of vitamin E (Vit E) in White Leghorn breeder hens and their progeny against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced damage. The results indicated a significant decrease in egg production and quality in the groups exposed to dietary AFB1. A detectable amount of AFB1 residue appeared in the eggs during the first week of mycotoxin exposure at levels ≥ 2.5 mg kg(-1), which reached its peak (0.403 ± 0.04 ng/g [mean ± standard deviation]) during the second week of the experiment (in the group fed 10 mg kg(-1)). Feeding Vit E + AFB1 resulted in higher AFB1 residues (0.467 ± 0.03) when compared with the hens fed AFB1 alone. The resistance of red blood cells to oxidative damage was decreased, while embryonic mortalities and deformities were increased in the AFB1-fed groups. The protective effect of Vit E on these parameters was noted in the groups fed lower doses of AFB1. After the withdrawal of mycotoxin-contaminated feed, most of the parameters returned towards normal within 2 weeks, except AFB1 residues that were still detectable. From the findings of this study one can conclude that the addition of Vit E in the diet of hens provided only partial protection against AFB1-induced damage.

  9. Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status.

    PubMed

    Scheideler, S E

    1993-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro trials were conducted to test the efficacy of four aluminosilicates (AS) (Ethacal feed component, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite) to sorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and alleviate aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Percentage sorption capacity of AS to radiolabeled AFB1 dissolved in methanol varied from 2 to 60%, whereas percentage sorption in intestinal contents varied from 0 to 40.0% according to type of AS tested. Intestinal contents alone sorbed 42% radiolabeled AFB1. Novasil and Zeobrite exhibited the highest rates of sorption (55 and 60%, respectively) in methanol. An in vivo study compared the four types of AS in combination with 0 or 2.5 ppm AFB1 fed to day-old chicks (two pens of six chicks per treatment) to 3 wk of age. Diet effects on body weight, liver lipid, bone ash, and serum Ca, P, Na, K, and Cl were measured. The AFB1 significantly decreased 2- and 3-wk body weight, and a significant interaction effect of AS and AFB1 on bird weight occurred at 2 and 3 wk of age. Three of the four AS tested alleviated the growth depression caused by AFB1. Liver lipids percentage was increased in the AFB1-treated chicks, but this effect was suppressed by three of the AS. Bone ash was not affected by AFB1 and was increased by Novasil and decreased by Ethacal. Ethacal, Novasil, Perlite, and Zeobrite all tended to decrease serum Cl, regardless of AFB1 treatment.

  10. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE NOSE—Treatment with Chemosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Gilbert A.; Beirne, Clinton G.

    1956-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas of the nose probably originate from embryologic cell rests left between cartilages and bones in the fusion and migration of the nasal precursors. Some carcinomas have been found to invade to the mucosal surface between subcutaneous structures or around the alar margins. Recurrences are particularly likely to develop deep extensions due to overlying scar tissue. In many cases, chemosurgical removal has disclosed unsuspected deep and lateral extensions. It is the treatment method of choice for many such lesions. PMID:13276824

  11. A role for Sv2c in basal ganglia functions.

    PubMed

    Dardou, D; Monlezun, S; Foerch, P; Courade, J P; Cuvelier, L; De Ryck, M; Schiffmann, S N

    2013-04-24

    SV2C is an isoform of the synaptic vesicle 2 protein family that exhibits a particular pattern of brain expression with enriched expression in several basal ganglia nuclei. In the present study, we have investigated SV2C implication in both normal and pathological basal ganglia functioning with a peculiar attention to dopamine neuron containing regions. In SV2C-/- mice, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in midbrain dopaminergic neurons was largely and significantly increased and enkephalin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus. The expression of SV2C was studied in two models of dopaminergic denervation (6-OHDA- and MPTP-induced lesions). In dopamine-depleted animals, SV2C mRNA expression was significant increased in the striatum. In order to further understand the role of SV2C, we performed behavioral experiments on SV2C-/- mice and on knock-down mice receiving an injection of adeno-associated virus expressing SV2C miRNA specifically in the ventral midbrain. These modifications of SV2C expression had little or no impact on behavior in open field and elevated plus maze. However, even if complete loss of SV2C had no impact on conditioned place preference induced by cocaine, the specific knock-down of SV2C expression in the dopaminergic neurons completely abolished the development of a CPP while the reaction to an acute drug injection remains similar in these mice compared to control mice. These results showed that SV2C, a poorly functionally characterized protein is strongly involved in normal operation of the basal ganglia network and could be also involved in system adaptation in basal ganglia pathological conditions. PMID:23458503

  12. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  13. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Ornithischia (the ‘bird-hipped’ dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  14. Basal Breast Cancer: A Complex and Deadly Molecular Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, F; Finetti, P; Birnbaum, D

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, gene expression profiling of breast cancer has revealed the existence of five molecular subtypes and allowed the establishment of a new classification. The basal subtype, which represents 15-25% of cases, is characterized by an expression profile similar to that of myoepithelial normal mammary cells. Basal tumors are frequently assimilated to triple-negative (TN) breast cancers. They display epidemiological and clinico-pathological features distinct from other subtypes. Their pattern of relapse is characterized by frequent and early relapses and visceral locations. Despite a relative sensitivity to chemotherapy, the prognosis is poor. Recent characterization of their molecular features, such as the dysfunction of the BRCA1 pathway or the frequent expression of EGFR, provides opportunities for optimizing the systemic treatment. Several clinical trials dedicated to basal or TN tumors are testing cytotoxic agents and/or molecularly targeted therapies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this aggressive and hard-to-treat subtype of breast cancer. PMID:22082486

  15. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  16. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  17. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  18. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence. PMID:24711821

  19. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinse

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  20. Choosing sides--asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Chad G

    2014-07-01

    Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly.

  1. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  2. Choosing sides – asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly. PMID:24895399

  3. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P < 0.05), but no statistical relationship was found in women. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, fat oxidation was best predicted by peak O2 consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  4. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D G

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry is also useful for identifying the cell composition of the basal cell proliferations, including the basal cell nature of the cells, their myoepithelial differentiation, and c-erbB-2 oncoprotein expression. Based on the information derived from the literature and on the appearance and follow up of the case presented here, florid BCH might represent a lesion with an intermediate position between ordinary BCH and basal cell carcinoma. However, criteria useful for the identification of those cases with a true precursor nature are not available. In general, basal cell carcinoma is seen as a low grade carcinoma. The immunohistochemical expression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein, similar to that seen in breast cancer, might have therapeutic importance. PMID:15735163

  5. Jaw mechanism and dental function in the late cretaceous basal eusuchian Iharkutosuchus.

    PubMed

    Osi, Attila; Weishampel, David B

    2009-08-01

    Iharkutosuchus makadii is a basal eusuchian crocodylian with multicusped teeth discovered from the Upper Cretaceous of Hungary. Skull and dentition morphology indicates an active food processing for this crocodylian. First among crocodylians, a combination of different analyses, including cranial adductor muscle reconstruction, tooth wear pattern, and enamel microstructure studies, is applied here to support this hypothesis. Data provide unambiguous evidence for significant dental occlusion that was a result of a unique, transverse mandibular movement. Reconstruction of the jaw adductors demonstrates strong muscles responsible for slow but active jaw closure as the motor of transverse jaw movement; nevertheless muscles producing rapid jaw closure were reduced. Macrowear orientations show a dominantly transverse movement of the mandibles completed by a slight anteroposterior component. Along with quadrate morphology, macrowear further indicates that this motion was accomplished by alternate rotation of the mandibles about the quadrate condyles. Dental morphology and wear patterns suggest two types of power stroke: a slicing-crushing stroke associated dominantly with anterior tooth-food-tooth contact (with a low degree of transverse mandibular movement) during in the early stage of mastication, and a grinding stroke with significant posterior tooth-tooth contact and a dynamic transverse movement occurring later. The patterns of microwear show a diverse diet for Iharkutosuchus including both soft and hard items. This is also supported by the microstructure of the thick, wrinkled enamel built up mostly by poorly developed columnar units. Based on wear patterns, ontogenetic variation in feeding habits of Iharkutosuchus is also recognized.

  6. Weight Loss Reversed Obesity-Induced HGF/c-Met Pathway and Basal-Like Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Le, Trinh L.; Essaid, Luma; Freemerman, Alex J.; Huang, Megan J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Bendt, Katharine M.; Darr, David B.; Troester, Melissa A.; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC). Using the C3(1)-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1)-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high-fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low-fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. We investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin:adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor progression. Future research aims to evaluate the role of obesity and the HGF

  7. Weight Loss Reversed Obesity-Induced HGF/c-Met Pathway and Basal-Like Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Le, Trinh L; Essaid, Luma; Freemerman, Alex J; Huang, Megan J; Galanko, Joseph A; McNaughton, Kirk K; Bendt, Katharine M; Darr, David B; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that obesity is associated with an aggressive subtype of breast cancer called basal-like breast cancer (BBC). Using the C3(1)-TAg murine model of BBC, we previously demonstrated that mice displayed an early onset of tumors when fed obesogenic diets in the adult window of susceptibility. Obesity was also shown to elevate mammary gland expression and activation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met compared to lean controls, a pro-tumorigenic pathway associated with BBC in patients. Epidemiologic studies estimate that weight loss could prevent a large proportion of BBC. We sought to investigate whether weight loss in adulthood prior to tumor onset would protect mice from accelerated tumorigenesis observed in obese mice. Using a life-long model of obesity, C3(1)-TAg mice were weaned onto and maintained on an obesogenic high-fat diet. Obese mice displayed significant elevations in tumor progression, but not latency or burden. Tumor progression was significantly reversed when obese mice were induced to lose weight by switching to a control low-fat diet prior to tumor onset compared to mice maintained on obesogenic diet. We investigated the HGF/c-Met pathway known to regulate tumorigenesis. Importantly, HGF/c-Met expression in normal mammary glands and c-Met in tumors was elevated with obesity and was significantly reversed with weight loss. Changes in tumor growth could not be explained by measures of HGF action including phospho-AKT or phospho-S6. Other mediators associated with oncogenesis such as hyperinsulinemia and a high leptin:adiponectin ratio were elevated by obesity and reduced with weight loss. In sum, weight loss significantly blunted the obesity-responsive pro-tumorigenic HGF/c-Met pathway and improved several metabolic risk factors associated with BBC, which together may have contributed to the dramatic reversal of obesity-driven tumor progression. Future research aims to evaluate the role of obesity and the HGF

  8. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  9. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  10. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  11. Zinc and vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Angela V; Craig, Winston J; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    Well planned vegetarian diets can provide adequate amounts of zinc from plant sources. Vegetarians appear to adapt to lower zinc intakes by increased absorption and retention of zinc. Good sources of zinc for vegetarians include whole grains, tofu, tempeh, legumes, nuts and seeds, fortified breakfast cereals and dairy products. The inhibitory effects of phytate on absorption of zinc can be minimised by modern food-processing methods such as soaking, heating, sprouting, fermenting and leavening. Absorption of zinc can be improved by using yeast-based breads and sourdough breads, sprouts, and presoaked legumes. Studies show vegetarians have similar serum zinc concentrations to, and no greater risk of zinc deficiency than, non-vegetarians (despite differences in zinc intake).

  12. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  13. Diet and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koriech, Osama M.

    1994-01-01

    Environrnental and lifestyle factors, including diet, pray be responsible for the recognised worldwide variation in tire incidence of specific types or cancer. Chemical carcinogenesis is a multistage process occurring over a relatively long period or time. The mechanisms are complex as different factors damage develops following exposure to carcinogenic agents. Progression to malignancy is, at this stage, not inevitable. Specific agents are needed to ‘promote’, and induce ‘progression’ or inhibit subsequent changes to develop invasive malignancy. Understanding the roles played by different agents and mechanisms in the overall carcinogenic process For cc specific cancer nary form the basis for risk assessment and eventual prevention. The multistep process of carcinogenesis including initiation, promotion, and progression, are all needed for clinically invasive cancer to develop. Efforts directed to any of these phases can prevent the development of cancer. A variety of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances ore present in our diet. Some are found naturally in the food ingredients, whereas others result from pesticide residues, environmental pollution, food additives, preparation and processing procedures, curd fungal contamination. The control of these factors may render some cancers potentially avoidable. The role of macro and micro-nutrients in the causation of cancer and eventually in its prevention is complicated by their combined distribution in food products. Intensive research into the nature of cancer prevention by nutrient components and their synthetic analogs is still in its infancy. As cancer induction, promotion and progression is a slow mechanism that could take many years, it is uncertain what time-period of dietary intake is most relevant. Currently, recommended prevention strategies include choose more/choose less approach, through emphasizing a shift away from high fat, low-fiber foods that may increase cancer risks, toward foods low in fat

  14. Cassava For Space Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    PubMed

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  16. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  17. Diets could prevent many diseases.

    PubMed

    Lands, William E M

    2003-04-01

    The 2002 ISSFAL Meeting arranged a special evening discussion with professional dietitians about diet-tissue-disease relationships involving essential fatty acids and eicosanoids. The balance of eicosanoid precursors in human tissues differs widely, reflecting voluntary dietary choices among different groups worldwide. An empirical quantitative diet-tissue relationship fits these diverse values as well as other research reports on essential fatty acid metabolism. Information for dietitians and nutritionists about essential fatty acids and eicosanoids is also given in two distance learning web sites, http://ods.od.nih.gov/eicosanoids/ and http:// efaeducation.nih.gov/, which facilitate dietitian education and diet counseling. These sites also have an innovative, interactive diet planning software program with the empirical equation embedded in it to help evaluate personal food choices in the context of the diet-tissue-disease relationship and other widely recommended dietary advice. PMID:12848276

  18. Health effects of vegan diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  19. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    PubMed

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health.

  20. Basal body structure and cell cycle-dependent biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sue; Gull, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Basal bodies are microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages. The core structure of the basal body is highly conserved, but there is variability in biogenesis and additional functions that are organism and cell type specific. Work carried out in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has arguably produced one of the most detailed dissections of basal body structure and biogenesis within the context of the flagellar pocket and associated organelles. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the basic basal body structure in T. brucei along with the accessory structures and show how basal body movements during the basal body duplication cycle orchestrate cell and organelle morphogenesis. With this in-depth three-dimensional knowledge, identification of many basal body genes coupled with excellent genetic tools makes it an attractive model organism to study basal body biogenesis and maintenance. PMID:26862392

  1. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in basal and squamous cell skin cancer research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  2. Basal Metabolic Rate of the Black-Faced Sheathbill (Chionis minor): Intraspecific Variation in a Phylogenetically Distinct Island Endemic.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Gregory T W; McKechnie, Andrew E; Chown, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a fundamental characteristic of all organisms. It covaries most significantly with activity, body mass, seasonality, and temperature. Nonetheless, substantial additional variation in metabolic rate, especially either resting rate or basal rate, is associated with a range of factors including phylogenetic position, ecological distinctiveness, range position, and diet. Understanding this variation is a key goal of physiological ecology. The black-faced sheathbill is a phylogenetically distinct, high-latitude, island-endemic bird occurring exclusively on several archipelagos in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we examined the idea that the unique phylogenetic position and ecology of the black-faced sheathbill may lead to a basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from that predicted by its body mass. When compared with BMR data available for all birds and a subset of island species, it was clear that the BMR of the black-faced sheathbill on subantarctic Marion Island, estimated at 15°C using indirect calorimetry (2.370 ± 0.464 W, mean ± SD; n = 22), for a group of birds with a mean mass of 459 ± 64 g, is no different from that expected based on body mass. However, variation in BMR, associated with habitat use and diet, even when correcting for variation in mass, was found. Sheathbills foraging year-round in comparatively resource-rich king penguin colonies have a higher BMR (2.758 ± 0.291 W, n = 12) than sheathbills that split their foraging between rockhopper penguin colonies and the intertidal zone (2.047 ± 0.303 W, n = 10), which are poorer in resources. Because these populations coexist at relatively small spatial extents (the entire island is 290 km(2)), other factors seem unlikely as causes of this variation.

  3. Basal Metabolic Rate of the Black-Faced Sheathbill (Chionis minor): Intraspecific Variation in a Phylogenetically Distinct Island Endemic.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Gregory T W; McKechnie, Andrew E; Chown, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is a fundamental characteristic of all organisms. It covaries most significantly with activity, body mass, seasonality, and temperature. Nonetheless, substantial additional variation in metabolic rate, especially either resting rate or basal rate, is associated with a range of factors including phylogenetic position, ecological distinctiveness, range position, and diet. Understanding this variation is a key goal of physiological ecology. The black-faced sheathbill is a phylogenetically distinct, high-latitude, island-endemic bird occurring exclusively on several archipelagos in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we examined the idea that the unique phylogenetic position and ecology of the black-faced sheathbill may lead to a basal metabolic rate (BMR) different from that predicted by its body mass. When compared with BMR data available for all birds and a subset of island species, it was clear that the BMR of the black-faced sheathbill on subantarctic Marion Island, estimated at 15°C using indirect calorimetry (2.370 ± 0.464 W, mean ± SD; n = 22), for a group of birds with a mean mass of 459 ± 64 g, is no different from that expected based on body mass. However, variation in BMR, associated with habitat use and diet, even when correcting for variation in mass, was found. Sheathbills foraging year-round in comparatively resource-rich king penguin colonies have a higher BMR (2.758 ± 0.291 W, n = 12) than sheathbills that split their foraging between rockhopper penguin colonies and the intertidal zone (2.047 ± 0.303 W, n = 10), which are poorer in resources. Because these populations coexist at relatively small spatial extents (the entire island is 290 km(2)), other factors seem unlikely as causes of this variation. PMID:27082724

  4. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... lot of calories. Avoid drinks that have sugar, fructose, or corn syrup in them. Avoid carbonated drinks ( ...

  5. Prospects for using nonconventional feeds in diets for Awassi dairy sheep in Syria.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Iñiguez, L; Knaus, W; Schreiner, M; Rischkowsky, B; Wurzinger, M; Mayer, H K

    2011-06-01

    High feed costs are major obstacles for resource-poor dairy sheep farmers in West Asia, along with large fluctuation in grain and straw prices. Farmers need low-cost diets using locally available feeds that can provide sufficient milk of good quality. Two experimental trials were conducted on Awassi milking ewes to evaluate nonconventional and balanced low-cost diets against the traditional unbalanced diet used by farmers (control) on the total yields (milk, fat, protein, and total solids) and milk composition (fat, protein, total solids, and lactose), an important indicator of milk quality. The first trial was conducted at the research station of the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria) to test 6 low-cost balanced diets using locally available feeds and agro byproducts against the control diet. Each diet was tested on 8 ewes that were kept on pasture as a basal diet, but received different supplements, including barley, wheat bran and nonconventional feeds (urea-treated wheat straw, molasses, sugar beet pulp, and cotton seed cake). Five balanced diets enhanced the total yields of milk, fat, protein, and total solids, in 2 cases, significantly. These diets increased total milk yield by 17.7 to 50.2% and decreased supplement feeding costs by 43% compared with the control. However, milk composition remained unaffected. The second trial was conducted on 3 different farms in northern Syria to assess in each farm a low-cost balanced diet on milking ewes (n=15) in comparison to the farmer's control (n=15). The balanced diet was a modification requested by farmers of the best performing diet in the on-station trial. Confirming the first trial's research results, the balanced diet outperformed the control in total yields; for instance, it increased total milk yield by 28 to 40% and raised net income by 30%, without affecting milk composition. Both trials showed that using locally available nonconventional feedstuffs, such

  6. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.

  7. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  8. "Using a Howitzer to Kill a Butterfly": Teaching Literature with Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Elizabeth; Goodman, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that while basals have undergone a facelift in recent years, the core of the program remains the same. Analyzes the experiences children would have when reading Jane Yolen's "Grizzle's Grumble," assuming it were taught according to the guidelines provided in the basals. Asks Yolen about the treatment of her story in the basals. (TB)

  9. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P < 0.001) but no effect of HLS x diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  10. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (P<0.05). The immunosuppressive treatments had no effect on worm burden despite the reduction in the numbers of inflammatory cells in the abomasal mucosa of the Immune-Suppressed groups. These groups showed longer worms and females with more eggs in comparison with their counterparts fed each Diet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes

  11. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (P<0.05). The immunosuppressive treatments had no effect on worm burden despite the reduction in the numbers of inflammatory cells in the abomasal mucosa of the Immune-Suppressed groups. These groups showed longer worms and females with more eggs in comparison with their counterparts fed each Diet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes

  12. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source

  13. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  14. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  15. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  16. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  17. Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Charles J.; Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-09-01

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets containing low protein quantities, recalcitrant carbohydrate sources, and plant defensive compounds. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a wood-feeding insect that attacks and kills a diversity of hardwood tree species. We compared gene expression of midguts collected from larvae feeding in a preferred tree, sugar maple, to those consuming a nutrient-rich artificial diet, to identify genes putatively involved in host plant utilization. Anoplophora glabripennis larvae exhibited differential expression of ~3600 genes in response to different diets. Genes with predicted capacity for plant and microbial carbohydrate usage, detoxification, nutrient recycling, and immune-related genes relevant for facilitating interactions with microbial symbionts were upregulated in wood-feeding larvae compared to larvae feeding in artificial diet. Upregulation of genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis was also observed, suggesting that proteins incur more rapid turnover in insects consuming wood. Additionally, wood-feeding individuals exhibited elevated expression of several mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase genes, suggesting increased aerobic respiration compared to diet-fed larvae. These results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds.

  18. Contrasting diets reveal metabolic plasticity in the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Charles J.; Scully, Erin D.; Geib, Scott M.; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets containing low protein quantities, recalcitrant carbohydrate sources, and plant defensive compounds. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a wood-feeding insect that attacks and kills a diversity of hardwood tree species. We compared gene expression of midguts collected from larvae feeding in a preferred tree, sugar maple, to those consuming a nutrient-rich artificial diet, to identify genes putatively involved in host plant utilization. Anoplophora glabripennis larvae exhibited differential expression of ~3600 genes in response to different diets. Genes with predicted capacity for plant and microbial carbohydrate usage, detoxification, nutrient recycling, and immune-related genes relevant for facilitating interactions with microbial symbionts were upregulated in wood-feeding larvae compared to larvae feeding in artificial diet. Upregulation of genes involved in protein degradation and synthesis was also observed, suggesting that proteins incur more rapid turnover in insects consuming wood. Additionally, wood-feeding individuals exhibited elevated expression of several mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase genes, suggesting increased aerobic respiration compared to diet-fed larvae. These results indicate that A. glabripennis modulates digestive and basal gene expression when larvae are feeding in a nutrient-poor, yet suitable host plant compared to a tractable and nutrient-rich diet that is free of plant defensive compounds. PMID:27654346

  19. The gut microbial community in metabolic syndrome patients is modified by diet.

    PubMed

    Haro, Carmen; Garcia-Carpintero, Sonia; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Rangel Zuñiga, Oriol A; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Landa, Blanca B; Clemente, Jose C; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Camargo, Antonio; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multicomponent disorder frequently associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to test the effect of consuming two healthy diets: a Mediterranean diet and a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, for 2years in the gut microbiota of MetS patients and those in the control group. We analyzed the differences in the bacterial community structure between the groups after 2years of dietary intervention (Mediterranean or low-fat diet) through quantitative polymerase chain reaction using primers, targeting specific bacterial taxa. We observed, at basal time, that the abundance of Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus genera is lower in the control group than in MetS patients, while Bacteroides fragilis group, Parabacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens subgroup and Eubacterium rectale are depleted in MetS patients (all P values <.05). Additionally, we found that long-term consumption of Mediterranean diet partially restores the population of P. distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, F. prausnitzii, B. adolescentis and B. longum in MetS patients (all P values <.05). Our results suggest that the Mediterranean diet could be a useful tool to restore potentially beneficial members of the gut microbiota, although the stability of these changes over time still remains to be assessed.

  20. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  1. Sympathetic storming in a patient with intracranial basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Siu, Gilbert; Marino, Michael; Desai, Anjuli; Nissley, Frederick

    2011-03-01

    Neurologic deficits and medical complications are common sequelae after intracranial hemorrhage. Among the medical complications, sympathetic storming is relatively rare. We describe a case of a patient with an acute right basal ganglia hemorrhage. During the patient's hospital course, he developed tachypnea, diaphoresis, hypertension, hyperthermia, and tachycardia for three consecutive days. A complete laboratory work-up and imaging studies were unremarkable for infectious etiology, new intracranial hemorrhage, and deep vein thrombosis. The patient was diagnosed with sympathetic storming, a relatively uncommon cause of these symptoms. The storming was secondary to a kinked Foley catheter, and subsequent placement of a new catheter resulted in the resolution of his symptoms. PMID:21297401

  2. Basal cell carcinoma — molecular biology and potential new therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Maria; Jaks, Viljar; Hohl, Daniel; Toftgård, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin, the most common malignancy in individuals of mixed European descent, is increasing in incidence due to an aging population and sun exposure habits. The realization that aberrant activation of Hedgehog signaling is a pathognomonic feature of BCC development has opened the way for exciting progress toward understanding BCC biology and translation of this knowledge to the clinic. Genetic mouse models closely mimicking human BCCs have provided answers about the tumor cell of origin, and inhibition of Hedgehog signaling is emerging as a potentially useful targeted therapy for patients with advanced or multiple BCCs that have hitherto lacked effective treatment. PMID:22293184

  3. Basal Cell Adenoma with Perplexity in Diagnosis - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kardam, Priyanka; Rehani, Shweta; Mathias, Yulia; Wadhwa, Manish

    2016-03-01

    Every salivary gland tumour irrespective of its benign or malignant nature or occurrence, exhibits certain unique and overlapping histopathologic features. Basal Cell Adenoma (BCA) is a rare salivary gland tumour and hence it becomes our responsibility to report every case with unique histopathologic features so that it can add to our present knowledge of this lesion. Often, the pathologists experience difficulty while diagnosing lesions like BCA which contain basaloid cells due to its similarity with other lesions of similar histological appearance. Hence, this paper discusses a case of BCA with rare histopathologic features along with the possible differential diagnosis.

  4. Use of fly ash in diets of cage and floor broilers

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, C.L.; Andrews, L.D.

    1980-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare limestone to fly ash from a coal-fired generator station as a calcium source for broilers. In experiment 1, 5 male and 5 female broiler chicks were placed in each of 32 cages. Sixteen cages of birds were fed a ration with limestone supplying 30% of the total calcium and 16 cages were fed a ration with 30% of the total calcium supplied by fly ash. The total calcium and phosphorus levels of the rations were 1.0% and .5%, respectively. In this experiment no significant difference was found for 8-week body weight between diets where the added calcium was from limestone or fly ash. In experiment 2 a group of 40 male and 40 female cage reared broilers and 40 male and 40 female floor reared broilers were fed a basal diet of limestone providing 33% of the total calcium. Three diets with increasing fly ash levels were fed to three cage groups of 40 male and 40 female broilers providing 33, 46, and 45% of the total calcium of .9, 1.1, and 1.8%, respectively. Broilers fed the highest fly ash level weighed significantly less at 8 weeks than the caged controls but did not differ from the other treatments. Bone breaking strength as measured by the Allo Kramer Shear Press was similar between the basal and low level fly ash group and increased with higher fly ash levels. In experiment 3 four groups of 40 male broilers in cages were fed limestone diets with graded levels of limestone for the calcium source. Another four groups of 40 caged male broilers were fed fly ash diets with equivalent graded levels of fly ash for the calcium source. Both limestone and fly ash diets provided .17, .34, .51, and .68% calcium of a total calcium content of .28, .45, .62, and .79%, respectively.

  5. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  6. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  7. Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?

    PubMed

    Mena-Segovia, Juan; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN. The PPN provides an interface for the basal ganglia to influence sleep and waking, and the two structures are similarly implicated in learning, reward and other cognitive functions. Perturbations of basal ganglia activity have consequences for the PPN and vice versa, exemplified by their interdependencies in motor function and Parkinson's disease. Thus, close anatomical and physiological links between the PPN and basal ganglia make it increasingly difficult to consider the two as separate functional entities. PMID:15374668

  8. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for a Mutagenic Mode of Action for Cancer: AFB1 and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AOPs provide a framework to describe a sequence of measureable key events (KEs), beginning with a molecular initiating event (MIE), followed by a series of identified KEs linked to one another by KE Relationships (KERs), all anchored by a specific adverse outcome (AO). Each KE/KE...

  9. Analysis of the aflatoxin AFB1 from corn by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer (MS) was used for screening of aflatoxins from a variety of surfaces and the rapid quantitative analysis of aflatoxins extracted from corn. Sample preparation procedure and instrument parameter settings wer...

  10. Perigestational dietary folic acid deficiency protects against medulloblastoma formation in a mouse model of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Been, Raha A; Ross, Julie A; Nagel, Christian W; Hooten, Anthony J; Langer, Erica K; DeCoursin, Krista J; Marek, Courtney A; Janik, Callie L; Linden, Michael A; Reed, Robyn C; Schutten, Melissa M; Largaespada, David A; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is caused by PTCH1 gene mutations that result in diverse neoplasms including medulloblastoma (MB). Epidemiological studies report reduced pediatric brain tumor risks associated with maternal intake of prenatal vitamins containing folic acid (FA) and FA supplements specifically. We hypothesized that low maternal FA intake during the perigestational period would increase MB incidence in a transgenic NBCCS mouse model, which carries an autosomal dominant mutation in the Ptch1 gene. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n = 126) were randomized to 1 of 3 diets with differing FA amounts: 0.3 mg/kg (low), 2.0 mg/kg (control), and 8.0 mg/kg (high) 1 mo prior to mating with Ptch1 (+/-) C57BL/6 males. Females were maintained on the diet until pup weaning; the pups were then aged for tumor development. Compared to the control group, offspring MB incidence was significantly lower in the low FA group (Hazard Ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.80) at 1 yr. No significant difference in incidence was observed between the control and high FA groups. Low maternal perigestational FA levels may decrease MB incidence in mice genetically predisposed to tumor development. Our results could have implications for prenatal FA intake recommendations in the presence of cancer syndromes. PMID:23909730

  11. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  12. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  13. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819

  16. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Alburges, Mario E.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pre-treatment with D1-like (SCH-23380) or D2-like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. PMID:25155699

  17. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  18. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-05-17

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae.

  19. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-02-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment.

  20. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  1. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-05-17

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  2. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  3. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  4. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Mohammad; Li, Changzhao; Kim, Arianna L.; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Bickers, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Shh activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs particularly in patients with Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to de-repression of the downstream G-protein coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, in patients with NBCCS showing remarkable efficacy finally led to its FDA approval in 2012. PMID:25172843

  5. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  6. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  7. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  8. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  9. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Kirsty Y.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  10. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  11. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    PubMed

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  12. Carcinoma in basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Sugano, I; Ishida, Y; Matsuzaki, O; Konno, A; Kondo, Y; Nagao, K

    1997-01-01

    Malignant transformation of basal cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland is rarely reported, and when occurred, may principally become manifest as a malignant basaloid tumor, i.e. basal cell adenocarcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma. We describe herein three cases of non-basaloid carcinoma arising in BCA. The incidence of this malignant tumor was 0.2% of all parotid gland tumors and 4.3% of BCAs in our series. One case was salivary duct carcinoma showing histologic evidence of transition between malignant and benign elements. The remaining two cases were well-encapsulated parotid gland tumors, which were composed of BCA and scattered foci of malignant transformation. Malignant components were adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS), and sometimes intermixed with neoplastic myoepithelial cells included BCA cells. These two cases were regarded to be intracapsular carcinoma in BCA. BCA components showed solid, tubular and trabecular arrangements. The patients' prognosis was quite variable among these three cases; the first case died of disease after 27 months, whereas the latter two cases are alive and well for 4 and 10 years after surgery. Ki-67 labeling index indicated that cell proliferative activity was at least five times higher in carcinomas than BCAs. Non-basaloid carcinomas such as salivary duct carcinoma or adenocarcinoma, NOS, do develop in BCAs as in the case of a pleomorphic adenoma with malignant transformation, though the incidence may be extremely rare.

  13. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  14. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  15. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  16. Diet and good health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a person of any age. A healthy diet is especially important for children since a variety of food is needed for proper development. Other elements of good health include exercise, rest and avoidance of stimulants such ...

  17. Genetic toxicology of the diet

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, I. )

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During the Smoking and Grilling of Food; Fecal Mutagens as a Function of Diet; Dietary Desmutagens; and Coffee and Cancer.

  18. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers. PMID:21139121

  19. The diets of early hominins.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Peter S; Sponheimer, Matt

    2011-10-14

    Diet changes are considered key events in human evolution. Most studies of early hominin diets focused on tooth size, shape, and craniomandibular morphology, as well as stone tools and butchered animal bones. However, in recent years, dental microwear and stable isotope analyses have hinted at unexpected diversity and complexity in early hominin diets. Some traditional ideas have held; others, such as an increasing reliance on hard-object feeding and a dichotomy between Australopithecus and Paranthropus, have been challenged. The first known evidence of C(4) plant (tropical grasses and sedges) and hard-object (e.g., seeds and nuts) consumption dates to millions of years after the appearance of the earliest probable hominins, and there are no consistent trends in diet change among these species through time. PMID:21998380

  20. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  1. Search for the optimal diet.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  2. Diet and regimen during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Girija, P.LT

    2008-01-01

    To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women enjoy a risk-free childbirth. This paper provides a broad view of the diet and regimen during pregnancy PMID:22557297

  3. Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

    2010-07-01

    The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism.

  4. [Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis, PTCH1 mutation and absence of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mazzuoccolo, Luis D; Martínez, María Florencia; Muchnik, Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Stengel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly due to PTCH1 gene mutations, that comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is a cardinal sign in NBCCS, therefore cases in which BCCs are absent entails a delay in the diagnosis.We present a 14 years old boy with a clinical diagnosis of NBCCS by the presence of odontogenic cysts, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, and corpus callosum agenesia, but with absence of skin lesions. His 43 years old mother has NBCCS diagnosis and no history of BCCs. For a deeper study, PTCH1 mutation screening from peripheral blood samples were performed by both bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. The proband and his mother carry 25 pb duplication in exon 10 (c.1375dupl25bp) that causes a reading frameshift with a premature stop codon. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation results in a truncated protein shorter than normal. Our results suggest that complete clinical and genealogical studies accompanied by genetic analysis are essential in the early detection of the NBCCS cases such the one presented here. PMID:25188659

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ promotes lumen formation through enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Sokhavuth; Komaiha, Ola Hamze; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Signaling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase colocalizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead mediated inhibition of p110δ impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110δ also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110δ in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

  6. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  7. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew; Rothery, Peter; Isaac, Nick J B

    2010-05-01

    1. We present a statistical analysis of the scaling of resting (basal) metabolic rate, BMR, with body mass, B(m) and body temperature, T(b), in mammals. 2. Whilst the majority of the variance in ln BMR is explained by ln B(m), the T(b) term is statistically significant. The best fit model was quadratic, indicating that the scaling of ln BMR with ln B(m) varies with body size; the value of any scaling exponent estimated for a sample of mammals will therefore depend on the size distribution of species in the study. This effect can account for much of the variation in scaling exponents reported in the literature for mammals. 3. In all models, inclusion of T(b) reduced the strength of scaling with ln B(m). The model including T(b) suggests that birds and mammals have a similar underlying thermal dependence of BMR, equivalent to a Q(10) of 2.9 across the range of T(b) values 32-42 degrees C. 4. There was significant heterogeneity in both the mass scaling exponent and mean BMR across mammalian orders, with a tendency for orders dominated by larger taxa to have steeper scaling exponents. This heterogeneity was particularly marked across orders with smaller mean B(m) and the taxonomic composition of the sample will thus also affect the observed scaling exponent. After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5. Inclusion of T(b) in the model removed the effect of diet category evident from a model in ln B(m) alone and widely reported in the literature; this was caused by a strong interaction between diet category and T(b) in mammals. 6. Inclusion of mean ambient temperature, T(a), in the model indicated a significant inverse relationship between ln BMR and T(a), complicated by an interaction between T(a) and T(b). All other things being equal, a polar mammal living at -10 degrees C has a body temperature approximately 2.7 degrees C

  8. Pleiotropy and genotype by diet interaction: A multivariate genetic analysis of HDL-C subfractions

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaney, M.C.; Blangero, J.; Comuzzie, A.G.

    1994-09-01

    Reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans. Both major genes and major genotype by diet interaction have been reported for HDL-C, but the genetics of the HDL-C subfractions are less well known. In a baboon model for human atherosclerosis, we investigated the pleiotropic effects of genes on normal quantitative variation in three HDL-C subfractions (HDL{sub 1}-C, HDL{sub 2}-C, and HDL{sub 3}-C) in two dietary environments -- a basal diet and a 7 week high cholesterol, saturated fat (HCSF) diet. We analyzed data on serum HDL-C subfraction levels, quantified by gradient gel eletrophoresis, for 942 baboons (Papo hamadryas, sensu lato) from 17 pedigrees. We used multivariate maximum likelihood methods to simultaneously estimate phenotypic means, standard deviations, and heritabilities (h{sup 2}); effects of sex, age-by-sex, age{sup 2}-by-sex, percent subspecies admixture, and infant feeding modality; plus estimated significant h{sup 2} values for all three subfractions on both diets. When tested within dietary environments, we obtained significant genetic correlations between all three subfractions [i.e., P({rho}{sub G} = 0) < 0.001] and evidence of complete pleiotropy [i.e., P({vert_bar}{rho}{sub G}{vert_bar} = 1.0) > 0.1] between HDL{sub 1}-C and HDL{sub 3}-C ({rho}{sub G} = 0.81) on the basal diet. On the HCSF diet, only the genetic correlation between HDL{sub 1}-C and HDL{sub 3}-C ({rho}{sub g} = 0.61) was significant (p > 0.1). Complete pleiotropy was observed for each of the three subfractions between both diets. Given these results, we reject genotype by diet interaction for HDL{sub 1}-C, HDL{sub 2}-C or HDL{sub 3}-C; i.e., the same genes influence variation in each subfraction to the same degree on either diet. However, the apparent disruption of pleiotropy between HDL{sub 2}-C and the other two subfractions needs to be investigated further.

  9. Bioavailability of two organic forms of zinc in comparison to zinc sulphate for weaning pigs fed a diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Paulicks, Brigitte R; Ingenkamp, Hanna; Eder, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the bioavailability of two organic zinc compounds, a zinc glycinate complex and a zinc amino acid chelate with that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a basal diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal. The experiment included 96 pigs with an average body weight of 8 kg, allotted to ten groups of nine to ten pigs each. The first group received the basal diet, containing 42 mg of native zinc per kg, without zinc supplementation over a period of five weeks. The other nine groups received the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30 or 50 mg of zinc/kg as zinc sulphate, zinc glycinate or the zinc amino acid chelate. Pigs fed the unsupplemented diet had a lower growth performance (body weight gain, feed conversion ratio) than the other nine groups. Supplementation of 15 mg zinc/kg diet (irrespective of zinc form) was sufficient to yield optimum growth performance. Plasma zinc concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase were rising with increasing zinc supplementation levels up to a maximum reached at a supplementary level of 30 or 50 mg/kg diet for activity of alkaline phosphatase and plasma zinc concentration, respectively. The response of those parameters to zinc supplementation did, however, not differ between the three zinc compounds considered. The apparent digestibility of zinc from the diet was also not different for the three zinc compounds. In conclusion, these findings show that the bioavailability of the two organic zinc compounds did not differ from that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a diet with wheat, barley and soybean meal as major components.

  10. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  11. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  12. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  13. Basal-Bolus Insulin Protocols Enter the Computer Age

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nancy J.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes affects approximately one quarter of all hospitalized patients. Poor inpatient glycemic control has been associated with increased risk for multiple adverse events including surgical site infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and mortality. Inpatient glycemic control protocols based on physiologic basal-bolus insulin regimens have been shown to improve glycemia and clinical outcomes and are recommended by the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the Society of Hospital Medicine for inpatient glycemic management of noncritically ill patients. The 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act will catalyze widespread computerized medication order entry implementation over the next few years. Here, we focus on the noncritical care setting and review the background on inpatient glycemic management as it pertains to computerized order entry, the translation and efficacy of computerizing glycemic control protocols, and the barriers to computerizing glycemic protocols. PMID:22015856

  14. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  15. Arginine kinase from Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids.

    PubMed

    Yano, Daichi; Mimura, Sayo; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2016-08-01

    We assembled a phosphagen kinase gene from the Expressed Sequence Tags database of Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids. The assembled gene sequence was synthesized using an overlap extension polymerase chain reaction method and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (355 residues) exhibited monomeric behavior on a gel filtration column and showed strong activity only for l-arginine. Thus, the enzyme was identified as arginine kinase (AK). The two-substrate kinetic parameters were obtained and compared with other AKs. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of phosphagen kinases indicated that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage differed from that of the polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis AK, which is a dimer of creatine kinase (CK) origin. It is likely that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage was lost at an early stage of annelid evolution and that Sabellastarte AK evolved secondarily from the CK gene. This work contributes to our understanding of the evolution of phosphagen kinases of annelids with marked diversity.

  16. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  17. The adsorption of aromatic acids onto the graphite basal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, David S.

    2003-06-01

    The adsorption of benzoic acid, toluic acid, and salicylic acid from solution onto the graphite basal surface has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A systematic study of these three related planar aromatic acids is conducted in order to observe the influence of the functional side-group upon adsorption. It is found that upon adsorption all three acids orient with the benzene ring parallel to the graphite surface. On the graphite terraces, the benzoic acid decoration follows a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode whereas toluic acid follows Volmer-Weber growth. Salicylic acid forms a fibrous aggregate network. In addition to the terraces, graphite steps and near-surface bulk defects are found to be important sites for adsorption. The AFM tip is used to create irreversible nanoscale modifications of adsorbate structures.

  18. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  19. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs. PMID:27433734

  20. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  1. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  2. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  3. Giant Cornu Cutaneum Superimposed on Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agirgol, S; Mansur, A T; Bozkurt, K; Azakli, H N; Babacan, A; Dikmen, A

    2015-09-01

    Cornu cutaneum (CC) is a clinical term that describes the horn-like keratotic lesions extending vertically from the skin. Benign, premalignant or malignant lesions may be present at the base of CC. Seborrhoeic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most commonly reported benign and malignant forms, respectively. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) at the base is rare. Here, we report on an 85-year old female patient having multiple CC lesions, one being giant on her face and two of the lesions diagnosed with BCC at the base. This case is of significance due to the presence of giant and multiple CC and detection of BCC at the base of more than one lesion. This present case indicates the need for the treatment of possible malignant lesions underlying CC in the elderly by total surgical excision.

  4. Giant Cornu Cutaneum Superimposed on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agirgol, S; Mansur, AT; Bozkurt, K; Azakli, HN; Babacan, A; Dikmen, A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cornu cutaneum (CC) is a clinical term that describes the horn-like keratotic lesions extending vertically from the skin. Benign, premalignant or malignant lesions may be present at the base of CC. Seborrhoeic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most commonly reported benign and malignant forms, respectively. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) at the base is rare. Here, we report on an 85-year old female patient having multiple CC lesions, one being giant on her face and two of the lesions diagnosed with BCC at the base. This case is of significance due to the presence of giant and multiple CC and detection of BCC at the base of more than one lesion. This present case indicates the need for the treatment of possible malignant lesions underlying CC in the elderly by total surgical excision. PMID:26624603

  5. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation. PMID:19730868

  6. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  7. Numerical deficits in a single case of basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, L; Bodner, T; Revkin, S K; Benke, T; Boesch, S; Donnemiller, E; Delazer, M

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation assesses specific numerical difficulties in a patient (SJ) with basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction. While previous studies on number processing in BG disorders typically tested arithmetic facts by production tasks, the present study uses production, recognition (verification, multiple-choice) and indirect (number-matching) arithmetic tasks. Patient SJ was severely impaired in production and to a lesser extent in verification and multiple-choice tasks. In number-matching, an abnormal latency pattern was found. This study extends previous research by indicating that BG dysfunction may not only affect production processes and sequencing, as was found in previous investigations, but may lead to a breakdown of semantic relationships of arithmetic facts. PMID:19370479

  8. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  9. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms.

    PubMed

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P; Ferrari, Loris L; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2015-11-03

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state.

  10. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition. PMID:26437207

  11. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  12. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  13. An indirect basal ganglia pathway in anuran amphibians?

    PubMed

    Maier, Silke; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Endepols, Heike

    2010-09-01

    The mammalian subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic cell group within the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. It receives input from the external globus pallidus (GP) and in turn projects to the internal GP and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). While the direct pathway from striatum to SNr is well established in anurans, it is unknown whether they possess an indirect pathway including a STN homologue. The subthalamic region comprises the dorsocaudal suprachiasmatic nucleus (dcSC), the posterior entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the ventral part of the ventral thalamus (vVM/VL). In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis we investigated whether one of these areas match the criteria established for the mammalian STN. We delineated the SNr in the midbrain tegmentum by labeling the striatonigral terminal field by means of GABA-, substance P-, and enkephalin immunohistochemistry and striatal tracer injections. Subsequently, we used double fluorescence tracing with injections into the SNr and GP to stain different parts of the indirect pathway. Confocal laser scan analysis revealed that dcSC, EP, and vVM/VL contain retrogradely labeled neurons projecting to the SNr, contacted by anterogradely labeled terminals arising in the GP. Immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against glutamate and the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and vGluT2 demonstrated that the investigated nuclei contain glutamatergic neurons. Our results suggest that all regions in the subthalamic region fulfill our morphological criteria, except the connection back to the GP. An indirect basal ganglia pathway seems to be present in anuran amphibians, although we cannot exclusively delineate an STN homologue.

  14. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    PubMed

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  15. The Nervous Systems of Basally Branching Nemertea (Palaeonemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

  16. Perceptions of a Healthy Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Denby, Nigel; Haycock, Bryan; Sherif, Katherine; Steinbaum, Suzanne; von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18–66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18–34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone. Overall, 32% reported using omega-3s (45% in United States, 29% in United Kingdom, and 24% in Germany), and 42% reported using vitamin D dietary supplements (62% in United States, 32% in United Kingdom, and 31% in Germany). Seventy eight percent of the sample agreed that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart health; however, only 40% thought that their diet was adequate in omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, 84% agreed that vitamin D was beneficial to overall, and 55% of adults from all countries were unsure or did not think they consume enough vitamin D in their diet. For most findings in our study, US adults reported more dietary supplement use and had stronger perceptions about the health effects of omega-3s and vitamin D than their counterparts in the United Kingdom and Germany. Nevertheless, the consistent findings across all countries were that adults are aware of the importance of nutrition, and most adults believe their diet is optimal for health. Our data serve to alert dietitians and health professionals that consumers may have an elevated sense of the healthfulness of their own diets and may require guidance and education to achieve optimal diets. PMID:26663954

  17. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  18. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  19. Effects of aflatoxin and carotenoids on growth performance and immune response in mule ducklings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Shen, T F; Pang, V F; Chen, B J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if carotenoids could alleviate the adverse effects caused by aflatoxin with respect to growth performance and immune response. In two experiments, a total of 320 mule ducklings were assigned to 5 treatments, i.e. control, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) 200 ppb, AFB(1) +beta-carotene (BC) 200 ppm, AFB(1)+BC 400 ppm, and AFB(1)+astaxanthin (AS) 200 ppm. In experiment 1, the addition of beta-carotene or astaxanthin in the diet containing AFB(1) 200 ppb resulted in a significant decrease in average daily gain as compared with the control. AFB(1) 200 ppb alone and the addition of BC or AS on top of AFB(1) resulted in a significantly lower daily feed intake than for the control group. There were no significant differences in relative organ weights among treatment groups. Both treatments of BC 400 ppm and AS 200 ppm had significantly more macrophages harvested per duck than the control and AFB(1) 200 ppb treatments. However, there were no significant differences among treatments in percentages of phagocytotic macrophages and number of Candida albican phagocytized by phagocytotic macrophages. In experiment 2, blood biochemical parameters and antibody titers were evaluated. There were no significant differences among treatments in total bilirubin content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum or in antibody titers against fowl cholera. However, AFB(1) treatment had the highest activities of AST and ALT in the serum. The addition of BC 400 ppm on top of AFB(1) significantly reduced ALT activity as compared with the AFB(1) 200 ppb treatment. These results suggest that carotenoids could provide a slightly toxic alleviating effect on growth performance, enhance the chemotaxis ability of macrophages, and reduce ALT activity elevated by AFB(1).

  20. Dietary Aflatoxin-Induced Stunting in a Novel Rat Model: Evidence for Toxin-Induced Liver Injury and Hepatic Growth Hormone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Knipstein, Brittany; Huang, Jiansheng; Barr, Emily; Sossenheimer, Philip; Dietzen, Dennis; Egner, Patricia A.; Groopman, John D.; Rudnick, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a strong statistical correlation between dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-exposure and childhood stunting, the causal mechanism remains speculative. This issue is important because of emerging interest in reduction of human aflatoxin exposure to diminish the prevalence and complications of stunting. Pediatric liver diseases cause growth impairment, and AFB1 is hepatotoxic. Thus, liver injury might mediate AFB1-associated growth impairment. We have developed a rat model of dietary AFB1-induced stunting to investigate these questions. Methods Newly-weaned rats were given AFB1-supplemented- or control-diets from age 3-9 weeks, and then euthanized for serum- and tissue-collection. Food intake and weight were serially assessed, with tibial-length determined at the experimental endpoint. Serum AFB1-adducts, hepatic gene and protein expression, and liver injury markers were quantified using established methodologies. Results AFB1-albumin adducts correlated with dietary toxin contamination, but such contamination did not affect food consumption. AFB1-exposed animals exhibited dose-dependent wasting and stunting, liver pathology, and suppression of hepatic targets of growth hormone (GH) signaling, but did not display increased mortality. Conclusion These data establish toxin-dependent liver injury and hepatic GH-resistance as candidate mechanisms by which AFB1-exposure causes growth impairment in this mammalian model. Interrogation of modifiers of stunting using this model could guide interventions in at-risk and affected children. PMID:25938735

  1. Butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis - effects on aflatoxin B(1) bioavailability, hepatic DNA adduct formation, and biliary excretion.

    PubMed

    Guarisco, J A; Hall, J O; Coulombe, R A

    2008-12-01

    The extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P-450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation, and deficient glutathione S-transferase (GST) mediated detoxification. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) protects against AFB(1) toxicity in turkeys through mechanisms that include competitive inhibition of P450-mediated AFB(1) bioactivation. To test whether dietary BHT alters hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, excretion, and bioavailability of AFB(1)in vivo, turkeys were given diets with BHT (4000ppm) for 10 days, given a single oral dose of [(3)H]-AFB(1) (0.05microg/g; 0.02microCi/g), then sampled at intervals up to 24h. Radiolabel in serum, red blood cells, liver, and breast meat was frequently lower in BHT-treated compared to control. Hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts in BHT-treated turkeys were significantly lower at 12 and 24h. BHT-fed birds had significant higher bile efflux, though biliary radiolabel excretion was not different from control. The amount of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) excreted in the bile was lower than in control, but BHT had no effect on the biliary excretion of AFB(1), aflatoxin Q(1) or glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Thus, the chemopreventive properties of BHT may also occur through a reduction in AFB(1) bioavailability in addition to inhibition of bioactivation.

  2. Responses of the digestive tract of the omnivorous northern brown bandicoot, Isoodon macrourus (Marsupialia: Peramelidae), to plant- and insect-containing diets.

    PubMed

    McClelland, K L; Hume, I D; Soran, N

    1999-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of omnivores such as bandicoots (Marsupialia: Peramelidae) must be able to process foods as different as invertebrates, fungi and plant material. We studied the mechanisms involved in the utilisation by captive northern brown bandicoots (Isoodon macrourus) of insect larvae and milled lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay incorporated into a basal diet of a commercial small carnivore mix. Animals on the plant-basal mix digested less dry matter, energy, lipid, fibre and total nitrogen, but consumed 79% more dry matter than those on the insect-basal mix. Consequently intake of digestible energy (i.e. energy absorbed) was not significantly different between diets. Mean retention time (MRT, the mean time a marker remains in the tract) of a large particle marker was shorter on the plant-basal mix, reflecting its higher intake, but MRT of a solute marker was not significantly different between diets. Consequently the solute marker was retained longer than the particle marker on the plant-basal mix, indicating selective retention of solutes and very small particles in the caecum on this diet. This was confirmed by a higher proportion of small particles in the caecum than the distal colon of road-killed I. macrourus. Thus the main responses by I. macrourus to the plant-basal mix appeared to be an increase in gastrointestinal tract capacity (from radiographic evidence), selective retention of solutes and very small particles in the caecum, and facilitated passage of less tractable large particles through the colon. As a consequence, food intake was higher on the plant-basal mix, which compensated for its lower digestibility, and intake of digestible energy was similar to that on the insect-basal mix. This considerable flexibility of the morphologically rather simple digestive tract of northern brown bandicoots helps to explain their ability to cope with naturally variable diets consisting of mainly invertebrates in summer to much more plant and fungal

  3. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  4. Localization of genes for V+LDL plasma cholesterol levels on two diets in the opossum Monodelphis domestica[S

    PubMed Central

    Kammerer, Candace M.; Rainwater, David L.; Gouin, Nicolas; Jasti, Madhuri; Douglas, Kory C.; Dressen, Amy S.; Ganta, Prasanth; VandeBerg, John L.; Samollow, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol levels among individuals vary considerably in response to diet. However, the genes that influence this response are largely unknown. Non-HDL (V+LDL) cholesterol levels vary dramatically among gray, short-tailed opossums fed an atherogenic diet, and we previously reported that two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influenced V+LDL cholesterol on two diets. We used hypothesis-free, genome-wide linkage analyses on data from 325 pedigreed opossums and located one QTL for V+LDL cholesterol on the basal diet on opossum chromosome 1q [logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 3.11, genomic P = 0.019] and another QTL for V+LDL on the atherogenic diet (i.e., high levels of cholesterol and fat) on chromosome 8 (LOD = 9.88, genomic P = 5 × 10−9). We then employed a novel strategy involving combined analyses of genomic resources, expression analysis, sequencing, and genotyping to identify candidate genes for the chromosome 8 QTL. A polymorphism in ABCB4 was strongly associated (P = 9 × 10−14) with the plasma V+LDL cholesterol concentrations on the high-cholesterol, high-fat diet. The results of this study indicate that genetic variation in ABCB4, or closely linked genes, is responsible for the dramatic differences among opossums in their V+LDL cholesterol response to an atherogenic diet. PMID:20650928

  5. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis.

  6. Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets.

    PubMed

    Pekár, Stano; Coddington, Jonathan A; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy (1) promoted diversification; (2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state; and (3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We used published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found: myrmecophagy, araneophagy, lepidopterophagy, termitophagy, dipterophagy, and crustaceophagy. We found that the species diversity of euryphagous genera and families was similar to stenophagous genera and families. At the family level, stenophagy evolved repeatedly and independently. Within families, the basal condition was oligophagy or euryphagy. Most types of stenophagy were clearly derived: myrmecophagy in Zodariidae; lepidopterophagy in Araneidae; dipterophagy in Theridiidae. In contrast, araneophagy was confined to basal and intermediate lineages, suggesting its ancestral condition. The diet breadth of species from the tropics and subtropics was less diverse than species from the temperate zone. Diet breadth was lower in cursorial spiders compared to web-building species. Thus, the evolution of stenophagy in spiders appears to be complex and governed by phylogeny as well as by ecological determinants.

  7. From Leaf Metabolome to In Vivo Testing: Identifying Antifeedant Compounds for Ecological Studies of Marsupial Diets.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Karen J; Yin, Baofa; Singh, Inder Pal; Saraf, Isha; Choudhary, Alka; Au, Jessie; Tucker, David J; Foley, William J

    2015-06-01

    Identifying specific plant secondary metabolites that influence feeding behavior can be challenging, but a solid understanding of animal preferences can guide efforts. Common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) predominantly eat Eucalyptus species belonging to the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, and avoid eating those belonging to the Monocalyptus subgenus (also called subgenus Eucalyptus). Using an unbiased (1)H NMR metabolomics approach, a previous study identified unsubstituted B ring flavanones in most species of monocalypts examined, whereas these compounds were absent from symphyomyrtles. We hypothesised that unsubstituted B ring flavanones act as feeding deterrents for common brushtail possums. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by comparing how much possums ate of a basal diet, with diets containing one of four structurally related compounds; pinocembrin, flavanone (unsubstituted B ring flavanones), chrysin (the flavone analogue of pinocembrin), and naringenin (a flavanone with B ring substitution). We found that pinocembrin and flavanone deterred feeding relative to the basal diet, but that chrysin and naringenin did not at equivalent concentrations. Thus, unsubstituted B-ring flavanones may explain why brushtail possums avoid eating monocalypt species. Furthermore, small differences in the structure of secondary compounds can have a large impact on antifeedant properties. These results demonstrate that metabolomics can be a valuable tool for ecologists seeking to understand herbivore feeding preferences.

  8. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  9. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  10. Low sodium diet corrects the defect in lymphocyte beta-adrenergic responsiveness in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R D; Lawton, W J; McArdle, W L

    1987-01-01

    To determine the role of dietary sodium intake in the reduction in beta-adrenergic sensitivity in hypertension, lymphocyte beta-receptors from 8 borderline hypertensive and 16 normotensive subjects were studied after 5 d on a high sodium diet (400 meq/d) and also following a low sodium diet (10 meq/d). During the high sodium diet, lymphocyte beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, expressed as the relative increase over basal levels stimulated by the beta-agonist isoproterenol, was significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in hypertensive (24 +/- 5%, mean +/- SE) compared with normotensive (42 +/- 4%) subjects. Neither beta-receptor density nor the proportion of nonsequestered beta-receptors differed between groups. A low sodium diet significantly increased beta-receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in hypertensives (low sodium, 51 +/- 7%; high sodium, 24 +/- 5%, P less than 0.025) to a level not different than that of normotensives (46 +/- 5%). Thus, reduced lymphocyte beta-receptor responsiveness in hypertensive subjects is not due to beta-receptor sequestration and is corrected on a low sodium diet. Dietary sodium may be an important factor in the beta-receptor defect in early hypertension. Images PMID:3025262

  11. Body composition and Basal metabolic rate in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (P value < 0.021) and Huang et al. (P value ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  12. Studies of contemporary glacier basal ice cryostructures to identify buried basal ice in the permafrost: an example from the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, E.; Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Shur, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In the permafrost, massive ice bodies occur as buried glacier ice, aufeis ice, recrystalized snow, massive segregated ice, injection ice, ice wedges or ice formed in underground cavities ("pool ice", "thermokarst-cave ice"). The origin of massive ice bodies in the permafrost bears considerable implications for the reconstructions of paleoenvironments and paleoclimates. Our work aims to help the permafrost scientists working on massive icy sediments to distinguish buried basal glacier ice from other types of buried ice. To do so, the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice must be well known. Field investigations at the Matanuska Glacier (Chugach range, South-central Alaska), consisted in descriptions and sampling of natural basal ice exposures. We have used the basal ice facies classification of Lawson (1979) which is simple, easy to use in the field and provides a good framework for the description of basal ice exposures. Cores were extracted and brought back to the laboratory for water and grain-size analyses. The sediments forming the cryostructure were mostly polymodal, poorly sorted gravelly silt to gravelly fine sand, with mud contents generally over 50%. These data will be used to calibrate three-dimensional (3D) models produced from micro-tomographic scans of basal ice which will produce quantitative estimates of volumetric ice and sediments contents of basal ice cryostructures. Ultimately, visual qualitative and quantitative characterization of the basal ice components of 3D models together with field observations and laboratory analysis will allow for a new micro-facies and cryostructures classification of the basal ice. Our work will also have applications in glaciology, glacial geology, geomorphology, Quaternary and paleo-climatological studies based on inferences made from the structure of basal glacier ice. This paper presents the internal composition of the basal ice facies in terms of cryostructures assemblages (Fortier et al.: 2007) and

  13. Interactive effects of dietary protein concentration and aflatoxin B1 on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Naehrer, K; Applegate, T J

    2016-06-01

    A 20-day trial was conducted to determine the impact of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and dietary protein concentration on performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut health in broiler chicks. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 3 crude protein (CP) concentrations (16, 22, and 26%) with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages (6 chicks per cage) from zero to 20 d of age. Endogenous N and amino acid loss were estimated from birds fed a N-free diet with or without 1.5 mg/kg AFB1 A significant interaction between AFB1 and CP concentration was observed for growth performance, where reduction of BW gain, feed intake, gain:feed ratio, and breast muscle weight by AFB1 were most profound in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, and were completely eliminated when birds were fed the 26%-CP diet (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.023). Similarly, AFB1 reduced serum albumin, total protein, and globulin concentrations in birds fed 16 and 22% CP diets, but not in those fed the 26%-CP (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.071). Gut permeability was increased in birds fed AFB1-contamiated diets as measured by serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (main effect; P = 0.04). Additionally, AFB1 tended to increase endogenous N loss (P = 0.09), and significantly reduced apparent ileal digestible energy and standardized ileal N and amino acid digestibility in birds fed the 16%-CP diet, while birds fed higher dietary CP were not affected (AFB1 by CP interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Further, AFB1 increased the translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4EBP1), claudin1, and multiple jejunal amino acid transporters expression (main effect; P ≤ 0.04). Results from this study indicate that a 1.5 mg AFB1/kg diet significantly impairs growth, major serum biochemistry measures, gut barrier, endogenous loss, and energy and amino acid digestibility. Aflatoxicosis can be augmented by low dietary CP, while higher dietary CP completely eliminated the impairment of

  14. Effects of salt rich diet in the obese Zucker rats: studies on renal function during isotonic volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Jandhyala, Bhagavan S

    2004-01-01

    Obese Zucker rats (OZR) are hyperinsulenemic, hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic and develop salt dependent hypertension. Since salt sensitivity is considered to be due to impaired handling of renal sodium excretion, these studies were conducted in the obese and lean Zucker rats (LZR) anesthetized with Inactin to evaluate renal function under basal conditions and during acute isotonic fluid volume expansion (VE). Mean Arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), renal blood flow(RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly different between the lean Zucker rats fed normal diet or that fed salt rich diet(8% NaCI). However, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the LZR fed high salt. During VE essentially identical increases occurred in GFR, UV and UNaV in both the lean groups. In the OZR fed salt rich diet also, there were no significant changes in the heart rate, RBF and GFR. However, arterial blood pressure of the OZR fed salt rich diet was significantly greater than that of the OZR on the normal diet as well as that of both the lean groups. Also, as in the LZR, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the salt fed obese rats. During volume expansion there were no impairments in the ability of the obese groups fed normal or salt rich diet to eliminate sodium and water during volume load. In fact, the net sodium and water excretions during and 60 min after VE in both the obese groups were significantly greater than that of corresponding lean groups. Furthermore, these values in the OZR fed salt rich diet were significantly greater than that of the obese rats on normal salt diet perhaps due to the contribution of pressure natriuretic mechanisms'. These data demonstrate that although OZR are salt sensitive, the renal mechanisms that would collectively respond to acute isotonic VE were fully functional. An unexpected and a novel finding in these studies is that the salt rich diet, in addition to increasing arterial blood pressure

  15. Effects of salt rich diet in the obese Zucker rats: studies on renal function during isotonic volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamidimukkala, Jaya; Jandhyala, Bhagavan S

    2004-01-01

    Obese Zucker rats (OZR) are hyperinsulenemic, hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic and develop salt dependent hypertension. Since salt sensitivity is considered to be due to impaired handling of renal sodium excretion, these studies were conducted in the obese and lean Zucker rats (LZR) anesthetized with Inactin to evaluate renal function under basal conditions and during acute isotonic fluid volume expansion (VE). Mean Arterial blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), renal blood flow(RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly different between the lean Zucker rats fed normal diet or that fed salt rich diet(8% NaCI). However, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the LZR fed high salt. During VE essentially identical increases occurred in GFR, UV and UNaV in both the lean groups. In the OZR fed salt rich diet also, there were no significant changes in the heart rate, RBF and GFR. However, arterial blood pressure of the OZR fed salt rich diet was significantly greater than that of the OZR on the normal diet as well as that of both the lean groups. Also, as in the LZR, basal UV and UNaV were significantly greater in the salt fed obese rats. During volume expansion there were no impairments in the ability of the obese groups fed normal or salt rich diet to eliminate sodium and water during volume load. In fact, the net sodium and water excretions during and 60 min after VE in both the obese groups were significantly greater than that of corresponding lean groups. Furthermore, these values in the OZR fed salt rich diet were significantly greater than that of the obese rats on normal salt diet perhaps due to the contribution of pressure natriuretic mechanisms'. These data demonstrate that although OZR are salt sensitive, the renal mechanisms that would collectively respond to acute isotonic VE were fully functional. An unexpected and a novel finding in these studies is that the salt rich diet, in addition to increasing arterial blood pressure

  16. Evaluating the influence of National Research Council levels of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc using organic (Bioplex) minerals on resulting tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and liver antioxidant enzymes in grower-finisher swine diets.

    PubMed

    Gowanlock, D W; Mahan, D C; Jolliff, J S; Hill, G M

    2015-03-01

    Graded levels of a trace mineral premix containing an organic (Bioplex) source of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was evaluated with additional treatments containing organic Zn or Fe. Grower-finisher pigs were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The number of pigs in the experiment, the breeding/genetics of the pigs, the management, and the average age of the pigs were previously reported. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 7 replicates. Treatments were 1) basal diet without supplemental Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn; 2) basal diet + 2.5 mg/kg Cu, 50 mg/kg Fe, 1.5 mg/kg Mn, and 40 mg/kg Zn (50% NRC); 3) basal diet + 5 mg/kg Cu, 100 mg/kg Fe, 3 mg/kg Mn, and 80 mg/kg Zn (100% NRC); 4) basal diet + 25 mg Zn/kg; 5) basal diet + 50 mg Zn/kg; and 6) basal diet + 50 mg Fe/kg. Selenium and I were added to all diets at 0.3 and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively. Diets were composed of corn-soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, and limestone with phytase added to enhance mineral availability. Three pigs per pen were bled at 55, 80, and 115 kg BW and plasma was analyzed for microminerals. When the average replicate BW was 115 kg, 3 pigs per pen of an equal gender ratio were killed. The liver, kidney, and heart were removed and analyzed for microminerals. Liver, duodenum, and jejunal metallothionein and the antioxidant enzymes in the liver containing these microminerals were determined. The results demonstrated that plasma minerals were unaffected at the 3 BW intervals. Liver and duodenum metallothionein protein were greater ( < 0.05) as dietary micromineral levels increased but jejunum metallothionein did not change as microminerals increased. The activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not affected as the levels of the micromineral increased, whereas the activity of Mn SOD increased slightly ( < 0.05) to the 50% NRC treatment level. Liver Zn (relative and total) increased ( < 0.05) as dietary micromineral levels increased and also when Zn was added singly to the diet. Liver

  17. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2015-04-01

    Animals balance their intake of specific nutrients, but little is known about how they do so when foraging in an environment with toxic resources and whether toxic foods promote adaptations that affect life history traits. In German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations, glucose aversion has evolved in response to glucose-containing insecticidal baits. We restricted newly eclosed glucose-averse (GA) and wild-type (WT) female cockroaches to nutritionally defined diets varying in protein-to-carbohydrate (P : C) ratio (3 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 3) or gave them free choice of the 3 : 1 and 1 : 3 diets, with either glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source. We measured consumption of each diet over 6 days and then dissected the females to measure the length of basal oocytes in their ovaries. Our results showed significantly lower consumption by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also lower fructose intake by GA compared to WT cockroaches when restricted to high fructose diets or given choice of fructose-containing diets. Protein intake was regulated tightly regardless of carbohydrate intake, except by GA cockroaches restricted to glucose-containing diets. Oocyte growth was completely suppressed in GA females restricted to glucose-containing diets, but also significantly slower in GA than in WT females restricted to fructose-containing diets. Our findings suggest that GA cockroaches have adapted to reduced diet breadth through endocrine adjustments which reduce requirements for energetic fuels. Our study illustrates how an evolutionary change in the chemosensory system may affect the evolution of other traits that govern animal life histories.

  18. Pig performance increases with the addition of DL-methionine and L-lysine to ensiled cassava leaf protein diets.

    PubMed

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Hoa; Ngoan, Le Duc; Verstegen, Martin Wilhelmus Antonius; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of supplementation of diets containing ensiled cassava leaves as the main protein source with synthetic amino acids, DL-methionine alone or with L-lysine. In study 1, a total of 40 pigs in five units, all cross-breds between Large White and Mong Cai, with an average initial body weight of 20.5 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments consisting of a basal diet containing 45% of dry matter (DM) from ensiled cassava leaves (ECL) and ensiled cassava root supplemented with 0%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% DL-methionine (as DM). Results showed a significantly improved performance and protein gain by extra methionine. This reduced the feed cost by 2.6%, 7.2% and 7.5%, respectively. In study 2, there were three units and in each unit eight cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs with an initial body weight of 20.1 kg were randomly assigned to the four treatments. The four diets were as follows: a basal diet containing 15% ECL (as DM) supplemented with different amounts of amino acids L-lysine and DL-methionine to the control diet. The results showed that diets with 15% of DM as ECL with supplementation of 0.2% lysine +0.1% DL-methionine and 0.1% lysine +0.05% DL-methionine at the 20-50 kg and above 50 kg, respectively, resulted in the best performance, protein gain and lowest costs for cross-bred (Large White × Mong Cai) pigs. Ensiled cassava leaves can be used as a protein supplement for feeding pigs provided the diets contain additional amounts of synthetic lysine and methionine.

  19. Basal cell ameloblastoma–review of literature with report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Giraddi, Girish B; Anusha, AJ Sai

    2012-01-01

    The ameloblastoma is the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaw with several histologic variants viz. follicular, plexiform, acanthomatous, desmoplastic, and granular cell and basal cell types. The basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare histological variant which tends to demonstrate microscopic features similar to cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. In the current article we report three cases and review the literature of this rare tumor PMID:25756034

  20. Centrin deficiency in Chlamydomonas causes defects in basal body replication, segregation and maturation.

    PubMed

    Koblenz, Bettina; Schoppmeier, Jutta; Grunow, Andrea; Lechtreck, Karl-Ferdinand

    2003-07-01

    Centrin, a 20 kDa calcium-binding protein, is a constituent of contractile basal body-associated fibers in protists and of various centrosomal structures. A construct inducing centrin RNAi was used to study the effect of centrin deficiency in Chlamydomonas. Transformants contained variable amounts of residual centrin (down to 5% of wild-type) and lacked centrin fibers. They displayed a variable flagellar number phenotype with mostly nonflagellate cells, suggesting that centrin is required for basal body assembly. Furthermore, basal bodies often failed to dock to the plasma membrane and to assemble flagella, and displayed defects in the flagellar root system indicating that centrin deficiency interferes with basal body development. Multiple basal bodies caused the formation of additional microtubular asters, whereas the microtubular cytoskeleton was disordered in most cells without basal bodies. The number of multinucleated cells was increased, indicating that aberrant numbers of basal bodies interfered with the cytokinesis of Chlamydomonas. In contrast to wild-type cells, basal bodies in centrin-RNAi cells were separated from the spindle poles, suggesting a role of centrin in tethering basal bodies to the spindle. To test whether an association with the spindle poles is required for correct basal body segregation, we disrupted centrin fibers in wild-type cells by over-expressing a nonfunctional centrin-GFP. In these cells, basal bodies were disconnected from the spindle but segregation errors were not observed. We propose that basal body segregation in Chlamydomonas depends on an extranuclear array of microtubules independent of the mitotic spindle.