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Sample records for afex-treated corn stover

  1. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) performance of Clostridium phytofermentans on AFEX-treated corn stover for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is believed to be a potentially cost-efficient and commercially viable way to produce cellulosic biofuels. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the CBP organism Clostridium phytofermentans (ATCC 700394) on AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEX-CS). Fermentation conditions including temperature, inoculation size, nutrients, and initial pH were investigated. At optimal conditions with 0.5% (w/w) glucan loading of AFEX-CS, C. phytofermentans hydrolyzed 76% of glucan and 88.6% of xylan in 10 days. These values reached 87% and 102% of those obtained by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using commercial enzymes and S. cerevisiae 424A. Ethanol titer for CBP was found to be 2.8 g/L which was 71.8% of that yielded by SSCF (3.9 g/L). Decomposition products from AFEX-CS helped to increase ethanol yield somewhat during CBP. Particle size played a crucial role in the enhancement of sugar conversion by CBP.

  2. Cellulosic ethanol production from AFEX-treated corn stover using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST).

    PubMed

    Lau, Ming W; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-02-03

    Current technology using corn stover (CS) as feedstock, Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) as the pretreatment technology, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) as the ethanologenic strain in Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation was able to achieve 191.5 g EtOH/kg untreated CS, at an ethanol concentration of 40.0 g/L (5.1 vol/vol%) without washing of pretreated biomass, detoxification, or nutrient supplementation. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high solids loading was identified as the primary bottleneck affecting overall ethanol yield and titer. Degradation compounds in AFEX-pretreated biomass were shown to increase metabolic yield and specific ethanol production while decreasing the cell biomass generation. Nutrients inherently present in CS and those resulting from biomass processing are sufficient to support microbial growth during fermentation. This platform offers the potential to improve the economics of cellulosic ethanol production by reducing the costs associated with raw materials, process water, and capital equipment.

  3. Effect of primary degradation-reaction products from Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-treated corn stover on the growth and fermentation of Escherichia coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ming W; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-10-01

    The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover are acetate, lactate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBD) and acetamide. The effects of these products at a broad concentration range were tested on Escherichia coli KO11, a strain engineered for cellulosic ethanol production. Fermentations using glucose or xylose as the sole carbohydrate source and a sugar mixture of glucose and xylose were conducted to determine how these products and sugar selection affected fermentation performance. Co-fermentation of the sugar mixture exhibited the lowest overall ethanol productivity compared to single-sugar fermentations and was more susceptible to inhibition. Metabolic ethanol yield increased with the increasing initial concentration of acetate. Although these degradation-reaction products (with exception of acetamide) are generally perceived to be inhibitory, organic acids and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde at low levels stimulated fermentation. Adaptation of cells to these products prior to fermentation increased overall fermentation rate.

  4. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  5. Hydrolysis by commercial enzyme mixtures of AFEX-treated corn fiber and isolated xylans

    SciTech Connect

    Hespell, R.B.; O`Bryan, P.J.; Bothast, R.J.; Moniruzzaman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Corn fiber is a coproduct produced during the corn wet-milling process and is similar to other high hemicellulose/cellulose-containing biomass such as grasses, straws, or bagasse, all of which represent potential fermentation feedstock for conversion into biofuels or other products. Corn fiber was subjected to ammonia-explosion (AFEX) treatment to increase degradability and then enzymatically digested with a combined mixture of commercial amylase, xylanase, and cellulose enzyme preparations. Whereas the starch and cellulose components were converted solely to glucose, oligosaccharides represented 30-40% of the xylan degradation products. This enzyme mixture also produced substantial oligosaccharides with xylans purified from corn fiber, corn germ, beech-wood, oatspelt, or wheat germ. Commercial xylan-degrading enzyme preparations containing xylanase, xylosidase, and arabinosidase activities were then used alone or in varying combinations to attempt to maximize degradation of these isolated xylans of differing chemical compositions. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Separation of Glucose and Pentose Sugars by Selective Enzyme Hydrolysis of AFEX-Treated Corn Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Nielson, Chandra D.; McCalla, Darold; Stowers, Mark D.

    A process was developed to fractionate corn fiber into glucose- and pentose-rich fractions. Corn fiber was ammonia fiber explosion treated at 90°C, using 1 g anhydrous ammonia per gram of dry biomass, 60% moisture, and 30-min residence time. Twenty four hour hydrolysis of ammonia fiber explosion-treated corn fiber with cellulase converted 83% of available glucanto-glucose. In this hydrolysis the hemicellulose was partially broken down with 81% of the xylan and 68% of the arabinan being contained in the hydrolysate after filtration to remove lignin and other insoluble material. Addition of ethanol was used to precipitate and recover the solubilized hemicellulose from the hydrolysate, followed by hydrolysis with 2% (v/v) sulfuric acid to convert the recovered xylan and arabinan to monomeric sugars. Using this method, 57% of xylose and 54% of arabinose available in corn fiber were recovered in a pentose-rich stream. The carbohydrate composition of the pentose-enriched stream was 5% glucose, 57% xylose, 27% arabinose, and 11% galactose. The carbohydrate composition of the glucose-enriched stream was 87% glucose, 5% xylose, 6% arabinose, and 1% galactose, and contained 83% of glucose available from the corn fiber.

  7. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Amber N. Hoover; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Farzaneh Teymouri; Garold L. Gresham; Janette Moore

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables including grind size (4, 6 mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70 degrees C) were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was >97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6 mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4 mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60 Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  8. Effect of pelleting process variables on physical properties and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Amber N; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Moore, Janette; Gresham, Garold

    2014-07-01

    Pelletization process variables, including grind size (4, 6mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70°C), were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also, the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was>97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pelletized AFEX™-treated corn stover at high solid loadings.

    PubMed

    Bals, Bryan D; Gunawan, Christa; Moore, Janette; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Dale, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment can be performed at small depots, and the pretreated biomass can then be pelletized and shipped to a centralized refinery. To determine the feasibility of this approach, pelletized AFEX-treated corn stover was hydrolyzed at high (18-36%) solid loadings. Water absorption and retention by the pellets was low compared to unpelletized stover, which allowed enzymatic hydrolysis slurries to remain well mixed without the need for fed-batch addition. Glucose yields of 68% and xylose yields of 65% were obtained with 20 mg enzyme/g glucan and 18% solid loading after 72 h, compared to 61% and 59% for unpelletized corn stover. Pelletization also slightly increased the initial rate of hydrolysis compared to unpelletized biomass. The ease of mixing and high yields obtained suggests that pelletization after AFEX pretreatment could have additional advantages beyond improved logistical handling of biomass.

  10. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  11. Shock treatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bond, Austin; Rughoonundun, Hema; Petersen, Eric; Holtzapple, Carol; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-01-27

    Corn stover digestibility was enhanced via shock treatment. A slurry of lime-treated corn stover was placed in a partially filled closed vessel. From the ullage space, either a shotgun shell was fired into the slurry, or a gas mixture was detonated. Various conditions were tested (i.e., pressures, depth, solids concentrations, gas mixtures). A high pressurization rate (108,000 MPa/s shotgun shells; 4,160,000 MPa/s hydrogen/oxygen detonation) was the only parameter that improved enzymatic digestibility. Stoichiometric propane/air deflagration had a low pressurization rate (37.2 MPa/s) and did not enhance enzymatic digestibility. Without shock, enzymatic conversion of lime-treated corn stover was 0.80 g glucan digested/g glucan fed with an enzyme loading of 46.7 mg protein/g glucan. With shock, the enzyme loading was reduced by ∼2× while maintaining the same conversion. Detonations are extraordinarily fast; rapidly cycling three small vessels (0.575 m(3) each) every 7.5 s enables commercially relevant shock treatment (2,000 tone/day). © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  12. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  13. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  14. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  15. A comparative study of ethanol production using dilute acid, ionic liquid and AFEX™ pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    . The reason for lower ethanol yield for DA is because most of the xylose produced during the pretreatment was removed and not converted to ethanol during fermentation. Conclusions Compositional analysis of the pretreated biomass solids showed no significant change in composition for AFEX treated corn stover, while about 85% of hemicellulose was solubilized after DA pretreatment, and about 90% of lignin was removed after IL pretreatment. As expected, the optimal commercial enzyme combination was different for the solids prepared by different pretreatment technologies. Due to loss of nutrients during the pretreatment and washing steps, DA and IL pretreated hydrolysates required exogenous nutrient supplementation to ferment glucose and xylose efficiently, while AFEX pretreated hydrolysate did not require nutrient supplementation. PMID:24917886

  16. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  17. Corn stover harvest changes soil hydrology and soil aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, commercial-scale cellulosic-ethanol production using corn (Zea Mays L.) stover has become a reality. As the industry matures and demand for stover increases, a clear understanding of how reducing the rate of stover remaining in the field impacts soil properties is critical. Sto...

  18. Corn Stover for Bioethanol: Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production—without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  19. Development of sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. EPA identified corn (Zea mays L.) stover as “the most economical agricultural feedstock…to meet the 16 billion gallon cellulosic biofuel requirement.” They estimated that 7.8 billion gallons of ethanol would come from 82 million tons of corn stover by 2022. POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels is con...

  20. Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow, Jr., Anthony

    2009-08-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, analysis of a conventional large square bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting, collection, and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  1. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Robert Perlack; Anthony Turhollow

    2009-08-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  2. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In much of the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover is the most abundant and widespread agricultural residue. Because of this abundance, stover has been targeted as feedstock for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Ethanol yield is linked to sugars, while structural compone...

  3. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-01-06

    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  4. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-12-05

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  5. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamic after corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel production from plant biomass seems to be a suitable solution to mitigate fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Corn (Zea mays) is a highly promising crop for biomass production. However, stover harvest could negatively impact soil properties. Changes in the quantity of corn r...

  6. Comparing corn stover and switchgrass biochar: characterization and sorption properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A switchgrass biochar (SB) produced by fast pyrolysis and a corn stover biochar (CSB) from a slow pyrolysis process were mechanically milled and characterized. Both of these biochars are very cost-effective and originate as residues from bioenergy production and the corn industry, respectively. Thes...

  7. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase.

  8. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries.

  9. Low-liquid pretreatment of corn stover with aqueous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2011-04-01

    A low-liquid pretreatment method of corn stover using aqueous ammonia was studied to reduce the severity and liquid throughput associated with the pretreatment step for ethanol production. Corn stover was treated at 0.5-50.0 wt.% of ammonia loading, 1:0.2-5.0 (w/w) of solid-to-liquid ratio, 30 °C for 4-12 weeks. The effects of these conditions on the composition and enzyme digestibility of pretreated corn stover were investigated. Pretreatment of corn stover at 30°C for four weeks using 50 wt.% of ammonia loading and 1:5 solid-to-liquid ratio resulted in 55% delignification and 86.5% glucan digestibility with 15 FPU cellulase+30 CBU β-glucosidase/g-glucan. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn stover treated at 30 °C for four weeks using 50 wt.% ammonia loading and 1:2 solid-to-liquid ratio gave an ethanol yield of 73% of the theoretical maximum based on total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) present in the untreated material.

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic storage of single-pass, chopped corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has great potential as a biomass feedstock due its widespread availability. However, storage characteristics of moist corn stover harvested from single-pass harvesters have not been well quantified. In 2007, whole-plant corn stover at 19.1 to 40.3 % (w.b.) moisture content was stored fo...

  11. Corn stover removal affects on soil carbon in an irrigated system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been proposed as a possible feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production and this experiment was initiated to investigate the effects of removing corn stover on the soil resource. Corn stover has been harvested every year after grain harvest at three levels (approximately 0, 50, and 1...

  12. Flowability parameters for chopped switchgrass, wheat straw and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Yoder, D.C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-02-01

    A direct shear cell to measure the shear strength and flow properties of chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover was designed, fabricated, and tested. Yield loci (r2=0.99) determined at pre-consolidation pressures of 3.80 kPa and 5.02 kPa indicated that chopped biomass followed Mohr-Coulomb failure. Normal stress significantly affected the displacement required for shear failure, as well as the friction coefficient values for all three chopped biomass types. Displacement at shear failure ranged from 30 to 80 mm, and depended on pre-consolidation pressure, normal stress, and particle size. Friction coefficient was inversely related to normal stress, and was highest for chopped corn stover. Also, chopped corn stover exhibited the highest angle of internal friction, unconfined yield strength, major consolidation strength, and cohesive strength, all of which indicated increased challenges in handling chopped corn stover. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength indicated that chopped biomass cannot be handled by gravity alone. The measured angle of internal friction and cohesive strength were 43 and 0.75 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 44 and 0.49 kPa for chopped wheat straw; and 48 and 0.82 kPa for chopped corn stover. Unconfined yield strength and major consolidation strength used for characterization of bulk flow materials and design of hopper dimensions were 3.4 and 10.4 kPa for chopped switchgrass; 2.3 and 9.6 kPa for chopped wheat straw and 4.2 and 11.8 kPa for chopped corn stover. These results are useful for development of efficient handling, storage, and transportation systems for biomass in biorefineries.

  13. Cellulase Accessibility of Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Jeoh, T.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The dilute-acid pretreatment reduces xylan content in corn stover. This reduction in xylan content appears to render the substrate less recalcitrant. Below {approx}8%, xylan content is no longer the dominant factor in biomass recalcitrance. (2) Decreasing xylan content of corn stover also created more binding sites for Cel7A, but no strong correlation with actual xylan content. (3) We found no correlation between bound Cel7A concentration and lignin content. Maybe lignin is blocking the way for Cel7A? The contribution of lignin to biomass recalcitrance requires further investigation.

  14. Current and potential U.S. Corn Stover Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Robin Lambert; Nelson, R; Perlack, Robert D; Sheehan, J.; Wright, Lynn L

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are a potential feedstock for bioenergy and bio-based products that could reduceU.S. dependence on foreign oil. Collection of such residues must take into account concerns that residue removal could increase erosion, reduce crop productivity, and deplete soil carbon and nutrients. This article estimates where and how much corn stover can be collected sustainably in the USA using existing commercial equipment and estimates costs of that collection. Erosion constraints to collection were considered explicitly, and crop productivity and soil nutrient constraints were considered implicitly, by recognizing the value of residues for maintaining soil moisture and including the cost of fertilizer to replace nutrients removed. Possible soil carbon loss was not considered in the analysis. With an annual production of 196 million Mg of corn grain (about9.2 billion bushels), the USA produces 196 million Mg of stover. Under current rotation and tillage practices, about 30% of this stover could be collected for less than $33 per Mg, taking into consideration erosion and soil moisture concerns and nutrient replacement costs. Wind erosion is a major constraint to stover collection. Analysis suggests three regions of the country (central Illinois, northern Iowa/southern Minnesota, and along the Platte River in Nebraska) produce sufficient stover to support large biorefineries with one million Mg per year feedstock demands and that if farmers converted to universal no-till production of corn, then over 100 million Mg of stover could be collected annually without causing erosion to exceed the tolerable soil loss.

  15. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg?¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha?¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  16. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; Cantrell, Keri B.; Archer, David W.; Wienhold, Brian J.; Varvel, Gary E.; Laird, David A.; Baker, John; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Novak, Jeff M.; Halvorson, Ardell D.; Arriaga, Francisco; Lightle, David T.; Hoover, Amber; Emerson, Rachel; Barbour, Nancy W.

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg⁻¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ⁻¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha⁻¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha⁻¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  17. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Jane M. F.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Gresham, Garold L.; ...

    2014-11-17

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the earmore » averaged 16.3 ± 0.40 MJ kg⁻¹, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ⁻¹, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha⁻¹, but it would be only 1000 L ha⁻¹ if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.« less

  18. Greenhouse gas fluxes in response to corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils play a critical role in the mitigation of increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4). Identifying management strategies (fertilization, tillage, irrigation) that optimize corn stover removal rates ...

  19. Benefits from Tween during enzymic hydrolysis of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Kaar, W.E.; Holtzapple, M.T.

    1998-08-20

    Corn stover is a potential substrate for fermentation processes. Previous work with corn stover demonstrated that lime pretreatment rendered it digestible by cellulase; however, high sugar yields required very high enzyme loadings. Because cellulase is a significant cost in biomass conversion processes, the present study focused on improving the enzyme efficiency using Tween 20 and Tween 80; Tween 20 is slightly more effective than Tween 80. The recommended pretreatment conditions for the biomass remained unchanged regardless of whether Tween was added during the hydrolysis. The recommended Tween loading was 0.15 g Tween/g dry biomass. The critical relationship was the Tween loading on the biomass, not the Tween concentration in solution. The 72-h enzymic conversion of pretreated corn stover using 5 FPU cellulase/g dry biomass at 50 C with Tween 20 as part of the medium was 0.85 g/g for cellulose, 0.66 g/g for xylan, and 0.75 for total polysaccharide; addition of Tween improved the cellulose, xylan, and total polysaccharide conversions by 42, 40, and 42%, respectively. Kinetic analyses showed that Tween improved the enzymic absorption constants, which increased the effective hydrolysis rate compared to hydrolysis without Tween. Furthermore, Tween prevented thermal deactivation of the enzymes, which allows for the kinetic advantage of higher temperature hydrolysis. Ultimate digestion studies showed higher conversions for samples containing Tween, indicating a substrate effect. It appears that Tween improves corn stover hydrolysis through three effects: enzyme stabilizer, lignocellulose disrupter, and enzyme effector.

  20. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennsylvania has a long history of harvesting corn stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use...

  1. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  2. Development of Sustainable Corn Stover Feedstock Supply Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising global energy demand has increased the importance of developing sustainable land management strategies. In response, the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) was begun to quantify the sustainability of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover and other materials for bio-energy. REAP obj...

  3. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  4. Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

  5. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from corn stovers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Huili; Zhang, Meng; Qin, Guangyong; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Zongwei; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin

    2011-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated from corn stover in Henan Province, China, of which 105 isolates were considered to be lactic acid bacteria (LAB) according to Gram-positive, catalase-negative and mainly metabolic lactic acid product. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequence of 21 representative strains was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups and to determine the phylogenetic affiliation of isolates. The sequences from the various LAB isolates showed high degrees of similarity to those of the GenBank type strains between 99.4% and 100%. The prevalent LAB, predominantly Lactobacillus (85.6%), consisted of L. plantarum (33.3%), L. pentosus (28.6%) and L. brevis (23.7%). Other LAB species as Leuconostoc lactis (4.8%), Weissella cibaria (4.8%) and Enterococcus mundtii (4.8%) also presented in corn stover. The present study is the first to fully document corn stover-associated LAB involved in the silage fermentation. The identification results revealed LAB composition inhabiting corn stover and enabling the future design of appropriate inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage.

  6. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  7. Pipeline transport and simultaneous saccharification of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

    2005-05-01

    Pipeline transport of corn stover delivered by truck from the field is evaluated against a range of truck transport costs. Corn stover transported by pipeline at 20% solids concentration (wet basis) or higher could directly enter an ethanol fermentation plant, and hence the investment in the pipeline inlet end processing facilities displaces comparable investment in the plant. At 20% solids, pipeline transport of corn stover costs less than trucking at capacities in excess of 1.4 M drytonnes/yr when compared to a mid range of truck transport cost (excluding any credit for economies of scale achieved in the ethanol fermentation plant from larger scale due to multiple pipelines). Pipelining of corn stover gives the opportunity to conduct simultaneous transport and saccharification (STS). If current enzymes are used, this would require elevated temperature. Heating of the slurry for STS, which in a fermentation plant is achieved from waste heat, is a significant cost element (more than 5 cents/l of ethanol) if done at the pipeline inlet unless waste heat is available, for example from an electric power plant located adjacent to the pipeline inlet. Heat loss in a 1.26 m pipeline carrying 2 M drytonnes/yr is about 5 degrees C at a distance of 400 km in typical prairie clay soils, and would not likely require insulation; smaller pipelines or different soil conditions might require insulation for STS. Saccharification in the pipeline would reduce the need for investment in the fermentation plant, saving about 0.2 cents/l of ethanol. Transport of corn stover in multiple pipelines offers the opportunity to develop a large ethanol fermentation plant, avoiding some of the diseconomies of scale that arise from smaller plants whose capacities are limited by issues of truck congestion.

  8. Environmental Impacts of Stover Removal in the Corn Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia English; Wallace E. Tyner; Juan Sesmero; Phillip Owens; David Muth

    2012-08-01

    When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs.

  9. Corn stover removal impacts on soil greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting corn stover for livestock feed or for cellulosic biofuel production may impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of high-yield irrigated corn. Soil emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured over the 2011 growing season at two irri...

  10. Impact of corn stover removal on soil microbial communities in no-till and conventional till continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue, or stover, can be used as a dry forage replacement in beef cattle diets and is being considered as a feedstock for cellulosic biofuel production. The soil quality and crop productivity ramifications of removing stover, however, likely will depend on stover removal rate an...

  11. Multiscale deconstruction of molecular architecture in corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouye, Hideyo; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lin; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Fischetti, Robert F.; Gleber, S. Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Fowle, W.; Makowski, Bryan; Tucker, Melvin; Ciesielski, Peter; Donohoe, Bryon; Matthews, James; Himmel, Michael E.; Makowski, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic composite in corn stover is a candidate biofuel feedstock of substantial abundance and sustainability. Its utilization is hampered by resistance of constituent cellulose fibrils to deconstruction. Here we use multi-scale studies of pretreated corn stover to elucidate the molecular mechanism of deconstruction and investigate the basis of recalcitrance. Dilute acid pretreatment has modest impact on fibrillar bundles at 0.1 micron length scales while leading to significant disorientation of individual fibrils. It disintegrates many fibrils into monomeric cellulose chains or small side-by-side aggregates. Residual crystalline fibrils lose amorphous surface material, change twist and where still cross-linked, coil around one another. Yields from enzymatic digestion are largely due to hydrolysis of individual cellulose chains and fragments generated during pretreatments. Fibrils that remain intact after pretreatment display substantial resistance to enzymatic digestion. Optimization of yield will require strategies that maximize generation of fragments and minimize preservation of intact cellulosic fibrils.

  12. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities. Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.

  13. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; ...

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities.more » Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.« less

  14. Ensiling corn stover: effect of feedstock preservation on particleboard performance.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Chen, Zhilin; Kuo, Monlin; Bian, Yilin; Moore, Kenneth J; Patrick, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Ensilage is a truncated solid-state fermentation in which anaerobically produced organic acids accumulate to reduce pH and limit microbial activity. Ensilage can be used to both preserve and pretreat biomass feedstock for further downstream conversion into chemicals, fuels, and/or fiber products. This study examined the ensilage of enzyme-treated corn stover as a feedstock for particleboard manufacturing. Corn stover at three different particle size ranges (<100, <10, and <5 mm) was ensiled with and without a commercial enzyme mixture having a cellulase:hemicellulase ratio of 2.54:1, applied at a hemicellulase rate of 1670 IU/kg dry mass. Triplicate 20 L mini-silos were destructively sampled and analyzed on days 0, 1, 7, 21, 63, and 189. Analysis included produced organic acids and water-soluble carbohydrates, fiber fractions, pH, and microorganisms, including Lactobacillus spp. and clostridia were monitored. On days 0, 21, and 189, the triplicate samples were mixed evenly and assembled into particleboard using 10% ISU 2 resin, a soy-based adhesive. Particleboard panels were subjected to industry standard tests for modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bonding strength (IB), thickness swell (TS), and water absorption at 2 h boiling and 24 h soaking. Enzyme addition did improve the ensilage process, as indicated by sustained lower pH (P < 0.0001), higher water-soluble carbohydrates (P < 0.05), and increased lactic acid production (P < 0.0001). The middle particle size range (<10 mm) demonstrated the most promising results during the ensilage process. Compared with fresh stover, the ensilage process did increase IB of stover particleboard by 33% (P < 0.05) and decrease water adsorption at 2 h boiling and 24 h soaking significantly (P < 0.05). Particleboard panels produced from substrate ensiled with enzymes showed a significant reduction in water adsorption of 12% at 2 h boiling testing. On the basis of these results, ensilage can be used as

  15. Enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover by an integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Miao, Yelian; Jiang, Xuejian; Xu, Zidong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2010-04-01

    An integrated wet-milling and alkali pretreatment was applied to corn stover prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The effects of NaOH concentration in the pretreatment on crystalline structure, chemical composition, and reducing-sugar yield of corn stover were investigated, and the mechanism of increasing reducing-sugar yield by the pretreatment was discussed. The experimental results showed that the crystalline structure of corn stover was disrupted, and lignin was removed, while cellulose and hemicellulose were retained in corn stover by the pretreatment with 1% NaOH in 1 h. The reducing-sugar yield from the pretreated corn stovers increased from 20.2% to 46.7% when the NaOH concentration increased from 0% to 1%. The 1% NaOH pretreated corn stover had a holocellulose conversion of 55.1%. The increase in reducing-sugar yield was related to the crystalline structure disruption and delignification of corn stover. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose in the corn stover to sugars.

  16. Maleic acid treatment of bioabated corn stover liquors improves cellulose conversion to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment of lignocellulose is critical for efficient cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation. This study examined the effect of bioabated liquor from pretreated corn stover on enzyme hydrolysis of Solka Floc or pretreated corn stover soli...

  17. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were evaluated for conversion of corn stover cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. Corn stover used in this study contained 37.0±0.2% cellulose, 26.8±0.2% hemicellulose and 18.0±0.1% lignin on dry basis. Unde...

  18. Corn grain, stover yield, and nutrient removal validations at regional partnership sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays, L.) stover, the aboveground material left in fields after corn grain harvest, has been selected as a major feedstock by at least four companies investing in cellulosic bioenergy. Estimates of the amount of stover that could be sustainably harvested have varied greatly depending upon ...

  19. Quantifying and mitigating the environmental impacts of using corn stover as a biofuel feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Corn stover has been suggested as a viable biomass feedstock for bioenergy production. However, unharvested corn stover provides two important ecosystem services: it reduces soil erosion and replenishes soil carbon, both of which help maintain soil productivity. There are...

  20. Agronomic impacts of production scale harvesting of corn stover for cellulosic ethanol production in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schau, Dustin

    This thesis investigates the impacts of corn stover harvest in Central Iowa with regards to nutrient removal, grain yield impacts and soil tilth. Focusing on phosphorus and potassium removal due to production of large, square bales of corn stover, 3.7 lb P2O5 and 18.7 lb K 2O per ton of corn stover were removed in 2011. P2O 5 removal remained statistically the same in 2012, but K2O decreased to 15.1 lb per ton of corn stover. Grain cart data showed no statistical difference in grain yield between harvest treatments, but yield monitor data showed a 3 - 17 bu/ac increase in 2012 and hand samples showed a 4 - 21 bu/ac increase in 2013. Corn stover residue levels decreased below 30% coverage when corn stover was harvested the previous fall and conventional tillage methods were used, but incorporating reduced tillage practices following corn stover harvest increased residue levels back up to 30% coverage. Corn emergence rates increased by at least 2,470 more plants per acre within the first three days of spiking, but final populations between harvest and nonharvest corn stover treatments were the same. Inorganic soil nitrogen in the form of ammonium and nitrate were not directly impacted by corn stover harvest, but it is hypothesized that weather patterns had a greater impact on nitrogen availability. Lastly, soil organic matter did not statistically change from 2011 to 2013 due to corn stover removal, even when analyzed within single soil types.

  1. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  2. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor) and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass) have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline pretreatment technology

  3. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  4. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  5. Understanding nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrient impacts of corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for several uses including advanced biofuel production, enhanced animal feeds, mushroom production, and several green chemistry constituents. Harvesting stover for any of these uses will increase macronutrient (N, P, and K), sec...

  6. Carbohydrate and nutrient composition of corn stover from three Southeastern USA locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as an important feedstock for bioenergy and bio-product production. Our objective was to quantify nutrient removal, carbohydrate composition, theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) for various stover fractions. In 2009, 2010, and 2011, whole-plant samples were ...

  7. Corn grain, stover yield and nutrient removal validations at regional partnership sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays, L.) stover has been identified as a major feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy. This report summarizes grain and stover yield as well as N, P, and K removal at several Sun Grant Regional Partnership (SGRP) sites. National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) grain yields were used t...

  8. Corn stover nutrient removal estimates for Central Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most frequently asked questions to those striving to secure sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock supplies for Iowa’s new bioenergy conversion facilities is “what quantity of nutrients will be removed if I harvest my stover?”. Our objective is to summarize six years of field res...

  9. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently.

  10. Screw extrude steam explosion: a promising pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Wengui; Zhang, Hongman; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Huang, He

    2014-06-01

    A screw extrude steam explosion (SESE) apparatus was designed and introduced to pretreat corn stover continuously for its following enzymatic hydrolysis. SESE parameters temperature (100, 120, 150°C) and residence time (1, 2, 3min) were investigated. The enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by SESE and steam explosion (SE) process was carried out and analyzed systematically. A serial of analysis methods were established, and the corn stover before/after the pretreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravity/Derivative Thermal Gravity Analysis (TG/DTG). After treated by SESE pretreatment at the optimum condition (150°C, 2min), the pretreated corn stover exhibited highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (89%), and rare fermentation inhibitors formed. Characterization results indicated that the highest yield could be attributed to the effective removal of lignin/hemicellulose and destruction of cellulose structure by SESE pretreatment.

  11. Fuel ethanol production from corn stover under optimized dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol is a renewable oxygenated fuel. Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Generation of fermentable sugars from corn stover involves pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Pretreatment is crucial as nat...

  12. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  13. Kinetic studies of corn stover saccharification using sulphuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, N.; Macdonald, D.G.; Bakhshi, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover were studied with a nonisothermal technique. Reactions were arrested at temperatures between 160 and 240/sup 0/C and product sugars were analyzed using a Bio-Rad HPX-85 liquid chromatographic column. A simple first-order series reaction model was used for both cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis rections. Kinetic parameters were obtained for three different sulphuric acid concentrations (0.49, 0.92, and 1.47 wt %). Activation energies remained constant over this acid concentration range but the preexponential factors showed an increase with acid concentration. Relationships were obtained between the preexponential factors and acid concentrations. Cellulose hydrolysis and glucose degradation reactions were observed to be of higher order with respect to acid concentration in comparison with the previous studies with other raw materials.

  14. Kinetic studies of corn stover saccharification using sulphuric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, N.; Macdonald, D.G.; Bakhshi, N.N.

    1984-04-01

    The kinetics of crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover were studied with a nonisothermal technique. Reactions were arrested at temperatures between 160 and 240 degrees C and product sugars were analyzed using a Bio-Rad HPX-85 liquid chromatographic column. A simple first-order series reaction model was used for both cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis reactions. Kinetic parameters were obtained for three different sulphuric acid concentrations (0.49, 0.92, and 1.47 weight %). Activation energies remained constant over this acid concentration range but the preexponential factors showed an increase with acid concentration. Relationships were obtained between the preexponential factors and acid concentrations. Cellulose hydrolysis and glucose degradation reactions were observed to be of higher order with respect to acid concentration in comparison with the previous studies with other raw materials. (Refs. 22).

  15. Pilot-Scale Batch Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Erik M.; O’Brien, Marykate H.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Schell, Daniel J.

    2015-12-18

    The goal of biomass pretreatment is to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the plant cell wall polysaccharides to produce sugars for upgrading to biofuels. Alkaline pretreatment has the ability to solubilize much of the lignin in biomass while the carbohydrates remain insoluble. With an increased research focus to produce high-value products from lignin, a low molecular weight, lignin-rich stream in a biorefinery is desirable. Here, this work reports on batch alkaline pretreatment of corn stover conducted using a three-factor, two-level central composite experimental design in a pilot-scale reactor to determine the relationship between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) loading, temperature, and anthraquinone (AQ) charge on solids solubilization, component yields, and enzymatic digestibility of the residual solids. Operating conditions were 100 to 140 °C, 40 to 70 mg NaOH/g dry corn stover, and 0.05% to 0.2% (w/w) AQ loading. An enzymatic hydrolysis screening study was performed at 2% cellulose loading. Empirical modeling results showed that NaOH loading and temperature are both significant factors, solubilizing 15% to 35% of the solids and up to 54% of the lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual solids produced good monomeric glucose (>90%) and xylose (>70%) yields at the more severe pretreatment conditions. We also found that the AQ charge was not a significant factor at the conditions studied, so efforts to reduce xylan and increase lignin solubilization using this compound were not successful. Lastly, while good lignin solubilization was achieved, effectively recovering this stream remains a challenge, and demonstrating performance in continuous reactors is still needed.

  16. Pilot-Scale Batch Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Kuhn, Erik M.; O’Brien, Marykate H.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; ...

    2015-12-18

    The goal of biomass pretreatment is to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the plant cell wall polysaccharides to produce sugars for upgrading to biofuels. Alkaline pretreatment has the ability to solubilize much of the lignin in biomass while the carbohydrates remain insoluble. With an increased research focus to produce high-value products from lignin, a low molecular weight, lignin-rich stream in a biorefinery is desirable. Here, this work reports on batch alkaline pretreatment of corn stover conducted using a three-factor, two-level central composite experimental design in a pilot-scale reactor to determine the relationship between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) loading, temperature, and anthraquinonemore » (AQ) charge on solids solubilization, component yields, and enzymatic digestibility of the residual solids. Operating conditions were 100 to 140 °C, 40 to 70 mg NaOH/g dry corn stover, and 0.05% to 0.2% (w/w) AQ loading. An enzymatic hydrolysis screening study was performed at 2% cellulose loading. Empirical modeling results showed that NaOH loading and temperature are both significant factors, solubilizing 15% to 35% of the solids and up to 54% of the lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual solids produced good monomeric glucose (>90%) and xylose (>70%) yields at the more severe pretreatment conditions. We also found that the AQ charge was not a significant factor at the conditions studied, so efforts to reduce xylan and increase lignin solubilization using this compound were not successful. Lastly, while good lignin solubilization was achieved, effectively recovering this stream remains a challenge, and demonstrating performance in continuous reactors is still needed.« less

  17. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  18. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  19. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) shake flask culture with 3 mM veratryl alcohol addition on day 3 was able to grow and detoxify different concentrations of diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors [10, 25, and 50% (v/v)] in defined media. GC-MS analysis of reaction products showed a decrease and change in some compounds. In addition, the total phenolic assay with Dcs samples demonstrated a decrease in the phenolic compounds. A bioassay employing Lactobacillus casei growth and lactic acid production was developed to confirm the removal of toxic compounds from 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst by the lignolytic enzymes, but not from 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst. The removal did not occur when sodium azide or cycloheximide was added to Ph. chrysosporium culture media, confirming the participation of lignolytic enzymes in the detoxification process. A concentrated enzyme preparation decreased the phenolic compounds in 10% (v/v) corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors to the same extent as the fungal cultures.

  20. HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE SORPTION KINETICS MODELING OF CORN STOVER AND ITS FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Pordesimo, L. O.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-01-01

    Corn stover, a major crop-based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, is required to be at an optimum moisture content for efficient bioconversion processes. Environmental conditions surrounding corn stover, as in storage facilities, affect its moisture due to hygroscopic sorption or desorption. The measurement and modeling of sorption characteristics of corn stover and its leaf, husk, and stalk fractions are useful from utilization and storage standpoints, hence investigated in this article. A benchtop low-temperature humidity chamber provided the test environments of 20 C, 30 C, and 40 C at a constant 95% relative humidity. Measured sorption characteristics with three replications for each fraction were obtained from instantaneous sample masses and initial moisture contents. Observed sorption characteristics were fitted using exponential, Page, and Peleg models. Corn stover fractions displayed a rapid initial moisture uptake followed by a slower sorption rates and eventually becoming almost asymptotic after 25 h. Sorption characteristics of all corn stover fractions were significantly different (P < 0.0001) but not the effect of temperature (P > 0.05) on these fractions. The initial 30 min of sorption was found to be critical due to peak rates of sorption from storage, handling, and processing standpoints. The Page and Peleg models had comparable performance fitting the sorption curves (R2 = 0.995), however the exponential model (R2 = 0.91) was not found suitable because of patterned residuals. The Arrhenius type relationship (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.80) explained the temperature variation of the fitted sorption model parameters. The Peleg model fitted constants, among the sorption models studied, had the best fit (R2 = 0.93) with the Arrhenius relationship. A developed method of mass proportion, involving individual corn stover fraction dry matter ratios, predicted the whole corn stover sorption characteristics from that of its individual fractions. Sorption

  1. Can cover crop and manure maintain or improve soil properties after stover removal from irrigated no-till corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of cover crops and animal manure following corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for expanded uses may mitigate negative soil property effects of stover removal. We studied the short-term (3 yr) cumulative impacts of stover removal with and without winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop or a...

  2. The pretreatment of corn stover with Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 for enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass for bio-ethanol production. The dominant concern in this step is how to decrease the high cost of pretreatment while achieving a high sugar yield. Fungal pretreatment of biomass was previously reported to be effective, with the advantage of having a low energy requirement and requiring no application of additional chemicals. In this work, Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 was chosen for corn stover pretreatment through screening with 40 strains of wood-rot fungi. The objective of the current work is to find out which characteristics of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum KU-41 determine the pretreatment method to be successful and worthwhile to apply. This will be done by determining the lignin content, structural carbohydrate, cellulose crystallinity, initial adsorption capacity of cellulase and specific surface area of pretreated corn stover. Results The content of xylan in pretreated corn stover was decreased by 43% in comparison to the untreated corn stover. The initial cellulase adsorption capacity and the specific surface area of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum were increased by 7.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Also there was little increase in the cellulose crystallinity of pretreated corn stover. Conclusion G. trabeum has an efficient degradation system, and the results indicated that the conversion of cellulose to glucose increases as the accessibility of cellulose increases due to the partial removal of xylan and the structure breakage of the cell wall. This pretreatment method can be further explored as an alternative to the thermochemical pretreatment method. PMID:22559172

  3. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design.

  4. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  5. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  6. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; ...

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less

  7. Policy implications of allocation methods in the life cycle analysis of integrated corn and corn stover ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Michael

    2015-08-18

    Here, a biorefinery may produce multiple fuels from more than one feedstock. The ability of these fuels to qualify as one of the four types of biofuels under the US Renewable Fuel Standard and to achieve a low carbon intensity score under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard can be strongly influenced by the approach taken to their life cycle analysis (LCA). For example, in facilities that may co-produce corn grain and corn stover ethanol, the ethanol production processes can share the combined heat and power (CHP) that is produced from the lignin and liquid residues from stover ethanol production. We examine different LCA approaches to corn grain and stover ethanol production considering different approaches to CHP treatment. In the baseline scenario, CHP meets the energy demands of stover ethanol production first, with additional heat and electricity generated sent to grain ethanol production. The resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for grain and stover ethanol are 57 and 25 g-CO2eq/MJ, respectively, corresponding to a 40 and 74% reduction compared to the GHG emissions of gasoline. We illustrate that emissions depend on allocation of burdens of CHP production and corn farming, along with the facility capacities. Co-product handling techniques can strongly influence LCA results and should therefore be transparently documented.

  8. Policy implications of allocation methods in the life cycle analysis of integrated corn and corn stover ethanol production

    DOE PAGES

    Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; ...

    2015-08-18

    Here, a biorefinery may produce multiple fuels from more than one feedstock. The ability of these fuels to qualify as one of the four types of biofuels under the US Renewable Fuel Standard and to achieve a low carbon intensity score under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard can be strongly influenced by the approach taken to their life cycle analysis (LCA). For example, in facilities that may co-produce corn grain and corn stover ethanol, the ethanol production processes can share the combined heat and power (CHP) that is produced from the lignin and liquid residues from stover ethanol production. Wemore » examine different LCA approaches to corn grain and stover ethanol production considering different approaches to CHP treatment. In the baseline scenario, CHP meets the energy demands of stover ethanol production first, with additional heat and electricity generated sent to grain ethanol production. The resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for grain and stover ethanol are 57 and 25 g-CO2eq/MJ, respectively, corresponding to a 40 and 74% reduction compared to the GHG emissions of gasoline. We illustrate that emissions depend on allocation of burdens of CHP production and corn farming, along with the facility capacities. Co-product handling techniques can strongly influence LCA results and should therefore be transparently documented.« less

  9. Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneouos saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated bioconversion process was developed to convert corn-stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol effectively. In this study, corn stover was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which resulted in high retention of glucan (~100%) and xylan (>80%) in the solids. The pretreated...

  10. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn (Zea mays L.) in response to cultivar development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of genetic selection of corn to quantity and quality of stover is still poor-known. The aim of the study was to evaluate production, C and N in fractions of corn stover in response to the cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná - Br...

  11. Influence of corn stover harvest on soil quality assessments at multiple locations across the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been identified as a biofuel feedstock due to its abundance and a perception that the residues are unused trash material. However, corn stover and other plant residues play a role in maintaining soil quality (health) and enhancing productivity, thus use of this abundant material as f...

  12. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): Production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for production of acetone butanol ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 gL^-1^ corn stover, over 97% of the sugars were r...

  13. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  14. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  15. Enzymatic digestibility and pretreatment degradation products of AFEX-treated hardwoods (Populus nigra).

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Sharma, Lekh N; Chambliss, C Kevin; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need to find alternatives to crude oil as the primary feed stock for the chemicals and fuel industry and ethanol has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative. Among the various feed stocks for producing ethanol, poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) is considered to have great potential as a biorefinery feedstock in the United States, due to their widespread availability and good productivity in several parts of the country. We have optimized AFEX pretreatment conditions (180 degrees C, 2:1 ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture, 30 minutes residence time) and by using various combinations of enzymes (commercical celluloses and xylanases) to achieve high glucan and xylan conversion (93 and 65%, respectively). We have also identified and quantified several important degradation products formed during AFEX using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As a part of degradation product analysis, we have also quantified oligosaccharides in the AFEX water wash extracts by acid hydrolysis. It is interesting to note that corn stover (C4 grass) can be pretreated effectively using mild AFEX pretreatment conditions, while on the other hand hardwood poplar requires much harsher AFEX conditions to obtain equivalent sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Comparing corn stover and poplar, we conclude that pretreatment severity and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency are dictated to a large extent by lignin carbohydrate complexes and arabinoxylan cross-linkages for AFEX.

  16. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application.

  17. Improvement of corn stover bioconversion efficiency by using plant glycoside hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Han, Yejun; Chen, Hongzhang

    2011-04-01

    Plant cell wall is the most abundant substrate for bioethanol production, and plants also represent a key resource for glycoside hydrolase (GH). To exploit efficient way for bioethanol production with lower cellulase loading, the potential of plant GH for lignocellulose bioconversion was evaluated. The GH activity for cell wall proteins (CWPs) was detected from fresh corn stover (FCS), and the synergism of which with Trichoderma reesei cellulase was also observed. The properties for the GH of FCS make it a promising enzyme additive for lignocellulose biodegradation. To make use of the plant GH, novel technology for hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation was developed with corn stover as substrate. Taking steam-exploded corn stover as substrate for hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation, compared with T. reesei cellulase loaded alone, the final glucose and ethanol accumulation increased by 60% and 63% respectively with GH of FCS as an addition.

  18. Pretreatment of corn stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chang Geun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2011-11-01

    A simple pretreatment method using anhydrous ammonia was developed to minimize water and ammonia inputs for cellulosic ethanol production, termed the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) pretreatment. In this method, corn stover with 30-70% moisture was contacted with anhydrous ammonia in a reactor under nearly ambient conditions. After the ammoniation step, biomass was subjected to a simple pretreatment step at moderate temperatures (40-120°C) for 48-144 h. Pretreated biomass was saccharified and fermented without an additional washing step. With 3% glucan loading of LMAA-treated corn stover under best treatment conditions (0.1g-ammonia+1.0 g-water per g biomass, 80°C, and 84 h), simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation test resulted in 24.9 g/l (89% of theoretical ethanol yield based on glucan+xylan in corn stover).

  19. Economic Impact of Harvesting Corn Stover under Time Constraint: The Case of North Dakota

    DOE PAGES

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time on profit maximizing potential of corn cob/stover collection in North Dakota. Three harvest options are analyzed using mathematical programming models. Our findings show that under the first corn grain only harvest option, farmers are able to complete harvesting corn grain and achieve maximum net income in a fairly short amount of time with existing combine technology. However, under the second simultaneous corn grain and cob (one-pass) harvest option, farmers generate lower net income compared to the net income of the first option. This is due to the slowdown in combinemore » harvest capacity as a consequence of harvesting corn cobs. Under the third option of separate corn grain and stover (two-pass) harvest option, time allocation is the main challenge and our evidence shows that with limited harvest field time available, farmers find it optimal to allocate most of their time harvesting grain and then proceed to harvest and bale stover if time permits at the end of harvest season. The overall findings suggest is that it would be more economically efficient to allow a firm that is specialized in collecting biomass feedstock to participate in cob/stover harvest business.« less

  20. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  1. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass,wheat straw, and corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, A.R.; Bitra, V.S.P.; Igathinathane, C.; Yang, Y.T.; Miu, P.I; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-08-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5 18.4 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 36.1 8.6 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 52.1 10.8 kg/m3 for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8 26.2 kg/m3 for switchgrass, 42.8 11.7 kg/m3 for wheat straw, and 58.9 13.4 kg/m3 for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2 51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1 117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5 120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone s model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone s model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  2. Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Mago, Gaurav; Balan, Venkatesh; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2) technologies. In addition to measuring the chemical compositions including acetyl content, physical attributes determined were biomass crystallinity, cellulose degree of polymerization, cellulase adsorption capacity of pretreated solids and enzymatically extracted lignin, copper number, FT-IR responses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualizations, and surface atomic composition by electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA). Lime pretreatment removed the most acetyl groups from both corn stover and poplar, while AFEX removed the least. Low pH pretreatments depolymerized cellulose and enhanced biomass crystallinity much more than higher pH approaches. Lime pretreated corn stover solids and flowthrough pretreated poplar solids had the highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while dilute acid pretreated corn stover solids and controlled pH pretreated poplar solids had the least. Furthermore, enzymatically extracted AFEX lignin preparations for both corn stover and poplar had the lowest cellulase adsorption capacity. ESCA results showed that SO(2) pretreated solids had the highest surface O/C ratio for poplar, but for corn stover, the highest value was observed for dilute acid pretreatment with a Parr reactor. Although dependent on pretreatment and substrate, FT-IR data showed that along with changes in cross linking and chemical changes, pretreatments may also decrystallize cellulose and change the ratio of crystalline cellulose polymorphs (Ialpha/Ibeta).

  3. Bulk density and compaction behavior of knife mill chopped switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Chevanan, Nehru; Womac, Alvin R; Bitra, Venkata S P; Igathinathane, C; Yang, Yuechuan T; Miu, Petre I; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2010-01-01

    Bulk density of comminuted biomass significantly increased by vibration during handling and transportation, and by normal pressure during storage. Compaction characteristics affecting the bulk density of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopped in a knife mill at different operating conditions and using four different classifying screens were studied. Mean loose-filled bulk densities were 67.5+/-18.4 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 36.1+/-8.6 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 52.1+/-10.8 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Mean tapped bulk densities were 81.8+/-26.2 kg/m(3) for switchgrass, 42.8+/-11.7 kg/m(3) for wheat straw, and 58.9+/-13.4 kg/m(3) for corn stover. Percentage changes in compressibility due to variation in particle size obtained from a knife mill ranged from 64.3 to 173.6 for chopped switchgrass, 22.2-51.5 for chopped wheat straw and 42.1-117.7 for chopped corn stover within the tested consolidation pressure range of 5-120 kPa. Pressure and volume relationship of chopped biomass during compression with application of normal pressure can be characterized by the Walker model and Kawakita and Ludde model. Parameter of Walker model was correlated to the compressibility with Pearson correlation coefficient greater than 0.9. Relationship between volume reduction in chopped biomass with respect to number of tappings studied using Sone's model indicated that infinite compressibility was highest for chopped switchgrass followed by chopped wheat straw and corn stover. Degree of difficulty in packing measured using the parameters of Sone's model indicated that the chopped wheat straw particles compacted very rapidly by tapping compared to chopped switchgrass and corn stover. These results are very useful for solving obstacles in handling bulk biomass supply logistics issues for a biorefinery.

  4. Effect of steam explosion and microbial fermentation on cellulose and lignin degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juan; Cheng, Wei; Yin, Qingqiang; Zuo, Ruiyu; Song, Andong; Zheng, Qiuhong; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Junxi

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase nutrient values of corn stover, effects of steam explosion (2.5 MPa, 200 s) and Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) fermentation on cellulose and lignin degradation were studied. The results showed the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the exploded corn stover were 8.47%, 50.45% and 36.65% lower than that in the untreated one, respectively (P<0.05). The contents of cellulose and hemicellulose in the exploded and fermented corn stover (EFCS) were decreased by 24.36% and 69.90%, compared with the untreated one (P<0.05); decreased by 17.35% and 38.59%, compared with the exploded one (P<0.05). The scanning electron microscope observations demonstrated that the combined steam explosion and fermentation destructed corn stover. The activities of enzymes in EFCS were increased. The metabolic experiment showed that about 8% EFCS could be used to replace corn meal in broiler diets, which made EFCS become animal feedstuff possible.

  5. Conversion of Aqueous Ammonia-Treated Corn Stover to Lactic Acid by Simultaneous Saccharification and Cofermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongming; Lee, Y. Y.; Elander, Richard T.

    Treatment of corn stover with aqueous ammonia removes most of the structural lignin, whereas retaining the majority of the carbohydrates in the solids. After treatment, both the cellulose and hemicellulose in corn stover become highly susceptible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, corn stover treated by aqueous ammonia was investigated as the substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). A commercial cellulase (Spezyme-CP) and Lactobacillus pentosus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 8041 (Spanish Type Culture Collection [CECT]-4023) were used for hydrolysis and fermentation, respectively. In batch SSCF operation, the carbohydrates in the treated corn stover were converted to lactic acid with high yields, the maximum lactic acid yield reaching 92% of the stoichiometric maximum based on total fermentable carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, and arabinose). A small amount of acetic acid was also produced from pentoses through the phosphoketolase pathway. Among the major process variables for batch SSCF, enzyme loading and the amount of yeast extract were found to be the key factors affecting lactic acid production. Further tests on nutrients indicated that corn steep liquor could be substituted for yeast extract as a nitrogen source to achieve the same lactic acid yield. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF was beneficial in raising the concentration of lactic acid to a maximum value of 75.0 g/L.

  6. A Five-Year Assessment of Corn Stover Harvest in Central Iowa, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas L. Karlen; Stuart J. Birell; J. Richard Hess

    2011-11-01

    Sustainable feedstock harvest strategies are needed to ensure bioenergy production does not irreversibly degrade soil resources. The objective for this study was to document corn (Zea mays L.) grain and stover fraction yields, plant nutrient removal and replacement costs, feedstock quality, soil-test changes, and soil quality indicator response to four stover harvest strategies for continuous corn and a corn-soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation. The treatments included collecting (1) all standing plant material above a stubble height of 10 cm (whole plant), (2) the upper-half by height (ear shank upward), (3) the lower-half by height (from the 10 cm stubble height to just below the earshank), or (4) no removal. Collectable biomass from Treatment 2 averaged 3.9 ({+-}0.8) Mg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn (2005 through 2009), and 4.8 ({+-}0.4) Mg ha{sup -1} for the rotated corn (2005, 2007, and 2009). Compared to harvesting only the grain, collecting stover increased the average N-P-K removal by 29, 3 and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for continuous corn and 42, 3, and 34 kg ha{sup -1} for rotated corn, respectively. Harvesting the lower-half of the corn plant (Treatment 3) required two passes, resulted in frequent plugging of the combine, and provided a feedstock with low quality for conversion to biofuel. Therefore, Treatment 3 was replaced by a 'cobs-only' harvest starting in 2009. Structural sugars glucan and xylan accounted for up to 60% of the chemical composition, while galactan, arabinan, and mannose constituted less than 5% of the harvest fractions collected from 2005 through 2008. Soil-test data from samples collected after the first harvest (2005) revealed low to very low plant-available P and K levels which reduced soybean yield in 2006 after harvesting the whole-plant in 2005. Average continuous corn yields were 21% lower than rotated yields with no significant differences due to stover harvest. Rotated corn yields in 2009 showed some significant differences

  7. Ammonia, total reduced sulfides, and greenhouse gases of pine chip and corn stover bedding packs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) when pine wood chips and corn stover were mixed in various...

  8. Pretreatment and fractionation of corn stover by soaking in ethanol and aqueous ammonia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Hicks, Kevin B

    2009-05-01

    A new process for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, designated the soaking in ethanol and aqueous ammonia (SEAA) process, was developed to improve hemicellulose preservation in solid form. In the SEAA process, an aqueous ammonia solution containing ethanol is used. Corn stover was treated with 15 wt.% ammonia at 1:9 solid-liquid ratio (by weight) at 60 degrees C for 24 h with ethanol added at 1, 5, 20, and 49 wt.% (balance was water). The extents by which xylan was solubilized with no ethanol and with ethanol added at 1, 5, 20, and 49 wt.% of the total liquid were 17.2%, 16.7%, 14.5%, 10.4%, and 6.3% of the original xylan, respectively. Thus, at the highest ethanol concentration used the loss of hemicellulose to the liquid phase was reduced by 63%. The digestibility of glucan and xylan in the pretreated corn stover samples by cellulase was not affected by ethanol addition of up to 20 wt.%. The enzymatic digestibility of the corn stover treated with 49 wt.% ethanol added was lower than the digestibility of the sample treated with no ethanol addition. Thus, based on these results, 20 wt.% was found to be the optimum ethanol concentration for use in the SEAA process for pretreatment of corn stover.

  9. PRETREATMENT AND FRACTIONATION OF CORN STOVER BY AMMONIA RECYCLE PERCOLATION PROCESS. (R831645)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn stover was pretreated with aqueous ammonia in a flow-through column reactor,
    a process termed as Ammonia Recycle Percolation (ARP). The aqueous ammonia causes
    swelling and efficient delignification of biomass at high temperatures. The ARP
    process solubilizes abou...

  10. Microbial pretreatment of corn stover with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2010-08-01

    The feasibility of concurrent wet storage and microbial pretreatment of corn stover with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for ethanol production was investigated in this study. The effects of particle size (5-15 mm), moisture content (45-85%), pretreatment time (18-35 d), and temperature (4-37 degrees C) on lignin degradation and enzymatic hydrolysis yield were studied. The results showed that C. subvermispora selectively degraded lignin up to 31.59% with a limited cellulose loss of less than 6% during an 18-d pretreatment. When 5mm corn stover was pretreated at 28 degrees C with 75% moisture content, overall glucose yields of 57.67%, 62.21%, and 66.61% were obtained with 18-, 28-, and 35-d microbial pretreated corn stover, respectively. For the above conditions, the highest overall ethanol yield of 57.80% was obtained with 35-d-pretreated corn stover. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield was highly related to the lignin removal during microbial pretreatment.

  11. Cellulosic ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae seeds cultured by pretreated corn stover material.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of lignocellulose materials to replace the pure glucose for preparation of the fermenting yeast seeds could reduce the cost of ethanol fermentation, because a large quantity of glucose is saved in the large-scale seed fermentor series. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was cultured using the freshly pretreated corn stover material as the carbon source, and then the culture broth was used as the inoculation seeds after a series of seed transfer and inoculated into the ethanol production fermentor. The results show that the yeast cell growth and ethanol fermentation performance have essentially no difference when the yeast seeds were cultured by glucose, the corn stover hydrolysate liquid, and the pretreated corn stover solids as carbon sources, respectively. Approximately 22% of the yeast cell culture cost was saved, and the process flow sheet in industrial scale plants was simplified by using the pretreated corn stover for seed culture. The results provided a practical method for materials and operational cost reduction for cellulosic ethanol production.

  12. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed perennial grasses from Conservation Reserve Program de...

  13. Visual soil structure effects of tillage and corn stover harvest in Iowa, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for ethanol production has raised concerns regarding negative consequences on soil structure and physical quality. Visual soil structure assessment methods have the potential to help address these concerns through simple, straightforward on-farm evaluat...

  14. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  15. Pretreatment of corn stover using wet oxidation to enhance enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Varga, Eniko; Schmidt, Anette S; Réczey, Kati; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is an abundant, promising raw material for fuel ethanol production. Although it has a high cellulose content, without pretreatment it resists enzymatic hydrolysis, like most lignocellulosic materials. Wet oxidation (water, oxygen, mild alkali or acid, elevated temperature and pressure) was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Six different combinations of reaction temperature, time, and pH were applied. The best conditions (60 g/L of corn stover, 195 degrees C, 15 min, 12 bar O2, 2 g/L of Na2CO3) increased the enzymatic conversion of corn stover four times, compared to untreated material. Under these conditions 60% of hemicellulose and 30% of lignin were solubilized, whereas 90% of cellulose remained in the solid fraction. After 24-h hydrolysis at 50 degrees C using 25 filter paper units (FPU)/g of drymatter (DM) biomass, the achieved conversion of cellulose to glucose was about 85%. Decreasing the hydrolysis temperature to 40 degrees C increased hydrolysis time from 24 to 72 h. Decreasing the enzyme loading to 5 FPU/g of DM biomass slightly decreased the enzymatic conversion from 83.4 to 71%. Thus, enzyme loading can be reduced without significantly affecting the efficiency of hydrolysis, an important economical aspect.

  16. Effect of treatment and cultivar on the ensiling of corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine cultivars of corn stover selected for ethanol potential were harvested (34 to 40% dry matter) and each ensiled with six treatments: untreated, lactic acid bacteria, cell-wall degrading enzymes, sulfuric acid, bacteria-enzyme combination and enzyme-acid combination. Ensiling was carried out in v...

  17. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of corn stover for efficient ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol. Corn stover (supplied by a local farmer) used in this study contained 37.0±0.4% cellulose, 31.3±0.6% hemicelluloses, and 17.8±0.2% lignin. Generation of fermentable sugars from ...

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of lignin from residue of corn stover to ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve the economic viability of the biofuel production from biomass resource, a value-added lignin byproduct from this process is increasingly interested. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of lignin extracted from residue of corn stover to ethanol production were investigated. The lignin...

  19. Optimization of steam pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Varga, Eniko; Réczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Among the available agricultural byproducts, corn stover, with its yearly production of 10 million t (dry basis), is the most abundant promising raw material for fuel ethanol production in Hungary. In the United States, more than 216 million t of corn stover is produced annually, of which a portion also could possibly be collected for conversion to ethanol. However, a network of lignin and hemicellulose protects cellulose, which is the major source of fermentable sugars in corn stover (approx 40% of the dry matter [DM]). Steam pretreatment removes the major part of the hemicellulose from the solid material and makes the cellulose more susceptible to enzymatic digestion. We studied 12 different combinations of reaction temperature, time, and pH during steam pretreatment. The best conditions (200 degrees C, 5 min, 2% H2SO4) increased the enzymatic conversion (from cellulose to glucose) of corn stover more then four times, compared to untreated material. However, steam pretreatment at 190 degrees C for 5 min with 2% sulfuric acid resulted in the highest overall yield of sugars, 56.1 g from 100 g of untreated material (DM), corresponding to 73% of the theoretical. The liquor following steam explosion was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the inhibitory effect of the pretreatment. The achieved ethanol yield was slightly higher than that obtained with a reference sugar solution. This demonstrates that baker's yeast could adapt to the pretreated liquor and ferment the glucose to ethanol efficiently.

  20. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels was recognized as an important research challenge because cellulose is available from sources that do not directly compete with food and feed production. One result was that corn (Zea mays L.) stover, the abovegrou...

  1. Complete genome sequence of Clostridium sp. strain BNL1100, a cellulolytic mesophile isolated from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Luen-Luen; Taghavi, Safiyh; Izquierdo, Javier A; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We present the full genome sequence of Clostridium sp. strain BNL1100, a Gram-positive, endospore-forming, lignocellulolytic bacterium isolated from a corn stover enrichment culture. The 4,613,747-bp genome of strain BNL1100 contains 4,025 putative protein-coding genes, of which 103 are glycoside hydrolases, the highest detected number in cluster III clostridia.

  2. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass grown at several U.S. locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover is a likely non-food agricultural feedstock for production of renewable liquid fuels, biopower and other bioproducts. Crop residues serve multiple soil functions such as erosion control and carbon and nutrient cycling. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation version 2 (RUSLE2) and the W...

  3. Nutrient removal as a function of corn stover cutting height and cob harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-pass harvest equipment has been developed to collect corn (Zea mays L.) grain, stover, and cobs: three plant components that can be used as bioenergy feedstock. Nutrients removed in these feedstocks have soil fertility implications and affect feedstock quality. The study objectives were to quant...

  4. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by ethylene glycol-perchloric acid-water mixture.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Lu, Ting; Ding, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Qing, Qing; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    To improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, a mixture of ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) was used for pretreating corn stover in this study. After the optimization in oil-bath system, the optimum pretreatment temperature and time were 130 °C and 30 min, respectively. After the saccharification of 10 g/L pretreated corn stover for 48 h, the saccharification rate was obtained in the yield of 77.4 %. To decrease pretreatment temperature and shorten pretreatment time, ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media under microwave irradiation was employed to pretreat corn stover effectively at 100 °C and 200 W for 5 min. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. These results would be helpful for developing a cost-effective pretreatment combined with enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol.

  5. Enhancement of xylose utilization from corn stover by a recombinant bacterium for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of substrate-selective inoculum prepared by growing on glucose, xylose, arabinose, GXA (glucose, xylose, arabinose, 1:1:1) and corn stover hydrolyzate (dilute acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed, CSH) on ethanol production from CSH by a mixed sugar utilizing recombinant Escherichia ...

  6. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  7. Comparative performance of precommercial cellulases hydrolyzing pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellulases and related hydrolytic enzymes represent a key cost factor for biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass feedstocks to sugars for biofuels and chemicals production. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is cost sharing projects to decrease the cost of enzymes for biomass saccharification. The performance of benchmark cellulase preparations produced by Danisco, DSM, Novozymes and Verenium to convert pretreated corn stover (PCS) cellulose to glucose was evaluated under common experimental conditions and is reported here in a non-attributed manner. Results Two hydrolysis modes were examined, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of PCS whole slurry or washed PCS solids at pH 5 and 50°C, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed PCS solids at pH 5 and 38°C. Enzymes were dosed on a total protein mass basis, with protein quantified using both the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay and the Bradford assay. Substantial differences were observed in absolute cellulose to glucose conversion performance levels under the conditions tested. Higher cellulose conversion yields were obtained using washed solids compared to whole slurry, and estimated enzyme protein dosages required to achieve a particular cellulose conversion to glucose yield were extremely dependent on the protein assay used. All four enzyme systems achieved glucose yields of 90% of theoretical or higher in SSF mode. Glucose yields were reduced in EH mode, with all enzymes achieving glucose yields of at least 85% of theoretical on washed PCS solids and 75% in PCS whole slurry. One of the enzyme systems ('enzyme B') exhibited the best overall performance. However in attaining high conversion yields at lower total enzyme protein loadings, the relative and rank ordered performance of the enzyme systems varied significantly depending upon which hydrolysis mode and protein assay were used as the basis for comparison. Conclusions This study provides extensive information about the

  8. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  9. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications.

  10. Evaluation of storage methods for the conversion of corn stover biomass to sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Lei; Jin, Ming-Jie; Pang, Feng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Kang, Yong; Dale, Bruce E; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of dry and wet storage methods without or with shredding on the conversion of corn stover biomass were investigated using steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugar conversions and yields for wet stored biomass were obviously higher than those for dry stored biomass. Shredding reduced sugar conversions compared with non-shredding, but increased sugar yields. Glucan conversion and glucose yield for non-shredded wet stored biomass reached 91.5% and 87.6% after 3-month storage, respectively. Data of micro-structure and crystallinity of biomass indicated that corn stover biomass maintained the flexible and porous structure after wet storage, and hence led to the high permeability of corn stover biomass and the high efficiency of pretreatment and hydrolysis. Therefore, the wet storage methods would be desirable for the conversion of corn stover biomass to fermentable sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  11. Quantifying cradle-to-farm gate life-cycle impacts associated with fertilizer used for corn, soybean, and stover production

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Susan E.

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production.

  12. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life-Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, S. E.

    2005-05-01

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particular eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for harvesting corn stover for ethanol production. This modeling study found that eutrophication potential for the base case already exceeds proposed water quality standards, that switching to no-till cultivation and collecting stover increased that eutrophication potential by 21%, and that switching to continuous-corn production on top of that would triple eutrophication potential.

  13. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (−4 ± 35 kg ha−1) and K (−6 ± 36 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha−1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  14. Handling of co-products in life cycle analysis in an evolving co-product market: A case study with corn stover removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (cobs and residue) is an important part of the life cycle of corn, either as fuel or as animal feed, but most life cycle analysis (LCA) models treat them separately from starch ethanol. This paper compares four stover and corn grain based ethanol pathways to show how the greenhouse gas (...

  15. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  16. Rapid Changes in Soil Carbon and Structural Properties Due to Stover Removal from No-Till Corn Plots

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-06-01

    Harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover for producing ethanol may be beneficial to palliate the dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, but stover harvesting may deplete soil organic carbon (SOC) and degrade soil structure. We investigated the impacts of variable rates of stover removal from no-till (NT) continuous corn systems on SOC and soil structural properties after 1 year of stover removal in three soils in Ohio: Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. This study also assessed relationships between SOC and soil structural properties as affected by stover management. Six stover treatments that consisted of removing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0, and adding 100% of corn stover corresponding to 0 (T0), 1.25 (T1.25), 2.50 (T2.5), 3.75 (T3.75), 5.00 (T5), and 10.00 (T10) Mg haj1 of stover, respectively, were studied for their total SOC concentration, bulk density (>b), aggregate stability, and tensile strength (TS) of aggregates. Effects of stover removal on soil properties were rapid and significant in the 0- to 5-cm depth, although the magnitude of changes differed among soils after only 1 year of stover removal. The SOC concentration declined with increase in removal rates in silt loams but not in clay loam soils. It decreased by 39% at Coshocton and 30% at Charleston within 1 year of complete stover removal. At the same sites, macroaggregates contained 10% to 45% more SOC than microaggregates. Stover removal reduced 94.75-mm macroaggregates and increased microaggregates (P G 0.01). Mean weight diameter (MWD) and TS of aggregates in soils without stover (T0) were 1.7 and 3.3 times lower than those in soils with normal stover treatments (T5) across sites. The SOC concentration was negatively correlated with >b and positively with MWD and

  17. Sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment of corn stover: sugar recovery efficiency and structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Ji Young; Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Min Woo; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the feasibility of applying sequential dilute acid and alkali pretreatment into the hydrolysis of corn stover and to elucidate the effects of structural changes in the biomass on its enzymatic digestibility. H2SO4 used in the first step selectively hydrolyzed 74.6-77.3% of xylan and NaOH used in the second step removed 85.9-89.4% of lignin, from the raw corn stover. Compared to single dilute acid pretreatment, the proposed combined pretreatment minimized the generation of byproducts such as acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in the hydrolysates, and enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid residue. The changes in the structural features (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the solid residue were strongly correlated with the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. The overall glucose and xylose yields finally obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis reached 89.1-97.9% and 71.0-75.9%, respectively.

  18. A new magnesium bisulfite pretreatment (MBSP) development for bio-ethanol production from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heng; Ren, Jiwei; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    This study established a new more neutral magnesium bisulfate pretreatment (MBSP) using magnesium bisulfate as sulfonating agent for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover. Using the MBSP with 5.21% magnesium bisulfate, 170°C and pH 5.2 for 60 min, about 90% of lignin and 80% of hemicellulose were removed from biomass and more than 90% cellulose conversion of substrate was achieved after 48 h hydrolysis. About 6.19 kg raw corn stover could produce 1 kg ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Meanwhile, MBSP also could protect sugars from excessive degradation, prevent fermentation inhibition formation and directly convert the hemicelluloses into xylooligosaccharides as higher-value products. These results suggested that the MBSP method offers an alternative approach to the efficient conversion of nonwoody lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and had broad space for development.

  19. Fermentation of Acid-pretreated Corn Stover to Ethanol Without Detoxification Using Pichia stipitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbogbo, Frank K.; Haagensen, Frank D.; Milam, David; Wenger, Kevin S.

    In this work, the effect of adaptation on P. stipitis fermentation using acidpretreated corn stover hydrolyzates without detoxification was examined. Two different types of adaptation were employed, liquid hydrolyzate and solid state agar adaptation. Fermentation of 12.5% total solids undetoxified acid-pretreated corn stover was performed in shake flasks at different rotation speeds. At low rotation speed (100 rpm), both liquid hydrolyzate and solid agar adaptation highly improved the sugar consumption rate as well as ethanol production rate compared to the wild-type strains. The fermentation rate was higher for solid agar-adapted strains compared to liquid hydrolyzate-adapted strains. At a higher rotation speed (150 rpm), there was a faster sugar consumption and ethanol production for both the liquid-adapted and the wild-type strains. However, improvements in the fermentation rate between the liquid-adapted and wild strains were less pronounced at the high rotation speed.

  20. Economics of sugar production with Trichoderma reesei Rutgers C-30. [Corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1980-08-01

    The economics of sugar production from bioconversion of corn stover utilizing cellulase obtained from Trichoderma reesei strain Rutgers C-30 were investigated. The cost of manufacturing sugar is 10.5 cents per pound. This reduced cost is due to cellulase activities ranging from 7 to 14 IU/ml from batch cultures. Hydrolysis can be carried out at substrate concentrations up to 25% and give product streams containing up to 9% sugars. Conversions up to 61% of theoretical have been observed. A sensitivity analysis indicates that sugar can be produced at near competitive prices from corn stover costing $0 to $50 per ton. By utilizing new fermentation technology, sugar at these prices can be used to product 95% alcohol at a cost ranging from $1.80 to $3.00 per gallon.

  1. Three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover at high substrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoping; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-04-01

    The feasibility of three-stage hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover at high-substrate concentration was investigated. When substrate concentration was 30% and enzyme loading was 15-30 FPU/g cellulose, three-stage (9+9+12 h) hydrolysis could reach a hydrolysis yield of 59.9-81.4% in 30 h. Compared with one-stage hydrolysis for 72 h, an increase of 34-37% in hydrolysis yield could be achieved. When steam-exploded corn stover was used as the substrate for enzyme synthesis and hydrolysis was conducted at a substrate concentration of 25% with an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g cellulose, a hydrolysis yield of 85.1% was obtained, 19% higher than that the commercial cellulase could reach under the same conditions. The removal of end products was suggested to improve the adsorption of cellulase on the substrate and enhance the productivity of enzymatic hydrolysis.

  2. Production of ethanol from corn stover hemicellulose hydrolyzate using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Agbogbo, Frank K; Wenger, Kevin S

    2007-11-01

    Hemicellulose liquid hydrolyzate from dilute acid pretreated corn stover was fermented to ethanol using Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The fermentation rate increased with aeration but the pH also increased due to consumption of acetic acid by Pichia stipitis. Hemicellulose hydrolyzate containing 34 g/L xylose, 8 g/L glucose, 8 g/L Acetic acid, 0.73 g/L furfural, and 1 g/L hydroxymethyl furfural was fermented to 15 g/L ethanol in 72 h. The yield in all the hemicellulose hydrolyzates was 0.37-0.44 g ethanol/g (glucose + xylose). Nondetoxified hemicellulose hydrolyzate from dilute acid pretreated corn stover was fermented to ethanol with high yields, and this has the potential to improve the economics of the biomass to ethanol process.

  3. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  4. Effects of laccase on lignin depolymerization and enzymatic hydrolysis of ensiled corn stover.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Marshall, Megan N; Geib, Scott M; Tien, Ming; Richard, Tom L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the synergies of laccase, a ligninolytic enzyme, with cellulose and hemicellulase amendments on ensiled corn stover. Molecular signals of lignin decomposition were observed by tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (TMAH-GC-MS) analysis. The significant findings suggest that ensilage might provide a platform for biological pretreatment. By partially hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose into soluble sugars, ensilage facilitates laccase penetration into the lignocellulose complex to enhance lignin degradation. Downstream cellulose hydrolysis was improved 7% with increasing laccase loading rate. These results demonstrate the potential of enzymes, either directly amended or expressed by microbes during ensilage, to maximize utilization of corn stover for cellulosic biofuels and other downstream fermentations.

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ground corn stover for the production of fuel ethanol using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.

  6. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Varga, Enikõ; Klinke, Helene B; Réczey, Kati; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-12-05

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degrees C, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50 degrees C, the optimal temperature of enzymes, in order to obtain better mixing condition due to some liquefaction. In the second step more cellulases were added in combination with dried baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C. The phenols (0.4-0.5 g/L) and carboxylic acids (4.6-5.9 g/L) were present in the hemicellulose rich hydrolyzate at subinhibitory levels, thus no detoxification was needed prior to SSF of the whole slurry. Based on the cellulose available in the WO corn stover 83% of the theoretical ethanol yield was obtained under optimized SSF conditions. This was achieved with a substrate concentration of 12% dry matter (DM) acidic WO corn stover at 30 FPU/g DM (43.5 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading. Even with 20 and 15 FPU/g DM (corresponding to 29 and 22 FPU/g cellulose) enzyme loading, ethanol yields of 76 and 73%, respectively, were obtained. After 120 h of SSF the highest ethanol concentration of 52 g/L (6 vol.%) was achieved, which exceeds the technical and economical limit of the industrial-scale alcohol distillation. The SSF results showed that the cellulose in pretreated corn stover can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with up to 15% DM concentration. A further increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2.

  7. Comparison of different alkali-based pretreatments of corn stover for improving enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Yang; Wang, Haisong; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong

    2012-12-01

    Corn stover was treated with NaOH, NaOH+anthraquinone (AQ), NaOH+Na(2)SO(3) (alkaline), NaOH+Na(2)SO(3) (neutral), and NaOH+Na(2)S, respectively. The treated corn stover was subjected to hydrolysis with cellulase (20 FPU/g dry biomass) and β-glucosidase (10I U/g dry biomass). Compared with other pretreatment methods, alkaline sodium sulfite pretreatment (ASSP) at a relatively low temperature of 140°C provided for the best lignin removal of about 92%. After ASSP with 10 wt.% of the total alkali charge (Na(2)SO(3):NaOH=1:1) at 140°C for 30 min and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a total sugar yield of 78.2% was obtained on the basis of the amount of glucose and xylose released from raw corn stover. This yield was 24.0% higher than that achieved with NaOH only under the same conditions. Therefore, the supplement of Na(2)SO(3) in alkali pretreatment can facilitate delignification and significantly improve the enzymatic saccharification.

  8. Pretreatment of corn stover silage with Fe(NO(3))(3) for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Youshan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xinying; Zhang, Shuting

    2011-07-01

    Corn stover silage is an attractive raw material for the production of biofuels and chemicals due to its high content of carbohydrates and easy degradability. The effects of Fe(NO(3))(3) pretreatment conditions on sugar yields were investigated for corn stover silage. In addition, a combined severity factor was used to evaluate the effect of pretreatment conditions on the concentration of total sugars and inhibitors. Optimum pretreatment condition was obtained at 150 °C for 10 min with 0.05 M Fe(NO(3))(3), at which the yields of soluble xylose and glucose in liquid achieved 91.80% of initial xylose, 96.74% of initial arabinose and 19.09% of initial glucose, respectively, meanwhile, 91.84% of initial xylose, 98.24% of initial arabinose, and 19.91% of initial glucose were removed. In addition, a severity analysis showed that the maximum sugar concentration of 33.48 g/l was achieved at combined severity parameter value of 0.62, while the inhibitor concentration was only 0.03 g/l. Fe(NO(3))(3) is an effective catalyst to enhance hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover silage, the yields of monomeric xylose in the liquid fraction reached as high as 91.06% of initial xylose and 96.22% of initial arabinose, respectively.

  9. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass- and corn stover-derived ethanol-fueled automobiles.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Zhang, Yimin; MacLean, Heather L

    2005-12-15

    Utilizing domestically produced cellulose-derived ethanol for the light-duty vehicle fleet can potentially improve the environmental performance and sustainability of the transport and energy sectors of the economy. A life cycle assessment model was developed to examine environmental implications of the production and use of ethanol in automobiles in Ontario, Canada. The results were compared to those of low-sulfur reformulated gasoline (RFG) in a functionally equivalent automobile. Two time frames were evaluated, one near-term (2010), which examines converting a dedicated energy crop (switchgrass) and an agricultural residue (corn stover) to ethanol; and one midterm (2020), which assumes technological improvements in the switchgrass-derived ethanol life cycle. Near-term results show that, compared to a RFG automobile, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 57% lower for an E85-fueled automobile derived from switchgrass and 65% lower for ethanol from corn stover, on a grams of CO2 equivalent per kilometer basis. Corn stover ethanol exhibits slightly lower life cycle GHG emissions, primarily due to sharing emissions with grain production. Through projected improvements in crop and ethanol yields, results for the mid-term scenario show that GHG emissions could be 25-35% lower than those in 2010 and that, even with anticipated improvements in RFG automobiles, E85 automobiles could still achieve up to 70% lower GHG emissions across the life cycle.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Naveen; Faik, Ahmed; Goetz, Douglas J; Gu, Tingyue

    2011-07-01

    Supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)), a green solvent suitable for a mobile lignocellulosic biomass processor, was used to pretreat corn stover and switchgrass at various temperatures and pressures. The CO(2) pressure was released as quickly as possible by opening a quick release valve during the pretreatment. The biomass was hydrolyzed after pretreatment using cellulase combined with β-glucosidase. The hydrolysate was analyzed for the amount of glucose released. Glucose yields from corn stover samples pretreated with SC-CO(2) were higher than the untreated sample's 12% glucose yield (12 g/100g dry biomass) and the highest glucose yield of 30% was achieved with SC-CO(2) pretreatment at 3500 psi and 150°C for 60 min. The pretreatment method showed very limited improvement (14% vs. 12%) in glucose yield for switchgrass. X-ray diffraction results indicated no change in crystallinity of the SC-CO(2) treated corn stover when compared to the untreated, while SEM images showed an increase in surface area.

  11. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  12. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid.

  13. Assessment of Shock Pretreatment of Corn Stover Using the Carboxylate Platform.

    PubMed

    Darvekar, Pratik; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    Corn stover was pretreated with lime and shock, a mechanical process that uses a shockwave to alter the biomass structure. Two pretreatments (lime-only and lime + shock) were evaluated using enzymatic hydrolysis, batch mixed-culture fermentations, and continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation. In a 120-h enzymatic hydrolysis, shock pretreatment increased the glucan digestibility of submerged lime pretreatment (SLP) corn stover by 3.5 % and oxidative lime pretreatment (OLP) corn stover by 2.5 %. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to simulate a four-stage continuous countercurrent mixed-culture fermentation using empirical rate models obtained from simple batch experiments. The CPDM model determined that lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acids yield by 28.5 % over lime-only pretreatment in a countercurrent fermentation with a volatile solids loading rate (VSLR) of 12 g/(L/day) and liquid retention time (LRT) of 30 days. In a semi-continuous countercurrent fermentation performed in the laboratory for 112 days with a VSLR of 1.875 g/(L day) and LRT of 16 days, lime + shock pretreatment increased the total carboxylic acid yield by 14.8 %. The experimental results matched closely with CPDM model predictions (4.05 % error).

  14. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production with switchgrass-derived black liquor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Cheng, Jay J

    2012-05-01

    To improve the cost-effectiveness of biomass-to-sugar conversion, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass was carried out at 21°C using previously determined optimum conditions (2% NaOH (w/v), 6h), and the spent alkaline liquid (black liquor) was collected and used for pretreatment of corn stover, a feedstock exhibiting a higher susceptibility to NaOH attack, for improved enzymatic hydrolysis at a reduced cost. The results showed that, because of the high pH and the appreciable amount of carbohydrates in the black liquor, sugar production during enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated with black liquor was comparable to that of biomass pretreated with 1% NaOH. After black liquor pretreatment at the best residence time (24h), the total reducing sugar, glucose, and xylose yields of corn stover reached 478.5, 287.7, and 145.3mg/g raw biomass, respectively, indicating the viability of this novel pretreatment technology.

  15. Speciation of Sulfur in Biochar Produced from Pyrolysis and Gasification of Oak and Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feedstock type and biomass conversion conditions on the speciation of sulfur in biochars are not well-known. In this study, the sulfur content and speciation in biochars generated from pyrolysis and gasification of oak and corn stover were determined. We found the primary determinant of the total sulfur content of biomass to be the feedstock from which the biochar is generated, with oak and corn stover biochars containing 160 and 600–800 ppm sulfur, respectively. In contrast, for sulfur speciation, we found the primary determinant to be the temperature combined with the thermochemical conversion method. The speciation of sulfur in biochars was determined using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), ASTM method D2492, and scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). Biochars produced under pyrolysis conditions at 500–600 °C contain sulfate, organosulfur, and sulfide. In some cases, the sulfate contents are up to 77–100%. Biochars produced in gasification conditions at 850 °C contain 73–100% organosulfur. The increase of the organosulfur content as the temperature of biochar production increases suggests a similar sulfur transformation mechanism as that in coal, where inorganic sulfur reacts with hydrocarbon and/or H2 to form organosulfur when the coal is heated. EDS mapping of a biochar produced from corn stover pyrolysis shows individual sulfur-containing mineral particles in addition to the sulfur that is distributed throughout the organic matrix. PMID:25003702

  16. [Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of cellulosic ethanol from corn stover].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Liao, Cuiping; Li, Li; Zhao, Daiqing

    2011-03-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the only standardized tool currently used to assess environmental loads of products and processes. The life cycle analysis, as a part of LCA, is a useful and powerful methodology for studying life cycle energy efficiency and life cycle GHG emission. To quantitatively explain the potential of energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction of corn stover-based ethanol, we analyzed life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of corn stover-based ethanol by the method of life cycle analysis. The processes are dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. The functional unit was defined as 1 km distance driven by the vehicle. Results indicated: compared with gasoline, the corn stover-based E100 (100% ethanol) and E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume) could reduce life cycle fossil energy consumption by 79.63% and 6.25% respectively, as well as GHG emissions by 53.98% and 6.69%; the fossil energy consumed by biomass stage was 68.3% of total fossil energy input, N-fertilizer and diesel were the main factors which contributed 45.78% and 33.26% to biomass stage; electricity production process contributed 42.06% to the net GHG emissions, the improvement of technology might reduce emissions markedly.

  17. Innovative Methods for Corn Stover Collecting, Handling, Storing and Transporting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    most of the non-volatile solubles are removed before processing. Excess liquor is high in nutrients and can more likely be returned to the soil, free ...Distilleries and Dry Mill Ethanol Plants—distillers grains • Corn Wet Millers—corn gluten feed • Sugar CaneMills--bagasse The moisture varies between 40 to...over rail for wet animal feed—brewers grains, distillers grains and corn gluten feed—in most cases due to the relatively low quantity needed. Most

  18. Advanced Biorefinery of Distriller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Fuel ethanol can be produced via the dry milling process, which converts corn grain to ethanol. The co-product, distiller’s grain (DG), is sold as a low-cost, high-protein feed source for livestock.

  19. Mathematical model parameters for describing the particle size spectra of knife-milled corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P; Womac, A.R.; Yang, Y.T.; Miu, P.I.; Igathanathane, C.

    2009-09-01

    Particle size distributions of Corn stover (Zea mays L.) created by a knife mill were determined using integral classifying screens with sizes from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, operating at speeds from 250 to 500 rpm, and mass input rates ranging from 1 to 9 kg min_1. Particle distributions were classified using American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) standardised sieves for forage analysis that incorporated a horizontal sieving motion. The sieves were made from machined-aluminium with their thickness proportional to the sieve opening dimensions. A wide range of analytical descriptors that could be used to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions were examined. The correlation coefficients between geometric mean length and screen size, feed rate, and speed were 0.980, 0.612, and _0.027, respectively. Screen size and feed rate directly influenced particle size, whereas operating speed had a weak indirect relation with particle size. The Rosin Rammler equation fitted the chopped corn stover size distribution data with coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.978. This indicated that particle size distribution of corn stover was well-fit by the Rosin Rammler function. This can be attributed to the fact that Rosin Rammler expression was well suited to the skewed distribution of particle sizes. Skewed distributions occurred when significant quantities of particles, either finer or coarser, existed or were removed from region of the predominant size. The mass relative span was slightly greater than 1, which indicated that it was a borderline narrow to wide distribution of particle sizes. The uniformity coefficient was <4.0 for 19.0 50.8 mm screens, which indicated particles of relatively uniform size. Knife mill chopping of corn stover produced fine-skewed mesokurtic particles with 12.7 50.8 mm screens. Size-related parameters, namely, geometric mean length, Rosin Rammler size parameter, median length, effective length, and

  20. Corn Belt soil carbon and macronutrient budgets with projected sustainable stover harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a prime feedstock for biofuel production in the U.S. Corn Belt because of its perceived abundance and availability, but long-term stover harvest effects on regional nutrient budgets have not been evaluated. We defined the minimum stover requirement (MSR) to maintain current soil organic carbon levels and then estimated current and future soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) budgets for various stover harvest scenarios. Analyses for 2006 through 2010 across the entire Corn Belt indicated that currently, 28 Tg or 1.6 Mg ha−1 of stover could be sustainably harvested from 17.95 million hectares (Mha) with N, P, and K removal of 113, 26, and 47 kg ha−1, respectively, and C removal for that period was estimated to be 4.55 Mg C ha−1. Assuming continued yield increases and a planted area of 26.74 Mha in 2050, 77.4 Tg stover (or 2.4 Mg ha−1) could be sustainably harvested with N, P, and K removal of 177, 37, and 72 kg ha−1, respectively, along with C removal of ∼6.57 Mg C ha−1. Although there would be significant variation across the region, harvesting only the excess over the MSR under current fertilization rates would result in a small depletion of soil N (−5 ± 27 kg ha−1) and K (−20 ± 31 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (36 ± 18 kg ha−1). Our 2050 projections based on continuing to keep the MSR, but having higher yields indicate that soil N and K deficits would become larger, thus emphasize the importance of balancing soil nutrient supply with crop residue removal.

  1. Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P

    2010-08-01

    An integrated bioconversion process was developed to convert corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol effectively. In this study, corn stover was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), which retained glucan ( approximately 100%) and xylan (>80%) in the solids. The pretreated carbohydrates-rich corn stover was converted to ethanol via two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF). This single-reactor process employed sequential simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), i.e. pentose conversion using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 in the first phase, followed by hexose conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the second phase. In the first phase, 88% of xylan digestibility was achieved through the synergistic action of xylanase and endo-glucanase with minimal glucan hydrolysis (10.5%). Overall, the TPSSF using 12-h SAA-treated corn stover resulted in the highest ethanol concentration (22.3g/L), which was equivalent to 84% of the theoretical ethanol yield based on the total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) in the untreated corn stover.

  2. Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35 g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion.

  3. Effects of irrigation, cover crop, and manure on soil greenhouse gas emissions after stover removal in no-till continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover is used widely for livestock co-feed and is targeted as a near-term feedstock for the developing cellulosic ethanol industry. High biomass production in intensely managed systems, such as irrigated continuous corn, may have a greater potential to provide stover for either livestock or bi...

  4. Soil microbial community response to corn stover harvesting under rain-fed, no-till conditions at multiple U.S. locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting of corn stover for cellulosic ethanol production must be balanced with the requirement for returning plant residues to agricultural fields to maintain soil structure, fertility, crop protection, and other ecosystem services. High rates of corn stover removal can be associated with decrea...

  5. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Wang, Michael Q.

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  6. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  7. De-ashing treatment of corn stover improves the efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolysis and consequent ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yanqing; Fang, Zhenhong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xinliang; Bao, Jie

    2014-10-01

    In this study, corn stover with different ash content was pretreated using dry dilute acid pretreatment method at high solids loading of 67% (w/w). The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield of corn stover is increased from 43.30% to 70.99%, and ethanol yield is increased from 51.74% to 73.52% when ash is removed from 9.60% to 4.98%. The pH measurement of corn stover slurry indicates that the decrease of pretreatment efficiency is due to the neutralization of sulfuric acid by alkaline compounds in the ash. The elemental analysis reveals that the ash has the similar composition with the farmland soil. This study demonstrates the importance of ash removal from lignocellulose feedstock under high solids content pretreatment.

  8. Efficient production of bioethanol from corn stover by pretreatment with a combination of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Nishimura, Hiroto; Takei, Shouta; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Corn stover is the most abundant agricultural residue in China and a valuable reservoir for bioethanol production. In this study, we proposed a process for producing bioethanol from corn stover; the pretreatment prior to presaccharification, followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by using a flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, was optimized. Pretreatment with acid-alkali combination (1% H2SO4, 150 °C, 10 min, followed by 1% NaOH, 80°C, 60 min) resulted in efficient lignin removal and excellent recovery of xylose and glucose. A glucose recovery efficiency of 92.3% was obtained by enzymatic saccharification, when the pretreated solid load was 15%. SSF was carried out at 35 °C for 36 hr after presaccharification at 50 °C for 24 hr, and an ethanol yield of 88.2% was achieved at a solid load of 15% and an enzyme dosage of 15 FPU/g pretreated corn stover.

  9. Corn stover saccharification with concentrated sulfuric acid: effects of saccharification conditions on sugar recovery and by-product generation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Shen; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji; Tang, Yue-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Although concentrated sulfuric acid saccharification is not a novel method for breaking down lignocellulosic biomass, the process by which saccharification affects biomass decomposition, sugar recovery, and by-product generation is not well studied. The present study employed Taguchi experimental design to study the effects of seven parameters on corn stover concentrated sulfuric acid saccharification. The concentration of sulfuric acid and the temperature of solubilization significantly affect corn stover decomposition. They also have significant effects on glucose and xylose recoveries. Low generation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF) was noted and organic acids were the main by-products detected in the hydrolysate. Temperature also significantly affected the generation of levulinic acid and formic acid; however, acetic acid generation was not significantly influenced by all seven parameters. The ratio of acid to feedstock significantly affected glucose recovery, but not total sugar recovery. The corn stover hydrolysate was well fermented by both glucose- and xylose-fermenting yeast strains.

  10. Changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water pretreatment and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Jianfei; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Corn stover is a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This work investigated physical and chemical changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water (HCW) pretreatment at 170-190 °C in a tube reactor. Chemical composition analysis showed the soluble hemicellulose content increased with pretreatment temperature, whereas the hemicellulose content decreased from 29 to 7 % in pretreated solids. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the parenchyma-type second cell-wall structure of the plant was almost completely removed at 185 °C, and the sclerenchyma-type second cell wall was greatly damaged upon addition of 5 mmol/L ammonium sulfate during HCW pretreatment. These changes favored accessibility for enzymatic action. Enzyme saccharification of solids by optimized pretreatment with HCW at 185 °C resulted in an enzymatic hydrolysis yield of 87 %, an enhancement of 77 % compared to the yield from untreated corn stover.

  11. Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yangyang; Li, Yu; Zhang, Difang; Li, Guoxue; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan

    2016-10-01

    Solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover was conducted at 20% total solids under 35°C for 45days. Results showed digestion of mixed tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover improved methane yields. The highest VS reduction (46.2%) and methane yield (415.4L/kg VSfeed) were achieved with the ternary mixtures of 33% corn stover, 54% dairy manure, and 13% tomato residues, lead to a 0.5-10.2-fold higher than that of individual feedstocks. Inhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to biogas production occurred when more than 40% tomato residues were added. The results indicated that ternary mixtures diluted the inhibitors that would otherwise cause inhibition in the digestion of tomato residues as a mono-feedstock.

  12. Mold appearance and modeling on selected corn stover components during moisture sorption.

    PubMed

    Igathinathane, C; Womac, A R; Pordesimo, L O; Sokhansanj, S

    2008-09-01

    Occurrence of mold was visually monitored for 26days on samples of major anatomical components of corn stover maintained at several storage temperatures (T) and water activities (a(w)). Glass desiccators with saturated salt solutions placed in temperature controlled chambers provided simulated storage conditions with temperatures ranging from 10 degrees C to 40 degrees C and water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.98. Mold affected leaf, stalk skin, and stalk pith equally at water activity greater than 0.9. As expected, a combination of increased water activity greater than 0.9 and temperatures greater than 30 degrees C was conducive to mold growth. Based on material moisture content during the initial mold growth, it was postulated that among the corn stover components the stalk pith was the least resistant to mold growth followed by stalk skin and leaf for the studied range of temperature and water activity. Mold growth models fitted well with the observation. A linear mold-free days predictions using a three-parameter regression model (T, a(w), and T x a(w)) was superior (R(2)=0.99) to other models considered. The exponential spoilage model using two parameter T and a(w) also gave comparable performance (R(2)=0.95). Among the independent factors, T x a(w) product was the most significant (p=0.0069) followed by T (p=0.0114), and a(w) (p=0.3140) in explaining the experimental data. The developed models can be applied to predict the safe storage period of corn stover components exposed to various temperature and moisture environmental conditions.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 1: Cost of feedstock supply logistics

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Mani, Sudhagar; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-01-01

    Supply of corn stover to produce heat and power for a typical 170 dam3 dry mill ethanol plant is proposed. The corn ethanol plant requires 5.6 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat, which creates the annual stover demand of as much as 140 Gg. The corn stover supply system consists of collection, preprocessing, transportation and on-site fuel storage and preparation to produce heat and power for the ethanol plant. Economics of the entire supply system was conducted using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) simulation model. Corn stover was delivered in three formats (square bales, dry chops and pellets) to the combined heat and power plant. Delivered cost of biomass ready to be burned was calculated at 73 $ Mg-1 for bales, 86 $ Mg-1 for pellets and 84 $ Mg-1 for field chopped biomass. Among the three formats of stover supply systems, delivered cost of pelleted biomass was the highest due to high pelleting cost. Bulk transport of biomass in the form of chops and pellets can provide a promising future biomass supply logistic system in the US, if the costs of pelleting and transport are minimized.

  14. The Impact of Enzyme Characteristics on Corn Stover Fiber Degradation and Acid Production During Ensiled Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L.; Moore, Kenneth J.

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commerical enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C ∶ H). The highest C ∶ H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  15. The impact of enzyme characteristics on corn stover fiber degradation and acid production during ensiled storage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Haiyu; Richard, Tom L; Moore, Kenneth J

    2007-04-01

    Ensilage can be used to store lignocellulosic biomass before industrial bioprocessing. This study investigated the impacts of seven commercial enzyme mixtures derived from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and T. longibrachiatum. Treatments included three size grades of corn stover, two enzyme levels (1.67 and 5 IU/g dry matter based on hemicellulase), and various ratios of cellulase to hemicellulase (C:H). The highest C:H ratio tested, 2.38, derived from T. reesei, resulted in the most effective fermentation, with lactic acid as the dominant product. Enzymatic activity during storage may complement industrial pretreatment; creating synergies that could reduce total bioconversion costs.

  16. Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

    2012-05-30

    Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

  17. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  18. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover by Clostridium species: present status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzheng; Baral, Nawa Raj; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Sustainable vehicle fuel is indispensable in future due to worldwide depletion of fossil fuel reserve, oil price fluctuation and environmental degradation. Microbial production of butanol from renewable biomass could be one of the possible options. Renewable biomass such as corn stover has no food deficiency issues and is also cheaper in most of the agricultural based countries. Thus it can effectively solve the existing issue of substrate cost. In the last 30 years, a few of Clostridium strains have been successfully implemented for biobutanol fermentation. However, the commercial production is hindered due to their poor tolerance to butanol and inhibitors. Metabolic engineering of Clostridia strains is essential to solve above problems and ultimately enhance the solvent production. An effective and efficient pretreatment of raw material as well as optimization of fermentation condition could be another option. Furthermore, biological approaches may be useful to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize butanol production. In this context, this paper reviews the existing Clostridium strains and their ability to produce butanol particularly from corn stover. This study also highlights possible fermentation pathways and biological approaches that may be useful to optimize fermentation pathways. Moreover, challenges and future perspectives are also discussed.

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover.

  20. Synergistic Enhancement of Cellobiohydrolase Performance on Pretreated Corn Stover by Addition of Xylanase and Esterase Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug E. P.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2007-11-01

    Significant increases in the depolymerization of corn stover cellulose by cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei were observed using small quantities of non-cellulolytic cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified endoxylanase (XynA), ferulic acid esterase (FaeA), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe1) all enhanced Cel7A performance on corn stover subjected to hot water pretreatment. In all cases, the addition of these activities improved the effectiveness of the enzymatic hydrolysis in terms of the quantity of cellulose converted per milligram of total protein. Improvement in cellobiose release by the addition of the non-cellulolytic enzymes ranged from a 13-84% increase over Cel7A alone. The most effective combinations included the addition of both XynA and Axe1, which synergistically enhance xylan conversions resulting in additional synergistic improvements in glucan conversion. Additionally, we note a direct relationship between enzymatic xylan removal in the presence of XynA and the enhancement of cellulose hydrolysis by Cel7A.

  1. Sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover serving as substrates for producing sophorolipids

    SciTech Connect

    Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin; Liang, Yanna

    2016-12-28

    To make the process of producing sophorolipids by Candida bombicola truly sustainable, we investigated production of these biosurfactants on biomass hydrolysates. This study revealed: (1) yield of sophorolipds on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.56 to 0.54 and to 0.37 g/g carbon source when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L, respectively. In the same order, concentration of sophorolipids was 35.9, 41.9, and 39.3 g/L; (2) under similar conditions, sophorolipid yield was 0.12, 0.05 and 0.04 g/g carbon source when corn stover hydrolysate was mixed with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L. Sophorolipid concentration was 11.6, 4.9, and 3.9 g/L for the three oil doses from low to high; and (3) when corn stover hydrolysate and yellow grease served as the substrates for cultivating the yeast in a fermentor, sophorolipid concentration reached 52.1 g/L. Upon further optimization, sophorolipids production from ligocellulose will be indeed sustainable.

  2. Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Charles E; Dale, Bruce E; Elander, Richard T; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R; Lee, Y Y

    2005-12-01

    Biological processing of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals would open up major new agricultural markets and provide powerful societal benefits, but pretreatment operations essential to economically viable yields have a major impact on costs and performance of the entire system. However, little comparative data is available on promising pretreatments. To aid in selecting appropriate systems, leading pretreatments based on ammonia explosion, aqueous ammonia recycle, controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, and lime were evaluated in a coordinated laboratory program using a single source of corn stover, the same cellulase enzyme, shared analytical methods, and common data interpretation approaches to make meaningful comparisons possible for the first time. Each pretreatment made it possible to subsequently achieve high yields of glucose from cellulose by cellulase enzymes, and the cellulase formulations used were effective in solubilizing residual xylan left in the solids after each pretreatment. Thus, overall sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose in the coupled pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations were high for all of the pretreatments with corn stover. In addition, high-pH methods were found to offer promise in reducing cellulase use provided hemicellulase activity can be enhanced. However, the substantial differences in sugar release patterns in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis operations have important implications for the choice of process, enzymes, and fermentative organisms.

  3. Comparison of alkaline- and fungi-assisted wet-storage of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhifang; Shi, Jian; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-04-01

    Storage of lignocellulosic biomass is critical for a year-round supply of feedstock for a biorefinery. Compared with dry storage, wet storage is a promising alternative technology, providing several advantages including reduced dry matter loss and fire risk and improved feedstock digestibility after storage. This study investigated the concurrent pretreatment and wet-storage of corn stover with the assistance of NaOH or a lignin-degrading fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, during a 90-d period. Compared with ensilage, adding NaOH or inoculation with C. subvermispora significantly enhanced the enzymatic degradability of corn stover by 2-3-fold after 90-d wet storage. Lignin and xylan removal during NaOH pretreatment and wet-storage were influenced by NaOH loading and moisture. NaOH pretreatment retarded the production of organic acids during storage and the acetate release correlated with lignin and xylan removal. Further study is needed to reduce cellulose degradation during the late stage of fungal treatment.

  4. Sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover serving as substrates for producing sophorolipids.

    PubMed

    Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin; Liang, Yanna

    2017-03-01

    To make the process of producing sophorolipids by Candida bombicola truly sustainable, we investigated production of these biosurfactants on biomass hydrolysates. This study revealed: (1) yield of sophorolipds on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.56 to 0.54 and to 0.37 g/g carbon source when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L, respectively. In the same order, concentration of sophorolipids was 35.9, 41.9, and 39.3 g/L; (2) under similar conditions, sophorolipid yield was 0.12, 0.05 and 0.04 g/g carbon source when corn stover hydrolysate was mixed with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L. Sophorolipid concentration was 11.6, 4.9, and 3.9 g/L for the three oil doses from low to high; and (3) when corn stover hydrolysate and yellow grease served as the substrates for cultivating the yeast in a fermentor, sophorolipid concentration reached 52.1 g/L. Upon further optimization, sophorolipids production from ligocellulose will be indeed sustainable.

  5. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains: RZWQM simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shipitalo, Martin J.; Malone, Robert W.; Ma, Liwang; Nolan, Bernard T.; Kanwar, Rameshwar S.; Shaner, Dale L.; Pederson, Carl H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Crop residue removal for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties and the movement of agrochemicals to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), previously calibrated using measured flow and atrazine concentrations in drainage from a 0.4 ha chisel-tilled plot, was used to investigate effects of 50 and 100% corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest and the accompanying reductions in soil crust hydraulic conductivity and total macroporosity on transport of atrazine, metolachlor, and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OXA). RESULTS The model accurately simulated field-measured metolachlor transport in drainage. A 3-yr simulation indicated that 50% residue removal decreased subsurface drainage by 31% and increased atrazine and metolachlor transport in drainage 4 to 5-fold when surface crust conductivity and macroporosity were reduced by 25%. Based on its measured sorption coefficient, ~ 2-fold reductions in OXA losses were simulated with residue removal. CONCLUSION RZWQM indicated that if corn stover harvest reduces crust conductivity and soil macroporosity, losses of atrazine and metolachlor in subsurface drainage will increase due to reduced sorption related to more water moving through fewer macropores. Losses of the metolachlor degradation product OXA will decrease due to the more rapid movement of the parent compound into the soil.

  6. Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chenlin; Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; Ong, Markus; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  7. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility and methane production. The results indicated that the methane yield by H2O2-1, H2O2-2, and NaOH-2 treated corn stover were 293.52, 310.50 and 279.42ml/g.VS which were 57.18%, 66.27% and 49.63% higher than the untreated corn stover respectively. In the previous studies pre-treatment time was reported in days but our method had reduced it to about one hour. H2O2-2 and NaOH-2 treatments remained prominent to increase lignocellulosic degradation vigorously up to 45% and 42% respectively. Process biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover.

  8. Response surface optimization of corn stover pretreatment using dilute phosphoric acid for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ayse; Saha, Badal C; Dien, Bruce S; Kennedy, Gregory J; Cotta, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    Dilute H(3)PO(4) (0.0-2.0%, v/v) was used to pretreat corn stover (10%, w/w) for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment conditions were optimized for temperature, acid loading, and time using central composite design. Optimal pretreatment conditions were chosen to promote sugar yields following enzymatic digestion while minimizing formation of furans, which are potent inhibitors of fermentation. The maximum glucose yield (85%) was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated with 0.5% (v/v) acid at 180°C for 15min while highest yield for xylose (91.4%) was observed from corn stover pretreated with 1% (v/v) acid at 160°C for 10min. About 26.4±0.1g ethanol was produced per L by recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 from 55.1±1.0g sugars generated from enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover (10%, w/w) pretreated under a balanced optimized condition (161.81°C, 0.78% acid, 9.78min) where only 0.4±0.0g furfural and 0.1±0.0 hydroxylmethyl furfural were produced.

  9. Response surface optimization of corn stover pretreatment using dilute phosphoric acid for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dilute H3PO4 (0.0 - 2.0%, v/v) was used to pretreat corn stover (10%, w/w) for conversion to ethanol. Pretreatment conditions were optimized for temperature, acid loading, and time using a central composite design. Optimal pretreatment conditions were chosen to promote sugar yields following enzym...

  10. Bioconversion of barley straw and corn stover to butanol (a biofuel) in integrated fermentation and simultaneous product recovery bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies concentrated sugar solutions of barley straw and corn stover hydrolysates were fermented with simultaneous product recovery and compared with the performance of a control glucose batch fermentation process. The control glucose batch fermentation resulted in the production of 23.25 g...

  11. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with Phlebia brevispora NRRL-13108 for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical, or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, solid state cultivation of corn stover with Phlebia bre...

  12. The impact of corn stover removal on N2O emission and soil respiration: An investigation with automated chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover removal, whether for silage, bedding, or bioenergy production, could have a variety of environmental consequences through its effect on soil processes, particularly N2O production and soil respiration. Because these effects may be episodic in nature, weekly snapshots with static chambers...

  13. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  14. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bitra, Venkata S P; Womac, Alvin R; Igathinathane, C; Miu, Petre I; Yang, Yuechuan T; Smith, David R; Chevanan, Nehru; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2009-12-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be +/-0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  15. A low-cost solid-liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries.

    PubMed

    Sievers, David A; Lischeske, James J; Biddy, Mary J; Stickel, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  16. Enhancement of xylose utilization from corn stover by a recombinant Escherichia coli strain for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C; Qureshi, Nasib; Kennedy, Gregory J; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Effects of substrate-selective inoculum prepared by growing on glucose, xylose, arabinose, GXA (glucose, xylose, arabinose, 1:1:1) and corn stover hydrolyzate (dilute acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed, CSH) on ethanol production from CSH by a mixed sugar utilizing recombinant Escherichia coli (strain FBR5) were investigated. The initial ethanol productivity was faster for the seed grown on xylose followed by GXA, CSH, glucose and arabinose. Arabinose grown seed took the longest time to complete the fermentation. Delayed saccharifying enzyme addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of dilute acid pretreated CS by the recombinant E. coli strain FBR5 allowed the fermentation to finish in a shorter time than adding the enzyme simultaneously with xylose grown inoculum. Use of substrate selective inoculum and fermenting pentose sugars first under glucose limited condition helped to alleviate the catabolite repression of the recombinant bacterium on ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzate.

  17. Catalytic production of biofuels (butene oligomers) and biochemicals (tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol) from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jaewon; Han, Jeehoon

    2016-07-01

    A strategy is presented that produces liquid hydrocarbon fuels (butene oligomers (BO)) from cellulose (C6) fraction and commodity chemicals (tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA)) from hemicellulose (C5) of corn stover based on catalytic conversion technologies using 2-sec-butylphenol (SBP) solvents. This strategy integrates the conversion subsystems based on experimental studies and separation subsystems for recovery of biomass derivatives and SBP solvents. Moreover, a heat exchanger network is designed to reduce total heating requirements to the lowest level, which is satisfied from combustion of biomass residues (lignin and humins). Based on the strategy, this work offers two possible process designs (design A: generating electricity internally vs. design B: purchasing electricity externally), and performs an economic feasibility study for both the designs based on a comparison of the minimum selling price (MSP) of THFA. This strategy with the design B leads to a better MSP of $1.93 per kg THFA.

  18. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by lime.

    PubMed

    Zu, Shuai; Li, Wen-zhi; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Zihong; Wang, Ziyu; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a two stage process was evaluated to increase the sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid to maximize the xylose yield, and then the residue was treated with lime to alter the lignin structure and swell the cellulose surface. The optimal condition was 120 °C and 40 min for diluted hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by lime pretreatment at 60 °C for 12h with lime loading at 0.1 g/g of substrate. The glucose and xylose yield was 78.0% and 97.0%, respectively, with cellulase dosage at 5 FPU/g of substrate. The total glucose yield increased to 85.9% when the cellulase loading was increased to 10 FPU/g of substrate. This two stage process was effective due to the swelling of the internal surface, an increase in the porosity and a decrease in the degree of polymerization.

  19. Assessment and regression analysis on instant catapult steam explosion pretreatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Guang; Liu, Li-Yang; Zi, Li-Han; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xu, You-Hai; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) offers enormous physical force on lignocellulosic biomass due to its extremely short depressure duration. In this article, the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the effect of working parameters including pressure, maintaining time and mass loading on the crystallinity index and glucose yield of the pretreated corn stover. It was found that the pressure was of essential importance, which determined the physical force that led to the morphological changes without significant chemical reactions, and on the other hand the maintaining time mainly contributed to the thermo-chemical reactions. Furthermore, the pretreated biomass was assessed by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra to understand mechanisms underlying the ICSE pretreatment.

  20. Optimization of CO2 laser-based pretreatment of corn stover using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2011-11-01

    CO2 laser pretreatment to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover for production of monosaccharide, was investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM), at a three-variable, three-level experiment Box-Behnken design (BBD) established the following optimum pretreatment parameters: time, 67.53 min; power, 264.33 W; and liquid-to-solid ratio, 21.29:1 (mL/g). Under these conditions, the reducing sugars produced was 4.941 mg/mL for cellulase hydrolysis. This amount matched the predicted value and increased cellulase hydrolysis from 14.47% to 30.84%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that CO2 laser pretreatment converted the smooth into a rough and porous surface, which promoted the enzyme access and resulted in a high specific reducing sugars production rate.

  1. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  2. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    DOE PAGES

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; ...

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced formore » M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.« less

  3. A low-cost solid–liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Lischeske, James J.; Biddy, Mary J.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  4. Comparison of different pretreatments for the production of bioethanol and biomethane from corn stover and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; Rodriguez, S; George, A; Schievano, A; Orzi, V; Sale, K L; Singh, S; Adani, F; Simmons, B A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the efficiency of mild ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and pressurized hot water (PHW) is evaluated and compared in terms of bioethanol and biomethane yields, with corn stover (CS) and switchgrass (SG) as model bioenergy crops. Both feedstocks pretreated with the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] at 100°C for 3h exhibited lower glucose yield that those treated with harsher pretreatment conditions previously used. Compared to PHW, IL pretreatment demonstrated higher bioethanol yields; moreover IL pretreatment enhanced biomethane production. Taking into consideration both bioethanol and biomethane productions, results indicated that when using IL pretreatment, the total energy produced per kg of total solids was higher compared to untreated biomasses. Specifically energy produced from CS and SG was +18.6% and +34.5% respectively, as compared to those obtained by hot water treatment, i.e. +2.3% and +23.4% for CS and SG, respectively.

  5. Enzymatic saccharification of acid pretreated corn stover: Empirical and fractal kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Wojtusik, Mateusz; Zurita, Mauricio; Villar, Juan C; Ladero, Miguel; Garcia-Ochoa, Felix

    2016-11-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover was studied at agitation speeds from 50 to 500rpm in a stirred tank bioreactor, at high solid concentrations (20% w/w dry solid/suspension), 50°C and 15.5mgprotein·gglucane(-1). Two empirical kinetic models have been fitted to empirical data, namely: a potential model and a fractal one. For the former case, the global order dramatically decreases from 13 to 2 as agitation speed increases, suggesting an increment in the access of enzymes to cellulose in terms of chemisorption followed by hydrolysis. For its part, the fractal kinetic model fits better to data, showing its kinetic constant a constant augmentation with increasing agitation speed up to a constant value at 250rpm and above, when mass transfer limitations are overcome. In contrast, the fractal exponent decreases with rising agitation speed till circa 0.19, suggesting higher accessibility of enzymes to the substrate.

  6. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-13

    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues.

  7. A whole cell biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production from dilute acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolyzates.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul

    2011-08-01

    In this research, a recombinant whole cell biocatalyst was developed by expressing three cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum--endoglucanase (Cel5A), exoglucanase (Cel9E), and β-glucosidase--on the surface of the Escherichia coli LY01. The modified strain is identified as LY01/pRE1H-AEB. The cellulases were displayed on the surface of the cell by fusing with an anchor protein, PgsA. The developed whole cell biocatalyst was used for single-step ethanol fermentation using the phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) and the dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Ethanol production was 3.59 ± 0.15 g/L using 10 g/L of PASC, which corresponds to a theoretical yield of 95.4 ± 0.15%. Ethanol production was 0.30 ± 0.02 g/L when 1 g/L equivalent of glucose in the cellulosic fraction of the dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) was fermented for 84 h. A total of 0.71 ± 0.12 g/L ethanol was produced in 48 h when the PCS was fermented in the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation mode using the hemicellulosic (1 g/L of total soluble sugar) and as well as the cellulosic (1 g/L of glucose equivalent) parts of PCS. In a control experiment, 0.48 g/L ethanol was obtained from 1 g/L of hemicellulosic PCS. It was concluded that the whole cell biocatalyst could convert both cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol in a single reactor. The developed C. cellulolyticum-E. coli whole cell biocatalyst also overcame the incompatible temperature problem of the frequently reported fungal-yeast systems.

  8. Correlating Detergent Fiber Analysis and Dietary Fiber Analysis Data for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Lorenz, A. J.; deLeon, N.

    2009-01-01

    There exist large amounts of detergent fiber analysis data [neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL)] for many different potential cellulosic ethanol feedstocks, since these techniques are widely used for the analysis of forages. Researchers working in the area of cellulosic ethanol are interested in the structural carbohydrates in a feedstock (principally glucan and xylan), which are typically determined by acid hydrolysis of the structural fraction after multiple extractions of the biomass. These so-called dietary fiber analysis methods are significantly more involved than detergent fiber analysis methods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible to correlate detergent fiber analysis values to glucan and xylan content determined by dietary fiber analysis methods for corn stover. In the detergent fiber analysis literature cellulose is often estimated as the difference between ADF and ADL, while hemicellulose is often estimated as the difference between NDF and ADF. Examination of a corn stover dataset containing both detergent fiber analysis data and dietary fiber analysis data predicted using near infrared spectroscopy shows that correlations between structural glucan measured using dietary fiber techniques and cellulose estimated using detergent techniques, and between structural xylan measured using dietary fiber techniques and hemicellulose estimated using detergent techniques are high, but are driven largely by the underlying correlation between total extractives measured by fiber analysis and NDF/ADF. That is, detergent analysis data is correlated to dietary fiber analysis data for structural carbohydrates, but only indirectly; the main correlation is between detergent analysis data and solvent extraction data produced during the dietary fiber analysis procedure.

  9. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stover was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.

  10. Comparison of enzymatic reactivity of corn stover solids prepared by dilute acid, AFEX™, and ionic liquid pretreatments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pretreatment is essential to realize high product yields from biological conversion of naturally recalcitrant cellulosic biomass, with thermochemical pretreatments often favored for cost and performance. In this study, enzymatic digestion of solids from dilute sulfuric acid (DA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™), and ionic liquid (IL) thermochemical pretreatments of corn stover were followed over time for the same range of total enzyme protein loadings to provide comparative data on glucose and xylose yields of monomers and oligomers from the pretreated solids. The composition of pretreated solids and enzyme adsorption on each substrate were also measured to determine. The extent glucose release could be related to these features. Results Corn stover solids from pretreatment by DA, AFEX, and IL were enzymatically digested over a range of low to moderate loadings of commercial cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase enzyme mixtures, the proportions of which had been previously optimized for each pretreatment. Avicel® cellulose, regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC), and beechwood xylan were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis as controls. Yields of glucose and xylose and their oligomers were followed for times up to 120 hours, and enzyme adsorption was measured. IL pretreated corn stover displayed the highest initial glucose yields at all enzyme loadings and the highest final yield for a low enzyme loading of 3 mg protein/g glucan in the raw material. However, increasing the enzyme loading to 12 mg/g glucan or more resulted in DA pretreated corn stover attaining the highest longer-term glucose yields. Hydrolyzate from AFEX pretreated corn stover had the highest proportion of xylooligomers, while IL produced the most glucooligomers. However, the amounts of both oligomers dropped with increasing enzyme loadings and hydrolysis times. IL pretreated corn stover had the highest enzyme adsorption capacity. Conclusions Initial hydrolysis yields were highest

  11. High ethanol fermentation performance of the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover by an evolutionarily adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation was investigated at the high solids content of the dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover feedstock using an evolutionary adapted Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 strain. The evolutionary adaptation was conducted by successively transferring the S. cerevisiae DQ1 cells into the inhibitors containing corn stover hydrolysate every 12h and finally a stable yeast strain was obtained after 65 days' continuous adaptation. The ethanol fermentation performance using the adapted strain was significantly improved with the high ethanol titer of 71.40 g/L and the high yield of 80.34% in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% solids content. No wastewater was generated from pretreatment to fermentation steps. The results were compared with the published cellulosic ethanol fermentation cases, and the obvious advantages of the present work were demonstrated not only at the high ethanol titer and yield, but also the significant reduction of wastewater generation and potential cost reduction.

  12. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.

  13. Combined process for ethanol fermentation at high-solids loading and biogas digestion from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Zhe; Du, Jiliang; Mo, Chunling; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2014-08-01

    A combined process was designed for the co-production of ethanol and methane from unwashed steam-exploded corn stover. A terminal ethanol titer of 69.8 g/kg mass weight (72.5%) was achieved when the fed-batch mode was performed at a final solids loading of 35.5% (w/w) dry matter (DM) content. The whole stillage from high-solids ethanol fermentation was directly transferred in a 3-L anaerobic digester. During 52-day single-stage digester operation, the methane productivity was 320 mL CH₄/g volatile solids (VS) with a maximum VS reduction efficiency of 55.3%. The calculated overall product yield was 197 g ethanol + 96 g methane/kg corn stover. This indicated that the combined process was able to improve overall content utilization and extract a greater yield of lignocellulosic biomass compared to ethanol fermentation alone.

  14. Fermentative production of high titer citric acid from corn stover feedstock after dry dilute acid pretreatment and biodetoxification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping-Ping; Meng, Jiao; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the citric acid fermentation by a robust strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M288 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and biodetoxification. Citric acid at 100.04g/L with the yield of 94.11% was obtained, which are comparable to the starch or sucrose based citric acid fermentation. No free wastewater was generated in the overall process from the pretreatment to citric acid fermentation. Abundant divalent metal ions as well as high titer of potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen were found in corn stover hydrolysate. Further addition of extra nutrients showed no impact on increasing citric acid formation except minimum nitrogen source was required. Various fermentation parameters were tested and only minimum regulation was required during the fermentation. This study provided a biorefining process for citric acid fermentation from lignocellulose feedstock with the maximum citric acid titer and yield.

  15. A novel diffusion-biphasic hydrolysis coupled kinetic model for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longjian; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Junbao; Lu, Minsheng; Guo, Xiaomiao; Han, Lujia

    2015-02-01

    Kinetic experiments on the dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover were performed. A high xylan removal and a low inhibitor concentration were achieved by acid pretreatment. A novel diffusion-hydrolysis coupled kinetic model was proposed. The contribution to the xylose yield was analyzed by the kinetic model. Compared with the inhibitor furfural negatively affecting xylose yield, the fast and slow-hydrolyzing xylan significantly contributed to the xylose yield, however, their dominant roles were dependent on reaction temperature and time. The impact of particle size and acid concentration on the xylose yield were also investigated. The diffusion process may significantly influence the hydrolysis of large particles. Increasing the acid concentration from 0.15 M to 0.30 M significantly improved the xylose yield, whereas the extent of improvement decreased to near-quantitative when further increasing acid loading. These findings shed some light on the mechanism for dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of corn stover.

  16. The promoting effects of manganese on biological pretreatment with Irpex lacteus and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Ma, Fuying; Zeng, Yelin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongbo

    2013-05-01

    The effect of metal ions on biological pretreatment was evaluated for improving subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that the efficiency of fungal pretreatment was greatly improved with manganese supplement in biomass. After enzymatic hydrolysis of 28-d pretreated corn stover, maximum glucose yield was 308.98 mg/g corn stover with manganese supplement, which increased by 61.39% as compared to the conventional fungal pretreatment. Furthermore, manganese also enhanced the production of ethanol, corresponding to a high ethanol conversion (83.39%). Manganese greatly improved the delignification of Irpex lacteus specially. Correspondingly, the efficiency of saccharification and fermentation was closely related to the removal of lignin. This study showed a promising effect of manganese on fungal pretreatment and the production of biofuels.

  17. Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-06-15

    In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

  18. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  19. Effect of acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on bio-oil production from sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian; Samala, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Bio-oil produced from biomass by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. In a recent work on pinewood, we found that pretreatment alters the structure and chemical composition of biomass, which influence fast pyrolysis. In this study, we evaluated dilute acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover feedstocks. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 °C. The bio-oil's physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, and viscosity were measured. The chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by the pretreatment method and feedstock type. Bio-oil yields of 52, 33, and 35 wt% were obtained from medium-sized (0.68-1.532 mm) untreated sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from other sizes. Bio-oil yields of 56, 46, and 51 wt% were obtained from 1% H(2)SO(4)-treated medium-sized sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from untreated and steam explosion treatments.

  20. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  1. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Singh, V; Liu, S; Ezeji, T C; Saha, B C; Cotta, M A

    2014-02-01

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 g L(-1) corn stover provided, over 97% of the sugars were released during hydrolysis and these were fermented completely with an ABE productivity of 0.34 g L(-1)h(-1) and yield of 0.39. This productivity is higher than 0.31 g L(-1)h(-1) when using glucose as a substrate demonstrating that AB could be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid that was released from the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis was also used by the culture to produce AB. An average rate of generation of sugars during corn stover hydrolysis was 0.98 g L(-1)h(-1). In this system AB was recovered using vacuum, and as a result of this (simultaneous product recovery), 100% sugars were used by the culture.

  2. Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5% ± 1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction

  3. Bioethanol production from steam-pretreated corn stover through an isomerase mediated process.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Isabella; Cuna, Daniela; Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Liuzzi, Federico

    2014-03-25

    Agricultural by-products such as corn stover are considered strategic raw materials for the production of second-generation bioethanol from renewable and non-food sources. This paper describes the conversion of steam-pretreated corn stover to ethanol utilising a multi-step process including enzymatic hydrolysis, isomerisation, and fermentation of mixed hydrolysates with native Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An immobilised isomerase enzyme was used for the xylose isomerisation along with high concentrations of S. cerevisiae. The objective was to assess the extent of simultaneity of the various conversion steps, through a detailed analysis of process time courses, and to test this process scheme for the conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates containing several inhibitors of the isomerase enzyme (e.g. metal ions, xylitol and glycerol). The process was tested on two types of hydrolysate after acid-catalysed steam pretreatment: (a) the water soluble fraction (WSF) in which xylose was the largest carbon source and (b) the entire slurry, containing both cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrates, in which glucose predominated. The results indicated that the ethanol concentration rose when the inoculum concentration was increased in the range 10-75 g/L. However, when xylose was the largest carbon source, the metabolic yields were higher than 0.51g(ethanol)/g(consumed) sugars probably due to the use of yeast internal cellular resources. This phenomenon was not observed in the fermentation of mixed hydrolysates obtained from the entire pretreated product and in which glucose was the largest carbon source. The ethanol yield from biomass suspensions with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 11-12% (w/v) was 70% based on total sugars (glucose, xylose, galactose). The results suggest that xylulose uptake was more effective in mixed hydrolysates containing glucose levels similar to, or higher than, xylose. Analysis of the factors that limit isomerase activity in lignocellulosic

  4. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE PAGES

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; ...

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    2007-04-01

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa.s at 40 degrees C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels.

  7. Blending municipal solid waste with corn stover for sugar production using ionic liquid process

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Xu, Feng; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Thompson, Vicki S.; Cafferty, Kara; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Narani, Akash; Pray, Todd R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an attractive cellulosic resource for sustainable fuel production because of its abundance and its low or perhaps negative cost. However, the significant heterogeneity and toxic contaminants are barriers to efficient conversion to ethanol and other products. In this study, we generated MSW paper mix, blended with corn stover (CS), and have shown that both MSW paper mix alone and MSW/CS blends can be efficiently pretreated in certain ionic liquids (ILs) with high yields of fermentable sugars. After pretreatment in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]), over 80% glucose has been released with enzymatic saccharification. We have also applied an enzyme free process by adding mineral acid and water directly into the IL/biomass slurry to induce hydrolysis. With the acidolysis process in the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2C1Im]Cl), up to 80% glucose and 90% xylose are released for MSW. The results indicate the feasibility of incorporating MSW as a robust blending agent for biorefineries.

  8. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Allison Ray; Jeffrey Lacey; Marnie Cortez; Courtney Payne; Doug Karlen; Stuart Birrell; David Laird; Robert Kallenbach; Josh Egenolf; Matthew Sousek; Thomas Voigt

    2014-11-01

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe reported in the United States. It is necessary to explore the effects of drought on the quality attributes of current and potential bioenergy feedstocks. Compositional analysis data for corn stover, Miscanthus, and CRP grasses from one or more locations for years 2010 (normal precipitation levels) and 2012 (a known severe drought year nationally) was collected. Results & discussion: The general trend for samples that experienced drought was an increase in extractives and a decrease in structural sugars and lignin. The TEY yields were calculated to determine the drought effects on ethanol production. All three feedstocks had a decrease of 12-14% in TEY when only decreases of carbohydrate content was analyzed. When looking at the compounded effect of both carbohydrate content and the decreases in dry matter loss for each feedstock there was a TEY decrease of 25%-59%. Conclusion: Drought had a significant impact on the quality of all three bioenergy crops. In all cases where drought was experienced both the quality of the feedstock and the yield decreased. These drought induced effects could have significant economic impacts on biorefineries.

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Onsite bio-detoxification of steam-exploded corn stover for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanling; Feng, Yujie; Xu, Chen; Liu, Jia; Li, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    In the process of ethanol production from steam-exploded corn stover (SECS), a cellulose-degradation strain of Aspergillus nidulans (FLZ10) was investigated whether it could remove the inhibitors released from steam exploded pretreatment , and thereby be used for biological detoxification on Saccharomycescerevisiae. The results showed that FLZ10 removed 75.2% formic acid, 53.6% acetic acid, and 100% hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) and furfural from the hydrolysate washed from SECS after 72h cultivation. A cellulase activity of 0.49 IU/ml was simultaneously produced while the biological detoxification occurred. An ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g on glucose was obtained in the hydrolysate biodetoxified by FLZ10. The glucose consumption rate of FLZ10 was much lower than that of S. cerevisiae, thereby it had little competition with S. cerevisiae on glucose consumption. Based on SECS to ethanol mass balance analysis, with the onsite bio-detoxification, fermentation using S. cerevisiae effectively converted monomeric glucose with 94.4% ethanol yield.

  11. Fractionation for further conversion: from raw corn stover to lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ting; Jiang, Zhicheng; Wu, Ping; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-12-01

    Fractionation is considered to be one promising strategy to utilize raw biomass to its fullest and produce chemicals with high selectivity. Herein, ethanol/H2O (1/1, v/v) co-solvent with 0.050 M oxalic acid is used to simultaneously fractionate 88.0 wt% of hemicellulose and 89.2 wt% of lignin in corn stover, while cellulose is not obviously degraded. H2O dissolves hemicellulose, G unit and those with β-O-4 linkage of lignin; whereas ethanol extracts G and S units as well as the skeleton with β-5 and β-β linkages of lignin. Oxalic acid effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of hemicellulose and breaks the intermolecular linkages between hemicellulose and lignin, therefore further promotes the release of lignin. The dissolved hemicelluloses derivatives are reprocessed to produce lactic acid obtaining a high yield of 79.6 wt% with 90% selectivity by the catalysis of MgO. The remained cellulose and recovered lignin can be used further as feedstock to produce chemicals.

  12. Impact of disk milling on corn stover pretreated at commercial scale.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D; Singh, Vijay

    2017-05-01

    In cellulosic biofuel production, chemical pretreatment performed at laboratory or pilot scale, followed by mechanical refining, has been demonstrated to be effective to increase feedstock enzyme digestibility. To take the combined pretreatment process one step closer to commercialization, disk milling was performed with commercially pretreated corn stover. Dilute acid pretreated samples with combined severity factors (cSF) of 0.09 (DA09) and 0.43 (DA43) were obtained from a commercial plant. Effects of pretreatment conditions (DA09 and DA43), milling cycles (0, 3, 9, and 15) and enzyme dosages (7.8, 15.6 and 31.2mgcellulase/g dry biomass) were evaluated. Milling improved glucose yields by 0.7 to 1.2-fold. Higher enzyme dosages enhanced sugar yields. Milling was more effective to improve glucose yields, while enzyme dosage was more effective to improve xylose yields. However, dilute acid pretreatment condition was the most important factor to increase final sugar yields compared to milling cycles and enzyme dosages.

  13. Improvement of sugar yields from corn stover using sequential hot water pretreatment and disk milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D; Singh, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Efficient pretreatment is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into monosaccharides for biofuel production. To realize high sugar yields with low inhibitor concentrations, hot water or dilute acid pretreatment followed by disk milling is proposed. Corn stover at 20% solids was pretreated with hot water at 160-200°C for 4-8min with and without subsequent milling. Hot water pretreatment and disk milling acted synergistically to improve glucose and xylose yields by 89% and 134%, respectively, compared to hot water pretreatment alone. Hot water pretreated (180°C for 4min) and milled samples had the highest glucose and xylose yields among all hot water pretreated and milled samples, which were comparable to samples pretreated with 0.55% dilute acid at 160°C for 4min. However, samples pretreated with 1% dilute acid at 150°C for 4min and disk milled had the highest observed glucose (87.3%) and xylose yields (83.4%).

  14. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    SciTech Connect

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; Tao, Ling; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation. Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.

  15. Fermentation of wet-exploded corn stover for the production of volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Murali, Nanditha; Fernandez, Sebastian; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer

    2017-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) have been used as platform molecules for production of biofuels and bioproducts. In the current study, we examine the VFA production from wet-exploded corn stover through anaerobic fermentation using rumen bacteria. The total VFA yield (acetic acid equivalents) was found to increase from 22.8g/L at 2.5% total solids (TS) to 40.8g/L at 5% TS. It was found that the acetic acid concentration increased from 10g/L to 22g/L at 2.5% and 5% TS, respectively. An increased propionic acid production was seen between day 10 and 20 at 5% TS. Valeric acid (4g/L) was produced at 5% TS and not at 2.5% TS. Composition analysis showed that 50% of the carbohydrates were converted to VFA at 5% TS and 33% at 2.5% TS. Our results show that rumen fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass after wet explosion can produce high concentrations of VFA without addition of external enzymes of importance for the process economics of lignocellulosic biorefineries.

  16. Reducing sugar loss in enzymatic hydrolysis of ethylenediamine pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Xia; Qin, Lei; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Han, Xiao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of ethylenediamine (EDA) on enzymatic hydrolysis with different cellulosic substrates and the approaches to reduce sugar loss in enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. During enzymatic hydrolysis, xylose yield reduced 21.2%, 18.1% and 13.0% with 7.5mL/L EDA for AFEX pretreated corn stover (CS), washed EDA pretreated CS and CS cellulose. FTIR and GPC analysis demonstrated EDA reacted with sugar and produced high molecular weight (MW) compounds. EDA was prone to react with xylose other than glucose. H2O2 and Na2SO3 cannot prevent sugar loss in glucose/xylose-EDA mixture, although they inhibited the browning and high MW compounds formation. By decreasing temperature to 30°C, the loss of xylose yield reduced to only 3.8%, 3.6% and 4.2% with 7.5mL/L EDA in the enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX pretreated CS, washed EDA pretreated CS and CS cellulose.

  17. Steam gasification of a thermally pretreated high lignin corn stover simultaneous saccharification and fermentation digester residue

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G.; Li, Guosheng; Wolcott, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Efficient conversion of all components in lignocellulosic biomass is essential to realizing economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, when utilizing biochemical pathways, lignin cannot be fermented. Furthermore, the high lignin and high ash residue resulting from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactors is difficult to thermochemically process due to feed line plugging and bed agglomeration. In this study a corn stover SSF digester residue was thermally pretreated at 300°C for 22.5 minutes (min) and then gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on its processing behavior. Untreated, pelletized SSF residue was gasified at the same conditions to establish the baseline processing behavior. Results indicate that the thermal pretreatment process removes a substantial portion of the polar and non-polar extractives, with a resultant increase in the concentration of lignin, cellulose, and ash. Feed line plugging was not observed, although bed agglomeration was occurring at similar rates for both feedstocks, suggesting that overall ash content is the most important factor affecting bed agglomeration. Benzene, phenol, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the tar were present at higher concentrations in the treated material, with higher tar loading in the product gas. Total product gas generation is lower for the treated material, although the overall gas composition does not change.

  18. A low-cost solid–liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries

    DOE PAGES

    Sievers, David A.; Lischeske, James J.; Biddy, Mary J.; ...

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantlymore » reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.« less

  19. Fractionation for further conversion: from raw corn stover to lactic acid

    PubMed Central

    He, Ting; Jiang, Zhicheng; Wu, Ping; Yi, Jian; Li, Jianmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation is considered to be one promising strategy to utilize raw biomass to its fullest and produce chemicals with high selectivity. Herein, ethanol/H2O (1/1, v/v) co-solvent with 0.050 M oxalic acid is used to simultaneously fractionate 88.0 wt% of hemicellulose and 89.2 wt% of lignin in corn stover, while cellulose is not obviously degraded. H2O dissolves hemicellulose, G unit and those with β-O-4 linkage of lignin; whereas ethanol extracts G and S units as well as the skeleton with β-5 and β-β linkages of lignin. Oxalic acid effectively catalyzes the hydrolysis of hemicellulose and breaks the intermolecular linkages between hemicellulose and lignin, therefore further promotes the release of lignin. The dissolved hemicelluloses derivatives are reprocessed to produce lactic acid obtaining a high yield of 79.6 wt% with 90% selectivity by the catalysis of MgO. The remained cellulose and recovered lignin can be used further as feedstock to produce chemicals. PMID:27917955

  20. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bio-Oils From Microwave Pyrolysis of Corn Stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa·s at 40°C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels.

  1. Biobutanol production from corn stover hydrolysate pretreated with recycled ionic liquid by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ji-Cai; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In this study, corn stover (CS) hydrolysates, pretreated by fresh and recycled ionic liquid (IL) [Bmim][Cl], were utilized in butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. An efficient CS pretreatment procedure using [Bmim][Cl] was developed, giving a glucose concentration of 18.7 g L(-1) using ten times recycled [Bmim][Cl], representing about 77% of that produced with fresh IL (24.2 g L(-1)). Fermentation of hydrolysate I (pretreated by fresh IL) resulted in 7.4 g L(-1) butanol with a yield of 0.21 g g total-sugar(-1) and a productivity of 0.11 g L(-1)h(-1), while 7.9 g L(-1) butanol was achieved in fermentation using hydrolysate II (pretreated by ten times reused IL) with similar levels of acetone and ethanol, as well as yield and productivity. This study provides evidence for the efficient utilization of IL in CS pretreatment for biobutanol fermentation.

  2. Soaking pretreatment of corn stover for bioethanol production followed by anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Tian, Shen; Chen, Zebing; Li, Jia; Yang, Xiushan

    2012-08-01

    The production of ethanol and methane from corn stover (CS) was investigated in a biorefinery process. Initially, a novel soaking pretreatment (NaOH and aqueous-ammonia) for CS was developed to remove lignin, swell the biomass, and improve enzymatic digestibility. Based on the sugar yield during enzymatic hydrolysis, the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1 % NaOH+8 % NH(4)OH, 50°C, 48 h, with a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:10. The results demonstrated that soaking pretreatment removed 63.6 % lignin while reserving most of the carbohydrates. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the yields of glucose and xylose were 78.5 % and 69.3 %, respectively. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated CS using Pichia stipitis resulted in an ethanol concentration of 36.1 g/L, corresponding only to 63.3 % of the theoretical maximum. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, the liquid fraction of the pretreatment was used to re-soak new CS. For methane production, the re-soaked CS and the residues of SSF were anaerobically digested for 120 days. Fifteen grams CS were converted to 1.9 g of ethanol and 1337.3 mL of methane in the entire process.

  3. Enhanced bioethanol production from pretreated corn stover via multi-positive effect of casein micelles.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2013-05-01

    Casein polypeptides containing substructures of αs1-casein, β-casein, k-casein, αs2-casein were used as a lignin-blocker at above critical micelles concentration to improve the bioethanol production of dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX pretreated corn stover (CS). Application of 0.5 g/g glucan of casein was found to effectively increase the glucose yield of CS pretreated with dilute acid, lime, alkali, extrusion and AFEX by 31.9%, 17.0%, 22.7%, 29.5%, and 17.4%, respectively with no positive impact on Avicel. Consequently 96 h simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of these hydrolysates reduced the fermentation period by up to 48 h and increased the theoretical yield of ethanol by 8.48-33.7% compared to control. Application of casein during saccharification reduced the enzyme utilization by 33.0%. Recycling of hydrolysate from casein-treated CS for a 2nd round hydrolysis resulted in average glucose yield of 36.4% compared to 29.0% control.

  4. [Study on the corn stover lignin oxidized by chlorine dioxide and modified by furfuryl alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jin-ping; Yang, Gang; Li, Zuo-hu

    2007-10-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Visible), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and TG analysis were used to study the oxidation of corn stover lignin by chloride dioxide and subsequently modified by furfuryl alcohol. The results were as following: The selective oxidation of lignin by chlorine dioxide was obtained by spectroscopy study. FTIR showed that the characteristic absorbance peaks of aromatic units were decreased after chloride dioxide oxidation. The increased absorbance for the band around 1720 cm(-1) corresponding to carbonyl stretching was achieved in the oxidized lignin and the lignin modified with furfuryl alcohol. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the absorbance around 280 nm was largely reduced after the lignin was oxidized. The 1H NMR spectroscopy also showed the decrease of aromatic units and methoxyl group in the oxidized lignin. All these indicated the formation of muconic acid and ester, or quinone derivatives when the lignin was selectively oxidized by chloride dioxide. The modification by furfuryl alcohol made the oxidized lignin more thermally stable.

  5. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  6. High temperature pre-digestion of corn stover biomass for improved product yields

    DOE PAGES

    Brunecky, Roman; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Taylor, Larry E.; ...

    2014-12-03

    Introduction: The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks remains a key step in the commercialization of biofuels. One of the barriers to cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars remains the enzymatic saccharification process step. Here, we describe a novel hybrid processing approach comprising enzymatic pre-digestion with newly characterized hyperthermophilic enzyme cocktails followed by conventional saccharification with commercial enzyme preparations. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover was subjected to this new procedure to test its efficacy. Thermal tolerant enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii were used to pre-digest pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures prior to saccharification by the commercial cellulase formulation.more » Results: We report that pre-digestion of biomass with these enzymes at elevated temperatures prior to addition of the commercial cellulase formulation increased conversion rates and yields when compared to commercial cellulase formulation alone under low solids conditions. In conclusion, Our results demonstrating improvements in rates and yields of conversion point the way forward for hybrid biomass conversion schemes utilizing catalytic amounts of hyperthermophilic enzymes.« less

  7. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  8. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  9. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels.

  10. Proteolysis, fermentation efficiency, and in vitro ruminal digestion of peanut stover ensiled with raw or heated corn.

    PubMed

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Peanut stover (PS) is similar to full-bloom alfalfa hay in chemical composition. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of adding raw or heated corn meal to PS at ensiling on silage N components, fermentation acids, and digestion by ruminal microorganisms. The PS was collected after harvesting of peanuts and ensiled immediately without and with addition of raw or heated corn meal (100 g/kg of fresh weight). Corn was added to PS so that the initial mixture would contain adequate dry matter (DM) (approximately 30%) and additional nonfiber carbohydrate to enhance silage fermentation. After 8 wk of silo fermentation, corn-treated silages contained less structural carbohydrates but more non-fiber carbohydrates compared with the untreated control. A shift from hemicellulose to nonfiber carbohydrate use during silage fermentation was evident by corn treatment. Additional corn at ensiling resulted in silage N with less water-soluble N, protein N, nonprotein N, nonprotein nonammonia N (peptides plus amino acids), and ammonia N. Based on changes in soluble nonprotein N before and after ensiling, the amount of proteolysis was approximately 66% for control silage and was nearly 40% lower in response to corn treatment. Adding corn increased silage lactic acid, but both acetic and propionic acids decreased. These changes were reflected in the lower pH and higher fermentation efficiency with corn-treated silages. More DM was digested and greater amounts of volatile fatty acids, except for branched-chain acids, were produced in vitro by ruminal microorganisms with corn-treated silages. In addition, incubations with silage treated with heated corn contained higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids compared with raw corn. In vitro ammonia accumulation per unit of DM digested was lower for corn treatments than the control, and for heated corn vs. raw corn-treated silage. These results indicate that supplementation of either raw or heated corn on PS at

  11. Conservation characteristics of corn ears and stover ensiled with the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1, Lactobacillus plantarum 30114, or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Waters, S M; Doyle, E M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inoculating 3 contrasting lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation profile, estimated nutritive value, and aerobic stability of corn ears and stover produced under marginal growing conditions. Ears and stover were separated from whole-crop corn plants obtained from 3 replicate field blocks. Representative subsamples were precision chopped and allocated to 1 of the following treatments: an uninoculated control, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 (LP1), L. plantarum 30114 (LP2), or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44 (LB). Each bacterial additive was applied at a rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh herbage. Triplicate samples of each treatment were ensiled in laboratory silos at 15°C for 3, 10, 35, or 130 d. No difference was observed between the dry matter recoveries of uninoculated ear or stover silages and silages made with LP1, and the aerobic stability of uninoculated ear and stover silages did not differ from silages made with LB. Stover silages made with LP2 and ensiled for 35 d had a lower proportion of lactic acid in total fermentation products compared with LP1. The aerobic stability and dry matter recovery of ear and stover silages in this study were not improved when made with LB, LP1, or LP2, due to the indigenous highly heterolactic fermentation that prevailed in the uninoculated ear and stover during 130-d ensilage.

  12. Comparison of microwaves to fluidized sand baths for heating tubular reactors for hydrothermal and dilute acid batch pretreatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Pu, Yunqiao; Yang, Bin; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wyman, Charles E

    2011-05-01

    Heating of batch tubular reactors with fluidized sand baths and with microwaves resulted in distinctive sugar yield profiles from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover at the same time, temperature, and dilute sulfuric acid concentration combinations and hydrothermal pretreatment conditions. Microwave heated pretreatment led to faster xylan, lignin, and acetyl removal as well as earlier xylan degradation than sand baths, but maximum sugar recoveries were similar. Solid state CP/MAS NMR revealed that microwave heating was more effective in altering cellulose structural features especially in breakdown of amorphous regions of corn stover than sand bath heating. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover was improved by microwave heating compared to sand bath heating. Mechanisms were proposed to explain the differences in results for the two systems and provide new insights into pretreatment that can help advance this technology.

  13. KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Igathinathane, C.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well

  14. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Huffman, Gerald; Shah, Naresh; ...

    2014-01-01

    The thermal evolution profiles and kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of two Montana coals (DECS-38 subbituminous coal and DECS-25 lignite coal), one biomass sample (corn stover), and their blends (10%, 20%, and 30% by weight of corn stover) have been investigated at a heating rate of 5°C/min in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, using thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal evolution profiles of subbituminous coal and lignite coal display only one major peak over a wide temperature distribution, ~152–814°C and ~175–818°C, respectively, whereas the thermal decomposition profile for corn stover falls in a much narrower band than that of the coals, ~226–608°C. Themore » nonlinearity in the evolution of volatile matter with increasing percentage of corn stover in the blends verifies the possibility of synergistic behavior in the blends with subbituminous coal where deviations from the predicted yield ranging between 2% and 7% were observed whereas very little deviations (1%–3%) from predicted yield were observed in blends with lignite indicating no significant interactions with corn stover. In addition, a single first-order reaction model using the Coats-Redfern approximation was utilized to predict the kinetic parameters of the pyrolysis reaction. The kinetic analysis indicated that each thermal evolution profile may be represented as a single first-order reaction. Three temperature regimes were identified for each of the coals while corn stover and the blends were analyzed using two and four temperature regimes, respectively.« less

  15. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  16. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; ...

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  17. Ethanol and biogas production after steam pretreatment of corn stover with or without the addition of sulphuric acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover, is a potential raw material for ethanol production. One step in the process of producing ethanol from lignocellulose is enzymatic hydrolysis, which produces fermentable sugars from carbohydrates present in the corn stover in the form of cellulose and hemicellulose. A pretreatment step is crucial to achieve efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to soluble sugars, and later ethanol. This study has investigated steam pretreatment of corn stover, with and without sulphuric acid as catalyst, and examined the effect of residence time (5–10 min) and temperature (190–210°C) on glucose and xylose recovery. The pretreatment conditions with and without dilute acid that gave the highest glucose yield were then used in subsequent experiments. Materials pretreated at the optimal conditions were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to produce ethanol, and remaining organic compounds were used to produce biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD). Results The highest glucose yield achieved was 86%, obtained after pretreatment at 210°C for 10 minutes in the absence of catalyst, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest yield using sulphuric acid, 78%, was achieved using pretreatment at 200°C for 10 minutes. These two pretreatment conditions were investigated using two different process configurations. The highest ethanol and methane yields were obtained from the material pretreated in the presence of sulphuric acid. The slurry in this case was split into a solid fraction and a liquid fraction, where the solid fraction was used to produce ethanol and the liquid fraction to produce biogas. The total energy recovery in this case was 86% of the enthalpy of combustion energy in corn stover. Conclusions The highest yield, comprising ethanol, methane and solids, was achieved using pretreatment in the presence of sulphuric acid followed by a process configuration in which the slurry from the

  18. Improving a recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain 8b through continuous adaptation on dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate

    DOE PAGES

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Yang, Shihui; ...

    2015-03-31

    Complete conversion of the major sugars of biomass including both the C5 and C6 sugars is critical for biofuel production processes. Several inhibitory compounds like acetate, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and furfural are produced from the biomass pretreatment process leading to ‘hydrolysate toxicity,’ a major problem for microorganisms to achieve complete sugar utilization. Therefore, development of more robust microorganisms to utilize the sugars released from biomass under toxic environment is critical. In this study, we use continuous culture methodologies to evolve and adapt the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis to improve its ethanol productivity using corn stover hydrolysate. The results are the following:more » A turbidostat was used to adapt the Z. mobilis strain 8b in the pretreated corn stover liquor. The adaptation was initiated using pure sugar (glucose and xylose) followed by feeding neutralized liquor at different dilution rates. Once the turbidostat reached 60% liquor content, the cells began washing out and the adaptation was stopped. Several ‘sub-strains’ were isolated, and one of them, SS3 (sub-strain 3), had 59% higher xylose utilization than the parent strain 8b when evaluated on 55% neutralized PCS (pretreated corn stover) liquor. Using saccharified PCS slurry generated by enzymatic hydrolysis from 25% solids loading, SS3 generated an ethanol yield of 75.5% compared to 64% for parent strain 8b. Furthermore, the total xylose utilization was 57.7% for SS3 versus 27.4% for strain 8b. To determine the underlying genotypes in these new sub-strains, we conducted genomic resequencing and identified numerous single-nucleotide mutations (SNPs) that had arisen in SS3. We further performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on genes potentially affected by these SNPs and identified significant down-regulation of two genes, ZMO0153 and ZMO0776, in SS3 suggesting potential genetic mechanisms behind SS3’s improved

  19. Analyzing the Effect of Variations in Soil and Management Practices on the Sustainability of Corn Stover-Based Bioethanol Production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel

    2011-08-07

    The inherent variability in corn stover productivity due to variations in soils and crop management practices might contribute to a variation in corn stover-based bioethanol sustainability. This study was carried out to examine how changes in soil types and crop management options would affect corn stover yield (CSY) and the sustainability of the stover-based ethanol production in the Delta region of Mississippi. Based on potential acreage and geographical representation, three locations were selected. Using CERES-Maize model, stover yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and crop management options. Based on 'net energy value (NEV)' computed from CSYs, a sustainability indicator for stover-based bioethanol production was established. The effects of soils and crop management options on CSY and NEV were determined using ANOVA tests and regression analyses. Both CSY and NEV were significantly different across sandy loam, silt loam, and silty clay loam soils and also across high-, mid-, and low-yielding cultivars. With an increase in irrigation level, both CSY and NEV increased initially and decreased after reaching a peak. A third-degree polynomial relationship was found between planting date and CSY and NEV each. By moving from the lowest to the highest production scenario, values of CSY and NEV could be increased by 86 to 553%, depending on location and weather condition. The effects of variations in soils and crop management options on NEV were the same as on CSY. The NEV was positive for all scenarios, indicating that corn stover-based ethanol production system in the Delta region is sustainable.

  20. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used.

  1. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  2. Identification and Antimicrobial Activity Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stover Silage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongxia; Ni, Kuikui; Pang, Huili; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin; Jin, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971T, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698T and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775T were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C), but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0), but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0). In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory. PMID:25924957

  3. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are

  4. Long-term no-till and stover retention each decrease the global warming potential of irrigated continuous corn.

    PubMed

    Jin, Virginia L; Schmer, Marty R; Stewart, Catherine E; Sindelar, Aaron J; Varvel, Gary E; Wienhold, Brian J

    2017-01-30

    Over the last 50 years, the most increase in cultivated land area globally has been due to a doubling of irrigated land. Long-term agronomic management impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated systems, however, remain relatively unknown. Here, residue and tillage management effects were quantified by measuring soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) and methane (CH4 ) fluxes and SOC changes (ΔSOC) at a long-term, irrigated continuous corn (Zea mays L.) system in eastern Nebraska, United States. Management treatments began in 2002, and measured treatments included no or high stover removal (0 or 6.8 Mg DM ha(-1)  yr(-1) , respectively) under no-till (NT) or conventional disk tillage (CT) with full irrigation (n = 4). Soil N2 O and CH4 fluxes were measured for five crop-years (2011-2015), and ΔSOC was determined on an equivalent mass basis to ~30 cm soil depth. Both area- and yield-scaled soil N2 O emissions were greater with stover retention compared to removal and for CT compared to NT, with no interaction between stover and tillage practices. Methane comprised <1% of total emissions, with NT being CH4 neutral and CT a CH4 source. Surface SOC decreased with stover removal and with CT after 14 years of management. When ΔSOC, soil GHG emissions, and agronomic energy usage were used to calculate system GWP, all management systems were net GHG sources. Conservation practices (NT, stover retention) each decreased system GWP compared to conventional practices (CT, stover removal), but pairing conservation practices conferred no additional mitigation benefit. Although cropping system, management equipment/timing/history, soil type, location, weather, and the depth to which ΔSOC is measured affect the GWP outcomes of irrigated systems at large, this long-term irrigated study provides valuable empirical evidence of how management decisions can impact soil GHG emissions and surface SOC

  5. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant

  6. High-titer lactic acid production by Lactobacillus pentosus FL0421 from corn stover using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlong; Lin, Yanxu; Zhang, Zhenting; Xiang, Ting; Mei, Yuxia; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Because the cost of refined sugar substrate and limit of worldwide food availability, lignocellulosic materials are attractive for use in lactic acid (LA) production. In this study, we found Lactobacillus pentosus strain FL0421 produced LA with high yields (0.52-0.82g/g stover) from five NaOH-pretreated and washed agro stovers through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). We developed a fed-batch SSF process at 37°C and pH 6.0 using the cellulase of 30FPU/g stover and 10g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor to produce LA from 14% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corn stover under non-sterile condition. The LA-titer, yield and productivity reached 92.30g/L, 0.66g/g stover and 1.92g/L/h, respectively; and acetic acid titer and yield reached 34.27g/L and 0.24g/g stover. This study presented a feasible process for LA production from agro stovers and provided a candidate strain for genetic engineering for high-titer and -yield lignocellulosic LA production.

  7. Bioconversion of corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol using cascade simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (CSSF).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    A cascade type of fermentation, designated the cascade simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (CSSF), was studied to convert corn stover derived pentose and hexose to ethanol with reduced enzyme input. In detail, each step of CSSF utilizes two sequential SSF phases operating on pentose and hexose, i.e., pentose conversion using xylanase, endo-glucanase, and recombinant Escherichia coli (KO11) with minimal glucose conversion in the first phase SSF, and hexose conversion in the second phase SSF using cellulase, β-glucosidase, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (D(5)A). In this cascade scheme, multiple stages of 1st and 2nd phase SSF were performed in series; enzymes are recycled from the fermentation broth of the last stage for the use of the next stage. This bioconversion process yielded up to 60% of the theoretical maximum ethanol yield based on the total sugars in untreated corn stover, while enzyme loadings were reduced by 50% (v/v) and the final ethanol concentration reached 27 g/l.

  8. Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover for the production of bioethanol at high-solids content.

    PubMed

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2016-09-01

    Corn stover (CS) was hydrothermally pretreated using CH3COOH (0.3 %, v/v), and subsequently its ability to be utilized for conversion to ethanol at high-solids content was investigated. Pretreatment conditions were optimized employing a response surface methodology (RSM) with temperature and duration as independent variables. Pretreated CS underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step at a custom designed free-fall mixer at 50 °C for either 12 or 24 h using an enzyme loading of 9 mg/g dry matter (DM) at 24 % (w/w) DM. Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of liquefacted corn stover resulted in high ethanol concentration (up to 36.8 g/L), with liquefaction duration having a negligible effect. The threshold of ethanol concentration of 4 % (w/w), which is required to reduce the cost of ethanol distillation, was surpassed by the addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF achieving this way ethanol titer of 41.5 g/L.

  9. A combined sodium phosphate and sodium sulfide pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and delignification of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Zhou, Linlin; Guo, Qi; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Na3PO4 and Na2S were employed as efficient alkaline catalysts for the pretreatment of corn stover. To systematically obtain optimal conditions, the effects of critical pretreatment parameters including sodium phosphate concentration (1-4%), sulfidity (0-20%), pretreatment temperature (100-120°C), and reaction time (20-60min) on the reducing sugar yield of pretreated substrates were evaluated in a lab-scale using the response surface methodology. Pretreated under the sodium phosphate concentration of 4%, sulfidity of 10%, temperature of 120°C, and reaction time of 40min, the reducing sugar yield and glucose yield of the pretreated corn stover achieved 91.11% and 64.01%, respectively, with a moderate enzyme loading of 30FPU/g substrate. Additionally, a strong correlation (R(2)=0.971 and R(2)=0.954) between the delignification and the reducing sugar yield (or glucose yield) was observed by this pretreatment method. These results evidently support that the combined Na3PO4-Na2S pretreatment is an effective and feasible method for processing lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Simulation of logistics to supply Corn Stover to the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Plant in Lambton, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleghi Hamedani, Hamid; Lau, Anthony K.; DeBruyn, Jake; Ebadian, Mahmud; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-05-10

    The overall goal of this research is to investigate the logistics of agricultural biomass in Ontario, Canada using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL). The supply of corn stover to the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) power plant in Lambton is simulated. This coal-fired power plant is currently not operating and there are no active plans by OPG to fuel it with biomass. Rather, this scenario is considered only to demonstrate the application of the IBSAL Model to this type of scenario. Here, five scenarios of delivering corn stover to the Lambton Generating Station (GS) power plant in Lambton Ontario are modeled: (1) truck transport from field edge to OPG (base scenario); (2) farm to central storage located on the highway, then truck transport bales to OPG; (3) direct truck transport from farm (no-stacking) to OPG; (4) farm to a loading port on Lake Huron and from there on a barge to OPG; and (5) farm to a railhead and then to OPG by rail.

  11. Simulation of logistics to supply Corn Stover to the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Plant in Lambton, Ontario

    DOE PAGES

    Khaleghi Hamedani, Hamid; Lau, Anthony K.; DeBruyn, Jake; ...

    2016-05-10

    The overall goal of this research is to investigate the logistics of agricultural biomass in Ontario, Canada using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics Model (IBSAL). The supply of corn stover to the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) power plant in Lambton is simulated. This coal-fired power plant is currently not operating and there are no active plans by OPG to fuel it with biomass. Rather, this scenario is considered only to demonstrate the application of the IBSAL Model to this type of scenario. Here, five scenarios of delivering corn stover to the Lambton Generating Station (GS) power plant inmore » Lambton Ontario are modeled: (1) truck transport from field edge to OPG (base scenario); (2) farm to central storage located on the highway, then truck transport bales to OPG; (3) direct truck transport from farm (no-stacking) to OPG; (4) farm to a loading port on Lake Huron and from there on a barge to OPG; and (5) farm to a railhead and then to OPG by rail.« less

  12. Characteristics of Corn Stover Pretreated with Liquid Hot Water and Fed-Batch Semi-Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation for Bioethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism. PMID:24763192

  13. High titer L-lactic acid production from corn stover with minimum wastewater generation and techno-economic evaluation based on Aspen plus modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiaoe; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Yi; Bao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Technological potentials of l-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock were investigated by experimental and techno-economic studies. An optimal performance with 104.5 g/L in l-lactic acid titer and 71.5% in overall yield from cellulose in corn stover to l-lactic acid using an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain were obtained by overcoming several technical barriers. A rigorous Aspen plus model for l-lactic acid production starting from dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was developed. The techno-economic analysis shows that the minimum l-lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was $0.523 per kg, which was close to that of the commercial l-lactic acid produced from starch feedstock, and 24% less expensive than that of ethanol from corn stover, even though the xylose utilization was not considered. The study provided a prototype of industrial application and an evaluation model for high titer l-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock.

  14. Characteristics of corn stover pretreated with liquid hot water and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuezhi; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Corn stover is a promising feedstock for bioethanol production because of its abundant availability in China. To obtain higher ethanol concentration and higher ethanol yield, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) were used to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover and improve bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The results show that solid residues from LHW pretreatment of corn stover can be effectively converted into ethanol at severity factors ranging from 3.95 to 4.54, and the highest amount of xylan removed was approximately 89%. The ethanol concentrations of 38.4 g/L and 39.4 g/L as well as ethanol yields of 78.6% and 79.7% at severity factors of 3.95 and 4.54, respectively, were obtained by fed-batch S-SSF in an optimum conditions (initial substrate consistency of 10%, and 6.1% solid residues added into system at the prehydrolysis time of 6 h). The changes in surface morphological structure, specific surface area, pore volume and diameter of corn stover subjected to LHW process were also analyzed for interpreting the possible improvement mechanism.

  15. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyu; Xie, Qinglong; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Effects of reaction temperature, CaO/HZSM-5 ratio, and corn stover/scum ratio on co-pyrolysis product fractional yields and selectivity were investigated. Results showed that co-pyrolysis temperature was selected as 550°C, which provides the maximum bio-oil and aromatic yields. Mixed CaO and HZSM-5 catalyst with the weight ratio of 1:4 increased the aromatic yield to 35.77 wt.% of feedstock, which was 17% higher than that with HZSM-5 alone. Scum as the hydrogen donor, had a significant synergistic effect with corn stover to promote the production of bio-oil and aromatic hydrocarbons when the H/C(eff) value exceeded 1. The maximum yield of aromatic hydrocarbons (29.3 wt.%) were obtained when the optimal corn stover to scum ratio was 1:2.

  16. Chemical structures of corn stover and its residue after dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis: Insight into factors limiting enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced solid-state NMR techniques and wet chemical analyses were applied to investigate untreated corn stover (UCS) and its residues after dilute acid prehydrolysis (DAP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (RES) to provide evidence for the limitations to the effectiveness of enzyme hydrolysis. Advanced soli...

  17. Impact of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Extrusion Pelleting on Pellet Physical Properties and Sugar Recovery from Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2016-05-01

    The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment, feedstock moisture content (5,10, and 15 % wb), particle size (screen sizes of 2, 4, and 8 mm), and extrusion temperature (75, 100, and 125 °C) on pellet bulk density, pellet hardness, and sugar recovery from corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were investigated. Pellets were produced from untreated and AFEX™ pretreated feedstocks using a laboratory-scale extruder. AFEX™ pretreatment increased subsequent pellet bulk density from 453.0 to 650.6 kg m(-3) for corn stover from 463.2 to 680.1 kg m(-3) for prairie cord grass, and from 433.9 to 627.7 kg m(-3) for switchgrass. Maximum pellet hardness of 2342.8, 2424.3, and 1298.6 N was recorded for AFEX™ pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass, respectively. Glucose yields of AFEX™ corn stover pellets, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass pellets varied from 88.9 to 94.9 %, 90.1 to 94.9 %, and 87.0 to 92.9 %, respectively. Glucose and xylose yields of AFEX™ pellets were not affected by the extruder barrel temperature and the hammer mill screen size. The results obtained showed that low temperature and large particle size during the extrusion pelleting process can be employed for AFEX™-treated biomass without compromising sugar yields.

  18. Technical Aspects of Acceleration of Enzymatic Conversion of Corn Stover Biomass into Bio-fuels by Low Intensity, Uniform Ultrasound Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most critical stages of conversion of plant biomass into biofuels employs hydrolysis reactions between highly specific enzymes and matching substrates (e.g. corn stover cellulose with cellulase) that produce soluble sugars, which then could be converted into ethanol. Important benefits of...

  19. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli FBR5 without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ayse; Saha, Badal C; Kennedy, Gregory J; Cotta, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    A pretreatment strategy for dilute H2SO4 pretreatment of corn stover was developed for the purpose of reducing the generation of inhibitory substances during pretreatment so that a detoxification step is not required prior to fermentation while maximizing sugar yield. The optimal conditions for pretreatment of corn stover (10%, w/v) were: 0.75% H2SO4, 160°C, and 0-5 min holding time. The conditions were chosen based on maximum glucose release after enzymatic hydrolysis, minimum loss of pentose sugars and minimum formation of sugar degradation products such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural. The pretreated corn stover after enzymatic saccharification generated 63.2 ± 2.2 and 63.7 ± 2.3 g total sugars per L at 0 and 5 min holding time, respectively. Furfural production was 0.45 ± 0.1 and 0.87 ± 0.4 g/L, respectively. The recombinant Escherichia coli strain FBR5 efficiently fermented non-detoxified corn stover hydrolyzate if the furfural content is <0.5 g/L.

  20. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production by recombinant Escherichia coli FBR5 without detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pretreatment strategy for dilute H2SO4 pretreatment of corn stover was developed for the purpose of reducing the generation of inhibitory substances during pretreatment so that a detoxification step is not required prior to fermentation while maximizing the sugar yield. We have optimized dilute su...

  1. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel – Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes

    SciTech Connect

    Cortright, Randy

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of producing liquid fuels, particularly jet fuel, from lignocellulosic materials, such as corn stover. This project was led by Virent, Inc. (Virent) which has developed a novel chemical catalytic process (the BioForming® platform) capable of producing “direct replacement” liquid fuels from biomass-derived feedstocks. Virent has shown it is possible to produce an advantaged jet fuel from biomass that meets or exceeds specifications for commercial and military jet fuel through Fuel Readiness Level (FRL) 5, Process Validation. This project leveraged The National Renewable Energy Lab’s (NREL) expertise in converting corn stover to sugars via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. NREL had previously developed this deconstruction technology for the conversion of corn stover to ethanol. In this project, Virent and NREL worked together to condition the NREL generated hydrolysate for use in Virent’s catalytic process through solids removal, contaminant reduction, and concentration steps. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was contracted in this project for the procurement, formatting, storage and analysis of corn stover and Northwestern University developed fundamental knowledge of lignin deconstruction that can help improve overall carbon recovery of the combined technologies. Virent conducted fundamental catalytic studies to improve the performance of the catalytic process and NREL provided catalyst characterization support. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) was conducted at each stage of the project, with results from these analyses used to inform the direction of the project.

  2. Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index's corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Ding, Yun; Wang, Cheng; Xue, Yu-Feng; Rui, Huan; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pretreatment by combining acidified aqueous ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL [Bmim]Cl) solution with dilute NaOH extraction was employed to pretreat high crystallinity index (CrI) of corn stover before its enzymatic saccharification. After NaOH extraction, [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water (78.8:1.2:20, w/w/w) media was used for further pretreatment at 130 °C for 30 min. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, corn stover pretreated could be biotransformed into reducing sugars in the yield of 95.1%. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses of untreated and pretreated corn stovers were examined. It was found that the intact structure was disrupted by combination pretreatment and resulted in a porous and amorphous regenerated cellulosic material that greatly improved enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. In conclusion, the combination pretreatment shows high potential application in future.

  3. The effects on digestibility and ruminal measures of chemically treated corn stover as a partial replacement for grain in dairy diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, but poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in digestibility and ruminal effects when calcium oxide-treated corn stover was subs...

  4. Pretreatment of corn stover by low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMMA) in a pilot-scale reactor and bioconversion to fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50%, 66% and 70% moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70% moisture CS was treated at 90 degree C and 100 degree C whereas the others were treated at 90 degree C only. The...

  5. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor: investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids.

    PubMed

    Schell, Daniel J; Farmer, Jody; Newman, Millie; McMillan, James D

    2003-01-01

    Corn stover is a domestic feedstock that has potential to produce significant quantities of fuel ethanol and other bioenergy and biobased products. However, comprehensive yield and carbon mass balance information and validated kinetic models for dilute-sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment of corn stover have not been available. This has hindered the estimation of process economics and also limited the ability to perform technoeconomic modeling to guide research. To better characterize pretreatment and assess its kinetics, we pretreated corn stover in a continuous 1 t/d reactor. Corn stover was pretreated at 20% (w/w) solids concentration over a range of conditions encompassing residence times of 3-12 min, temperatures of 165- 195 degrees C, and H2SO4 concentrations of 0.5-1.4% (w/w). Xylan conversion yield and carbon mass balance data were collected at each run condition. Performance results were used to estimate kinetic model parameters assuming biphasic hemicellulose hydrolysis and a hydrolysis mechanism incorporating formation of intermediate xylo-oligomers. In addition, some of the pretreated solids were tested in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process to measure the reactivity of their cellulose component to enzymatic digestion by cellulase enzymes. Monomeric xylose yields of 69-71% and total xylose yields (monomers and oligomers) of 70-77% were achieved with performance level depending on pretreatment severity. Cellulose conversion yields in SSF of 80-87% were obtained for some of the most digestible pretreated solids.

  6. Detoxification of corn stover prehydrolyzate by trialkylamine extraction to improve the ethanol production with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the separated ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, prehydrolysis of corn stover with sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was applied, while inhibitors were produced inevitably. A complex extraction was adopted to detoxify the prehydrolyzate before fermentation to ethanol with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. The best proportion of mixed extractant was 30% trialkylamine-50% n-octanol -20% kerosene. Detoxification results indicated that 73.3% of acetic acid, 45.7% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 100% of furfural could be removed. Compared with the undetoxified prehydrolyzate, the fermentability of the detoxified prehydrolyzate was significantly improved. After 48 h fermentation of the detoxified prehydrolyzate containing 7.80 g/l of glucose and 52.8 g/l of xylose, the sugar utilization ratio was 93.2%; the ethanol concentration reached its peak value of 21.8 g/l, which was corresponding to 82.3% of the theoretical value.

  7. Recalcitrance and structural analysis by water-only flowthrough pretreatment of 13C enriched corn stover stem

    SciTech Connect

    Foston, Marcus B.; Trajanob, Heather L.; Samuel, Reichel; Wyman, Charles E.; He, Jian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-28

    Here, this study presents high temperature water-only continuous flowthrough pretreatment coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a promising analytical tool to examine the plant cell wall, to understand its recalcitrance (i.e., cell wall resistance to deconstruction), and to probe the chemistry occurring during batch pretreatment of biomass. 13C-enriched corn stover stems were pretreated at 170 °C for 60 min with a hot-water flow rate of 20 mL/min to control fractionation of the cell wall. This approach helped elucidate the nature of plant cell wall chemical recalcitrance and biomass pretreatment chemistry by tracking cell wall fragmentation as a function of time. Fractions of the reactor effluent were collected in a time-resolved fashion and characterized by various NMR techniques to determine the degree and sequence of fragments released, as well as, the chemical composition, molecular structure, and relative molecular weight of those released fragments.

  8. Oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation on combined acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate for advanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Archer, Steven; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    A combined hydrolysis process, which first mixed dilute acid- and alkali-pretreated corn stover at a 1:1 (w/w) ratio, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without pH adjustment, has been developed in this study in order to minimize the need of neutralization, detoxification, and washing during the process of lignocellulosic biofuel production. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the combined hydrolysate as well as a synthetic medium to compare fungal lipid accumulation and biodiesel production in both shake flask and 7.5L fermentor. Fungal cultivation on combined hydrolysate exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid yield with those from synthetic medium, indicating that the integration of combined hydrolysis with oleaginous fungal lipid fermentation has great potential to improve performance of advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  9. Two stage hydrolysis of corn stover at high solids content for mixing power saving and scale-up applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A two stage hydrolysis of corn stover was designed to solve the difficulties between sufficient mixing at high solids content and high power input encountered in large scale bioreactors. The process starts with the quick liquefaction to convert solid cellulose to liquid slurry with strong mixing in small reactors, then followed the comprehensive hydrolysis to complete saccharification into fermentable sugars in large reactors without agitation apparatus. 60% of the mixing energy consumption was saved by removing the mixing apparatus in large scale vessels. Scale-up ratio was small for the first step hydrolysis reactors because of the reduced reactor volume. For large saccharification reactors in the second step, the scale-up was easy because of no mixing mechanism was involved. This two stage hydrolysis is applicable for either simple hydrolysis or combined fermentation processes. The method provided a practical process option for industrial scale biorefinery processing of lignocellulose biomass.

  10. Development of Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycle Technology for ethanol production from Extractive Ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied Rapid Bioconversion with Integrated recycle Technology (RaBIT) and Extractive Ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/ kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/ kg untreated CS). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K; Yang, Zhonghua; Yan, Jiabao; Zhao, Mi

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0g/100g and 0.13g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step.

  12. Highly efficient production of optically pure l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Hu, Guoquan; Pan, Liwei; Wang, Zichao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; He, Mingxiong

    2016-11-01

    A thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12714) was employed to produce l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate in membrane integrated continuous fermentation. The strain NBRC 12714 metabolized glucose and xylose by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), producing l-lactic acid with optical purity >99.5%. The overall l-lactic acid titer of 92g/l with a yield of 0.91g/g and a productivity of 13.8g/l/h were achieved at a dilution rate of 0.15h(-1). The productivity obtained was 1.6-fold than that of conventional continuous fermentation without cell recycling, and also was the highest among the relevant studies ever reported. These results indicated that the process developed had great potential for economical industrial production of l-lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. Impact of Sequential Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) Pretreatment and Pelletization on the Moisture Sorption Properties of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, Ian J.; Thompson, David N.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Timothy; Bals, Bryan; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-05-01

    Combining ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment with a depot processing facility is a promising option for delivering high-value densified biomass to the emerging bioenergy industry. However, because the pretreatment process results in a high moisture material unsuitable for pelleting or storage (40% wet basis), the biomass must be immediately dried. If AFEX pretreatment results in a material that is difficult to dry, the economics of this already costly operation would be at risk. This work tests the nature of moisture sorption isotherms and thin-layer drying behavior of corn (Zea mays L.) stover at 20°C to 60°C before and after sequential AFEX pretreatment and pelletization to determine whether any negative impacts to material drying or storage may result from the AFEX process. The equilibrium moisture content to equilibrium relative humidity relationship for each of the materials was determined using dynamic vapor sorption isotherms and modeled with modified Chung-Pfost, modified Halsey, and modified Henderson temperature-dependent models as well as the Double Log Polynomial (DLP), Peleg, and Guggenheim Anderson de Boer (GAB) temperature-independent models. Drying kinetics were quantified under thin-layer laboratory testing and modeled using the Modified Page's equation. Water activity isotherms for non-pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Peleg temperature-independent equation while isotherms for the pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Double Log Polynomial equation. Thin-layer drying results were accurately modeled with the Modified Page's equation. The results of this work indicate that AFEX pretreatment results in drying properties more favorable than or equal to that of raw corn stover, and pellets of superior physical stability in storage.

  14. Understanding the Impacts of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Densification on the Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gent, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder. The barrel temperature of the extruder was maintained at 75, 100, and 125 °C. Durability of the extruded pellets made from AFEX™-pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass varied from 94.5 to 99.2, 94.3 to 98.7, and 90.1 to 97.5 %, respectively. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis showed the decrease in the decomposition temperature of the all the feedstocks after AFEX™ pretreatment indicating the increase in thermal stability. Loose and densified feedstocks were subjected to fast pyrolysis in a lab-scale reactor, and the yields (bio-oil and bio-char) were measured. Bio-char obtained from the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks exhibited increased bulk and particle density compared to the untreated feedstocks. The properties of the bio-oil were statistically similar for the untreated, AFEX™-pretreated, and AFEX™-pretreated densified feedstocks. Based on the bio-char and bio-oil yields, the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks and the densified AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks (pellets and PAKs) exhibited similar behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that densifying the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks could be a viable option in the biomass-processing depots to reduce the transportation costs and the logistical impediments without affecting the product yields.

  15. Heterologous Acidothermus cellulolyticus 1,4-β-Endoglucanase E1 Produced Within the Corn Biomass Converts Corn Stover Into Glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Callista; Balan, Venkatesh; Biswas, Gadab; Dale, Bruce; Crockett, Elaine; Sticklen, Mariam

    Commercial conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires inexpensive bulk production of biologically active cellulase enzymes, which might be achieved through direct production of these enzymes within the biomass crops. Transgenic corn plants containing the catalytic domain of Acidothermus cellulolyticus E1 endo-1,4-β glucanase and the bar bialaphos resistance coding sequences were generated after Biolistic® (BioRad Hercules, CA) bombardment of immature embryo-derived cells. E1 sequences were regulated under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and tobacco mosaic virus translational enhancer, and E1 protein was targeted to the apoplast using the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein to achieve accumulation of this enzyme. The integration, expression, and segregation of E1 and bar transgenes were demonstrated, respectively, through Southern and Western blotting, and progeny analyses. Accumulation of up to 1.13% of transgenic plant total soluble proteins was detected as biologically active E1 by enzymatic activity assay. The corn-produced, heterologous E1 could successfully convert ammonia fiber explosion-pretreated corn stover polysaccharides into glucose as a fermentable sugar for ethanol production, confirming that the E1 enzyme is produced in its active from.

  16. Projection of corn production and stover-harvesting impacts on soil organic carbon dynamics in the U.S. Temperate Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Young, Claudia J.; Dahal, Devendra; Sohl, Terry L.; Davis, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon sequestration potential is widely considered as a realistic option for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, this potential may be threatened by global changes including climate, land use, and management changes such as increased corn stover harvesting for rising production of cellulosic biofuel. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional or global scale. This study simulated the corn production and spatiotemporal changes of SOC in the U.S. Temperate Prairies, which covers over one-third of the U.S. corn acreage, using a biogeochemical model with multiple climate and land-use change projections. The corn production (either grain yield or stover biomass) could reach 88.7–104.7 TgC as of 2050, 70–101% increase when compared to the base year of 2010. A removal of 50% stover at the regional scale could be a reasonable cap in view of maintaining SOC content and soil fertility especially in the beginning years. The projected SOC dynamics indicated that the average carbon sequestration potential across the entire region may vary from 12.7 to 19.6 g C/m2/yr (i.e., 6.6–10.2 g TgC/yr). This study not only helps understand SOC dynamics but also provides decision support for sustainable biofuel development. PMID:26027873

  17. An improved process of ethanol production from hemicellulose: bioconversion of undetoxified hemicellulosic hydrolyzate from steam-exploded corn stover with a domesticated Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Qiang; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yun; Lai, Chenhuan; Zhang, Nannan; Chu, Qiulu; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2012-08-01

    Bioconversion of undetoxified hemicellulosic hydrolyzate from steam-exploded corn stover was investigated with a domesticated Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. The countercurrent washing was applied to recover sugars from the steam-exploded corn stover, which could enrich sugars in washing liquor and give an efficient saving of water. Acid concentration, reaction temperature, and time were optimized for the acid post-hydrolysis of oligosaccharides in steam-exploded prehydrolyzate by a central composite design and response surface methodology. The domestication of P. stipitis to the hydrolyzate resulted in improving sugar consumption and ethanol yield by gradually increasing the ratio of hydrolyzate in the medium. Recycling utilization of the domesticated yeast demonstrated that the yeast kept a stable ability of fermenting both hexose and pentose in the undetoxified hydrolyzate. The sugar consumption and ethanol yield were over 90 and 80 %, respectively.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of straw and corn stover: The effect of biological process optimization and pre-treatment on total bio-methane yield and energy performance.

    PubMed

    Croce, Serena; Wei, Qiao; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a useful method for producing renewable energy/biofuel. Today, biogas production uses a large amount of energy crops (EC), with the effect of increasing AD costs and creating conflict between food/feed vs. energy use. A partial solution to this might be the substitution of EC with agricultural wastes, e.g. straw. Straw and corn stover are widely available in the world and approximately 1600millionMgyear(-1) of these substrates are available. Straw can be useful used for biogas production but its characteristics limit its performance so that sometimes the energetic balance can be negative. In this review, the limits for the conversion of this substrate into biogas were investigated and solutions/proposals for getting higher straw biogas production performance are reported. In addition, energetic balances for untreated and pre-treated substrates are reported, giving indicative evaluations of the sustainability of straw and corn stover use for biogas production.

  19. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of glucose and xylose in steam-pretreated corn stover at high fiber content with Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3400.

    PubMed

    Ohgren, Karin; Bengtsson, Oskar; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Galbe, Mats; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Zacchi, Guido

    2006-12-01

    The two main sugars in the agricultural by-product corn stover are glucose and xylose. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose at high content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) without detoxification is a prerequisite to obtain high ethanol concentration and to reduce production costs. A recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TMB3400, was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of whole pretreated slurry of corn stover at high WIS. TMB3400 co-fermented glucose and xylose with relatively high ethanol yields giving high final ethanol concentration. The ethanol productivity increased with increasing concentration of pretreatment hydrolysate in the yeast production medium and when SSF was performed in a fed-batch mode.

  20. Effects of calcium oxide treatment at varying moisture concentrations on the chemical composition, in situ degradability, in vitro digestibility and gas production kinetics of anaerobically stored corn stover.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Li, S L; Yang, H J; Bi, Y L; Doane, P H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by in situ and in vitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72 h (GP72h ) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15 days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p < 0.01) the content of aNDF, ash and OM, and the ratio of aNDF/OM. The greatest ISDMD, ISOMD and ISNDFD were observed when stover was treated with 7% CaO and 60% moisture, while no differences (p > 0.01) in these in situ degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72 h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p > 0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination.

  1. Comparative Study of Corn Stover Pretreated by Dilute Acid and Cellulose Solvent-Based Lignocellulose Fractionation: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Supramolecular Structure, and Substrate Accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Sathitsuksanoh, N.; Vinzant, T.; Schell, D. J.; McMillian, J. D.; Zhang, Y. H. P.

    2009-07-01

    Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only {approx}60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m{sup 2}/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m{sup 2}/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

  2. Comparative study of corn stover pretreated by dilute acid and cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation: Enzymatic hydrolysis, supramolecular structure, and substrate accessibility.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiguang; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Vinzant, Todd; Schell, Daniel J; McMillan, James D; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2009-07-01

    Liberation of fermentable sugars from recalcitrant biomass is among the most costly steps for emerging cellulosic ethanol production. Here we compared two pretreatment methods (dilute acid, DA, and cellulose solvent and organic solvent lignocellulose fractionation, COSLIF) for corn stover. At a high cellulase loading [15 filter paper units (FPUs) or 12.3 mg cellulase per gram of glucan], glucan digestibilities of the corn stover pretreated by DA and COSLIF were 84% at hour 72 and 97% at hour 24, respectively. At a low cellulase loading (5 FPUs per gram of glucan), digestibility remained as high as 93% at hour 24 for the COSLIF-pretreated corn stover but reached only approximately 60% for the DA-pretreated biomass. Quantitative determinations of total substrate accessibility to cellulase (TSAC), cellulose accessibility to cellulase (CAC), and non-cellulose accessibility to cellulase (NCAC) based on adsorption of a non-hydrolytic recombinant protein TGC were measured for the first time. The COSLIF-pretreated corn stover had a CAC of 11.57 m(2)/g, nearly twice that of the DA-pretreated biomass (5.89 m(2)/g). These results, along with scanning electron microscopy images showing dramatic structural differences between the DA- and COSLIF-pretreated samples, suggest that COSLIF treatment disrupts microfibrillar structures within biomass while DA treatment mainly removes hemicellulose. Under the tested conditions COSLIF treatment breaks down lignocellulose structure more extensively than DA treatment, producing a more enzymatically reactive material with a higher CAC accompanied by faster hydrolysis rates and higher enzymatic digestibility.

  3. Effect of irradiation, as a pretreatment, on bioconversion of corn stover into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awafo, V. A.; Chahal, D. S.; Charbonneau, R.

    1995-09-01

    Application of irradiation for food preservation, for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for rumen animals have been reported in the literature. In the present study, irradiation (100 KGy to 1.7 MGy) of corn stover as a pretreatment to make it susceptible for its bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757 has been compared with that of mild alkali treatment (0.01 to 0.15 g NaOH/g corn stover), the most commonly used pretreatment. Protein synthesis increased with the increase in doses of irradiation as well as with the increase in concentration of NaOH. Combination pretreatment with NaOH and γ-irradiation reduced the quantity of NaOH and doses of irradiation required to get optimum yields of protein indicating a strong synergistic effect. The highest protein content of the final product, mycelial biomass, was about 45% on dry weight basis. More than 90% utilization of corn stover polysaccharides for the synthesis of protein-rich mycelial biomass of P. sajor-caju was recorded

  4. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  5. A comparison of dilute aqueous p-toluenesulfonic and sulfuric acid pretreatments and saccharification of corn stover at moderate temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S; Wiredu, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Single step pretreatment-saccharification of corn stover was investigated in aqueous p-toluenesulfonic and sulfuric acid media. Dilute aqueous solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid was a better catalyst than aqueous sulfuric acid of the same H(+) ion concentration for single step pretreatment-saccharification of corn stover at moderate temperatures and pressures. For example, 100mg corn stover heated at 150°C for 1h in 0.100 M H(+) aqueous sulfuric acid produced 64 μmol of total reducing sugars (TRS), whereas the sample heated in 0.100 M H(+)p-toluenesulfonic acid produced 165 μmol of TRS under identical conditions. Glucose yield showed a similar trend, as aq. sulfuric acid and p-toluene sulfonic acid media produced 29 and 35 μmol of glucose respectively after 2.5h. Higher catalytic activity of p-toluenesulfonic acid may be due to an interaction with biomass, supported by repulsion of hydrophobic tolyl group by the aqueous phase.

  6. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  7. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  8. The effects on digestibility and ruminal measures of chemically treated corn stover as a partial replacement for grain in dairy diets.

    PubMed

    Cook, D E; Combs, D K; Doane, P H; Cecava, M J; Hall, M B

    2016-08-01

    Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. Given the volatile nature of grain prices, substitution of treated stover for grain was investigated with dairy cows to provide insights on ruminal and digestibility effects of a feed option that makes use of alternative, available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in diet digestibility and ruminal effects when increasing levels of calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaOSt) were substituted for corn grain in diets of lactating cows. Mature corn stover was treated with calcium oxide at a level of 50g∙kg(-1) dry matter (DM), brought up to a moisture content of 50% following bale grinding, and stored anaerobically at ambient temperatures for greater than 60d before the feeding experiment. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 686kg of body weight and 35kg of milk∙d(-1) were enrolled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square, where CaOSt replaced corn grain on a DM basis in the ration at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120g∙kg(-1) DM. All reported significant responses were linear. The DM intake declined by approximately 1kg per 4% increase in CaOSt inclusion. With increasing replacement of corn grain, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration increased. However, rumen NDF turnover, NDF digestibility, NDF passage rate, and digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF were unaffected by increasing CaOSt inclusion. Total-tract organic matter digestibility declined by 5 percentage units over the range of treatments, approximately 1.5 units per 4-percentage-unit substitution of CaOSt for grain. With increasing CaOSt, the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate declined, whereas the lowest detected ruminal pH increased from 5.83 to 5.94. Milk, fat, and protein yields declined as CaOSt increased and DM intake declined with the result that net energy in milk declined by

  9. Non-severe thermochemical hydrolysis of stover from white corn and sequential enzymatic saccharification and fermentation to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Tah, Alejandra; Moss-Acosta, Cessna L; Trujillo-Martinez, Berenice; Tiessen, Axel; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Orencio-Trejo, Montserrat; Gosset, Guillermo; Martinez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    A parametric study, with an initial load of 15%w/w of dry stover from white corn, was conducted to evaluate the sequential thermochemical hydrolysis (TH), enzymatic saccharification (ES) and fermentation of the whole slurry with ethanologenic Escherichia coli. The TH was designed to release the maximum amount of xylose with a concomitant formation of minimal amounts of furans. It was found that 29.0% or 93.2% of the xylan was recovered as free xylose at 130°C after 8 min in the presence of 1% or 2%w/w H2SO4 and produced only 0.06 or 0.44 g/L of total furans, respectively. After 24h of ES, 76.14-77.18 g/L of monosaccharides (pentoses and hexoses) were obtained. These slurries, which contained 0.03-0.26 g/L of total furans and 5.14-5.91 g/L of acetate, were fermented with 3.7 g/L of ethanologenic E. coli to produce 24.5-23.5 g/L of ethanol.

  10. Consolidated bioprocessing of AFEX-pretreated corn stover to ethanol and hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Speers, Allison M; Reguera, Gemma

    2012-07-17

    The consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of corn stover pretreated via ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX-CS) into ethanol was investigated in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) driven by the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens and the CBP bacterium Cellulomonas uda. C. uda was identified in a screening for its ethanologenic potential from AFEX-CS and for producing electron donors for G. sulfurreducens fermentatively. C. uda produced ethanol from AFEX-CS in MECs inoculated simultaneously or sequentially, with the concomitant conversion of the fermentation byproducts into electricity by G. sulfurreducens. The fermentation and electrical conversion efficiencies were high, but much of the AFEX-CS remained unhydrolyzed as nitrogen availability limited the growth of the CBP partner. Nitrogen supplementation stimulated the growth of C. uda, AFEX-CS hydrolysis and ethanologenesis. As a result, the synergistic activities of the CBP and exoelectrogen catalysts resulted in substantial energy recoveries from ethanologenesis alone (ca. 56%). The cogeneration of cathodic H(2) in the MEC further increased the energy recoveries to ca. 73%. This and the potential to optimize the activities of the microbial catalysts via culturing approaches and genetic engineering or adaptive evolution, make this platform attractive for the processing of agricultural wastes.

  11. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of AFEX™-pretreated corn stover for ethanol production using Clostridium phytofermentans at a high solids loading.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2012-08-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Clostridium phytofermentans (ATCC 700394) on ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-treated corn stover (AFEX™-CS) at a low solids loading showed promising results [Jin et al. (2011) Biotechnol Bioeng 108(6): 1290-1297]. However, industrial relevant process requires high solids loading. Therefore, we studied high solids loading CBP performance on AFEX™-CS. The factors potentially affecting the performance including solids loading, CBP products acetate and ethanol, and degradation products resulting from pretreatment were investigated. At 4% (w/w) glucan loading, C. phytofermentans performed well on AFEX™-CS with no nutrients supplementation and reached similar sugar conversions as a fermentation with nutrients supplementation. A glucan conversion of 48.9% and a xylan conversion of 77.9% were achieved after 264 h with 7.0 g/L ethanol and 8.8 g/L acetate produced. Relatively high concentrations of acetate produced at high solids loading was found to be the major factor limiting the CBP performance. Degradation products in AFEX™-CS helped enhance ethanol production.

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation for improving the xylose utilization of steam exploded corn stover at high solid loading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of steam exploded corn stover (SECS) was investigated at 5-25% solid loadings compared with other conversion processes. SECS was washed with a 15-fold excess of deionized water to remove inhibitors of hydrolysis and fermentation. The concentration, yield, and productivity of ethanol was 34.3g/L, 90.0%, 2.61g/L/h in the co-fermentation of 60g/L glucose and 10g/L xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IPE003. Ethanol concentration and productivity increased with increasing solid loading while ethanol yield decreased in all conversion processes of SECS. Glucan and xylan conversion was 82.0% and 82.1% in SSCF at 20% solid loading, respectively, while the concentration, yield and productivity of ethanol was 60.8g/L, 75.3% and 0.63g/L/h. The feeding strategy of SECS addition within 24h improved the SSCF performance. Therefore, SSCF increased ethanol productivity and was an effective conversion process for ethanol production at high solid loading.

  13. Enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of pretreated corn stover at high-solids concentrations in a horizontal rotating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Du, Jian; Zhang, Fazhan; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hongman; Liang, Jingrui; Zheng, Hongbo; Huang, He

    2014-02-01

    A self-designed horizontal rotating bioreactor (HRR) was applied for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover to improve the process economics of ethanol production. The mixing principle was based on gravity and free fall employed with tank-rotating. The liquefaction performances using the HRR and the vertical stirred-tank reactor (VSTR) with a helical impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties of the slurry. During the enzymatic hydrolysis, viscosity decreased dramatically in the initial phase for both bioreactors and more pronouncedly for the HRR. Rheological parameters fitted to the power law showed that shear thinning properties of the slurry weakened during the reaction. The glucose concentration was used to define the efficiency of the saccharification reaction. The HRR also proved to be more efficient for glucose release with both the constant and fed-batch substrate addition modes. Liquefaction and saccharification at 25% w/w dry matter (DM) and enzyme loading of 7 FPU/g DM resulted in the optimal glucose concentration of 86 g/kg. Results revealed a decrease in cellulose conversion at increasing initial DM, which was slighter in the HRR compared with that in the VSTR.

  14. Identification of oleaginous yeast strains able to accumulate high intracellular lipids when cultivated in alkaline pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Jin, Mingjie; Fernandez, J. Enrique; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial oil is a potential alternative to food/plant-derived biodiesel fuel. Our previous screening studies identified a wide range of oleaginous yeast species, using a defined laboratory medium known to stimulate lipid accumulation. In this study, the ability of these yeasts to grow and accumulate lipids was further investigated in synthetic hydrolysate (SynH) and authentic ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). Most yeast strains tested were able to accumulate lipids in SynH, but only a few were able to grow and accumulate lipids in ACSH medium. Cryptococcus humicola UCDFST 10-1004 was able to accumulate as high as 15.5 g/L lipids, out of a total of 36 g/L cellular biomass when grown in ACSH, with a cellular lipid content of 40% of cell dry weight. This lipid production is among the highest reported values for oleaginous yeasts grown in authentic hydrolysate. Pre-culturing in SynH media with xylose as sole carbon source enabled yeasts to assimilate both glucose and xylose more efficiently in the subsequent hydrolysate medium. This study demonstrates that ACSH is a suitable medium for certain oleaginous yeasts to convert lignocellullosic sugars to triacylglycerols for production of biodiesel and other valuable oleochemicals. PMID:25052467

  15. Impact of co-pretreatment of calcium hydroxide and steam explosion on anaerobic digestion efficiency with corn stover.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jinli; Zhang, Jiyu; Yang, Liutianyi; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2016-09-29

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to utilize the abundant resource of corn stover (CS). In this light, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment alone, steam explosion (SE) pretreatment alone, and co-pretreatment of Ca(OH)2 and SE were applied to improve the digestion efficiency of CS. Results showed that AD of co-pretreated CS with 1.0% Ca(OH)2 and SE at 1.5 MPa achieved the highest cumulative methane yield of [Formula: see text], which was 61.54% significantly higher (p < .01) than untreated CS. The biodegradability value of CS after co-pretreatment enhanced from 43.03% to 69.52%. Methane yield could be well fitted by the first-order model and the modified Gompertz model. In addition, composition and structural changes of CS after pretreatment were analyzed by a fiber analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The validated results indicated that co-pretreatment of Ca(OH)2 and SE was efficient to improve the digestion performance of CS and might be a suitable method for agricultural waste pretreatment in the future AD industry.

  16. Comparative techno-economic analysis of steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological pretreatments of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Baral, Nawa Raj; Shah, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Pretreatment is required to destroy recalcitrant structure of lignocelluloses and then transform into fermentable sugars. This study assessed techno-economics of steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological pretreatments, and identified bottlenecks and operational targets for process improvement. Techno-economic models of these pretreatment processes for a cellulosic biorefinery of 113.5 million liters butanol per year excluding fermentation and wastewater treatment sections were developed using a modelling software-SuperPro Designer. Experimental data of the selected pretreatment processes based on corn stover were gathered from recent publications, and used for this analysis. Estimated sugar production costs ($/kg) via steam explosion, dilute sulfuric acid, ammonia fiber explosion and biological methods were 0.43, 0.42, 0.65 and 1.41, respectively. The results suggest steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatment methods might be good alternatives at present state of technology and other pretreatment methods require research and development efforts to be competitive with these pretreatment methods.

  17. Enhancing methane production of corn stover through a novel way: sequent pretreatment of potassium hydroxide and steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Ruihong; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; He, Yanfeng; Wang, Wen; Li, Yeqing; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-04-01

    Getting over recalcitrance of lignocellulose is effective way to fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. In current work, different pretreatments were applied to enhance the digestibility of corn stover (CS). Results showed that steam explosion (SE)-treated CS produced maximal methane yield (223.2 mL/gvs) at 1.2 MPa for 10 min, which was 55.2% more than untreated (143.8 mL/gvs). Whereas 1.5% KOH-treated CS produced maximum methane yield of 208.6 mL/gvs, and significantly (α<0.05) improved 45.1% with respect to untreated. Sequent pretreatment of potassium hydroxide and steam explosion (SPPE) (1.5% KOH-1.2 MPa, 10 min) achieved a very significant (α<0.01) improvement (80.0%) of methane yield (258.8 mL/gvs) compared with untreated CS. Methane production could be well explained by the first-order and modified Gompertz models. Besides, SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses validated structural changes of CS after SPPE. SPPE might be a promising method to pretreat CS in the future AD industry.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

    PubMed

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Chenyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and CSTR were investigated. The batch co-digestion tests were performed at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of 3gVS/L, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 20, and retention time of 30d. The methane yield was determined to be 281±12mL/gVSadded. Continuous reactor was carried out with feeding concentration of 12% total solids and C/N ratio of 20 at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1-4gVS/L/d. Results showed that at OLR of 4gVS/L/d, stable and preferable methane yield of 223±7mL/gVSadded was found, which was equal to energy yield (EY) of 8.0±0.3MJ/kgVSadded. Post-digestion of digestate gave extra EY of 1.5-2.6MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis of digestate provided additional EY of 6.1MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis can be a promising technique to reduce biogas residues and to produce valuable gas products simultaneously.

  19. Impact of pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid under moderate temperature on hydrolysis of corn stover with two enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Keshwani, Deepak

    2014-03-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with dilute sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was investigated, and glucan digestibility by Cellic CTec2 and Celluclast on the pretreated biomass was compared. Pretreatments were carried out from 60 to 180 min at the temperature from 105 to 135 °C, with acid concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2% (w/v). Significant portion of xylan was removed during pretreatment, and the glucan digestibility by CTec2 was significantly better than that by Celluclast in all cases. Analysis showed that glucan digestibility by both two enzymes correlated directly with the extent of xylan removal in pretreatment. Confidence interval was built to give a more precise range of glucan conversion and to test the significant difference among pretreatment conditions. Response surface model was built to obtain the optimal pretreatment condition to achieve high glucan conversion after enzymatic hydrolysis. Considering the cost and energy savings, the optimal pretreatment condition of 1.75% acid for 160 min at 135 °C was determined, and glucan conversion can achieve the range from 72.86 to 76.69% at 95% confidence level after enzymatic hydrolysis, making total glucan recovery up to the range from 89.42 to 93.25%.

  20. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Wang, Zhongjiang; Stiverson, Jill A; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2013-05-01

    Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics were investigated during solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of corn stover at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Thermophilic SS-AD led to faster and greater reductions of cellulose and hemicelluloses during the first 12 days compared to mesophilic SS-AD. However, accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was 5-fold higher at thermophilic than mesophilic temperatures, resulting in a large pH drop during days 6-12 in the thermophilic reactors. Culture-based enumeration revealed 10-50 times greater populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microbes during thermophilic SS-AD than mesophilic SS-AD. DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes showed dynamic shifts, especially during the thermophilic SS-AD, of bacterial and archaeal communities over the 38 days of SS-AD as a result of acclimation of the initial seed microbial consortia to the lignocellulosic feedstock. The findings of this study can guide future studies to improve efficiency and stability of SS-AD.

  1. Recalcitrance and structural analysis by water-only flowthrough pretreatment of 13C enriched corn stover stem

    DOE PAGES

    Foston, Marcus B.; Trajanob, Heather L.; Samuel, Reichel; ...

    2015-08-28

    Here, this study presents high temperature water-only continuous flowthrough pretreatment coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a promising analytical tool to examine the plant cell wall, to understand its recalcitrance (i.e., cell wall resistance to deconstruction), and to probe the chemistry occurring during batch pretreatment of biomass. 13C-enriched corn stover stems were pretreated at 170 °C for 60 min with a hot-water flow rate of 20 mL/min to control fractionation of the cell wall. This approach helped elucidate the nature of plant cell wall chemical recalcitrance and biomass pretreatment chemistry by tracking cell wall fragmentation as a function ofmore » time. Fractions of the reactor effluent were collected in a time-resolved fashion and characterized by various NMR techniques to determine the degree and sequence of fragments released, as well as, the chemical composition, molecular structure, and relative molecular weight of those released fragments.« less

  2. Drought effects on composition and yield for corn stover, mixed grasses, and Miscanthus as bioenergy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Rachel; Hoover, Amber; Ray, Allison; Lacey, Jeffrey; Cortez, Marnie; Payne, Courtney; Karlen, Douglas; Birrell, Stuart; Laird, David; Kallenbach, Robert; Egenolf, Josh; Sousek, Matthew; Voigt, Thomas

    2014-07-04

    Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for M. × giganteus and mixed grasses. When reduction in quality and quantity were combined, TEYs decreased 26–59%. Drought negatively affected biomass quality and quantity that resulted in significant TEY reductions. As a result, such fluctuations in biomass quality and yield may have significant consequences for developing lignocellulosic biorefineries.

  3. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Ding, Yun; Xue, Yu-Feng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Qing, Qing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Cheng; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an effective method by the sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction (FT-AE) was chosen for pretreating corn stover. Before dilute NaOH (0.75 wt%) extraction at 90 °C for 1h, Fenton reagent (0.95 g/L of FeSO4 and 29.8 g/L of H2O2) was employed to pretreat CS at a solid/liquid ratio of 1/20 (w/w) at 35 °C for 30 min. The changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated solid residue were correlated with the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 72 h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 60 g/L FT-AE-CS pretreated could be obtained at 40.96 and 23.61 g/L, respectively. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose had no inhibitory effects on the ethanol fermenting microorganism. In conclusion, the sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction has high potential application in future.

  4. Complex Physiology and Compound Stress Responses during Fermentation of Alkali-Pretreated Corn Stover Hydrolysate by an Escherichia coli Ethanologen

    PubMed Central

    Schwalbach, Michael S.; Tremaine, Mary; Marner, Wesley D.; Zhang, Yaoping; Bothfeld, William; Higbee, Alan; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Cotten, Cameron; Reed, Jennifer L.; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jin, Mingjie; Balan, Venkatesh; Ellinger, James; Dale, Bruce; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of ethanologenic Escherichia coli grown anaerobically in alkali-pretreated plant hydrolysates is complex and not well studied. To gain insight into how E. coli responds to such hydrolysates, we studied an E. coli K-12 ethanologen fermenting a hydrolysate prepared from corn stover pretreated by ammonia fiber expansion. Despite the high sugar content (∼6% glucose, 3% xylose) and relatively low toxicity of this hydrolysate, E. coli ceased growth long before glucose was depleted. Nevertheless, the cells remained metabolically active and continued conversion of glucose to ethanol until all glucose was consumed. Gene expression profiling revealed complex and changing patterns of metabolic physiology and cellular stress responses during an exponential growth phase, a transition phase, and the glycolytically active stationary phase. During the exponential and transition phases, high cell maintenance and stress response costs were mitigated, in part, by free amino acids available in the hydrolysate. However, after the majority of amino acids were depleted, the cells entered stationary phase, and ATP derived from glucose fermentation was consumed entirely by the demands of cell maintenance in the hydrolysate. Comparative gene expression profiling and metabolic modeling of the ethanologen suggested that the high energetic cost of mitigating osmotic, lignotoxin, and ethanol stress collectively limits growth, sugar utilization rates, and ethanol yields in alkali-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:22389370

  5. Genetic engineering and improvement of a Zymomonas mobilis for arabinose utilization and its performance on pretreated corn stover hydrolyzate

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Yat -Chen; Linger, Jeffrey; Yang, Shihui; ...

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, a glucose, xylose and arabinose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis strain was constructed by incorporating arabinose catabolic pathway genes, araBAD encoding L-ribulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase and L-ribulose-5-phosphate- 4-epimerase in a glucose, xylose co-fermenting host, 8b, using a transposition integration approach. Further improvement on this arabinose-capable integrant, 33C was achieved by applying a second transposition to create a genomic knockout (KO) mutant library. Using arabinose as a sole carbon source and a selection pressure, the KO library was subjected to a growth-enrichment process involving continuous sub-culturing for over 120 generations. Strain 13-1-17, isolated from such process demonstrated significant improvement in metabolizingmore » arabinose in a dilute acid pretreated, saccharified corn stover slurry. Through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis, integration sites of the transposons were identified. Furthermore, multiple additional point mutations (SNPs: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were discovered in 13-1-17, affecting genes araB and RpiB in the genome. Finally, we speculate that these mutations may have impacted the expression of the enzymes coded by these genes, ribulokinase and Ribose 5-P-isomerase, thus attributing to the improvement of the arabinose utilization.« less

  6. Serial completely stirred tank reactors for improving biogas production and substance degradation during anaerobic digestion of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, YuQian; Liu, ChunMei; Wachemo, Akiber Chufo; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Li, XiuJin

    2017-03-11

    Several completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) connected in series for anaerobic digestion of corn stover were investigated in laboratory scale. Serial anaerobic digestion systems operated at a total HRT of 40days, and distribution of HRT are 10+30days (HRT10+30d), 20+20days (HRT20+20d), and 30+10days (HRT30+10d) were compared to a conventional one-step CSTR at the same HRT of 40d. The results showed that in HRT10+30d serial system, the process became very unstable at organic load of 50gTS·L(-1). The HRT20+20d and HRT30+10d serial systems improved methane production by 8.3-14.6% compared to the one-step system in all loads of 50, 70, 90gTS·L(-1). The conversion rates of total solid, cellulose, and hemicellulose were increased in serial anaerobic digestion systems compared to single system. The serial systems showed more stable process performance in high organic load. HRT30+10d system showed the best biogas production and conversions among all systems.

  7. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill

    PubMed Central

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C.; Hoover, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m3 and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%. PMID:27340875

  9. Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill.

    PubMed

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Conner, Craig C; Hoover, Amber N

    2016-06-15

    A major challenge in the production of pellets is the high cost associated with drying biomass from 30 to 10% (w.b.) moisture content. At Idaho National Laboratory, a high-moisture pelleting process was developed to reduce the drying cost. In this process the biomass pellets are produced at higher feedstock moisture contents than conventional methods, and the high moisture pellets produced are further dried in energy efficient dryers. This process helps to reduce the feedstock moisture content by about 5-10% during pelleting, which is mainly due to frictional heat developed in the die. The objective of this research was to explore how binder addition influences the pellet quality and energy consumption of the high-moisture pelleting process in a flat die pellet mill. In the present study, raw corn stover was pelleted at moistures of 33, 36, and 39% (w.b.) by addition of 0, 2, and 4% pure corn starch. The partially dried pellets produced were further dried in a laboratory oven at 70 °C for 3-4 hr to lower the pellet moisture to less than 9% (w.b.). The high moisture and dried pellets were evaluated for their physical properties, such as bulk density and durability. The results indicated that increasing the binder percentage to 4% improved pellet durability and reduced the specific energy consumption by 20-40% compared to pellets with no binder. At higher binder addition (4%), the reduction in feedstock moisture during pelleting was <4%, whereas the reduction was about 7-8% without the binder. With 4% binder and 33% (w.b.) feedstock moisture content, the bulk density and durability values observed of the dried pellets were >510 kg/m(3) and >98%, respectively, and the percent fine particles generated was reduced to <3%.

  10. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P; Womac, A.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Miu, P.I.; Smith, D.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic

  11. Effect of corn stover compositional variability on minimum ethanol selling price (MESP).

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Templeton, David W; Humbird, David; Aden, Andy

    2013-07-01

    A techno-economic sensitivity analysis was performed using a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2011 biochemical conversion design model varying feedstock compositions. A total of 496 feedstock near infrared (NIR) compositions from 47 locations in eight US Corn Belt states were used as the inputs to calculate minimum ethanol selling price (MESP), ethanol yield (gallons per dry ton biomass feedstock), ethanol annual production, as well as total installed project cost for each composition. From this study, the calculated MESP is $2.20 ± 0.21 (average ± 3 SD) per gallon ethanol.

  12. Improving a recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain 8b through continuous adaptation on dilute acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Linger, Jeffrey G.; Yang, Shihui; Smith, Holly; Dowe, Nancy; Zhang, Min; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2015-03-31

    Complete conversion of the major sugars of biomass including both the C5 and C6 sugars is critical for biofuel production processes. Several inhibitory compounds like acetate, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and furfural are produced from the biomass pretreatment process leading to ‘hydrolysate toxicity,’ a major problem for microorganisms to achieve complete sugar utilization. Therefore, development of more robust microorganisms to utilize the sugars released from biomass under toxic environment is critical. In this study, we use continuous culture methodologies to evolve and adapt the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis to improve its ethanol productivity using corn stover hydrolysate. The results are the following: A turbidostat was used to adapt the Z. mobilis strain 8b in the pretreated corn stover liquor. The adaptation was initiated using pure sugar (glucose and xylose) followed by feeding neutralized liquor at different dilution rates. Once the turbidostat reached 60% liquor content, the cells began washing out and the adaptation was stopped. Several ‘sub-strains’ were isolated, and one of them, SS3 (sub-strain 3), had 59% higher xylose utilization than the parent strain 8b when evaluated on 55% neutralized PCS (pretreated corn stover) liquor. Using saccharified PCS slurry generated by enzymatic hydrolysis from 25% solids loading, SS3 generated an ethanol yield of 75.5% compared to 64% for parent strain 8b. Furthermore, the total xylose utilization was 57.7% for SS3 versus 27.4% for strain 8b. To determine the underlying genotypes in these new sub-strains, we conducted genomic resequencing and identified numerous single-nucleotide mutations (SNPs) that had arisen in SS3. We further performed quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on genes potentially affected by these SNPs and identified significant down-regulation of two genes, ZMO0153 and ZMO0776, in SS3 suggesting potential genetic mechanisms behind SS3

  13. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  14. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  15. Phenotypic selection of a wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of AFEX™ pretreated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process involves enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation of glucose and xylose in one bioreactor. The optimal temperatures for enzymatic hydrolysis are higher than the standard fermentation temperature of ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, degradation products resulting from biomass pretreatment impair fermentation of sugars, especially xylose, and can synergize with high temperature stress. One approach to resolve both concerns is to utilize a strain background with innate tolerance to both elevated temperatures and degradation products. Results In this study, we screened a panel of 108 wild and domesticated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from a wide range of environmental niches. One wild strain was selected based on its growth tolerance to simultaneous elevated temperature and AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion) degradation products. After engineering the strain with two copies of the Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase genes, we compared the ability of this engineered strain to the benchmark 424A(LNH-ST) strain in ethanol production and xylose fermentation in standard lab medium and AFEX pretreated corn stover (ACS) hydrolysates, as well as in SSCF of ACS at different temperatures. In SSCF of 9% (w/w) glucan loading ACS at 35°C, the engineered strain showed higher cell viabilities and produced a similar amount of ethanol (51.3 g/L) compared to the benchmark 424A(LNH-ST) strain. Conclusion These results validate our approach in the selection of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with thermo-tolerance and degradation products tolerance properties for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The wild and domesticated yeast strains phenotyped in this work are publically available for others to use as genetic backgrounds for fermentation of their pretreated biomass at elevated temperatures. PMID

  16. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  17. Production of a lignocellulolytic enzyme system for simultaneous bio-delignification and saccharification of corn stover employing co-culture of fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at improving the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, an efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme system was developed and investigated by co-cultivation of the Coprinus comatus with Trichoderma reesei in a single bioreactor. The results showed that the lignocellulolytic enzyme activities of the co-culture exceeded that of the monoculture, suggesting synergistic interaction between two fungi. The highest laccase activity from the co-culture was 2.6-fold increase over that of the C. comatus monoculture and reached a peak 3days earlier. The maximum delignification obtained was 66.5% and about 82% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars by simultaneous bio-delignification and saccharification process. Correlation analysis showed that sugar yields were directly proportional to the lignin degradation. Our results suggested that co-fungi cultivation was a valuable technique for corn stover bioconversion, which could produce high efficiency of lignocellulolytic enzyme system as a cheaper alternative to commercial enzymes for industrial utilization.

  18. Two-step size reduction and post-washing of steam exploded corn stover improving simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover biomass for ethanol production was performed by integrating steam explosion (SE) pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Higher SE pretreatment severity and two-step size reduction increased the specific surface area, swollen volume and water holding capacity of steam exploded corn stover (SECS) and hence facilitated the efficiency of hydrolysis and fermentation. The ethanol production and yield in SSF increased with the decrease of particle size and post-washing of SECS prior to fermentation to remove the inhibitors. Under the SE conditions of 1.5MPa and 9min using 2.0cm particle size, glucan recovery and conversion to glucose by enzymes were 86.2% and 87.2%, respectively. The ethanol concentration and yield were 45.0g/L and 85.6%, respectively. With this two-step size reduction and post-washing strategy, the water utilization efficiency, sugar recovery and conversion, and ethanol concentration and yield by the SSF process were improved.

  19. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading.

  20. Use of real time PCR to determine population profiles of individual species of lactic acid bacteria in alfalfa silage and stored corn stover.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, David M; Muck, Richard E; Shinners, Kevin J; Weimer, Paul J

    2006-07-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify seven species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in alfalfa silage prepared in the presence or absence of four commercial inoculants and in uninoculated corn stover harvested and stored under a variety of field conditions. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on recA gene sequences. Commercial inoculants improved the quality of alfalfa silage, but species corresponding to those in the inoculants displayed variations in persistence over the next 96 h. Lactobacillus brevis was the most abundant LAB (12 to 32% of total sample DNA) in all of the alfalfa silages by 96 h. Modest populations (up to 10%) of Lactobacillus plantarum were also observed in inoculated silages. Pediococcus pentosaceus populations increased over time but did not exceed 2% of the total. Small populations (0.1 to 1%) of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactococcus lactis were observed in all silages, while Lactobacillus pentosus and Enterococcus faecium were near or below detection limits. Corn stover generally displayed higher populations of L. plantarum and L. brevis and lower populations of other LAB species. The data illustrate the utility of RT-PCR for quantifying individual species of LAB in conserved forages prepared under a wide variety of conditions.

  1. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O'Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  2. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of dry diluted acid pretreated corn stover at high dry matter loading: Overcoming the inhibitors by non-tolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie; Huang, Yao-Dong; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Dry dilute acid pretreatment (DDAP) is a promising method for lignocellulose bioconversion, although inhibitors generated during the pretreatment impede the fermentation severely. We developed the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF) of DDAP pretreated biomass at high solid loading using xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SyBE005. Effect of temperature on SScF showed that ethanol yield at 34°C was 10.2% higher than that at 38°C. Ethanol concentration reached 29.5 g/L at 15% (w/w) dry matter loading, while SScF almost ceased at the beginning at 25% (w/w) dry matter loading of DDAP pretreated corn stover. According to the effect of the diluted hydrolysate on the fermentation of strain SyBE005, a fed-batch mode was developed for the SScF of DDAP pretreated corn stover with 25% dry matter loading without detoxification, and 40.0 g/L ethanol was achieved. In addition, high yeast inoculation improved xylose utilization and the final ethanol concentration reached 47.2 g/L.

  3. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of arundo, sawdust, corn stover and switch grass biomass by thermogravimetric analysis using a multi-stage model.

    PubMed

    Biney, Paul O; Gyamerah, Michael; Shen, Jiacheng; Menezes, Bruna

    2015-03-01

    A new multi-stage kinetic model has been developed for TGA pyrolysis of arundo, corn stover, sawdust and switch grass that accounts for the initial biomass weight (W0). The biomass were decomposed in a nitrogen atmosphere from 23°C to 900°C in a TGA at a single 20°C/min ramp rate in contrast with the isoconversion technique. The decomposition was divided into multiple stages based on the absolute local minimum values of conversion derivative, (dx/dT), obtained from DTG curves. This resulted in three decomposition stages for arundo, corn stover and sawdust and four stages for switch grass. A linearized multi-stage model was applied to the TGA data for each stage to determine the pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order. The activation energies ranged from 54.7 to 60.9 kJ/mol, 62.9 to 108.7 kJ/mol, and 18.4 to 257.9 kJ/mol for the first, second and the third decomposition stages respectively.

  4. Effect of additives on adsorption and desorption behavior of xylanase on acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfei; Ge, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zongping; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-06-01

    The competitive adsorption between cellulases and additives on lignin in the hydrolysis of lignocelluloses has been confirmed, whereas the effect of additives on the interaction between xylanase and lignin is not clear. In this work, the effects of additives, poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, Tween 20, and Tween 80, on the xylanase adsorption/desorption onto/from acid-insoluble lignin from corn stover (CS-lignin) and wheat straw (WS-lignin) were investigated. The results indicated that the additives could adsorb onto isolated lignin and reduce the xylanase adsorption onto lignin. Compared to CS-lignin, more additives could adsorb onto WS-lignin, making less xylanase adsorbed onto WS-lignin. In addition, the additives could enhance desorption of xylanase from lignin, which might be due to the competitive adsorption between xylanase and additives on lignin. The released xylanase from lignin still exhibited hydrolytic capacity in the hydrolysis of isolated xylan and xylan in corn stover.

  5. Cause analysis of the effects of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover prehydrolyzate on ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lingling; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Li, Xin; Yu, Shiyuan

    2014-11-01

    The prehydrolyzate obtained from acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) mainly contains xylose and a number of inhibitory compounds that inhibit ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. In this study, the effects of the ASC prehydrolyzate, specifically those of the carbohydrate-degradation products, lignin-degradation products (which were extracted from ASC prehydrolyzate using ethyl acetate), and six major phenolic compounds (added to pure-sugar media individually or in combination), on ethanol fermentation were investigated. Results indicate that the effects of the carbohydrate-degradation products were negligible (10 h delayed) compared with those of pure-sugar fermentation, whereas the effects of the lignin-degradation products were significant (52 h delayed). Meanwhile, the inhibitory effects of the major phenolic compounds were not caused by certain types of inhibitors, but were due to the synergistic effects of various inhibitors.

  6. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using a two-stage dilute acid followed by wet-milling pretreatment process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiyu; Li, Wenzhi; Ma, Qiaozhi; An, Shengxin; Li, Minghao; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-07-01

    A two-stage process was evaluated to increase sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to recover the xylose, and then the residue was subjected to a wet-milling pretreatment. Dilute hydrochloric acid showed a high xylose recovery during the first stage. The optimal condition was 120°C and 40min for 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by wet-milling pretreatment for 15min. The xylose and glucose yield were 81.0% and 64.0%, respectively, with a cellulase dosage at 3FPU/g of substrate. This two-stage process was effective on account of the removal of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the delamination of cell wall in the second stage, increasing the possibility of adsorption of cellulose to enzymes, and resulting in a high sugar recovery with a very low enzyme loading.

  7. Assessing the potential for increased capacity of combined heat and power facilities based on available corn stover and forest logging residue in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Selvarani

    The amount of available biomass feedstock and associated cost components were analyzed to determine the potential increase in energy capacity of two existing combined heat and power plants in Mississippi. The amount of corn stover and forest logging residue within a 10-mile radius can satisfy the existing requirements of CHP plants in Scott (1 MW) and Washington counties (5 MW). Transporting feedstock within a smaller source area had lower transportation costs, but higher total unit cost than the two other source buffer scenarios. However, capital costs associated with higher plant capacities were significantly higher and plant expansion may not be economically advantageous. Increasing the CHP capacity from 1 MW to 2 MW in Scott county and 5 MW to 10 MW in Washington county might be a sustainable approach by drawing feedstock from a smaller area and at lower utilization rates, while keeping transportation costs low.

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of AFEX(TM) pretreated corn stover for ethanol production using commercial enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST).

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Lau, Ming W; Dale, Bruce E

    2012-04-01

    Xylose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST) during simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of AFEX(TM) pretreated switchgrass was inhibited by unhydrolyzed solids. Such inhibitory effects were not found in unhydrolyzed solids from AFEX(TM) pretreated corn stover (AFEX(TM)-CS). However, the xylose consumption was still unsatisfactory during 6h pre-hydrolysis SSCF. By extending the pre-hydrolysis time to 24h or longer, the xylose consumption was improved significantly. In order to better understand the reasons for such improvement, the hydrolysate slurries after 6h pre-hydrolysis and 24h pre-hydrolysis were studied and compared. We found that the glucose concentration after pre-hydrolysis was the critical factor that determined cell viability and hence xylose consumption during SSCF. Low temperature (30°C) and ethanol inhibition were shown to be the factors limiting hydrolysis rate and hence productivity during SSCF.

  9. Effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover using combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Feng; Xue, Shulin; Yu, Shengshuan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bing; Kang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    The effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover were investigated based on a new process named combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment. Results showed that with microwave power and microwave irradiation time increasing, glucose and xylose that released into hydrolyzate, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yields and sugar yields of glucose and xylose were all slightly increased after SE-MI pretreatment. The maximum sugar yield was 72.1 g per 100 g glucose and xylose in feedstock, achieved at 540 W microwave power and 5 min microwave irradiation time. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of biomass was 15.6-19.9% lower for SE-MI pretreatment with microwave effect than that without microwave effect. However, low microwave power and short microwave irradiation time were favorable for SE-MI pretreatment considering energy consumption.

  10. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of aqueous ammonia pretreated corn stover with an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae SyBE005.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Qin, Lei; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose from lignocelluloses is an efficient approach to increasing ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia was performed using engineered yeast with xylose utilization pathway. Thus far, the effect of the several key factors on SSCF was investigated, including temperature, inoculation size, pre-hydrolysis and pH. Ethanol concentration was achieved to 36.5 g/L during SSCF process with 6% glucan loading. The addition of Tween 20 reduced enzyme loading, i.e., from 15 to 7.5 FPU/gglucan with the same final ethanol concentration. The ethanol concentration was achieved to 70.1g/L at 12% glucan loading. Yeast feeding, combined with substrate and enzyme feeding, was proved to be an efficient approach for SSCF with high solid loading.

  12. Single cell oil production by Mortierella isabellina from steam exploded corn stover degraded by three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in the context of on-site enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hao; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shaolin

    2016-09-01

    Single cell oil (SCO), promising as alternative oil source, was produced from steam exploded corn stover (SECS) by Mortierella isabellina. Different bioprocesses from SECS to SCO were compared and the bioprocess C using the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be the most efficient one. The bioprocess C used the lowest enzyme input 20FPIU cellulase/g glucan and the shortest time 222h, but produced 44.94g dry cell biomass and 25.77g lipid from 327.63g dry SECS. It had the highest lipid content 57.34%, and its productivities and yields were much higher than those of the bioprocess B and comparable to the bioprocess A, indicating that the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis could greatly improve the efficiency of the bioprocess from high solid loading SECS to SCO by Mortierella isabellina. This work testified the application value of three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in lignocellulose-based bioprocesses.

  13. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis.

  14. Enhanced alkaline cellulases production by the thermohalophilic Aspergillus terreus AUMC 10138 mutated by physical and chemical mutagens using corn stover as substrate

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, George Saad; Abu-Tahon, Medhat Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A thermohalophilic fungus, Aspergillus terreus AUMC 10138, isolated from the Wadi El-Natrun soda lakes in northern Egypt was exposed successively to gamma and UV-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (EMS; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. The effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial pH, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of NaCl on production of alkaline filter paper activity (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and β-glucosidase by the wild-type and mutant strains of A. terreus were evaluated under SSF. The optimum conditions for maximum production of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase were found to be the corn stover: moisture ratio of 1:3(w/v), temperature 45 °C, pH range, 9.0–11.0, and fermentation for 4, 4 and 7 day, respectively. Inoculum levels of 30% for β-glucosidase and 40% for FPase, CMCase gave the higher cellulase production by the wild-type and mutant strains, respectively. Higher production of all three enzymes was obtained at a 5% NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the mutant strain A. terreus M-17 produced FPase (729 U/g), CMCase (1,783 U/g), and β-glucosidase (342 U/g), which is, 1.85, 1.97 and 2.31-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Our results confirmed that mutant strain M-17 could be a promising alkaline cellulase enzyme producer employing lignocellulosics especially corn stover. PMID:26691490

  15. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 1: chemical and physical substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels to provide substitutes for fossil fuels. Pretreatments, conducted to reduce biomass recalcitrance, usually remove at least some of the hemicellulose and/or lignin in cell walls. The hypothesis that led to this research was that reactor type could have a profound effect on the properties of pretreated materials and impact subsequent cellulose hydrolysis. Results Corn stover was dilute-acid pretreated using commercially relevant reactor types (ZipperClave® (ZC), Steam Gun (SG) and Horizontal Screw (HS)) under the same nominal conditions. Samples produced in the SG and HS achieved much higher cellulose digestibilities (88% and 95%, respectively), compared to the ZC sample (68%). Characterization, by chemical, physical, spectroscopic and electron microscopy methods, was used to gain an understanding of the effects causing the digestibility differences. Chemical differences were small; however, particle size differences appeared significant. Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectra indicated larger inter-fibrillar spacing or randomization of cellulose microfibrils in the HS sample. Simons’ staining indicated increased cellulose accessibility for the SG and HS samples. Electron microscopy showed that the SG and HS samples were more porous and fibrillated because of mechanical grinding and explosive depressurization occurring with these two reactors. These structural changes most likely permitted increased cellulose accessibility to enzymes, enhancing saccharification. Conclusions Dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using three different reactors under the same nominal conditions gave samples with very different digestibilities, although chemical differences in the pretreated substrates were small. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the samples indicate that the explosive depressurization and mechanical grinding with these reactors increased

  16. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    DOE PAGES

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; ...

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics duringmore » the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial

  17. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; Li, Sheena; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Bates, Donna M.; Cavalier, Dave; Eilert, Dustin; Oates, Lawrence G.; Sanford, Gregg; Sato, Trey K.; Dale, Bruce; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Zhang, Yaoping

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics during the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial performance in

  18. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers.

  19. Effects of twenty percent alkaline-treated corn stover without or with yucca extract on performance and nutrient mass balance of finishing steers fed modified distillers grains-based diets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J M; Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Burken, D B; Erickson, G E; Rincker, M J; Cecava, M J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 192 steers each (during the winter [November to May] or summer [June to October]) to evaluate 3 diets with or without Yucca schidigera extract in a 3 × 2 factorial on steer growth performance and N mass balance. One factor was diet (DM basis): 1) 5% untreated corn stover, 51% corn, and 40% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; CON); 2) 20% calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaO added at 5% of stover DM), 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (TRT); or 3) 20% untreated corn stover, 40% MDGS, and 36% corn (NONTRT). The other factor was dietary extract at 0 (NOYE) or 1.0 g/d per steer (YE). No interaction between diet and YE was detected (P > 0.51) for growth performance and carcass traits in winter and only for DMI in summer. Final BW, ADG, DMI, or G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.28) between cattle fed CON and TRT, whereas cattle fed NONTRT had lesser ADG, HCW, and G:F compared to CON and TRT in the winter experiment. During the summer, final BW and ADG tended to be greater (P ≥ 0.07) for CON compared to TRT. Cattle fed TRT had reduced (P < 0.01) G:F compared to CON. No difference was observed (P ≥ 0.36) between YE and NOYE in the winter experiment for performance or carcass traits. In the summer, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.02) HCW, ADG, and DMI compared to NOYE. In the summer experiment, cattle fed YE had greater (P < 0.01) N intake, N excretion, and amount of N lost (kg/steer) compared to NOYE, but no difference (P = 0.33) was observed for percentage of N volatilized (% of excretion). Diet had no effect (P > 0.18) on amount (kg/steer) or percentage of N volatized in the winter or summer. All diets had similar amounts (P > 0.13) of DM and OM removed from the pen surface in both summer and winter. Feeding CaO-treated corn stover as a partial grain replacement had no impact on performance in winter but decreased G:F in summer. Although high-fiber diets increased the amount of OM on pen surfaces, they did not impact N

  20. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    SciTech Connect

    Elander, Rick

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  1. Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (LMAA) in a Pilot-Scale Reactor and Bioconversion to Fuel Ethanol and Industrial Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Senske, Gerard E; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50, 66, and 70 % moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70 % moisture CS was treated at 90 and 100 °C whereas the others were treated at 90 °C only. The 70 % moisture pretreated CS then was subjected to a storage study under non-sterile conditions for 3 months. It was found that storage time did not have significant effects on the compositions of the pretreated materials and their hydrolysis by commercial enzymes. The 70 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was used for preparation of a mix sugar hydrolysate (MSH) using combination of cellulase and xylanase. The MSH was used to prepare a corn mash at 9.5 wt% solid then subjected to ethanol fermentation by Escherichia coli KO11. The 66 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was hydrolyzed with xylanase to make a xylose-rich hydrolysate (XRH), which was subsequently used for butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The resultant cellulose-enriched residue was hydrolyzed with cellulase to make a glucose-rich hydrolysate (GRH), which was subsequently used for succinic acid fermentation by E. coli AFP184.

  2. Continuous SSCF of AFEX™ pretreated corn stover for enhanced ethanol productivity using commercial enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST).

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Gunawan, Christa; Balan, Venkatesh; Yu, Xiurong; Dale, Bruce E

    2013-05-01

    High productivity processes are critical for commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. One high productivity process-continuous hydrolysis and fermentation-has been applied in corn ethanol industry. However, little research related to this process has been conducted on cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we report and compare the kinetics of both batch SHF (separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation) and SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation) of AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion) pretreated corn stover (AFEX™-CS). Subsequently, we designed a SSCF process to evaluate continuous hydrolysis and fermentation performance on AFEX™-CS in a series of continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Based on similar sugar to ethanol conversions (around 80% glucose-to-ethanol conversion and 47% xylose-to-ethanol conversion), the overall process ethanol productivity for continuous SSCF was 2.3- and 1.8-fold higher than batch SHF and SSCF, respectively. Slow xylose fermentation and high concentrations of xylose oligomers were the major factors limiting further enhancement of productivity.

  3. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 for ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysate of non-detoxified steam-exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Gao, Kai; Tian, Shen; Zhang, Sijin; Yang, Xiushan

    2011-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 was used to produce ethanol from enzymatic hydrolysate of non-detoxified steam-exploded corn stover, with and without a nitrogen source, and decreasing inoculum size. The results indicated that the ethanol concentration of 44.55 g/L, corresponding to 94.5% of the theoretical yield was obtained after 24 h, with an inoculum size of 10% (v/v) and nitrogen source (corn steep liquor, CSL) of 40 mL/L. With the same inoculum size, and without CSL, the ethanol concentration was 43.21 g/L, corresponding to 91.7% of the theoretical value after 60 h. With a decreased inoculum size of 5% (v/v), and without CSL, the ethanol concentration was 40.00 g/L, corresponding to 85.8% of the theoretical value after 72 h. The strain offers the potential to improve the economy of cellulosic ethanol production by simplifying the production process and reducing the costs associated with the process such as water, capital equipment and nutrient supplementation.

  4. Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled-release and water-retention urea fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Tong, Zhaohui; Geng, Yuqing; Li, Yuncong; Zhang, Min

    2013-08-28

    In this paper, we synthesized a biobased polyurethane using liquefied corn stover, isocyanate, and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized polyurethane was used as a coating material to control nitrogen (N) release from polymer-coated urea. A novel superabsorbent composite was also formulated from chicken feather protein (CFP), acrylic acid, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide and used as an outer coating material for water retention. We studied the N release characteristics and water-retention capability of the double-layer polymer-coated urea (DPCU) applied in both water and soils. The ear yields, dry matter accumulation, total N use efficiency and N leaching from a sweet corn soil-plant system under two different irrigation regimes were also investigated. Comparison of DPCU treatments with conventional urea fertilizer revealed that DPCU treatments reduced the N release rate and improved water retention capability. Evaluation of soil and plant characteristics within the soil-plant system revealed that DPCU application effectively reduced N leaching loss, improved total N use efficiency, and increased soil water retention capability.

  5. Fermentative production of high titer gluconic and xylonic acids from corn stover feedstock by Gluconobacter oxydans and techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongsen; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-11-01

    High titer gluconic acid and xylonic acid were simultaneously fermented by Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, biodetoxification and high solids content hydrolysis. Maximum sodium gluconate and xylonate were produced at the titer of 132.46g/L and 38.86g/L with the overall yield of 97.12% from glucose and 90.02% from xylose, respectively. The drawbacks of filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger including weak inhibitor tolerance, large pellet formation and no xylose utilization were solved by using the bacterium strain G. oxydans. The obtained sodium gluconate/xylonate product was highly competitive as cement retarder additive to the commercial product from corn feedstock. The techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on the Aspen Plus modeling was performed and the minimum sodium gluconate/xylonate product selling price (MGSP) was calculated as $0.404/kg. This study provided a practical and economic competitive process of lignocellulose utilization for production of value-added biobased chemicals.

  6. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    costing for the lignin combustor and boiler turbogenerator was reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. (REI) and Merrick & Company reviewed the wastewater treatment. Since then, NREL has engaged Harris Group (Harris) to perform vendor testing, process design, and costing of critical equipment identified during earlier work. This included solid/liquid separation and pretreatment reactor design and costing. Corn stover handling was also investigated to support DOE's decision to focus on corn stover as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol. Working with Harris, process design and costing for these areas were improved through vendor designs, costing, and vendor testing in some cases. In addition to this work, enzyme costs were adjusted to reflect collaborative work between NREL and enzyme manufacturers (Genencor International and Novozymes Biotech) to provide a delivered enzyme for lignocellulosic feedstocks. This report is the culmination of our work and represents an updated process design and cost basis for the process using a corn stover feedstock. The process design and economic model are useful for predicting the cost benefits of proposed research. Proposed research results can be translated into modifications of the process design, and the economic impact can be assessed. This allows DOE, NREL, and other researchers to set priorities on future research with an understanding of potential reductions to the ethanol production cost. To be economically viable, ethanol production costs must be below market values for ethanol. DOE has chosen a target ethanol selling price of $1.07 per gallon as a goal for 2010. The conceptual design and costs presented here are based on a 2010 plant start-up date. The key research targets required to achieve this design and the $1.07 value are discussed in the report.

  7. Modulation of the Acetone/Butanol Ratio during Fermentation of Corn Stover-Derived Hydrolysate by Clostridium beijerinckii Strain NCIMB 8052.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Yong; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ze-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Li, Fu-Li

    2017-04-01

    Producing biobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass has shown promise to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases and alleviate the global energy crisis. However, because of the recalcitrance of a lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment of the substrate is needed which in many cases releases soluble lignin compounds (SLCs), which inhibit growth of butanol-producing clostridia. In this study, we found that SLCs changed the acetone/butanol ratio (A/B ratio) during butanol fermentation. The typical A/B molar ratio during Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 batch fermentation with glucose as the carbon source is about 0.5. In the present study, the A/B molar ratio during batch fermentation with a lignocellulosic hydrolysate as the carbon source was 0.95 at the end of fermentation. Structural and redox potential changes of the SLCs were characterized before and after fermentation by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electrochemical analyses, which indicated that some exogenous SLCs were involved in distributing electron flow to C. beijerinckii, leading to modulation of the redox balance. This was further demonstrated by the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and trxB gene expression profile assays at the onset of solventogenic growth. As a result, the A/B ratio of end products changed significantly during C. beijerinckii fermentation using corn stover-derived hydrolysate as the carbon source compared to glucose as the carbon source. These results revealed that SLCs not only inhibited cell growth but also modulated the A/B ratio during C. beijerinckii butanol fermentation.IMPORTANCE Bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to butanol involves pretreatment, during which hundreds of soluble lignin compounds (SLCs) form. Most of these SLCs inhibit growth of solvent-producing clostridia. However, the mechanism by which these compounds modulate electron flow in clostridia remains elusive. In this study, the results revealed that SLCs changed redox balance by producing oxidative stress

  8. Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphate Sorption to and Solute Leaching from Biochars Prepared from Corn Stover ( L.) and Oak Wood ( spp.).

    PubMed

    Hollister, C Colin; Bisogni, James J; Lehmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Biochar (BC) was evaluated for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from aqueous solution to quantify its nutrient pollution mitigation potential in agroecosystems. Sorption isotherms were prepared for solutions of ammonium (NH), nitrate (NO), and phosphate (PO-P) using BC of corn ( L.) and oak ( spp.) feedstock, each pyrolyzed at 350 and 550°C highest treatment temperature (HTT). Sorption experiments were performed on original BC as well as on BC that went through a water extraction pretreatment (denoted WX-BC). Ammonium sorption was observed for WX-Oak-BC and WX-Corn-BC, and Freundlich model linearization showed that a 200°C increase in HTT resulted in a 55% decrease in * values for WX-Oak-BC and a 69% decrease in * for WX-Corn-BC. Nitrate sorption was not observed for any BC. Removing metals by water extraction from WX-Oak-350 and WX-Oak-550 resulted in a 25 to 100% decrease in phosphate removal efficiency relative to original Oak-350 and Oak-550, respectively. No PO-P sorption was observed using any Corn-BC. Calcium (Ca) leached from BC produced at 550°C was 63 and 104% higher than from BC produced at 350°C for corn and oak, respectively. Leaching of P was two orders of magnitude lower in WX-Oak-BC than in WX-Corn-BC, concurrent with similar difference in magnesium (Mg). Nitrate and NH leaching from consecutive water extractions of all tested BCs was mostly below detection limits.

  9. Defined enzyme cocktail from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A effectively releases sugars from pretreated corn stover and switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jessica M.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.; Youssef, Noha H.

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain C1A is capable of growth on various types of lignocellulosic substrates, and harbors an impressive reservoir of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). Using a minimum enzyme cocktail strategy, we constituted a four-component lignocellulolytic cocktail derived from highly transcribed C1A, and evaluated its efficacy against pretreated corn stover and switchgrass. Hydrolysis yields ranged between 65–77.4%, depending on the lignocellulosic substrate and pretreatment applied. Addition of a highly expressed anaerobic fungal swollenin improved hydrolysis yields by up to 7%. Compared to the commercial cocktail CTec2, these anaerobic fungal cocktails provided comparable or slightly lower hydrolysis yields. Further, the differences in efficacy between commercial and anaerobic cocktails were often only realized after extended (168 hr) incubations. Under certain conditions, the hydrolysis yields of the anaerobic fungal cocktail was slightly superior to that realized by CTec2. We attribute the observed high hydrolysis yields to the high specific activity and affinity of the individual enzymes of the cocktail, as well as the high level of synergy and multi-functionality observed in multiple components. Collectively, this effort provides a novel platform for constructing highly effective enzymes for biofuel production and represents the first lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail created from anaerobic fungal enzymes. PMID:27381262

  10. Engineering and Two-Stage Evolution of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain for Anaerobic Fermentation of Xylose from AFEX Pretreated Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Parreiras, Lucas S.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J.; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Bonfert, Brandi L.; Pinhancos, Rebeca C.; Balloon, Allison J.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M.; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L.; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Hodge, David B.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Dale, Bruce E.; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H.; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P.; Sato, Trey K.

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH. PMID:25222864

  11. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  12. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields.

  13. Engineering and two-stage evolution of a lignocellulosic hydrolysate-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for anaerobic fermentation of xylose from AFEX pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Parreiras, Lucas S; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; Higbee, Alan J; La Reau, Alex; Tremaine, Mary; Qin, Li; Willis, Laura B; Bice, Benjamin D; Bonfert, Brandi L; Pinhancos, Rebeca C; Balloon, Allison J; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Liu, Tongjun; Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; Ong, Irene M; Li, Haibo; Pohlmann, Edward L; Serate, Jose; Withers, Sydnor T; Simmons, Blake A; Hodge, David B; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh; Keating, David H; Zhang, Yaoping; Landick, Robert; Gasch, Audrey P; Sato, Trey K

    2014-01-01

    The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.

  14. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  15. Engineering wild-type robust Pediococcus acidilactici strain for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xia; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jiaoe; Tu, Yi; Gao, Qiuqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-10

    Pediococcus acidilactici TY112 producing L-lactic acid and P. acidilactici ZP26 producing D-lactic acid, were engineered from the wild-type P. acidilactici DQ2 by ldhD or ldh gene disruption, and the robustness of the wild-type strain to the inhibitors derived from lignocellulose pretreatment was maintained well. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), 77.66 g L(-1) of L-lactic acid and 76.76 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid were obtained at 25% (w/w) solids content of dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover feedstock. L- and D-Lactic acid yield and productivity were highly dependent on the inhibitor removal extent due to the significant down-regulation on the expressions of ldh and ldhD encoding lactate dehydrogenase by inhibitor, especially syringaldehyde and vanillin at the low concentrations. This study provided a prototype of industrial process for high titer L- and D-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock.

  16. Enzyme recycling in a simultaneous and separate saccharification and fermentation of corn stover: a comparison between the effect of polymeric micelles of surfactants and polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Eckard, Anahita Dehkhoda; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gibbons, William

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of enzyme recycling in simultaneous (SSF) and separate (SHF) saccharification and fermentation of corn stover was evaluated with the use of novel enzyme stabilizers of casein, Tween20 and polymeric micelles (PMs) of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-casein and PEG-Tween20. Amphiphiles were added to maximize the percentage of enzyme remaining in fermented liquor that could be recycled twice back into the process. With no additive, in SHF the ethanol yield was declined by 64.0% and 80.0% after the first and second recycling, respectively. Application of PMs of PEG-casein in one cycle of SHF significantly improved the theoretical ethanol yield from 0.49 ± 0.00 to 0.91 ± 0.00 g/g compared to when only casein (0.66 ± 0.00 g/g), Tween 20 (0.53 ± 0.00 g/g) and Tween 20-PEG (0.77 ± 0.08 g/g) were used. PMs of PEG-Tween and PEG-casein also improved enzyme recycling, such that the ethanol yield was improved by 50% and 108% beyond that obtained with Tween and casein, respectively.

  17. Genetic engineering and improvement of a Zymomonas mobilis for arabinose utilization and its performance on pretreated corn stover hydrolyzate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Yat -Chen; Linger, Jeffrey; Yang, Shihui; Zhang, Min

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, a glucose, xylose and arabinose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis strain was constructed by incorporating arabinose catabolic pathway genes, araBAD encoding L-ribulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase and L-ribulose-5-phosphate- 4-epimerase in a glucose, xylose co-fermenting host, 8b, using a transposition integration approach. Further improvement on this arabinose-capable integrant, 33C was achieved by applying a second transposition to create a genomic knockout (KO) mutant library. Using arabinose as a sole carbon source and a selection pressure, the KO library was subjected to a growth-enrichment process involving continuous sub-culturing for over 120 generations. Strain 13-1-17, isolated from such process demonstrated significant improvement in metabolizing arabinose in a dilute acid pretreated, saccharified corn stover slurry. Through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis, integration sites of the transposons were identified. Furthermore, multiple additional point mutations (SNPs: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were discovered in 13-1-17, affecting genes araB and RpiB in the genome. Finally, we speculate that these mutations may have impacted the expression of the enzymes coded by these genes, ribulokinase and Ribose 5-P-isomerase, thus attributing to the improvement of the arabinose utilization.

  18. Phytotoxicity assessment on corn stover biochar, derived from fast pyrolysis, based on seed germination, early growth, and potential plant cell damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Shen, Fei; Guo, Haiyan; Wang, Zhanghong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Yanzong; Zeng, Yongmei; Deng, Shihuai

    2015-06-01

    The potential phytotoxicity of water extractable toxicants in a typical corn stover biochar, the product of fast pyrolysis, was investigated using an aqueous biochar extract on a soil-less bioassay with tomato plants. The biochar dosage of 0.0-16.0 g beaker(-1) resulted in an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between biochar doasage and seed germination/seedling growth. This indicated that tomato growth was slightly stimulated by low dosages of biochar and inhibited with higher dosages of biochar. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme activities in the roots and leaves were enhanced at lower dosages, but rapidly decreased with higher dosages of biochar. With the increased dosages of biochar, the malondialdehyde content in the roots and leaves increased, in addition with the observed morphology of necrotic root cells, suggesting that serious damage to tomato seedlings occurred. EC50 of root length inhibition occurred with biochar dosages of 9.2 g beaker(-1) (3.5th day) and 16.7 g beaker(-1) (11th day) (equivalent to 82.8 and 150.3 t ha(-1), respectively), which implied that toxicity to the early growth of tomato can potentially be alleviated as the plant grows.

  19. Stover removal and cover crops effects on corn production and water use under full and limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal in irrigated cropping systems for livestock forage or cellulosic ethanol is of great interest in south-central Nebraska. Irrigation water restrictions in the region have also resulted in adoption of limited-irrigation strategies. Little is known regarding the inter...

  20. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  1. Anaerobic and sequential aerobic production of high-titer ethanol and single cell protein from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by a genome shuffling-modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueliang; Wang, Juncong; Yu, Hui; Peng, Chunlan; Hu, Jinlong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant strain 14 was constructed through genome shuffling method by transferring the whole genomic DNA of Candida intermedia strain 23 into a thermo-tolerant S. cerevisiae strain. The recombinant strain 14 combined the good natures of both parent strains that efficiently produced ethanol from glucose and single cell protein from xylose with 54.6% crude protein and all essential amino acids except cysteine at 35°C. Importantly, the recombinant strain 14 produced 64.07g/L ethanol from 25%(w/v) NaOH-pretreated and washed corn stover with the ethanol yield of 0.26g/g total stover by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and produced 66.50g/L dry cell mass subsequently from the residual hydrolysate and ethanol. Therefore, this study represents a feasible method to comprehensively utilize hexose and pentose in lignocellulosic materials.

  2. Effect of mechanical disruption on the effectiveness of three reactors used for dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover Part 2: morphological and structural substrate analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, naturally mass-produced form of stored solar energy. Thermochemical pretreatment processes have been developed to address the challenge of biomass recalcitrance, however the optimization, cost reduction, and scalability of these processes remain as obstacles to the adoption of biofuel production processes at the industrial scale. In this study, we demonstrate that the type of reactor in which pretreatment is carried out can profoundly alter the micro- and nanostructure of the pretreated materials and dramatically affect the subsequent efficiency, and thus cost, of enzymatic conversion of cellulose. Results Multi-scale microscopy and quantitative image analysis was used to investigate the impact of different biomass pretreatment reactor configurations on plant cell wall structure. We identify correlations between enzymatic digestibility and geometric descriptors derived from the image data. Corn stover feedstock was pretreated under the same nominal conditions for dilute acid pretreatment (2.0 wt% H2SO4, 160°C, 5 min) using three representative types of reactors: ZipperClave® (ZC), steam gun (SG), and horizontal screw (HS) reactors. After 96 h of enzymatic digestion, biomass treated in the SG and HS reactors achieved much higher cellulose conversions, 88% and 95%, respectively, compared to the conversion obtained using the ZC reactor (68%). Imaging at the micro- and nanoscales revealed that the superior performance of the SG and HS reactors could be explained by reduced particle size, cellular dislocation, increased surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation generated within the biomass particles during pretreatment. Conclusions Increased cellular dislocation, surface roughness, delamination, and nanofibrillation revealed by direct observation of the micro- and nanoscale change in accessibility explains the superior performance of reactors that augment pretreatment with physical energy. PMID:24690534

  3. Difference analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis performance of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover before and after washing with water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Shi, Linli; Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-10-01

    The difference in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) before and after washing with water reached approximately 15 % under the same conditions. The reasons for the difference in the yield between ASC and washed ASC (wASC) were determined through the analysis of the composition of ASC prehydrolyzate and sugar concentration of enzymatic hydrolyzate. Salts produced by neutralization (CaSO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, and (NH4)2SO4), sugars (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides), sugar-degradation products (weak acids and furans), and lignin-degradation products (ethyl acetate extracts and nine main lignin-degradation products) were back-added to wASC. Results showed that these products, except furans, exerted negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the characteristics of acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment, the five sugar-degradation products' mixture and salts [Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4] showed minimal negative inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. By contrast, furans demonstrated a promotion effect. Moreover, soluble sugars, such as 13 g/L xylose (decreased by 6.38 %), 5 g/L cellobiose (5.36 %), 10 g/L glucose (3.67 %), as well as lignin-degradation products, and ethyl acetate extracts (4.87 %), exhibited evident inhibition effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, removal of soluble sugars and lignin-degradation products could effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis performance.

  4. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian; Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang; Li Yebo

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  5. DMR (deacetylation and mechanical refining) processing of corn stover achieves high monomeric sugar concentrations (230 g L-1) during enzymatic hydrolysis and high ethanol concentrations (>10% v/v) during fermentation without hydrolysate purification or concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Kuhn, Erik; Jennings, Edward W.; Nelson, Robert; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Min; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2016-04-01

    Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, increasing biofuel titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuel production for several decades. In this work, we achieved approximately 230 g L-1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations achieved by the DMR process allowed fermentation to ethanol with titers as high as 86 g L-1, which translates into approximately 10.9% v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps have been reported. As a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported using TEA analysis.

  6. DMR (deacetylation and mechanical refining) processing of corn stover achieves high monomeric sugar concentrations (230 g L-1) during enzymatic hydrolysis and high ethanol concentrations (>10% v/v) during fermentation without hydrolysate purification or concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Xiaowen; Kuhn, Erik; Jennings, Edward W.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Distilling and purifying ethanol and other products from second generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating costs to biofuel production. The energy usage associated with distillation negatively affects plant gate costs and causes environmental and life-cycle impacts, and the lower titers in fermentation caused by lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis increase energy and water usage and ethanol production costs. In addition, lower ethanol titers increase the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels increase capital expenditure (CAPEX). Therefore, increasing biofuel titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuel production for several decades. In thismore » work, we achieved approximately 230 g L-1 of monomeric sugars after high solid enzymatic hydrolysis using deacetylation and mechanical refining (DMR) processed corn stover substrates produced at the 100 kg per day scale. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations achieved by the DMR process allowed fermentation to ethanol with titers as high as 86 g L-1, which translates into approximately 10.9% v/v ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that titers greater than 10% v/v ethanol in fermentations derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps have been reported. As a result, the potential cost savings from high sugar and ethanol titers achieved by the DMR process are also reported using TEA analysis.« less

  7. Twelve years of stover removal increases soil erosion potential without impacting yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover (non-grain aboveground biomass) in the U.S. Corn Belt is used increasingly for livestock grazing and co-feed and also is the primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production. Continuous stover removal, however, could alter long-term agricultural productivity by affect...

  8. Cost Effective Bioethanol via Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover, Saccharification, and Conversion via a Novel Fermentation Organism: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-12-485

    SciTech Connect

    Dowe, N.

    2014-05-01

    This research program will convert acid pretreated corn stover to sugars at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and then transfer these sugars to Honda R&D and its partner the Green Earth Institute (GEI) for conversion to ethanol via a novel fermentation organism. In phase one, NREL will adapt its pretreatment and saccharification process to the unique attributes of this organism, and Honda R&D/GEI will increase the sugar conversion rate as well as the yield and titer of the resulting ethanol. In later phases, NREL, Honda R&D, and GEI will work together at NREL to optimize and scale-up to pilot-scale the Honda R&D/GEI bioethanol production process. The final stage will be to undertake a pilot-scale test at NREL of the optimized bioethanol conversion process.

  9. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants as influenced by corn residue management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership corn stover project, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) field studies incorporating stover removal management practices (0 and 100% removal) were established in both Alabama and South Carolina. Plots in both states were representative of major soil types in t...

  10. Assessing the soil carbon, biomass production, and nitrous oxide emission impact of corn stover management for bioenergy feedstock production using DAYCENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed such that agroecosystem health and productivity are protected. DAYCENT, a process-based modeling tool, may be suited to accommodate region-specific factors and provide regional predictions for a broad array of agroecosystem impacts associated with corn sto...

  11. Stover harvest – Safe and sustainable with good resource management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative data are needed to guide corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest for bioenergy production. A 120 acre field study on the Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil Association near Emmetsburg, IA was established in 2008 to evaluate seven stover management treatments. Each treatment is imposed on three rep...

  12. Stover removal effects on seasonal soil water availability under full and deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removing corn (Zea mays L.) stover for livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock may impact water availability in the soil profile to support crop growth. The role of stover in affecting soil profile water availability will depend on annual rainfall inputs as well as irrigation level. To assess how res...

  13. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants across the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying lignin and carbohydrate composition of corn (Zea mays L.) is important to support the emerging cellulosic biofuels industry. Therefore, field studies with 0 or 100% stover removal were established in Alabama and South Carolina as part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership Corn Stover Pro...

  14. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  15. Stimulation of Cellulases by Small Phenolic Compounds in Pretreated Stover.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junying; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-03-27

    The effect of small phenolic compounds in pretreated stover on celluase activity is crucial but has not yet been fully elucidated. This work investigated the effects of both phenolic acid and phenolic aldehyde on cellulase activity. The model substances of small phenolic compounds identified in steam exploded corn stover were used to examine their individual effects on cellulase activity. It was found that phenolic aldehyde significantly inhibited cellulase activity at 0.05-8 g/L. However, phenolic acids might have a concentration-dependent effect on cellulase activity: significant inhibition at 0.05 g/L and slight stimulation at 2-4 g/L. Small phenolic compounds mixture might also have a concentration-dependent effect on cellulase activity: significant stimulation at 2-8 g/L and slight inhibition at 0.05-1 g/L. The small phenolic compounds in pretreated stover were proven to be able to significantly stimulate enzymatic hydrolysis of stover. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the concentration-dependent effects of small phenolic compounds on cellulase activity should be considered while removing them after pretreatment.

  16. 65. DETAIL OF STOVER WINDMILL REGULATOR (MADE BY STOVER MFG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF STOVER WINDMILL REGULATOR (MADE BY STOVER MFG. CO., FREEPORT, ILL.) MOUNTED ON STEEL WINDMILL TOWER WITH ELI WINDMILL ON THE GROUND AT STOLL RESIDENCE ABOUT 1-1/2 MILES WEST OF NEBRASKA CITY ON STEAM WAGON ROAD. WINDMILL REGULATORS AUTOMATICALLY TURNED OFF WATER PUMPING WINDMILLS WHEN WATER RESERVOIRS FILLED. INSCRIPTION ON CASTING READS '6-8-9-10 FT. MILLS,' THE SIZES FOR WHICH THIS REGULATOR WAS MADE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  17. Environmental Tradeoffs of Stover Removal and Erosion in Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia English; Wallace E. Tyner; Juan Sesmero; Phillip Owens; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    When considering the market for biomass from corn stover resources erosion and soil quality issues are important to consider. Removal of stover can be beneficial in some areas, especially when coordinated with other conservation practices, such as vegetative barrier strips and cover crops. However, benefits are highly dependent on several factors, namely if farmers see costs and benefits associated with erosion and the tradeoffs with the removal of biomass. Although typically considered an internal cost, the implication is important to policy and contracting for biomass. This paper uses results from an integrated RUSLE2/WEPS model to incorporate six different regime choices, covering management, harvest and conservation, into a simple profit maximization model to show these tradeoffs explicitly. The results of this work show how different costs for erosion, biomass and conservation managements will affect behavior. If erosion prices are low and no conservation requirement exists, biomass removal will significantly increase erosion, but only in some areas. Alternatively, when erosion prices are high, farmers will parallel socially optimal levels of erosion and conservation management practices can be incentivized through access to a market for stover.

  18. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  19. Implications of Using Corn Stalks as a Biofuel Source: A Joint ARS and DOE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, W. W.; Cushman, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover is a readily source of biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and may provide additional income for growers. Published research shows that residue removal changes the rate of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and in turn, crop growth. Building a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry based on corn residue requires residue management practices that do not reduce long-term productivity. To develop such systems, impacts of stover removal on the soil and subsequent crops must be quantified. The ARS/DOE Biofuel Project is the cooperative endeavor among scientists from six western Corn Belt US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) locations and US Dept. of Energy. The objectives of the project are to determine the influence of stover removal on crop productivity, soil aggregation, quality, carbon content, and seasonal energy balance, and carbon sequestration. When residue is removed soil temperatures fluctuate more and soil water evaporation is greater. Residue removal reduces the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC), but the degree of reduction is highly dependent on degree of tillage, quantity of stover removed, and frequency of stover removal. Of the three cultural factors (stover removal, tillage, and N fertilization) tillage had the greatest effect on amount of corn-derived SOC. No tillage tends to increase the fraction of aggregates in the 2.00 to 0.25 mm size range at all removal rates. Stover harvest reduces corn-derived SOC by 35% compared to retaining stover on the soil averaged over all tillage systems. Corn stover yield has not differed across stover removal treatments in these studies. In the irrigated study, grain yield increased with stover removal. In the rain-fed studies, grain yield has not differed among residue management treatments. Incorporating the biomass ethanol fermentation by-product into a soil with low SOC showed a positive relationship between the amount of lignin added and the subsequent

  20. Cadmium concentration and distribution in corn (Zea mays L.) grown on a calcareous soil for three years after three annual sludge applications.

    PubMed

    Webber, L R; Beauchamp, E G

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of digested sewage sludge on crop-producing land appeals to municipalities as an option but may pose a hazard to human and animal health if the plant material contains elevated levels of some heavy metals. This paper reports the levels of cadmium in corn grain and stover for six years -- three years with sludge applied annually and for three years after sludge applications were terminated. The cadmium concentration in corn grain from the sixth year was similar to values found in corn grown on non-sludged plots. In corn stover from treated plots the cadmium concentration was greater than from untreated plots. Our study indicated that phytotoxic levels of cadmium did not exist even though elevated levels occurred in the corn stover.

  1. Sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for Midwest agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support emerging U.S. cellulosic bioenergy industries, 239 site-years of data from field studies at 36 sites in seven states were recently summarized in BioEnergy Research by the ARS Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) team [formerly the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) tea...

  2. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  3. Tillage and residue management effects on soil carbon and nitrogen under irrigated continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for corn (Zea mays L.) stover as forage or as a cellulosic biofuel has increased the importance of determining the effects of residue removal on biomass production and the soil resource. Objectives were to evaluate grain yield, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total soil N (0 to 150 cm) in a t...

  4. Nutritive value of corn silage as affected by maturity and mechanical processing: a contemporary review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L; Harrison, J H; Hunt, C; Shinners, K; Doggett, C G; Sapienza, D

    1999-12-01

    Stage of maturity at harvest and mechanical processing affect the nutritive value of corn silage. The change in nutritive value of corn silage as maturity advances can be measured by animal digestion and macro in situ degradation studies among other methods. Predictive equations using climatic data, vitreousness of corn grain in corn silage, starch reactivity, gelatinization enthalpy, dry matter (DM) of corn grain in corn silage, and DM of corn silage can be used to estimate starch digestibility of corn silage. Whole plant corn silage can be mechanically processed either pre- or postensiling with a kernel processor mounted on a forage harvester, a recutter screen on a forage harvester, or a stationary roller mill. Mechanical processing of corn silage can improve ensiling characteristics, reduce DM losses during ensiling, and improve starch and fiber digestion as a result of fracturing the corn kernels and crushing and shearing the stover and cobs. Improvements in milk production have ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 kg/d when cows were fed mechanically processed corn silage. A consistent improvement in milk protein yield has also been observed when mechanically processed corn silage has been fed. With the advent of mechanical processors, alternative strategies are evident for corn silage management, such as a longer harvest window.

  5. Quantifying Livestock Feed Value of AFEX-Treated DDGS and Subsequent Biorefinery Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With annual U.S. production of fuel ethanol at nearly 9 billion gallons, coupled with the Renewable Fuels Standard, supplies of coproducts such distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are anticipated to continue to grow for the next several years. DDGS is used as livestock feed. But as suppli...

  6. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  7. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....

  9. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....

  10. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....

  11. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....

  12. 40 CFR 180.1254 - Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover....

  13. Corn stover for bioenergy: effect of N fertilization, winter cover crop and stover harvest on vertical biomass distribution and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel production from plant biomass seems to be a suitable solution to mitigate fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Cellulosic biomass seems to be a promising alternative renewable source of energy. The main components of plant material are cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, ash, p...

  14. Corn insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  15. Maize water use in living mulch systems with stover removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constraints to maize stover biomass harvest may be mitigated by using a living mulch (LM) to offset C exports and control soil erosion. Living mulches can compete with the main crop for resources, particularly water. The objectives of this research were to quantify soil water dynamics and maize wate...

  16. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  17. Subsurface Drainage Nitrate and Total Reactive Phosphorus Losses in Bioenergy-Based Prairies and Corn Systems.

    PubMed

    Daigh, Aaron L M; Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Pederson, Carl H; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Liebman, Matt

    2015-09-01

    We compare subsurface-drainage NO-N and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations and yields of select bioenergy cropping systems and their rotational phases. Cropping systems evaluated were grain-harvested corn-soybean rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and annually harvested reconstructed prairies with and without the addition of N fertilizer in an Iowa field. Drainage was monitored when soils were unfrozen during 2010 through 2013. The corn-soybean rotations without residue removal and continuous corn with residue removal produced similar mean annual flow-weighted NO-N concentrations, ranging from 6 to 18.5 mg N L during the 4-yr study. In contrast, continuous corn with residue removal and with a cover crop had significantly lower NO-N concentrations of 5.6 mg N L when mean annual flow-weighted values were averaged across the 4 yr. Prairies systems with or without N fertilization produced significantly lower concentrations below <1 mg NO-N L than all the row crop systems throughout the study. Mean annual flow-weighted TRP concentrations and annual yields were generally low, with values <0.04 mg TRP L and <0.14 kg TRP ha, and were not significantly affected by any cropping systems or their rotational phases. Bioenergy-based prairies with or without N fertilization and continuous corn with stover removal and a cover crop have the potential to supply bioenergy feedstocks while minimizing NO-N losses to drainage waters. However, subsurface drainage TRP concentrations and yields in bioenergy systems will need further evaluation in areas prone to higher levels of P losses.

  18. Soil greenhouse gas emissions in response to corn stover removal and tillage management across the US corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-field measurements of direct soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provide critical data for quantifying the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of crop residue-based bioenergy production systems. A major challenge to such assessments has been the paucity of field studies addressing the ...

  19. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  20. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  1. Optimizing ethanol and methane production from steam-pretreated, phosphoric acid-impregnated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Dupuy, Aurélie; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment is of vital importance in the production of ethanol and methane from agricultural residues. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment with phosphoric acid on enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and the total energy output at three different temperatures were investigated. The effect of separating the solids for SSF and the liquid for AD was also studied and compared with using the whole slurry first in SSF and then in AD. Furthermore, the phosphoric acid was compared to previous studies using sulphuric acid or no catalyst. Using phosphoric acid resulted in higher yields than when no catalyst was used. However, compared with sulphuric acid, an improved yield was only seen with phosphoric acid in the case of EH. The higher pretreatment temperatures (200 and 210 °C) resulted in the highest yields after EH and SSF, while the highest methane yield was obtained with the lower pretreatment temperature (190 °C). The highest yield in terms of total energy recovery (78 %) was obtained after pretreatment at 190 °C, but a pretreatment temperature of 200 °C is, however, the best alternative since fewer steps are required (whole slurry in SSF and then in AD) and high product yields were obtained (76 %).

  2. Organic amine catalytic organosolv pretreatment of corn stover for enzymatic saccharification and high-quality lignin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chenglun; Shan, Junqiang; Chen, Yanjun; Zhong, Lingxia; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Chenjie; Ying, Hanjie

    2017-02-13

    A novel and efficient organic amine and organosolv synergetic pretreatment method was developed to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to produce fermentable sugars and high-quality salt-free lignin. After optimization of the process parameters, a delignification of 81.7% and total sugar yield of 83.2% (87.1% glucose, 75.4% xylose) could be obtained using n-propylamine (10mmol/g, biomass) as a catalyst and aqueous ethanol (60%, v/v) as a solvent. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. The physical structure of extracted lignin showed higher β-aryl ether bonds content and functionalities, offering the potential for further downstream upgrading. The role of organic amine catalyst and a synergistic mechanism is proposed for the present system.

  3. Enhancement of xylose utilization from corn stover by a recombinant bacterium for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant ethanologenic Escherichia coli ferments glucose, xylose and arabinose to ethanol. However, the bacterium preferentially utilizes glucose first, then arabinose and finally xylose (sequential utilization of sugars) during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol making the p...

  4. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to biofuels and/or chemicals remains one of the main barriers to commercial success. Typically, harsh methods are used to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass prior to its breakdown to sugars by enzymes, which also result ...

  5. Monitoring Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass and Corn Stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of Biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrils, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing cotsts of downstream saccharification proces...

  6. Furfural and ethanol production from corn stover by dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant carbohydrate source in the world and has potential for economical production of biofuels, especially ethanol. However, its composition is an obstacle for the production of ethanol by the conventional ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as it...

  7. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  8. Periodic peristalsis releasing constrained water in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Periodic peristalsis was used to release water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Glucan and xylan conversion in periodic peristalsis enzymatic hydrolysis (PPEH) at 21% solid loading increased by 5.2-6.4% and 6.8-8.8% compared with that in incubator shaker enzymatic hydrolysis (ISEH), respectively. Hydrolysis kinetics suggested that sugars conversion significantly increased within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The peak height of main water pool increased by 7.7-43.1% within 24h in PPEH compared with ISEH. The increases in peak height of main water pool were consistent with the increases in glucan conversion. Submicroscopic particulates and macro granule residues contributed greatly to water constraint compared with glucose, xylose, ethanol, and Tween 80. Smaller particle size and longer residence time resulted in lower water constraint and facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis performance. Periodic peristalsis was an effective method to reduce water constraint and increase high solids enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency.

  9. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Andy

    2008-05-01

    Since 2001, NREL has kept track of technical research progress in the biochemical process through what are known as “State of Technology” (SOT) assessments. The purpose of this report is to update the FY 2005 SOT model with the latest research results from the past two years.

  10. Separation of lignin from corn stover hydrolysate with quantitative recovery of ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Underkofler, Kaylee A.; Teixeira, Rodrigo E.; Pietsch, Stephen A.; Knapp, Kurtis G.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2015-02-20

    Abundant lignocellulosic biomass could become a source of sugars and lignin, potential feedstocks for the now emergent biorenewable economy. The production and conversion of sugars from biomass have been well-studied, but far less is known about the production of lignin that is amenable to valorization. In this paper, we report the isolation of lignin generated from the hydrolysis of biomass dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. We show that lignin can be isolated from the hydrolysate slurry by simple filtration or centrifugation, and that the ionic liquid can be recovered quantitatively by a straightforward wash with water. Finally, the isolated lignin is not only free from ionic liquid but also lacks cellulosic residues and is substantially depolymerized, making it a promising feedstock for valorization by conversion into fuels and chemicals.

  11. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  12. A simplified method for monomeric carbohydrate analysis of corn stover biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constituent determination of biomass for theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) estimation requires the removal of non-structural carbohydrates prior to analysis to prevent interference with the analytical procedure. According to the accepted U.S. Dept. of Energy-National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  13. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  14. Synthesis Gas Production by Rapid Solar Thermal Gasification of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C. M.; Woodruff, B.; Andrews, L.; Lichty, P.; Lancaster, B.; Weimer, A. W.; Bingham, C.

    2008-03-01

    Biomass resources hold great promise as renewable fuel sources for the future, and there exists great interest in thermochemical methods of converting these resources into useful fuels. The novel approach taken by the authors uses concentrated solar energy to efficiently achieve temperatures where conversion and selectivity of gasification are high. Use of solar energy removes the need for a combustion fuel and upgrades the heating value of the biomass products. The syngas product of the gasification can be transformed into a variety of fuels useable with today?s infrastructure. Gasification in an aerosol reactor allows for rapid kinetics, allowing efficient utilization of the incident solar radiation and high solar efficiency.

  15. Separation of lignin from corn stover hydrolysate with quantitative recovery of ionic liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Underkofler, Kaylee A.; Teixeira, Rodrigo E.; Pietsch, Stephen A.; ...

    2015-02-20

    Abundant lignocellulosic biomass could become a source of sugars and lignin, potential feedstocks for the now emergent biorenewable economy. The production and conversion of sugars from biomass have been well-studied, but far less is known about the production of lignin that is amenable to valorization. In this paper, we report the isolation of lignin generated from the hydrolysis of biomass dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. We show that lignin can be isolated from the hydrolysate slurry by simple filtration or centrifugation, and that the ionic liquid can be recovered quantitatively by a straightforward wash with water. Finally, themore » isolated lignin is not only free from ionic liquid but also lacks cellulosic residues and is substantially depolymerized, making it a promising feedstock for valorization by conversion into fuels and chemicals.« less

  16. Inhibition effects of dilute-acid prehydrolysate of corn stover on enzymatic hydrolysis of Solka Floc.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Urvi D; Lee, Yoon Y

    2011-11-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment liquor (PL) produced at NREL through a continuous screw-driven reactor was analyzed for sugars and other potential inhibitory components. Their inhibitory effects on enzymatic hydrolysis of Solka Floc were investigated. When the PL was mixed into the enzymatic hydrolysis reactor at 1:1 volume ratio, the glucan and xylan digestibility decreased by 63% and 90%, respectively. The tolerance level of the enzyme for each inhibitor was determined. Of the identified degradation components, acetic acid was found to be the strongest inhibitor for cellulase activity, as it decreased the glucan yield by 10% at 1 g/L. Among the sugars, cellobiose and glucose were found to be strong inhibitors to glucan hydrolysis, whereas xylose is a strong inhibitor to xylan hydrolysis. Xylo-oligomers inhibit xylan digestibility more strongly than the glucan digestibility. Inhibition by the PL was higher than that of the simulated mixture of the identifiable components. This indicates that some of the unidentified degradation components, originated mostly from lignin, are potent inhibitors to the cellulase enzyme. When the PL was added to a simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation using Escherichia coli KO11, the bioprocess was severely inhibited showing no ethanol formation or cell growth.

  17. Xylose production from corn stover biomass by steam explosion combined with enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A novel conversion process using steam explosion combined with enzymatic digestibility was exploited to increase sugar yield. Results showed that glucan and xylan recovery decreased with the increase of holding temperature and residence time in SE, respectively, while glucan and xylan conversion exhibited an opposite trend. The optimal conditions of steam explosion were 160 °C and 48 min, under which glucan and xylan recovery was 93.4% and 71.6%, respectively. Glucan and xylan conversion at 18% solid loading by periodic peristalsis increased by 3.4-5.8% and 4.5-6.2%, respectively, compared with that by water baths shaker. In the whole process, glucose, xylose and total sugar yield reached to 77.3%, 62.8% and 72.3%, respectively. The yield of hydroxymethyl furfural, furfural and lignin-derived products was 6.3 × 10(-2), 7.5 × 10(-2) and less than 3.7 × 10(-2) g/100 g feedstock, respectively. This novel conversion process increased sugar recovery, reduced degradation products formation, improved digestibility efficiency, and hence increased sugar yield.

  18. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE PAGES

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; ...

    2015-12-18

    In this study, non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall.

  19. Separation of Lignin from Corn Stover Hydrolysate with Quantitative Recovery of Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Underkofler, Kaylee A.; Teixeira, Rodrigo E.; Pietsch, Stephen A.; Knapp, Kurtis G.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    Abundant lignocellulosic biomass could become a source of sugars and lignin, potential feedstocks for the now emergent bio-renewable economy. The production and conversion of sugars from biomass have been well-studied, but far less is known about the production of lignin that is amenable to valorization. Here we report the isolation of lignin generated from the hydrolysis of biomass dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. We show that lignin can be isolated from the hydrolysate slurry by simple filtration or centrifugation, and that the ionic liquid can be recovered quantitatively by a straightforward wash with water. The isolated lignin is not only free from ionic liquid, but also lacks cellulosic residues and is substantially depolymerized, making it a promising feedstock for valorization by conversion into fuels and chemicals. PMID:25866701

  20. Influence of corn residue harvest management on grain, stover, and energy yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic, environmental, and energy independence issues are contributing to rising fossil fuel prices, petroleum supply concerns, and a growing interest in biomass feedstocks as renewable energy sources. Potential feedstocks include perennial grasses, timber, and annual grain crops with our focus be...

  1. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  2. Carbon Corn: Development of a sustainable agroecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacha, K. M.; Papanicolaou, T.

    2009-12-01

    Corn is a valuable commodity to our society that not only provides a vital food source, but can increase the sustainability of our agroecosystem. This includes ethanol/biodiesel production through biomass collection of stover and residue, monitoring storage of carbon in the soil for commodity exchange, and decreasing the erosion-induced spread of pollutants by increasing organic matter content in the soil. In our study, the CENTURY5 model was used to simulate a wide range of crop rotations and tillage practices at the Clear Creek watershed located in South Amana, Iowa. In addition, sediment budget data were created from the Watershed Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model based on simulations ran for the same watershed. The numerical field experiments were conducted within the watershed in constructed corn plots that mimicked common farm practices. This included row spacing, seed planting depth, fertilizer applications of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, and tillage. Data recorded during the experimental time-line included canopy height, vegetation cover, temperature, residue and soil moisture content. Base measurements of organic material levels and the pH of the soil were also taken. Present work consists of conducting rainfall experiments at the plot-scale using the Norton Ladder Rainfall Simulator and analyzing how changes in the soil micro-topography and residue cover affect the re-distribution of the organic carbon in the soil. Micro-topography will be obtained by scanning the bed surface with a state-of-the-art laser system with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm. Erosion amounts and residue estimations will be verified with CENTURY5 and WEPP models. Results from this study will advance our knowledge in sustainable agroecosystems at the plot scale and allow us to scale up to watershed levels, providing estimations of carbon storage, biomass production, and erosion at a larger global stage.

  3. Evaluation of sewage sludge, septic waste and sludge compost applications to corn and forage: Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B content of crops and soils.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Termeer, W C

    2005-06-01

    This is the second of two papers presenting the data from an experiment on the application of aerobically-digested sewage sludge (AES), anaerobic lagoon septic wastes (ANS), sewage sludge compost and fertilizer to soils for grass forage and feed corn production at two different sites in Nova Scotia. Crop yields, plant tissue and Mehlich-1 extractable soil nutrients were evaluated; 15 elements were analyzed in the plant tissue and 9 elements in the soil extracts. This paper describes the Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B content of the crops and the Mehlich-1 extractable content of the soils. The response to the amendments was not consistent at the two sites with the two different crops. We found that the septic sludge (ANS) produced the highest forage Fe, Cu and Zn levels and was equal to compost in elevating corn stover and forage S and the forage B content. The compost produced the highest forage Ca and corn Zn, the AES produced the highest corn Mn, and fertilizer produced the highest forage Mn. None of the amendments produced excessive levels of the above nutrients; rather, the amendments improved the feed quality of the forage and corn stover. Lastly, it was noted that the Mehlich-1 extract only had a significantly positive correlation with forage Cu content.

  4. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  5. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  6. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  7. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  8. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn, sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cai, Hao; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2012-12-01

    Globally, bioethanol is the largest volume biofuel used in the transportation sector, with corn-based ethanol production occurring mostly in the US and sugarcane-based ethanol production occurring mostly in Brazil. Advances in technology and the resulting improved productivity in corn and sugarcane farming and ethanol conversion, together with biofuel policies, have contributed to the significant expansion of ethanol production in the past 20 years. These improvements have increased the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of using bioethanol as opposed to using petroleum gasoline. This article presents results from our most recently updated simulations of energy use and GHG emissions that result from using bioethanol made from several feedstocks. The results were generated with the GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model. In particular, based on a consistent and systematic model platform, we estimate life-cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions from using ethanol produced from five feedstocks: corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus. We quantitatively address the impacts of a few critical factors that affect life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol. Even when the highly debated land use change GHG emissions are included, changing from corn to sugarcane and then to cellulosic biomass helps to significantly increase the reductions in energy use and GHG emissions from using bioethanol. Relative to petroleum gasoline, ethanol from corn, sugarcane, corn stover, switchgrass and miscanthus can reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 19-48%, 40-62%, 90-103%, 77-97% and 101-115%, respectively. Similar trends have been found with regard to fossil energy benefits for the five bioethanol pathways.

  9. Process Design Report for Stover Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  15. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  16. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  17. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  18. Enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into fermentable sugars for biorefinery operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dahai

    2011-12-01

    Depleting petroleum reserves and potential climate change caused by fossil fuel consumption have attracted significant attention towards the use of alternative renewable resources for production of fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass provides a plentiful resource for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals and could serve as an important contributor to the world energy portfolio in the near future. Successful biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient and economical pretreatment method, high glucose/xylose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of both hexose and pentose to ethanol. High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. Core glycosyl hydrolases were isolated and purified from various sources to help rationally optimize an enzyme cocktail to digest ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) treated corn stover. The four core cellulases were endoglucanase I (EG I), cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II) and beta-Glucosidase (betaG). The two core hemicellulases were an endoxylanase (EX) and a beta-xylosidase (betaX). A diverse set of accessory hemicellulases from bacterial sources was found necessary to enhance the synergistic action of cellulases hydrolysing AFEX pretreated corn stover. High glucose (around 80%) and xylose (around 70%) yields were achieved with a moderate enzyme loading (˜20 mg protein/g glucan) using an in-house developed enzyme cocktail and this cocktail was compared to commercial enzyme. Studying the binding properties of cellulases to lignocellulosic substrates is critical to achieving a fundamental understanding of plant cell wall saccharification. Lignin auto-fluorescence and degradation products

  19. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    PubMed

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  20. Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1020 - Sodium chlorate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in accordance with good agricultural practice on the following crops: Bean, dry, seed Corn, field, forage Corn, field, grain Corn, field, stover Corn, pop, grain Corn, pop, stover Corn, sweet, forage...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1020 - Sodium chlorate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in accordance with good agricultural practice on the following crops: Bean, dry, seed Corn, field, forage Corn, field, grain Corn, field, stover Corn, pop, grain Corn, pop, stover Corn, sweet, forage...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1020 - Sodium chlorate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in accordance with good agricultural practice on the following crops: Bean, dry, seed Corn, field, forage Corn, field, grain Corn, field, stover Corn, pop, grain Corn, pop, stover Corn, sweet, forage...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1020 - Sodium chlorate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in accordance with good agricultural practice on the following crops: Bean, dry, seed Corn, field, forage Corn, field, grain Corn, field, stover Corn, pop, grain Corn, pop, stover Corn, sweet, forage...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1020 - Sodium chlorate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with good agricultural practice on the following crops: Bean, dry, seed Corn, field, forage Corn, field, grain Corn, field, stover Corn, pop, grain Corn, pop, stover Corn, sweet, forage...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  11. Cellulase production through solid-state tray fermentation, and its use for bioethanol from sorghum stover.

    PubMed

    Idris, Ayman Salih Omer; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2017-03-20

    The production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran and cellulose was optimized employing a two stage statistical design of experiments. Optimization of process parameters resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in CMCase production to 959.53IU/gDS. The process was evaluated at pilot scale in tray fermenters and yielded 457IU/gDS using the lab conditions and indicating possibility for further improvement. The cellulase could effectively hydrolyze alkali pretreated sorghum stover and addition of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase improved the hydrolytic efficiency 174%, indicating the potential to use this blend for effective saccharification of sorghum stover biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum stover was fermented to ethanol with ∼80% efficiency.

  12. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect

    Womac, A.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Narayan, S.

    2009-04-01

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover, when applied/used as an antifungal agent....

  15. 40 CFR 180.1219 - Foramsulfuron; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pesticide foramsulfuron is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in corn, field, grain/corn, field, forage/ corn, field, stover/corn, pop, grain/corn, pop, forage/corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed; corn, sweet, stover when applied as a herbicide...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance is established for residues of Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover,...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1219 - Foramsulfuron; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticide foramsulfuron is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in corn, field, grain/corn, field, forage/ corn, field, stover/corn, pop, grain/corn, pop, forage/corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed; corn, sweet, stover when applied as a herbicide...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1219 - Foramsulfuron; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticide foramsulfuron is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in corn, field, grain/corn, field, forage/ corn, field, stover/corn, pop, grain/corn, pop, forage/corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed; corn, sweet, stover when applied as a herbicide...

  20. 75 FR 6576 - Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... residues of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882 on corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, field, aspirated grain fractions; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, stover; corn, pop, grain; and corn, pop, stover. BILLING CODE 6560-50-S...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1219 - Foramsulfuron; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pesticide foramsulfuron is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in corn, field, grain/corn, field, forage/ corn, field, stover/corn, pop, grain/corn, pop, forage/corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed; corn, sweet, stover when applied as a herbicide...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1219 - Foramsulfuron; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticide foramsulfuron is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in corn, field, grain/corn, field, forage/ corn, field, stover/corn, pop, grain/corn, pop, forage/corn, pop, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed; corn, sweet, stover when applied as a herbicide...

  3. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  4. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  5. Mechanisms of antimony adsorption onto soybean stover-derived biochar in aqueous solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited mechanistic knowledge is available to understand how biochar interacts with trace elements that exist predominantly as oxoanions, such as antimony (Sb). Soybean stover biochars were produced at 300 degrees C (SBC300) and 700 degrees C (SBC700), and were characterized by BET, Boehm titration,...

  6. Comparison of TLUD and atmospherically-controlled retort methods of preparing biochar using corn stover and wheat straw feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a very versatile and useful material in many applications beyond carbon sequestration in soils. Rubber composite filler, sorptive media for toxic or other undesirable species in water, and peat moss replacement are just three examples of biochar applications we have studied at our laborat...

  7. Lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from corn stover using ß-glucosidase producing yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50464

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For cellulosic ethanol production, decomposition of cellulosic polymers and enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification are necessary for microbes to efficiently utilize the biomass harbored sugars. The need of additional enzymes and processing steps increase cost of biofuels. To reduce the cost of ce...

  8. An economic comparison of different fermentation configurations to convert corn stover to ethanol using Z. mobilis and Saccharomyces.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Abhijit; Dowe, Nancy; Ibsen, Kelly N; Schell, Daniel J; Aden, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Numerous routes are being explored to lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production and enable large-scale production. One critical area is the development of robust cofermentative organisms to convert the multiple, mixed sugars found in biomass feedstocks to ethanol at high yields and titers without the need for processing to remove inhibitors. Until such microorganisms are commercialized, the challenge is to design processes that exploit the current microorganisms' strengths. This study explored various process configurations tailored to take advantage of the specific capabilities of three microorganisms, Z. mobilis 8b, S. cerevisiae, and S. pastorianus. A technoeconomic study, based on bench-scale experimental data generated by integrated process testing, was completed to understand the resulting costs of the different process configurations. The configurations included whole slurry fermentation with a coculture, and separate cellulose simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and xylose fermentations with none, some or all of the water to the SSF replaced with the fermented liquor from the xylose fermentation. The difference between the highest and lowest ethanol cost for the different experimental process configurations studied was $0.27 per gallon ethanol. Separate fermentation of solid and liquor streams with recycle of fermented liquor to dilute the solids gave the lowest ethanol cost, primarily because this option achieved the highest concentrations of ethanol after fermentation. Further studies, using methods similar to ones employed here, can help understand and improve the performance and hence the economics of integrated processes involving enzymes and fermentative microorganisms.

  9. Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via microbial fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Schell, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times as much water as the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the various organics present in a post-fermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The organic loading was varied over a wide range to assess removal efficiency, coulombic efficiency and power production. A coulombic efficiency of 40% was observed for a low loading of 1% (0.66 g/L) and decreased to 1.8% for the undiluted process stream (66.4 g/L organic loading). A maximum power density of 1180 mW/m2 was observed at a loading of 8%. Excessive loading was found to result in poor electrogenic performance. The results indicate that operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

  10. Enhancement of In Situ Enzymatic Saccharification of Corn Stover by a Stepwise Sodium Hydroxide and Organic Acid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    A stepwise pretreatment method that combines sodium hydroxide and organic acid pretreatments was proposed and investigated to maximize the recovery of main constituents of lignocellulose. The sodium hydroxide pretreatment was firstly optimized by a designed orthogonal experiment with the optimum pretreatment conditions determined as 1 wt% NaOH at 70 °C for 1 h, and 60.42 % of lignin was successfully removed during this stage. In the second stage, 0.5 % acetic acid was selected to pretreat the first-stage solid residue at 80 °C for 40 min in order to decompose hemicelluloses to soluble oligomers or monomers. Then, the whole slurry was subjected to in situ enzymatic saccharification by cellullase with a supplementation of xylanase to further degrade the xylooligosaccharides generated during the acetic acid pretreatment. The maximum reducing sugar and glucose yields achieved were 20.74 and 12.03 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, rapid ethanol fermentation and a yield of 80.3 % also testified this pretreatment method, and the in situ saccharification did not bring any negative impact on ethanol fermentation and has a broad application prospect.

  11. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  12. Comparison of corn stover cell wall polysaccharide degradability by rumen microbes and a cellulosic ethanol conversion process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release of fermentable cell wall sugars in the cellulosic ethanol conversion process is assumed similar to rumen degradability; however, available literature has only reported surrogate rumen degradation measures (dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and fermentation gases). We determined 72-h in vi...

  13. Environmental Enhancement Through Corn Stover Utilization: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-00174

    SciTech Connect

    Czernik, S.

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a rapid bio-oil analysis protocol based on the application of mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis. This protocol was successfully applied to characterize bio-oil samples from the Iowa State University (ISU) fast pyrolysis unit and to relate those characteristics to the feedstock and the process conditions.

  14. Long-term no-till and stover retention each decrease the global warming potential of irrigated continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over twenty-two million hectares of U.S. croplands are irrigated, but the impacts of continuous crop residue removal and tillage on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and global warming potential (GWP) in irrigated cropping systems are relatively unknown. Residue...

  15. Simplifying pyrolysis; using gasification to produce corn stover and wheat straw biochar for sorptive and horitcultural media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar is a renewable, useful material that can be utilized in many different applications. Biochar is commonly produced via pyrolysis methods using a retort-style oven with inert gas. Gasification is another method that can utilize pyrolysis to produce biochar, but with the advantage of not requir...

  16. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.

  17. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field, flour; corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, grits; corn, field, meal; corn, field, refined oil; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, stover; and corn, pop, grain...

  18. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field, flour; corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, grits; corn, field, meal; corn, field, refined oil; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, stover; and corn, pop, grain...

  19. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field, flour; corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, grits; corn, field, meal; corn, field, refined oil; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, stover; and corn, pop, grain...

  20. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or on the food and feed commodities of corn; corn, field, flour; corn, field, forage; corn, field, grain; corn, field, grits; corn, field, meal; corn, field, refined oil; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet, forage; corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed; corn, sweet, stover; and corn, pop, grain...